NOTES

INTRODUCTION

1Ben-Gurion made this comment in the course of a CBS television interview with Edward R. Murrow on February 3, 1956, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Oo75OQmHAw [Last viewed on March 15, 2016].

2Mark Twain, “Concerning the Jews,” Harper’s Magazine, March 1898.

CHAPTER 1: POETRY AND POLITICS

1Lawrence Epstein, The Dream of Zion: The Story of the First Zionist Congress (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2016), p. 16.

2Robert M. Seltzer, Jewish People, Jewish Thought: The Jewish Experience in History (New York: Macmillan Publishing, 1980), p. 632.

3Yaacov Shavit and Jehuda Reinharz, Glorious, Accursed Europe (Waltham, MA: Brandeis University Press, 2010), p. 88.

4Walter Laqueur, A History of Zionism (New York: Schocken Books, 1976), p. 60.

5David Patterson, “Introduction,” in Abraham Mapu, trans. Joseph Marymount, The Love of Zion & Other Writings (Israel: Toby Press, 2006), p. xvi.

6Alex Bein, trans. Maurice Samuel, Theodor Herzl: A Biography (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1940), p. 232.

7Shlomo Avineri, trans. Haim Watzman, Herzl: Theodor Herzl and the Foundation of the Jewish State (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2008), p. 33.

8Amos Elon, The Pity of It All: A Portrait of the German-Jewish Epoch 1743–1933 (New York: Picador, 2002), p. 213.

9Bein, trans. Samuel, Theodor Herzl, p. 37.

10Avineri, trans. Watzman, Herzl, p. 85 (quoting Herzl’s diary).

11Bein, trans. Samuel, Theodor Herzl, p. 19.

12Yoram Hazony, The Jewish State: The Struggle for Israel’s Soul (New York: Basic Books, 2000), pp. 84–85.

13Conversation between the author and David Matlow, of Toronto, Canada. See also Raphael Patai, The Jews of Hungary: History, Culture, Psychology (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1996), p. 347.

14Avineri, trans. Watzman, Herzl, pp. 61–62.

15Ibid., p. 78.

16Ibid., p. 69.

17Theodor Herzl, The Jewish State (New York: Dover Publications, 1989), p. 47.

18Ibid., pp. 92–93.

19Ibid., p. 76.

20Ibid.

21Hazony, The Jewish State, pp. 99–100.

22Avineri, trans. Watzman, Herzl, p. 116.

23Patterson, “Introduction,” in Mapu, trans. Marymount, The Love of Zion, p. xiv.

24It was long asserted that Hess’s wife, Sibylle Pesch, had been a prostitute and that Hess married her as a kind of atonement for the way in which men had long taken advantage of impoverished women, but the claim about Pesch’s background is now a matter of some scholarly disagreement.

25Moses Hess, The Revival of Israel: Rome and Jerusalem, the Last Nationalist Question (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1995), p. x.

26Many mistakenly assume that Hess was referencing the Roman Republic in his title; in fact, he asserted that modern Italian nationalism should be interpreted by a Jewish national movement in Palestine. See Epstein, The Dream of Zion, p. 6.

27Eric Cohen, “The Spirit of Jewish Conservatism,” Mosaic (April 6, 2015), http://mosaicmagazine.com/essay/2015/04/the-spirit-of-jewish-conservatism/ [Last viewed April 6, 2015].

28Laqueur, A History of Zionism, p. 54.

29Ibid., p. 53.

30Arthur Hertzberg, ed., The Zionist Idea (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1997), p. 32.

31Ibid., p. 188.

32Ibid., p. 195.

33Bein, trans. Samuel, Theodor Herzl, p. 226.

34Ibid., p. 230.

35Ze’ev Tzahor, “Chaim Arlosoroff and His Attitude toward the Rise of Nazism,” Jewish Social Studies, Vol. 46, No. 3/4 (Summer– Autumn 1984), p. 322.

36Epstein, The Dream of Zion, p. 86.

37Avineri, trans. Watzman, Herzl, p. 141.

38Ibid., p. 1.

39Epstein, The Dream of Zion, p. 83.

40Theodor Herzl, Old New Land (Princeton, NJ: Markus Wiener Publishers, 1997), p. 248.

41Ibid., p. 174.

42Avineri, trans. Watzman, Herzl, p. 167.

CHAPTER 2: SOME SPOT OF A NATIVE LAND

1George Eliot, Daniel Deronda, introduction by Edmund White, notes by Dr. Hugh Osborne (New York: Modern Library, 2002), page 15. Daniel Deronda was initially published by William Blackwood and Sons in eight parts, from February to September 1876. It was subsequently republished in December 1878 with revisions primarily in those sections dealing with Jewish life and customs.

2Genesis 12:1.

3Genesis 12:7.

4Exodus 1:9–10. The phrase lends itself to different interpretations. The JPS translation renders the phrase as “rise from the ground,” based apparently on Ehrlich’s Mikrah Kifshuto. The Babylonian Talmud (Sotah 11a) suggests that Pharaoh means “gain ascendancy over the country,” but that meaning obscures the plain sense of the verse, which coheres with the dispersion that is central to the early chapters of Genesis. The simplest translation works best.

5Deuteronomy 7:1.

6Alex Bein, trans. Maurice Samuel, Theodor Herzl: A Biography (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, 1940), p. 232.

7Jeremiah 29:5–6.

8Psalms 137:1.

9Psalms 126:1–6.

10II Chronicles 36:23.

11J. Maxwell Miller and John H. Hayes, A History of Ancient Israel and Judah (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2006), p. 509.

12Jerome Murphy-O’Connor and Barry Cunliffe, The Holy Land: An Oxford Archaeological Guide, 5th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), pp. 378–381.

13Hayim Ben-Sasson, ed., A History of the Jewish People (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1976), p. 332.

14Bein, trans. Samuel, Theodor Herzl, p. 232.

CHAPTER 3: A CONVERSATION, NOT AN IDEOLOGY

1Monty Noam Penkower, “The Kishinev Pogrom of 1903,” Modern Judaism, Vol. 24, No. 3 (2004), p. 199. Unless otherwise noted, Penkower’s work on Kishinev is the source for the history recounted in this chapter.

2Winston Churchill, “MIT Mid-Century Convocation, March 31, 1949,” MIT Institute Archives, https://libraries.mit.edu/archives/exhibits/midcentury/mid-cent-churchill.html [Last viewed December 7, 2015].

3Penkower, “The Kishinev Pogrom of 1903,” p. 187.

4Ibid.

5Ibid., p. 188.

6Ibid.

7Ibid., p. 211.

8David G. Roskies, ed., The Literature of Destruction: Jewish Responses to Catastrophe (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1988), p. 162.

9Penkower, “The Kishinev Pogrom of 1903,” p. 199.

10Ibid.

11Lawrence Epstein, The Dream of Zion: The Story of the First Zionist Congress (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2016), p. 97.

12Shlomo Avineri, trans. Haim Watzman, Herzl: Theodor Herzl and the Foundation of the Jewish State (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2008), p. 241.

13Penkower, “The Kishinev Pogrom of 1903,” p. 199.

14Avineri, trans. Watzman, Herzl, p. 245.

15Ibid., p. 259.

16Ella Florsheim, “Giving Herzl His Due,” Azure, No. 21 (Summer 5765/2005), p. 21, http://azure.org.il/include/print.php?id=182 [Last viewed May 1, 2016].

17Penkower, “The Kishinev Pogrom of 1903,” p. 194.

18Steven J. Zipperstein, Elusive Prophet: Ahad Ha’am and the Origins of Zionism (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993), p. 11.

19Ibid., p. 14.

20Ibid., pp. 18–19.

21Ahad Ha’am, “The Jewish State and the Jewish Problem,” in Arthur Hertzberg, The Zionist Idea (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1997), p. 268.

22Yoram Hazony, The Jewish State: The Struggle for Israel’s Soul (New York: Basic Books, 2000), p. 127.

23Zipperstein, Elusive Prophet, p. 129.

24Arthur Hertzberg, ed., The Zionist Idea (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1997), pp. 54–55.

25Isaiah 2:3.

26Alan Dowty, “Much Ado About Little: Ahad Ha’Am’s ‘Truth from Eretz Yisrael,’ Zionism, and the Arabs,” Israel Studies, Vol. 5, No. 2 (Fall 2000), p. 161 (quoting Ahad Ha’am). Italics added.

27Max Nordau, “Jewry of Muscle,” in Paul Mendes-Flohr and Yehuda Reinharz, The Jew in the Modern World: A Documentary History, 2nd ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), pp. 547–548.

28Penkower, “The Kishinev Pogrom of 1903,” p. 209.

29Ze’ev (Vladimir) Jabotinsky, “The Basis of the Betarian Viewpoint Consists of One Idea: The Jewish State: The Ideology of Betar,” World Zionist Organization, http://www.wzo.org.il/index.php?dir=site&page=articles&op=item&cs=3360&langpage=eng&category=3122&mode=print [Last viewed December 7, 2015].

30Raymond P. Scheindlin, A Short History of the Jewish People: From Legendary Times to Modern Statehood (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2000), p. 224.

31A. D. Gordon, “Logic for the Future (1910),” in Hertzberg, The Zionist Idea, p. 373.

32Yehudah Mirsky, Rav Kook: Mystic in a Time of Revolution (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2014), p. 65.

33Hertzberg, The Zionist Idea, pp. 291–292.

34Micah Joseph Berdyczewski, “Wrecking and Building,” in Hertzberg, The Zionist Idea, p. 293.

35Babylonian Talmud, Ketubbot 111a.

36Alan Nadler, “Piety and Politics: The Case of the Satmar Rebbe,” Judaism, Vol. 31 (Spring 1982), p. 40.

37Alan Lelchuk and Gershon Shaked, 8 Great Hebrew Short Novels (New Milford, CT: Toby Press, 2012), Kindle Edition, Location 1029.

CHAPTER 4: FROM A DREAM TO GLIMMERS OF REALITY

1The phrase is oft quoted. An example in a speech by Prime Minister Ariel Sharon can be found at http://www.pmo.gov.il/English/MediaCenter/Speeches/Pages/speech040105.aspx.

2Hani A. Faris, “Israel Zangwill’s Challenge to Zionism,” Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 4, No. 3 (Spring 1975), p. 81.

3Ibid.

4Howard M. Sachar, A History of Israel: From the Rise of Zionism to Our Time (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1979), p. 23.

5Anita Shapira, trans. Anthony Berris, Israel: A History (Waltham, MA: Brandeis University Press, 2012), p. 28.

6Benny Morris, 1948: The First Arab-Israeli War (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2008), p. 6.

7David Fromkin, A Peace to End All Peace: The Fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Creation of the Modern Middle East (New York: Henry Holt, 2009), p. 36.

8Yehudah Mirsky, Rav Kook: Mystic in a Time of Revolution (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2014), p. 59.

9Ibid., pp. 59–60.

10Ibid., p. 50.

11Sachar, A History of Israel, p. 82.

12Yaffah Berlovitz, Inventing a Land, Inventing a People (Tel Aviv: Hotza’at HaKibbutz HaMeuchad, 1996), p. 55 [In Hebrew].

13Theodor Herzl, trans. I. M. Lask, The Jewish State (Tel Aviv: M. Newman Publishing House, 1954), p. 134.

14Mirsky, Rav Kook, p. 54.

15Ibid., pp. 53–54.

16Berlovitz, Inventing a Land, pp. 18–19.

17Ibid., p. 20.

18Mirsky, Rav Kook, p. 66.

19Ruth Kark, “Changing Patterns of Landownership in Nineteenth-Century Palestine: The European influence,” Journal of Historical Geography, Vol. 10, No. 4 (1984), pp. 357–384.

20Nurit Govrin, Roots and Tops: The Imprint of the First Aliyah in Hebrew Literature (Tel Aviv: Papyrus and Tel Aviv University, 1981), p. 43 [In Hebrew].

21Mirsky, Rav Kook, p. 68.

22Ibid., pp. 68–69.

23Shapira, trans. Berris, Israel: A History, p. 46.

24Tali Asher, “The Growing Silence of the Poetess Rachel,” in Ruth Kark, Margarit Shilo, and Galit Hasan-Rokem, eds., Jewish Women in Pre-State Israel: Life History, Politics, and Culture (Waltham, MA: Brandeis University Press, 2008), p. 245.

25Rachel Bluwstein, “Perhaps,” Palestine-Israel Journal, Vol. 3, Nos. 3 and 4 (1996), http://www.pij.org/details.php?id=536 [Last viewed December 7, 2015].

26S. Ilan Troen, Imagining Zion: Dreams, Designs, and Realities in a Century of Jewish Settlement (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2003), Kindle Edition, Locations 1358–1361.

27Ibid., Locations 1368–1369.

28Tom Segev, 1967: Israel, the War, and the Year That Transformed the Middle East (New York: Henry Holt, 2007), p. 442.

29Troen, Imagining Zion, Location 1541.

30Ibid., Location 1566.

31Ibid., Location 1609.

32Sachar, A History of Israel, p. 83.

33Troen, Imagining Zion, Location 1609.

34Martin Gilbert, Israel: A History (New York: Harper Perennial, 1998), p. 24.

CHAPTER 5: THE BALFOUR DECLARATION

1Shmuel Katz, Lone Wolf: A Biography of Vladimir (Ze’ev) Jabotinsky (Fort Lee, NJ: Barricade Books, 1995), p. 136.

2Edward Grey, Viscount of Fallodon, Twenty-Five Years 1892– 1916 (New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company, 1925), p. 20.

3While Herzl was still alive he had approached the ruling Turks with his proposals for Jewish settlement in Palestine, which they had flatly refused—fearing “introducing an additional non-Muslim element into the Middle East that would provide further grounds for European intervention.” Anita Shapira, trans. Anthony Berris, Israel: A History (Waltham, MA: Brandeis University Press, 2012), p. 22.

4Katz, Lone Wolf, p. 177.

5Cited in a display in Chaim Weizmann’s home in Rehovot, now a museum.

6Shapira, trans. Berris, Israel: A History, p. 71.

7Jonathan Schneer, The Balfour Declaration: The Origins of the Arab-Israeli Conflict (New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks, 2012), p. 197.

8John Bew, “The Tragic Cycle: Western Powers and the Middle East,” New Statesman (August 21, 2014), http://www.newstatesman.com/world-affairs/2014/08/tragic-cycle-western-powers-and-middle-east [Last viewed December 7, 2015].

9Shapira, trans. Berris, Israel: A History, p. 73.

10Cecil Bloom, “Sir Mark Sykes: British Diplomat and a Convert to Zionism,” Jewish Historical Studies, Vol. 43 (2011), p. 142.

11Walter Laqueur, A History of Zionism (New York: Schocken Books, 1976), p. 186. While this is a widely held view, not everyone agrees that acetone had anything to do with the Balfour Declaration, and some scholars consider the linkage mere urban legend.

12Arthur James Balfour, “Balfour Declaration” (1917), The Avalon Project, http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/balfour.asp [Last viewed December 7, 2015].

13Shapira, trans. Berris, Israel: A History, p. 73.

14Eitan Bar Yosef, “The Last Crusade? British Propaganda and the Palestine Campaign, 1917–18,” Journal of Contemporary History, Vol. 36, No. 1 (January 2001), p. 100.

15The Mount Scopus site was acquired in 1914—but World War I ensured that building was delayed until 1918.

16Seth M. Siegel, Let There Be Water: Israel’s Solution for a Water-Starved World (New York: Thomas Dunne Books, 2015), p. 22.

17Martin Gilbert, Israel: A History (New York: Harper Perennial, 1998), p. 9.

18Ibid., pp. 45–46.

19Siegel, Let There Be Water, p. 28.

20Shlomo Avineri, lecture at the Shazar Center in Jerusalem on December 30, 2014.

21Anita Shapira, trans. Anthony Berris, Ben-Gurion: Father of Modern Israel (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2014), p. 28.

22Michael Makovsky, Churchill’s Promised Land: Zionism and Statecraft (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007), Kindle Edition, Location 1463.

23Martin Gilbert, Churchill and the Jews: A Lifelong Friendship (New York: Henry Holt, 2007), p. 50.

24Tom Segev, trans. Haim Watzman, One Palestine, Complete: Jews and Arabs Under the British Mandate (New York: Little, Brown, 2000), p. 104.

25Howard M. Sachar, A History of Israel: From the Rise of Zionism to Our Time (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1979), p. 186.

26Ze’ev Jabotinsky, “The Iron Wall,” Jewish Virtual Library, http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Zionism/ironwall.html [Last viewed December 7, 2015].

27Ibid.

28Hillel Cohen, Year Zero of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1929 (Waltham, MA: Brandeis University Press, 2015), p. xvii.

29Jeffrey Goldberg, “The Paranoid, Supremacist, Roots of the Stabbing Intifada,” Atlantic (October 16, 2015), http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2015/10/the-roots-of-the-palestinian-uprising-against-israel/410944/ [Last viewed December 7, 2015].

30Schneer, The Balfour Declaration, p. 375.

31Benny Morris, Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881–2001 (New York: Vintage Books, 2001), Kindle Edition, Location 2481.

32Yoram Hazony, The Jewish State: The Struggle for Israel’s Soul (New York: Basic Books, 2000), p. 210.

33Daniel Gordis, Menachem Begin: The Battle for Israel’s Soul (New York: Knopf Doubleday, 2014), p. 36.

CHAPTER 6: NOWHERE TO GO, EVEN IF THEY COULD LEAVE

1Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf (Boring, OR: CPA Book Publisher, 2000), p. 184.

2Tuvia Friling, trans. Ora Cummings, Arrows in the Dark: David Ben-Gurion, the Yishuv Leadership, and Rescue Attempts during the Holocaust, Volume I (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 2005), p. 16.

3Hava Eshkoli-Wagman, “Yishuv Zionism: Its Attitude to Nazism and the Third Reich Reconsidered,” Modern Judaism, Vol. 19, No. 1 (February 1999), p. 26.

4Colin Shindler, “Zionist History’s Murder Mystery,” Jewish Chronicle Online (June 16, 2013), http://www.thejc.com/comment-and-debate/comment/108596/zionist-historys-murder-mystery [Last viewed December 7, 2015].

5Tom Segev, trans. Haim Watzman, The Seventh Million: The Israelis and the Holocaust (New York: Henry Holt, 1991), p. 21.

6Ibid., p. 25.

7Nina S. Spiegel, Embodying Hebrew Culture (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2013), p. 22.

8Ibid., p. 135.

9Ibid., p. 7.

10Abba Hillel Silver, Moshe Shertok, and Chaim Weizmann, “Before the United Nations: October 1947,” p. 7. Copy on file with the author.

11Benny Morris, One State, Two States: Resolving the Israel/Palestine Conflict (New York: Vintage Books, 2001), Kindle Edition, Location 523.

12Translation of Uri Zvi Greenberg, “One Truth and Not Two,” is from Neta Stahl, “Jesus and the Pharisees Through the Eyes of Two Hebrew Writers: A Contrarian Perspective,” Hebrew Studies, Vol. 56, No. 1 (December 11, 2015).

13Yoram Hazony, The Jewish State: The Struggle for Israel’s Soul (New York: Basic Books, 2000), p. 231.

14Ibid., p. 232.

15Friling, trans. Cummings, Arrows in the Dark, p. 19.

16Ibid.

17Howard M. Sachar, A History of Israel: From the Rise of Zionism to Our Time (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1979), p. 219.

18Dina Porat, The Blue and the Yellow Stars of David: The Zionist Leadership in Palestine and the Holocaust, 1939–1945 (Cambridge, MA, and London: Harvard University Press, 1990), p. 2.

19Zephaniah 1:15.

20Sachar, A History of Israel, p. 226.

21Jack L. Schwartzwald, Nine Lives of Israel: A Nation’s History Through the Lives of Its Foremost Leaders (Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2012), p. 33.

22Martin Gilbert, Israel: A History (New York: Harper Perennial, 1998), p. 101.

23Mike Lanchin, “SS St Louis: The Ship of Jewish Refugees Nobody Wanted,” BBC World Service (May 13, 2014), http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-27373131 [Last viewed December 7, 2015].

24Alan Guggenheim and Adam Guggenheim, “Doomed from the Start,” Naval History, Vol. 18, No. 1 (February 2004), pp. 46–51.

25Douglas Frantz and Catherine Collins, Death on the Black Sea: The Untold Story of the Struma and World War II’s Holocaust at Sea (London: HarperCollins, 2003), p. 254.

26Benny Morris, Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881–2001 (New York: Vintage Books, 2001), Kindle Edition, Locations 4035–4037.

27Geneviève Pitot, trans. Donna Edouard, The Story of the Jewish Detainees in Mauritius 1940–1945 (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 1998), p. 129.

28Gilbert, Israel: A History, p. 151. Morris, Righteous Victims, p. 22, suggests numbers slightly lower.

29Segev, trans. Watzman, The Seventh Million, p. 22.

30Friling, trans. Cummings, Arrows in the Dark, p. 47.

31Morris, Righteous Victims, pp. 162–163.

32Gilbert, Israel: A History, p. 112.

CHAPTER 7: THE YISHUV RESISTS THE BRITISH, THE ARABS BATTLE PARTITION

1Menachem Begin, trans. Samuel Katz, The Revolt (1951; reprint Bnei Brak, Israel: Steimatzky, 2007), pp. 59–60.

2Interview with the author, April 18, 2013.

3Bruce Hoffman, Anonymous Soldiers: The Struggle for Israel: 1917– 1947 (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2015), p. 333.

4Accounts differ. Martin Gilbert (Israel: A History [New York: Harper Perennial, 1998], pp. 118–119) claims that Moyne was killed on the sixth and Senesh on the fourth, but other accounts suggest that she died a day before Moyne was assassinated. There was, of course, no cause and effect.

5Anita Shapira, trans. Anthony Berris, Ben-Gurion: Father of Modern Israel (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2014), p. 138.

6Lawrence Epstein, The Dream of Zion: The Story of the First Zionist Congress (Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2016), p. 120.

7Eric Lichtblau, “Surviving the Nazis, Only to Be Jailed by America,” New York Times (February 7, 2015), http://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/08/sunday-review/surviving-the-nazis-only-to-be-jailed-by-america.html [Last viewed December 7, 2015].

8Ibid.

9Gilbert, Israel: A History, p. 121.

10Yehuda Avner, interview with the author on October 24, 2012.

11Gilbert, Israel: A History, pp. 138–139.

12Hoffman, Anonymous Soldiers, p. 379.

13Gilbert, Israel: A History, p. 145.

14Ibid.

15These numbers vary slightly among scholars—Colin Shindler, A History of Modern Israel, 2nd ed. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013), puts the figures at 538,000 Jews, and 397,000 Arabs (p. 45).

16Gilbert, Israel: A History, p. 149.

17“CIA Report on the Consequences of the Partition of Palestine,” p. 18. Copy on file with the author.

18David McCullough, Truman (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993), Kindle Edition, Locations 11804–11836.

19Gilbert, Israel: A History, p. 150.

20iCenter, “The Story of a Vote, Nov. 29, 1947,” iCenter (November 4, 2012), http://www.theicenter.org/voice/story-vote-nov-29-1947.

21Accounts of the chronology differ. In his autobiography, Abba Eban writes that the vote was postponed on Tuesday, November 26, and again on Wednesday, November 27, because of an appeal and a filibuster. It finally took place on Friday, November 29, after a third hiatus for Thanksgiving on that Thursday. Asaf Siniver’s biography of Eban says that the vote was postponed on Wednesday, but was ultimately held on Saturday. Anita Shapira writes the vote took place on Friday, while Benny Morris states that the date was Saturday.

22Asaf Siniver, Abba Eban: A Biography (New York and London: Overlook Duckworth, 2015), p. 91.

23Shlomo Avineri, trans. Haim Watzman, Herzl: Theodor Herzl and the Foundation of the Jewish State (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 2008), p. 141 (quoting Herzl’s diary).

24A.A.P., “U.N.O. Passes Palestine Partition Plan,” Morning Herald (December 1, 1947), http://trove.nla.gov.au/ndp/del/article/134238148 [Last viewed December 7, 2015].

25Amos Oz, trans. Nicholas de Lange, A Tale of Love and Darkness (Orlando: Harcourt, 2004), p. 359.

26Ibid.

27Michael Bar-Zohar, trans. Peretz Kidron, Ben-Gurion: A Biography, The New Millennium Edition (Israel: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 2013), Kindle Edition, Location 3028.

28Daniel Gordis, Saving Israel: How the Jewish People Can Win a War That May Never End (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2009), p. 170. Ha’aretz attributed this language to Weizmann on December 15, 1947, just two weeks after the United Nations voted to partition Palestine.

29Exodus 19:15.

30Exodus 19:10.

31Nadav Shragai, “The Legend of Ambushed Palmach Squad ‘35,’” Ha’aretz (April 27, 2009), http://www.haaretz.com/the-legend-of-ambushed-palmach-squad-35-1.274876 [Last viewed December 7, 2015]. The original account was based on a eulogy Ben-Gurion delivered to his Mapai Party only a few days after the attack. Ben-Gurion apparently received his information from an Arab who supposedly was at the scene but did not take part in the massacre. The latter version surfaced sixty-one years later, when the story was told by Yochanan Ben-Ya’akov, born in Kfar Etzion and orphaned by the war.

32Tamar S. Drukker, “‘I Am a Civil War’: The Poetry of Haim Gouri,” in Hugh Kennedy, ed., Warfare and Poetry in the Middle East (London: I. B. Tauris, 2013), pp. 242–243.

33Mati Alon, Holocaust and Redemption (Victoria, BC: Trafford Publishing, 2013), p. 168.

34Yossi Melman, “Jews, Just Like Arabs, Hid Weapons in Immoral Places,” Ha’aretz (January 27, 2011).

35Shapira, trans. Berris, Israel: A History, p. 161.

36Ibid., pp. 157–158.

37Benny Morris, Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881–2001 (New York: Vintage Books, 2001), Kindle Edition, Location 6208.

38Benny Morris, an internationally recognized and respected Israeli “new historian,” who wrote numerous accounts of Israeli military excesses, believes that the accusations of rape were simply false. Most contemporary historians estimate the number killed at 100 to 120. Even Arab historians have changed their narrative; in 1987, two Palestinian scholars associated with Birzeit University near the West Bank city of Ramallah released a report after multiple interviews with witnesses. They put the number of dead at 107, and made no mention of rape in their report. Their conclusions were not unlike Begin’s. Cf. Benny Morris, “The Historiography of Deir Yassin,” Journal of Israeli History: Politics, Society, Culture, Vol. 24, No. 1 (August 2006), p. 87. See also my more detailed summary of the battle and the ways in which it was used by various parties in Menachem Begin: The Battle for Israel’s Soul (New York: Knopf Doubleday, 2014), Chapter 6, “Deadly Road to Jerusalem.”

39Gilbert, Israel: A History, pp. 179–180.

CHAPTER 8: INDEPENDENCE

1Bruce Hoffman, Anonymous Soldiers: The Struggle for Israel: 1917– 1947 (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2015) Kindle Edition, Location 8282.

2Ariel Feldestein, “One Meeting—Many Descriptions: The Resolution on the Establishment of the State of Israel,” Israel Studies Forum, Vol. 23, No. 2 (Winter 2008), p. 104.

3Ibid.

4Benny Morris, 1948: The First Arab-Israeli War (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2008), p. 177.

5Ibid., p. 178.

6“Israel’s Declaration of Independence 1948,” Avalon Project, http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/israel.asp [Last viewed December 7, 2015].

7Anita Shapira, trans. Anthony Berris, Israel: A History (Waltham, MA: Brandeis University Press, 2012), p. 180.

8II Samuel 23:3.

9Yehudah Mirsky, “What Is a Nation-State For?”Marginalia (March 11, 2015), http://marginalia.lareviewofbooks.org/nation-state-yehudah-mirsky/ [Last viewed December 7, 2015].

10Genesis 32:28.

11Shapira, trans. Berris, Israel: A History, p. 164.

12Amira Lam, “Peres Recalls Declaration of Independence: We Didn’t Have Time to Celebrate,” Ynetnews.com (December 21, 2014), http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4606090,00.html.

13Tekumah (Rebirth: The First Fifty Years), an Israeli television series, first broadcast 1998, Channel 1, Episode 3 at 29:25.

14Martin Gilbert, Israel: A History (New York: Harper Perennial, 1998), p. 192.

15Morris, 1948, p. 237.

16Shapira, trans. Berris, Israel: A History, p. 165.

17Colin Shindler, A History of Modern Israel, 2nd ed. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013), p. 55.

18Gilbert, Israel: A History, pp. 207–208.

19Morris, 1948, p. 142.

20Ibid., p. 159.

21Ibid.

22Ibid., p. 365.

23Ibid., p. 266.

24Ibid., p. 268.

25The curiosity of the swastikas on the Czech arms is mentioned at the Ayalon museum exhibit, and was corroborated as likely in an e-mail from Professor Benny Morris to the author. “The arms arriving from Czecho were standard German Mauser rifles and MG machineguns—so presumably many had Swastikas, having been produced, for the Germans, before May 1945 (as the Messerschmitts produced by the Czechs also, originally, did).” E-mail, dated May 1, 2016, on file with the author.

26See, for example, Eliezer Cohen, trans. Yonatan Gordis, Israel’s Best Defense: The First Full Story of the Israeli Air Force (New York: Orion Books, 1993), pp. 7–60. See also Above and Beyond (Playmount Productions and Katahdin Productions, produced by Nancy Spielberg, 2015) at 15:20.

27Above and Beyond at 38:20.

28Above and Beyond at 43:00.

29Above and Beyond at 50:40.

30Above and Beyond at 51:30.

31Translation by the author. Photograph of the memorandum on file with the author.

32Jerold S. Auerbach, Brothers at War: Israel and the Tragedy of the Altalena (New Orleans: Quid Pro Books, 2011), p. 50.

33Yehuda Lapidot, trans. Chaya Galai, “The Altalena Affair,” Etzel, http://www.etzel.org.il/english/ac20.htm [Last viewed December 7, 2015].

34Zvi Harry Hurwitz, Begin: His Life, Words, and Deeds (Jerusalem: Gefen Publishing, 2004), p. 27.

35Avi Shilon, trans. Danielle Zilberberg and Yoram Sharett, Menachem Begin: A Life (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2007), p. 130.

36Auerbach, Brothers at War, p. 109.

37Michael Oren, “Did Israel Want the Six Day War?,” Azure (Spring 5759/1999), p. 47.

38Ibid.

39Ilan Pappe, “A Post-Zionist Critique of Israel and the Palestinians, Part II: The Media,” in Journal of Palestine Studies (Spring 1997), pp. 37–43, cited in Oren, “Did Israel Want the Six Day War?,” p. 48.

40Ari Shavit, My Promised Land: The Triumph and Tragedy of Israel (New York: Spiegel & Grau, 2013), p. 108.

41Ibid., p. 132.

42See Martin Kramer, “What Happened at Lydda,” Mosaic (July 1, 2014), http://mosaicmagazine.com/essay/2014/07/what-happened-at-lydda/.

43Benny Morris, “Zionism’s ‘Black Boxes,’” Mosaic (July 13, 2014), http://mosaicmagazine.com/response/2014/07/zionisms-black-boxes/ [Last viewed December 7, 2015].

44Gilbert, Israel: A History, p. 218.

45Nadav Man, “1st IDF Parade from Behind the Lens,” Ynet news.com (December 13, 2008), http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3637748,00.html [Last viewed December 7, 2015].

46Ari Shavit, “Survival of the Fittest? An Interview with Benny Morris,” Ha’aretz (January 8, 2004), http://www.haaretz.com/survival-of-the-fittest-1.61345 [Last viewed December 7, 2015].

47Shilon, trans. Zilberberg and Sharett, Menachem Begin: A Life, p. 137.

48Shapira, trans. Berris, Israel: A History, p. 172.

49Morris, 1948, p. 406.

CHAPTER 9: FROM DREAMS OF A STATE TO THE REALITY OF STATEHOOD

1Pinhas Alpert and Dotan Goren, eds., Diary of a Muchtar in Jerusalem: The History of the Beit Yisrael Neighborhood and its Surroundings in the Writings of Rabbi Moshe Yekutiel Alpert (1938–1952) (Ramat Gan, Israel: Bar Ilan University Press, 2013), pp. 173–174 [In Hebrew]. English translation from Vered Kellner, “Longings and Disappointments: A Voter in Exile in New York,” Ha’aretz (January 18, 2013), http://www.haaretz.com/opinion/longings-and-disappointments-a-voter-in-exile-in-new-york.premium-1.494743 [Last viewed August 5, 2016].

2Vered Kellner, “Longings and Disappointments: A Voter in Exile in New York,” Ha’aretz (January 18, 2013), online at http://www.haaretz.com/opinion/longings-and-disappointments-a-voter-in-exile-in-new-york.premium-1.494743 [Last viewed August 5, 2016]

3Jewish Telegraphic Agency, “Israel to Vote Today in First National Elections; Campaign Reaches High Peak” (January 25, 1949), http://www.jta.org/1949/01/25/archive/israel-to-vote-today-in-first-national-elections-campaign-reaches-high-peak [Last viewed December 7, 2015].

4Tekumah (Rebirth: The First Fifty Years), an Israeli television series, first broadcast 1998, Channel 1, Episode 21 at 00:35.

5“Moving Ceremony Marks Reburial of Herzl’s Remains; Israeli Cabinet in Full Attendance,” Jewish Telegraphic Agency, http://www.jta.org/1949/08/18/archive/moving-ceremony-marks-reburial-of-herzls-remains-israeli-cabinet-in-full-attendance.

6Theodor Herzl, trans. I. M. Lask, The Jewish State (Tel Aviv: M. Newman Publishing House, 1954), p. 137.

7Ibid., p. 151.

8JTA, “Of Weizmann’s Address Opening Session of Israeli Constituent Assembly” (February 15, 1949), http://www.jta.org/1949/02/15/archive/of-chaim-weizmanns-address-opening-session-of-israeli-constituent-assembly [Last viewed December 7, 2015].

9Ibid.

10Ibid.

11Robert Frost, “The Death of the Hired Man” (North of Boston, 1915), Bartleby.com, http://www.bartleby.com/118/3.html [Last viewed December 7, 2015].

12Anita Shapira, trans. Anthony Berris, Israel: A History (Waltham, MA: Brandeis University Press, 2012), p. 208.

13“Displacement of Jews from Arab Countries 1948–2012,” Justice for Jews from Arab Countries, http://www.justiceforjews.com/main_facts.html [Last viewed December 7, 2015].

14Colin Shindler, A History of Modern Israel, 2nd ed. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013), p. 64.

15Shapira, trans. Berris, Israel: A History, Kindle Edition, Locations 5437–5443.

16Shindler, A History of Modern Israel, p. 93.

17Golda Meir, My Life (New York: Dell Publishing, 1975), pp. 250– 251.

18Esther Meir-Glitzenstein, “Operation Magic Carpet: Constructing the Myth of the Magical Immigration of Yemenite Jews to Israel,” Israel Studies, Vol. 16, No. 3 (Fall 2011), p. 150.

19Shapira, trans. Berris, Israel: A History, Kindle Edition, Location 5453.

20Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, “Fifty Years of Education in the State of Israel,” http://www.mfa.gov.il/mfa/aboutisrael/israelat50/pages/fifty%20years%20of%20education%20in%20the%20state%20of%20israel.aspx.

21Herzl, trans. Lask, The Jewish State, p. 16.

22Shindler, A History of Modern Israel, p. 94.

23Shapira, trans. Berris, Israel: A History, p. 231.

24Seth J. Frantzman, “David Ben-Gurion, Israel’s Segregationist Founder,” Forward (May 18, 2015), http://forward.com/opinion/israel/308306/ben-gurion-israels-segregationist-founder/ [Last viewed December 8, 2015].

25Ibid.

26Nir Kedar, “Ben-Gurion’s Mamlakhtiyut: Etymological and Theoretical Roots,” Israel Studies, Vol. 7, No. 3 (Fall 2002), p. 129.

27Tekumah, Episode 17 at 12:00.

28Shapira, trans. Berris, Israel: A History, p. 199.

29Tamara Traubman, “A Mystery That Defies Solution,” Ha’aretz (November 5, 2001), http://www.haaretz.com/print-edition/news/a-mystery-that-defies-solution-1.73913 [Last viewed December 8, 2015].

30Moshe Reinfeld, “State Commission: Missing Yemenite Babies Not Kidnapped,” Ha’aretz (November 4, 2001), http://www.haaretz.com/news/state-commission-missing-yemenite-babies-not-kidnapped-1.73778 [Last viewed December 8, 2015].

31“15,000% Growth in Army Exemptions for Yeshiva Students since 1948,” Hiddush website, http://hiddush.org/article-2338–0–15000_Growth_in_army_exemptions_for_yeshiva_students_since_1948.aspx [Last viewed December 9, 2015].

32Tekumah, Episode 11 at 31:45.

33Tekumah, Episode 11 at 20:15.

34Shapira, trans. Berris, Israel: A History, p. 197.

35David Ben-Gurion, Like Stars and Dust: Essays from Israel’s Government Year Book (Ramat Gan, Israel: Masada Press, 1976), p. 147. The translation from the Hebrew by the author. This passage also appears in my Saving Israel: How the Jewish People Can Win a War That May Never End(Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2009), p. 154.

36Jacob Blaustein, “The Voice of Reason: Address by Jacob Blaustein, President, The American Jewish Committee, at the Meeting of Its Executive Committee, April 29, 1950,” American Jewish Committee Archives, http://www.ajcarchives.org/AJC_DATA/xFiles/507.PDF), p. 11. [Last viewed December 8, 2015]. Italics in original, p. 9.

37Walter Isaacson, Einstein: His Life and Universe (New York: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, 2007), p. 520.

38Ibid.

39Blaustein, “The Voice of Reason,” p. 11. Italics original.

40Ibid., p. 10. Italics original.

41Shapira, trans. Berris, Israel: A History, p. 179.

CHAPTER 10: ISRAEL ENTERS THE INTERNATIONAL ARENA

1Anita Shapira, trans. Anthony Berris, Israel: A History (Waltham, MA: Brandeis University Press, 2012), p. 274.

2The number of Israelis killed is highly contested. Martin Gilbert claims that 967 Israelis were killed in these attacks (Martin Gilbert, The Routledge Atlas of the Arab-Israeli Conflict [New York: Routledge, 2005], p. 58). But Benny Morris calls that number “sheer nonsense.” (See Benny Morris, Israel’s Border Wars, 1949–1956: Arab Infiltration, Israeli Retaliation, and the Countdown to the Suez War [Oxford: Oxford University Press: 1993], p. 101.) Conservative estimates are several hundred.

3Morris, Israel’s Border Wars, 1949–1956, Kindle Edition, Locations 3037–3049.

4Ibid., Locations 3123–3128.

5Martin Gilbert, Israel: A History (New York: Harper Perennial, 1998), pp. 289–290.

6S. Yizhar, trans. Nicolas de Lange and Yaacob Dweck, Khirbet Khizeh: A Novel (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2014), p. 100.

7Ibid., pp. 103–104.

8Noah Efron, “The Price of Return,” Ha’aretz (November 23, 2008), http://www.haaretz.com/news/the-price-of-return-1.258035 [Last viewed December 8, 2015].

9Robert Slater, Warrior Statesman: The Life of Moshe Dayan (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1991), p. 149.

10Morris, Israel’s Border Wars, 1949–1956, Locations 3037–3049.

11David Landau, Arik: The Life of Ariel Sharon (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2013), p. 7.

12Gilbert, Israel: A History, p. 292.

13Zvi Ganin, An Uneasy Relationship: American Jewish Leadership and Israel, 1948–1957 (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2005), pp. 190–191.

14Landau, Arik, pp. 26–27.

15Morris, Israel’s Border Wars, 1949–1956, Locations 3293–3299.

16Translation from Mitch Ginsburg, “When Moshe Dayan Delivered the Defining Speech of Zionism,” Times of Israel (April 26, 2016), http://www.timesofisrael.com/when-moshe-dayan-delivered-the-defining-speech-of-zionism/ [Last viewed on May 8, 2016]. See also Aluf Benn, “Doomed to Fight” (May 9, 2011), Ha’aretz, http://www.haaretz.com/weekend/week-s-end/doomed-to-fight-1.360698 [Last viewed December 8, 2015].

17Ginsburg, “When Moshe Dayan Delivered the Defining Speech of Zionism.” See also Chemi Shalev, “Moshe Dayan’s Enduring Gaza Eulogy: This Is the Fate of Our Generation,” Ha’aretz (July 20, 2014), http://www.haaretz.com/blogs/west-of-eden/.premium-1.606258 [Last viewed December 8, 2015].

18Morris, Israel’s Border Wars, 1949–1956, Locations 208–213.

19Ibid.

20Howard M. Sachar, A History of Israel: From the Rise of Zionism to Our Time (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1979), p. 486.

21Ibid., p. 487.

22Gilbert, Israel: A History, p. 315.

23Ibid., p. 317.

24Morris, Israel’s Border Wars, 1949–1956, Location 7962.

25Michael B. Oren, “The Second War of Independence,” Azure, No. 27 (Winter 5767/2007).

26Sachar, A History of Israel, p. 483.

27Gilbert, Israel: A History, pp. 326–327.

28Golda Meir, My Life (New York: Dell Publishing, 1975), p. 59.

29Yehuda Avner, The Prime Ministers: An Intimate Narrative of Israeli Leadership (Jerusalem: Toby Press, 2010), Kindle Edition, Locations 1822–1829.

30Ibid.

CHAPTER 11: ISRAEL CONFRONTS THE HOLOCAUST

1David Mikics, “Holocaust Pulp Fiction,” Tablet Magazine (April 19, 2012), http://www.tabletmag.com/jewish-arts-and-culture/books/97160/ka-tzetnik.

2Deborah E. Lipstadt, The Eichmann Trial (New York: Knopf Doubleday, 2011), p. 3.

3Ibid., pp. 21–22.

4Ibid., pp. 24–25.

5Ibid., p. 29.

6Martin Gilbert, Israel: A History (New York: Harper Perennial, 1998), p. 337.

7George Lavy, Germany and Israel: Moral Debt and National Interest (London: Frank Cass, 1996), p. 7.

8Menachem Begin, White Nights: The Story of a Prisoner in Russia (New York: HarperCollins, 1979), p. 265.

9Daniel Gordis, Menachem Begin: The Battle for Israel’s Soul (New York: Knopf Doubleday, 2014), p. 104.

10Gilbert, Israel: A History, p. 280.

11Seth M. Siegel, Let There Be Water: Israel’s Solution for a Water-Starved World (New York: Thomas Dunne Books, 2015), p. 40.

12Seth M. Siegel, “50 Years Later, National Water Carrier Still an Inspiration,” Ynetnews.com (September 6, 2014), http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4528200,00.html [Last viewed on May 10, 2016].

13Tekumah (Rebirth: The First Fifty Years), an Israeli television series, first broadcast 1998, Channel 1, Episode 17 at 20:15.

14Assaf Inbari, HaBaita (Tel Aviv: Yediyot Sefarim, 2009), pp. 169– 170, 178 [Translations by Daniel Gordis].

15Elad Zeret, “Kastner’s Killer: I Would Never Have Shot Him Today,” Ynetnews.com (October 29, 2014), http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-4585767,00.html [Last viewed December 8, 2015].

16Yossi Klein Halevi, Like Dreamers: The Story of the Israeli Paratroopers Who Reunited Jerusalem and Divided a Nation (New York: HarperCollins, 2013), p. 42.

17Ari Shavit, My Promised Land: The Triumph and Tragedy of Israel (New York: Spiegel & Grau, 2013), pp. 179–180.

18Lipstadt, The Eichmann Trial, p. 34.

19David Ben-Gurion, “The Eichmann Case as Seen by Ben-Gurion,” New York Times (December 18, 1960), http://timesmachine.nytimes.com/timesmachine/1960/12/18/99904385.html?pageNumber=182 [Last viewed December 8, 2015].

20Lipstadt, The Eichmann Trial, p. 36.

21Ibid., p. 53.

22Ibid., p. 78.

23Ibid.

24Ibid., pp. 97–98.

25Ibid.

26“Planet Auschwitz” (filmed testimony of Yehiel De-Nur at Eichmann trial), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o0T9tZiKYl4.

27Oz Almog, The Sabra (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000), p. 84.

28Yair Lapid, trans. Evan Fallenberg, Memories After My Death: The Joseph (Tommy) Lapid Story (London: Elliott & Thompson Limited, 2011), pp. 131–132.

29Ibid.

30Lipstadt, The Eichmann Trial, pp. 80–81.

31Haim Hazaz, The Sermon and Other Stories (Jerusalem: Toby Press, 2005), p. 237.

CHAPTER 12: SIX DAYS OF WAR CHANGE A COUNTRY FOREVER

1Jewish Agency, “The Massive Immigration,” http://www.jewishagency.org/he/historical-aliyah/content/22097 [Last viewed December 10, 2015] [In Hebrew].

2Many translations of the song have been published. This one is mine.

3On her deathbed in 2004, Shemer admitted that the melody she wrote was largely based on a Basque lullaby. Tom Segev, “In Letter, Naomi Shemer Admitted Lifting ‘Jerusalem of Gold’ Tune,” Ha’aretz (May 5, 2005), http://www.haaretz.com/news/in-letter-naomi-shemer-admitted-lifting-jerusalem-of-gold-tune-1.157851 [Last viewed December 8, 2015].

4Yossi Klein Halevi, Like Dreamers: The Story of the Israeli Paratroopers Who Reunited Jerusalem and Divided a Nation (New York: HarperCollins, 2013), p. 58.

5Ibid., p. 31.

6Ibid., p. 34.

7Michael B. Oren, Six Days of War: June 1967 and the Making of the Modern Middle East (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002), p. 63.

8Ibid.

9Ibid., p. 368.

10Abba Eban, Abba Eban: An Autobiography (Lexington, MA: Plunkett Lake Press, 2015), Kindle Edition, Location 7223.

11Ibid., Location 7352.

12Oren, Six Days of War, p. 133.

13Yehuda Avner, The Prime Ministers: An Intimate Narrative of Israeli Leadership (Jerusalem: Toby Press, 2010), p. 148.

14Ibid.

15Oren, Six Days of War, p. 132.

16Avner, The Prime Ministers, p. 148.

17Oren, Six Days of War, p. 134.

18Martin Gilbert, Israel: A History (New York: Harper Perennial, 1998), p. 377.

19Avraham Avi-hai, “The POSTman Knocks Twice: Yitzhak Rabin, Man of Contradictions,” Jerusalem Post (September 11, 2014), http://www.jpost.com/Opinion/The-POSTman-Knocks-Twice-Yitzhak-Rabin-man-of-contradictions-375134 [Last viewed March 23, 2016].

20Halevi, Like Dreamers, p. 57.

21Samuel G. Freedman, Jew vs. Jew: The Struggle for the Soul of American Jewry (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001), p. 164. Michael Oren, Power, Faith, and Fantasy: America in the Middle East, 1776 to the Present (New York: W. W. Norton, 2007), p. 536.

22Ibid., p. 319.

23Gilbert, Israel: A History, p. 373.

24Anita Shapira, trans. Anthony Berris, Israel: A History (Waltham, MA: Brandeis University Press, 2012), p. 298.

25Avner, The Prime Ministers, p. 135.

26Tom Segev, trans. Jessica Cohen, 1967: Israel, the War, and the Year That Transformed the Middle East (New York: Henry Holt, 2005), p. 15. I have altered Segev’s translation of the Hebrew slightly.

27Gilbert, Israel: A History, p. 378.

28Accounts of what happened, and when, differ slightly. Compare Shapira, Oren, and Gilbert to see the differences. The following account is based on Michael Oren’s chronology.

29Daniel Gordis, Menachem Begin: The Battle for Israel’s Soul (New York: Knopf Doubleday, 2014), p. 126.

30Oren, Six Days of War, p. 176.

31Avner, The Prime Ministers, pp. 156–158.

32Halevi, Like Dreamers, p. 69.

33Oren, Six Days of War, p. 222.

34Halevi, Like Dreamers, p. 86.

35Gilbert, Israel: A History, p. 391.

36Ibid., p. 392.

37Ibid.

38Oren, Six Days of War, p. 307.

39Gershom Gorenberg, The Accidental Empire: Israel and the Birth of the Settlements, 1967–1977 (New York: Henry Holt, 2006), p. 2.

40Michael Oren, “Did Israel Want the Six Day War?,” Azure (Spring 5759/1999), p. 49.

41Ibid., p. 50.

42Ibid., p. 51.

43Tekumah (Rebirth: The First Fifty Years), an Israeli television series, first broadcast 1998, Channel 1, Episode 19 at 20:35.

44Tekumah, Episode 20 at 25:45.

45Halevi, Like Dreamers, p. 98.

CHAPTER 13: THE BURDEN OF OCCUPATION

1Yossi Klein Halevi, Like Dreamers: The Story of the Israeli Paratroopers Who Reunited Jerusalem and Divided a Nation (New York: HarperCollins, 2013), p. 111.

2Gershom Gorenberg, The Accidental Empire: Israel and the Birth of the Settlements, 1967–1977 (New York: Henry Holt, 2006), p. 86.

3Ibid., p. 43.

4Ibid., p. 85.

5Tsur Ehrlich, “Nathan the Wise,” Azure, No. 28 (Spring 5767/2007), http://azure.org.il/include/print.php?id=445 [Last viewed December 8, 2015].

6Halevi, Like Dreamers, p. 119.

7Translation of Leibowitz’s letter, which is reproduced on numerous websites, by the author.

8Halevi, Like Dreamers, p. 94.

9Ibid., p. 152.

10Ibid., pp. 140–142.

11Gorenberg, The Accidental Empire, p. 113.

12Halevi, Like Dreamers, pp. 145–146.

13Ibid.

14Benny Morris, Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881–2001 (New York: Vintage Books, 2001), p. 335.

15Tekumah (Rebirth: The First Fifty Years), an Israeli television series, first broadcast 1998, Channel 1, Episode 14 at 4:50.

16Halevi, Like Dreamers, pp. 96–97.

17Ibid.,p. 101.

18Translation by the author.

19Martin Gilbert, Israel: A History (New York: Harper Perennial, 1998), p. 393.

20Gorenberg, The Accidental Empire, pp. 61–62.

21Ghassan Kanafani, Palestine’s Children: Returning to Haifa and Other Stories (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2000), p. 151.

22The Hamas charter is found in many places online. Translations vary slightly. This translation is from the Jewish Virtual Library.

23Mahmoud Darwish, “Identity Card,” http://www.barghouti.com/poets/darwish/bitaqa.asp.

24“The Khartoum Resolutions,” Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Israel (September 1, 1967), http://www.mfa.gov.il/mfa/foreignpolicy/peace/guide/pages/the%20khartoum%20resolutions.aspx [Last viewed December 8, 2015].

CHAPTER 14: YOM KIPPUR WAR

1Martin Gilbert, Israel: A History (New York: HarperPerennial, 1998), p. 423.

2Howard M. Sachar, A History of Israel: From the Rise of Zionism to Our Time (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1979), p. 744.

3David Landau, Arik: The Life of Ariel Sharon (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2013), p. 75.

4Zeev Schiff, A History of the Israeli Army: 1874 to the Present (London: Macmillan, 1985), p. 246.

5Tekumah (Rebirth: The First Fifty Years), an Israeli television series, first broadcast 1998, Channel 1, Episode 9 at 36:20.

6Anita Shapira, trans. Anthony Berris, Israel: A History (Waltham, MA: Brandeis University Press, 2012), Kindle Edition, Locations 7794–7795.

7Sachar, A History of Israel, p. 748.

8Tekumah, Episode 9 at 43:18.

9William B. Quandt, Peace Process: American Diplomacy and the Arab-Israeli Conflict Since 1967 (Washington, DC: Brookings Institution, 2005), p. 101.

10“Kissinger and Ismail Conduct Secret Meetings,” Center for Israel Education, http://israeled.org/kissinger-ismail-conduct-secret-meetings/ [Last viewed December 8, 2015].

11Quandt, Peace Process, p. 455.

12Mordechai Bar-On, Moshe Dayan: Israel’s Controversial Hero (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2012), p. 156.

13Tekumah, Episode 10 at 8:07.

14Mitch Ginsburg, “Mossad’s Tip-Off Ahead of Yom Kippur War Did Not Reach Prime Minister, Newly Released Papers Show,” Times of Israel (September 20, 2012), http://www.timesofisrael.com/newly-released-papers-detail-depth-of-mishandling-of-yom-kippur-war-warnings/ [Last viewed December 8, 2015].

15Gilbert, Israel: A History, p. 432.

16Landau, Arik, p. 98.

17Benny Morris, Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881–2001 (New York: Vintage Books, 2001), p. 416.

18Shapira, trans. Berris, Israel: A History, p. 330.

19Gilbert, Israel: A History, p. 440.

20Herbert Druks, The Uncertain Alliance: The U.S. and Israel from Kennedy to the Peace Process (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001), p. 113.

21Amir Oren, “CIA Report on Yom Kippur War: Israel Had Nuclear Arsenal,” Ha’aretz (February 13, 2013), http://www.haaretz.com/news/diplomacy-defense/cia-report-on-yom-kippur-war-israel-had-nuclear-arsenal.premium-1.501101 [Last viewed December 8, 2015].

22Tekumah, Episode 10 at 32:00.

23Gilbert, Israel: A History, p. 442.

24Abraham Rabinovich, The Yom Kippur War: The Epic Encounter That Transformed the Middle East (New York: Schocken Books, 2004), p. 497.

25Gilbert, Israel: A History, p. 460.

26Motti Regev and Edwin Seroussi, Popular Music and National Culture in Israel (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2004), p. 67.

27Translation from the Hebrew by the author.

28Rabinovich, The Yom Kippur War, p. 499.

29Robert Slater, Rabin: 20 Years After (Israel: KIP-Kotarim International Publishing, 2015).

30Tekumah, Episode 20 at 37:55.

31Tekumah, Episode 7 at 45:30.

32Assaf Inbari, HaBaita (Tel Aviv: Yediyot Sefarim, 2009), p. 242 [Translations by Daniel Gordis].

33There was a brief exception in 1982, when Israeli troops faced the Syrian army, but that never led to genuine war with Syria.

34Tekumah, Episode 13 at 11:40.

35Gil Troy, Moynihan’s Moment: America’s Fight Against Zionism as Racism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013), p. 18.

CHAPTER 15: REVOLUTION WITHIN THE REVOLUTION

1Yehuda Avner, The Prime Ministers: An Intimate Narrative of Israeli Leadership (Jerusalem: Toby Press, 2010), p. 606.

2Ben Shalev, “Zohar Argov’s Flower That Launched a Million Cassettes,” Ha’aretz (May 4, 2012), http://www.haaretz.com/weekend/week-s-end/zohar-argov-s-flower-that-launched-a-million-cassettes-1.428235 [Last viewed December 8, 2015].

3Nir Hasson, “Jerusalem Neighborhood to Name Streets in Honor of Mizrahi Black Panthers,” Ha’aretz (June 14, 2011), http://www.haaretz.com/jerusalem-neighborhood-to-name-streets-in-honor-of-mizrahi-black-panthers-1.369313 [Last viewed March 23, 2016].

4Albert Einstein, “New Palestine Poetry: Visit of Menachem Begin and Aims of Political Movement Discussed,” New York Times (December 4, 1948), https://archive.org/details/AlbertEinsteinLetterToTheNewYorkTimes.December41948.

5In the fifth Knesset, Begin advocated for the gradual lifting of military law over areas with large Arab populations. It was, in his mind, an extension of the law that breaches individual liberties and freedoms and was a mark of Israel’s character. “One of the founding principles of a free country,” he posited, “is that military commanders should monitor soldiers and civilians [should monitor] civilians.” Avi Shilon, trans. Danielle Zilberberg and Yoram Sharett, Menachem Begin: A Life (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2007), p. 191.

6Daniel Gordis, Menachem Begin: The Battle for Israel’s Soul (New York: Knopf Doubleday, 2014), p. 88.

7Menachem Begin, trans. Shmuel Katz, ed. Ivan M. Greenberg, The Revolt: Story of the Irgun (Bnei-Brak, Israel: Steimatzky Group, 1952), p. 78.

8Ned Temko, To Win or to Die: A Personal Portrait of Menachem Begin (New York: William Morrow, 1987), p. 146.

9Anita Shapira, trans. Anthony Berris, Israel: A History (Waltham, MA: Brandeis University Press, 2012), p. 357.

10Assaf Inbari, HaBaita (Tel Aviv: Yediyot Sefarim, 2009), p. 248 [Translations by Daniel Gordis].

11Israeli Broadcasting Authority (IBA), May 30, 1977. The Hebrew can be translated, equally correctly, either as “in the style of a good Jew,” or “in a good Jewish style.”

12Benjamin Beit Halachmi, Despair and Deliverance: Private Salvation in Contemporary Israel (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1992), p. 55.

13Gordis, Menachem Begin, p. 159.

14Martin Gilbert, Israel: A History (New York: Harper Perennial, 1998), p. 489.

15Shapira, trans. Berris, Israel: A History, p. 367.

16Gordis, Menachem Begin, p. 171.

17Ofer Grosbard, Menachem Begin: The Absent Leader (Haifa: Strategic Research and Policy Center, National Defense College, IDF, 2007), p. 271.

18Mohamed Fadel Fahmy, “30 Years Later, Questions Remain Over Sadat Killing, Peace with Israel,” CNN (October 7, 2011), http://edition.cnn.com/2011/10/06/world/meast/egypt-sadat-assassination/ [Last viewed December 8, 2015].

19Ironically, most of these resisters were not residents of the town.

20Gershom Gorenberg, The Accidental Empire: Israel and the Birth of the Settlements, 1967–1977 (New York: Henry Holt, 2006), p. 361.

21Temko, To Win or to Die, p. 198.

22Hal Brands and David Palkki, “Saddam, Israel, and the Bomb: Nuclear Alarmism Justified?” International Security, Vol. 36, No. 1 (Summer 2011), p. 133.

23Ibid., p. 146.

24“Israel’s Illusion,” New York Times (June 9, 1981), http://www.nytimes.com/1981/06/09/opinion/israel-s-illusion.html [Last viewed December 8, 2015].

25Gordis, Menachem Begin, p. 192.

26Joseph Kraft, “For Begin, the End? He Should Be Voted Out for Raid That Further Isolates Israel,” Los Angeles Times (June 11, 1981).

27“United Nations Security Council Resolution 487 (1981),” United Nations, http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/36/a36r027.htm [Last viewed December 8, 2015].

28Moshe Fuksman-Sha’al, ed., trans. Ruchie Avital, “Dick Cheney Letter to Menachem Begin,” Israel’s Strike Against the Iraqi Nuclear Reactor 7 June 1981 (Jerusalem: Menachem Begin Heritage Center, 2003), p. 77.

29Dan Raviv and Yossi Melman, Spies Against Armageddon: The Mossad and the Intelligence Community (Israel: Yediot Ahronoth Books, 2012), p. 334.

30Gadi Bloom and Nir Hefez, Ariel Sharon: A Life (New York: Random House, 2006), p. 213.

31“Middle East: A Sabbath of Terror,” Time (March 20, 1978), http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,919454,00.html.

32Avner, The Prime Ministers, p. 606.

33Temko, To Win or to Die, pp. 283–284.

34Thomas L. Friedman, From Beirut to Jerusalem (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1989), p. 162.

35Tekumah (Rebirth: The First Fifty Years), an Israeli television series, first broadcast 1998, Channel 1, Episode 20 at 45:50. The speaker was Letty Cottin Pogrebin, editor of Ms. Magazine.

36Gadi Bloom and Nir Hefez, Ariel Sharon: A Life (New York: Random House, 2006), pp. 246–247.

37Matti Friedman, Pumpkin Flowers: A Soldier’s Story (Chapel Hill, NC: Algonquin, 2016), p. 188.

38The assertion that Israel fired flares is made by, among others, Thomas Friedman, From Beirut to Jerusalem, p. 161.

39Nirit Anderman, “Israeli Film on Lebanon War ‘Waltz with Bashir’ Shown in Beirut,” Ha’aretz (January 21, 2009), http://www.haaretz.com/news/israeli-film-on-lebanon-war-waltz-with-bashir-shown-in-beirut-1.268524 [Last viewed December 8, 2015].

40Dan Meridor, interview with the author, January 2, 2013.

41Michael B. Oren, Ally: My Journey Across the American-Israeli Divide (New York: Random House, 2015), p. 27.

42Shilon, trans. Zilberberg and Sharett, Menachem Begin: A Life, pp. 374–375.

CHAPTER 16: TAKING A PAGE FROM THE ZIONISTS

1Ari Shavit, My Promised Land: The Triumph and Tragedy of Israel (New York: Spiegel & Grau, 2013), p. 276.

2Ibid., p. 278.

3Nathan Brown, Amr Hamzawy, and Marina Ottaway, “Islamist Movements and the Democratic Process in the Arab World: Exploring the Gray Zones,” Carnegie Papers, No. 67 (March 2006), http://carnegieendowment.org/files/CP67.Brown.FINAL.pdf [Last viewed December 9, 2015].

4The Hamas Charter is widely available online. See, for example, http://www.acpr.org.il/resources/hamascharter.html.

5Benny Morris, Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881–2001 (New York: Vintage Books, 2001), Kindle Edition, Locations 13929–13937.

6Tekumah (Rebirth: The First Fifty Years), an Israeli television series, first broadcast 1998, Channel 1, Episode 18 at 3:50.

7Tekumah, Episode 18 at 16:25.

8Martin Gilbert, Israel: A History (New York: Harper Perennial, 1998), pp. 533–534.

9Morris, Righteous Victims, Location 6313.

10Ibid., Locations 14578–14596. See also http://www.nytimes.com/1988/08/01/world/hussein-surrenders-claims-west-bank-plo-us-peace-plan-jeopardy-internal-tensions.html.

11Morris, Righteous Victims, Locations 14501–14503.

12Gilbert, Israel: A History, pp. 538–539.

13Joel Greenberg, “Yeshayahu Leibowitz, 91, Iconoclastic Israeli Thinker,” New York Times (August 19, 1994), http://www.nytimes.com/1994/08/19/obituaries/yeshayahu-leibowitz-91-iconoclastic-israeli-thinker.html [Last viewed December 9, 2015].

14David Ellenson and Daniel Gordis, ed. Aron Rodrigue and Steven J. Zipperstein, Pledges of Jewish Allegiance: Conversion, Law, and Policymaking in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Orthodox Responsa (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2012), pp. 151–158.

15Howard M. Lenhoff and Jerry L. Weaver, Black Jews, Jews, and Other Heroes: How Grassroots Activism Led to the Rescue of the Ethiopian Jews (Jerusalem: Gefen Publishing House, 2007), pp. 42–43.

16Daniel Gordis, Menachem Begin: The Battle for Israel’s Soul (New York: Knopf Doubleday, 2014), pp. 144–145.

17Gilbert, Israel: A History, p. 552.

18Jeff Jacoby, “Would Rabin Have Pulled the Plug on a ‘Peace Process’ That Failed?” Boston Globe (October 22, 2015), http://www.bostonglobe.com/opinion/2015/10/22/would-rabin-have-pulled-plug-peace-process-that-failed/fgHF1Y8bkh7leSbtgHfleL/story.html [Last viewed December 9, 2015].

19Moshe Ya’alon, The Longer Shorter Way (Tel Aviv: Yedioth Ahronoth Books and Chemed Books, 2007). p. 82 [In Hebrew]. Also discussed in English in David M. Weinberg, “Yitzhak Rabin Was ‘Close to Stopping the Oslo Process,’” Jerusalem Post (October 17, 2013), http://www.jpost.com/Opinion/Columnists/Yitzhak-Rabin-was-close-to-stopping-the-Oslo-process-329064.

20Weinberg, “Yitzhak Rabin Was ‘Close to Stopping the Oslo Process.’”

21Gilbert, Israel: A History, pp. 569–570.

22Ibid., p. 572.

23Ibid., p. 584.

24Tekumah, Episode 22 at 00:20.

25Ibid., p. 587.

26Ibid.

CHAPTER 17: THE PEACE PROCESS STALLS

1King Hussein’s eulogy at Rabin’s funeral, November 6, 1995. Transcript available at http://www.mfa.gov.il/mfa/mfa-archive/1995/pages/rabin%20funeral-%20eulogy%20by%20king%20hussein.aspx.

2“Clinton to Lead U.S. Delegation,” CNN (November 5, 1995), http://edition.cnn.com/WORLD/9511/rabin/clinton/index.html [Last viewed December 9, 2015].

3Jeff Jacoby, “Would Rabin Have Pulled the Plug on a ‘Peace Process’ That Failed?” Boston Globe (October 22, 2015), http://www.bostonglobe.com/opinion/2015/10/22/would-rabin-have-pulled-plug-peace-process-that-failed/fgHF1Y8bkh7leSbtgHfleL/story.html [Last viewed December 9, 2015].

4Martin Gilbert, Israel: A History (New York: Harper Perennial, 1998), p. 593.

5Matti Friedman, Pumpkin Flowers (Chapel Hill: Algonquin Books, 2016), p. 155.

6Ibid.

7Ibid., p. 181.

8“Dennis Ross and Gidi Grinstein, Reply by Hussein Agha and Robert Malley,” New York Review of Books (September 20, 2001), http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/2001/sep/20/camp-david-an-exchange/ [Last viewed December 9, 2015].

9Not surprisingly, not everyone agrees as to the reason for the collapse of talks. Even among Israelis, there are some scholars who hold Barak accountable and do not accept the Ross-Barak narrative.

10Colin Shindler, A History of Modern Israel, 2nd ed. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013), p. 283.

11Benny Morris, Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881–2001 (New York: Vintage Books, 2001), Kindle Edition, Locations 15878–15883.

12Dan Rabinowitz, “October 2000, Revisited,” Ha’aretz (October 19, 2004), http://www.haaretz.com/print-edition/opinion/october-2000-revisited-1.137855 [Last viewed December 9, 2015].

13Jack Khoury, “Israeli Arabs Mark Fifteenth Anniversary of October 2000 Riots,” Ha’aretz (January 10, 2015), http://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/.premium-1.678344 [Last viewed December 9, 2015].

14Jewish National Fund, Tree Planting Center, http://www.jnf.org/support/tree-planting-center/.

15Bill Clinton, My Life (New York: Vintage Press, 2005), p. 946.

16Ibid., pp. 296–297.

17Dennis Ross, Doomed to Succeed: The U.S.-Israel Relationships from Truman to Obama (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2015), p. 297.

18II Samuel 2:26.

19Benny Morris, “Peace? No Chance,” Guardian (February 21, 2002), http://www.theguardian.com/world/2002/feb/21/israel2 [Last viewed January 10, 2016].

20Ross, Doomed to Succeed, p. 312.

21Interview between Rachel Greenspan and Yossi Klein Halevi, December 15, 2015.

22Benny Morris, “Exposing Abbas,” National Interest (May 19, 2011), http://nationalinterest.org/commentary/exposing-abbas-5335 [Last viewed December 9, 2015].

23Gilbert, Israel: A History, p. 627.

24“Exchange of Letters Between PM Sharon and President Bush,” Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Israel website (April 14, 2004), http://www.mfa.gov.il/mfa/foreignpolicy/peace/mfadocuments/pages/exchange%20of%20letters%20sharon-bush%2014-apr-2004.aspx [Last viewed December 9, 2015].

25Gilbert, Israel: A History, p. 637.

26Ibid., p. 638.

27Yagil Levy, The Hierarchy of Military Death, Open University of Israel (Lisbon, April 14–19, 2009), https://ecpr.eu/Filestore/PaperProposal/2cfd87af-cab2-4374-b84d-eb03fbbc3cd1.pdf.11.

28Dan Senor and Saul Singer, Start-Up Nation: The Story of Israel’s Economic Miracle (New York: Twelve, 2012), p. 15.

29The World Bank, “GDP Growth (annual %),” http://data.world bank.org/indicator/NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG?page=1.

30Senor and Singer, Start-Up Nation, p. 11.

31Ibid., pp. 11, 13.

32Ibid., pp. 11–12.

33Ibid., p. 129.

34Ibid., p. 181.

35Ibid., p. 182.

36Manfred Gerstenfeld, The War of a Million Cuts: The Struggle Against the Delegitimization of Israel and the Jews, and the Growth of New Anti-Semitism (Jerusalem: JCPA, 2015), p. 250.

37Daniel Freedman, “The World’s Deadly Obsession with Israel,” Forbes (June 24, 2010), http://www.forbes.com/2010/06/23/israel-hamas-middle-east-opinions-columnists-daniel-freedman.html.

38Gerstenfeld, The War of a Million Cuts, pp. 13–14.

39Joshua Muravchik, “Muslims and Terror: The Real Story,” Commentary (February 1, 2015), https://www.commentarymagazine.com/articles/muslims-and-terror-the-real-story-1/ [Last viewed December 9, 2015].

40“Human Rights Actions,” Human Rights Voices, http://www.humanrightsvoices.org/EYEontheUN/priorities/actions/body/?ua=1&ya=1&sa=1&tp=1 [Last viewed January 10, 2016].

41Michal Navoth, “Israel’s Relationship with the UN Human Rights Council: Is There Hope for Change?” Institute for Contemporary Affairs, No. 601 (May–June 2014), http://jcpa.org/article/israels-relationship-un-human-rights-council/ [Last viewed January 10, 2016].

42Irwin Cotler, “Israel and the United Nations,” Jerusalem Post (August 15, 2013), http://www.jpost.com/Opinion/Op-Ed-Contributors/Israel-and-the-United-Nations-323252 [Last viewed January 10, 2016].

43Gerstenfeld, The War of a Million Cuts, p. 254.

44Ibid.

45Richard Kemp, “The U.N.’s Gaza Report Is Flawed and Dangerous,” http://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/26/opinion/the-uns-gaza-report-is-flawed-and-dangerous.html.

46Ibid.

47Samantha Power, Remarks at the Israel Middle East Model United Nations Conference on “Building a More Model UN,” transcript (February 15, 2016), http://usun.state.gov/remarks/7138 [Last viewed March 23, 2016].

48Robert L. Bernstein, “Rights Watchdog, Lost in the Mideast,” New York Times (October 19, 2009), http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/20/opinion/20bernstein.html [Last viewed December 9, 2015].

49The Forward and Nathan Guttman, “Want to Delegitimize Israel? Be Careful Who You Mess With,” Ha’aretz (April 13, 2010), http://www.haaretz.com/news/want-to-delegitimize-israel-be-careful-who-you-mess-with-1.284184 [Last viewed December 9, 2015].

50Gerstenfeld, The War of a Million Cuts, p. 252.

51Aron Heller, “Western Europe Jewish Migration to Israel Hits All-Time High,” Associated Press (January 14, 2016), http://bigstory.ap.org/article/164bbc1445aa42fc883ee85e4439523a/western-europe-jewish-migration-israel-hits-all-time-high [Last viewed March 23, 2016].

52David Makovsky, “The Silent Strike: How Israel Bombed a Syrian Nuclear Installation and Kept It Secret,” New Yorker (September 17, 2012), http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2012/09/17/the-silent-strike [Last viewed January 10, 2016].

53Gilbert, Israel: A History, p. 635.

54“PM Says Iran’s Chief of Staff Vowed Sunday to Eliminate Israel,” Times of Israel (May 21, 2012), http://www.timesofisrael.com/pm-says-irans-chief-of-staff-vowed-sunday-to-eliminate-israel/ [Last viewed December 9, 2015].

55Henry Kissinger and George P. Shultz, “The Iran Deal and Its Consequences,” Wall Street Journal (April 7, 2015), http://www.wsj.com/articles/the-iran-deal-and-its-consequences-1428447582 [Last viewed December 9, 2015].

56Michael B. Oren, Ally: My Journey Across the American-Israeli Divide (New York: Random House, 2015), p. 360.

57Ibid., p. 183.

CHAPTER 18: A JEWISH RENAISSANCE IN THE JEWISH STATE

1Rami Kleinstein, “Small Gifts,” on the album of the same name. First verse. Translation is mine.

2“Israel Election Updates Yesh Atid to Announce Openly Gay Candidate,” Ha’aretz (January 26, 2015), http://www.haaretz.com/israel-news/elections/1.639040 [Last viewed December 9, 2015].

3This translation of Calderon’s speech is taken from Ruth Calderon, “The Heritage of All Israel,” Jewish Week (February 14, 2013), http://www.thejewishweek.com/editorial-opinion/opinion/heritage-all-israel#tz8I4YxxRBluZ53i.99 [Last viewed December 9, 2015].

4The phrase is Paul Cowan’s. Paul Cowan, An Orphan in History: One Man’s Triumphant Search for His Jewish Roots (Woodstock, VT: Jewish Lights Publishing, 2002).

5Yair Lapid, trans. Evan Fallenberg, Memories After My Death: The Joseph (Tommy) Lapid Story (London: Elliott & Thompson Limited, 2011), page 23.

6Malka Shaked, I’ll Play You Forever: The Bible in Modern Hebrew Poetry (Tel Aviv: Yediot Achronot, 2005).

7Ruth Gavison, “No ‘Israeliness’ Instead of ‘Jewishness,’” Liberal Magazine, Vol. 15 (January 2015), http://theliberal.co.il/ruth-gavison-israeliness-instead-jewishness/ [Last viewed December 9, 2015].

8Meir Buzaglo, Safa La-Ne’emanim [Hebrew]. A Language for the Faithful: Reflection on Tradition (Tel Aviv and Jerusalem: Keter Publishing and Mandel Foundation, 2009).

9Robert Alter, ed., The Poetry of Yehuda Amichai (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2015), p. 299.

10Elli Fischer, “Why I Defy the Israeli Chief Rabbinate,” Jewish Review of Books (Winter 2016), https://jewishreviewofbooks.com/articles/1917/why-i-defy-the-israeli-chief-rabbinate/.

11Akiva Eldar, “Border Control Getting in a State Over the UN Vote,” Ha’aretz (September 13, 2011), http://www.haaretz.com/print-edition/features/border-control-getting-in-a-state-over-the-un-vote-1.384135 [Last viewed March 23, 2016].

12“Israel’s Haredi Population: Progress and Challenges,” Myers-JDC -Brookdale (October 2015), http://brookdale.jdc.org.il/_Uploads/dbsAttachedFiles/Israels-Haredi-Population-2015–10-FINAL.pdf [Last viewed December 9, 2015].

13Gwen Ackerman and Alisa Odenheimer, “Israel Prosperity Seen Unsustainable as Haredim Refuse to Work,” Bloomberg Business (August 2, 2010), http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2010–08–01/israel-prosperity-seen-unsustainable-as-haredim-refusal-to-work-takes-toll [Last viewed December 9, 2015].

14Jessica Steinberg, “TV show ‘Shtisel’ Subtly Changes Ultra-Orthodox Perceptions,” Times of Israel (January 13, 2016), http://www.timesofisrael.com/tv-show-shtisel-subtly-changes-ultra-orthodox-perceptions/ [Last viewed March 23, 2016].

15Noah Feldman, “Violence in the Name of the Messiah,” Bloomberg View (November 1, 2015), http://www.bloombergview.com/articles/2015–11–01/violence-in-the-name-of-the-messiah [Last viewed December 9, 2015].

16The Forward and Daniel Estrin, “The King’s Torah: A Rabbinic Text or a Call to Terror?” Ha’aretz (January 22, 2010,), http://www.haaretz.com/jewish/2.209/the-king-s-torah-a-rabbinic-text-or-a-call-to-terror-1.261930 [Last viewed December 9, 2015].

17Jeremy Sharon, “‘Torat Hamelech’ Authors Will Not Be Indicted,” Jerusalem Post (May 28, 2012), http://www.jpost.com/National-News/A-G-Torat-Hamelech-authors-will-not-be-indicted [Last viewed December 9, 2015].

CONCLUSION

1Ari Shavit, My Promised Land: The Triumph and Tragedy of Israel (New York: Spiegel & Grau, 2013), p. 419.

2“Israel Turns 68 with 8.5 Million People, 10 Times More Than in 1948,” Times of Israel (May 9, 2016), http://www.timesofisrael.com/israel-turns-68-with-8-5-million-people-10-times-more-than-in-1948/.

3Barbara Tuchman, “Israel: Land of Unlimited Impossibilities,” in Practicing History (New York: Ballantine Books, 1981), p. 134.

4Vice President Joe Biden, “Remarks by Vice President Biden: The Enduring Partnership Between the United States and Israel” (March 11, 2010), White House, Office of the Vice President, https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/remarks-vice-president-biden-enduring-partnership-between-united-states-and-israel [Last viewed December 7, 2015].

5Charles Krauthammer, “At Last, Zion,” Jewish Ideas Daily (September 21, 2012), http://www.jewishideasdaily.com/5057/features/at-last-zion/ [Last viewed March 23, 2016].

6Jewish National Fund, “Forestry & Green Innovations,” http://www.jnf.org/work-we-do/our-projects/forestry-ecology/ [Last viewed March 23, 2016].

7Richard Kemp, “The U.N.’s Gaza Report Is Flawed and Dangerous,” New York Times (June 25 2010), http://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/26/opinion/the-uns-gaza-report-is-flawed-and-dangerous.html; Samantha Power, Remarks at the Israel Middle East Model United Nations Conference on “Building a More Model UN,” transcript (February 15, 2016), http://usun.state.gov/remarks/7138 [Last viewed March 23, 2016].

8Academic Ranking of World Universities 2015, http://www.shanghairanking.com/ARWU2015.html [Last viewed August 10, 2016].

9Ibid.

10“Speech by Jimmy Carter on White House Lawn, Washington, D.C., July 19, 1977.” Cited in Daniel Gordis, Menachem Begin: The Battle for Israel’s Soul (New York: Knopf Doubleday, 2014), p. 143.

11“Speech by Menachem Begin on White House Lawn, Washington, D.C., July 19, 1977.” Cited in Daniel Gordis, Menachem Begin: The Battle for Israel’s Soul (New York: Knopf Doubleday, 2014), p. 143.

12Martin Kramer, “Fouad Ajami Goes to Israel,” Mosaic (January 8, 2015), http://mosaicmagazine.com/observation/2015/01/fouad-ajami-goes-to-israel/ [Last viewed March 23, 2016].

13Tsur Ehrlich, “Nathan the Wise,” Azure, No. 28 (Spring 5767/2007), p. 77, http://azure.org.il/include/print.php?id=445 [Last viewed May 1, 2016].

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