Chronology

711

Moors invade and conquer most of the Iberian peninsula.

1085

Christians recapture Toledo.

1236–48

Key cities of Andalusia such as Cordoba (1236), Murcia (1241) and Seville (1248) recaptured by the Christians.

1391

Riots against the Jews of Spain, beginning in Seville and spreading elsewhere in the country; many Jews convert to Christianity.

1449

Riots against the conversos of Toledo; the authorities in Toledo issue a statute barring conversos from official positions.

1453

Turkish forces capture Constantinople from the Christians.

1474

Henry IV, king of Castile dies; his half-sister Isabella and purported daughter Juana ‘la Beltraneja’ fight for the crown. Juana is supported by the Portuguese, but the faction behind Isabella wins at the Battle of Toro in 1476.

1478

Sixtus IV issues a papal bull permitting the establishment of the Inquisition in Spain on 1 November.

1480

The first inquisitors of Castile, Miguel de Murillo and Juan de San Martín, are appointed.

1481

First autos-da-fé held in Seville.

1483

Jews expelled from Andalusia.

1484

Torquemada issues the first instructions for the operation of the Spanish Inquisition.

1485

Assassination in Zaragoza of Pedro de Arbues, inquisitor of Aragon; large numbers of autos follow over the next few years.

1492

In January Ferdinand and Isabella conquer the last Moorish kingdom of Spain, Granada. The Jews are expelled from Spain in August, and many of them go to Portugal. Columbus ‘discovers’ America.

1494

Treaty of Tordesillas divides the world of the discoveries between Spain and Portugal, with Spain responsible for most of America and Portugal for Africa and Asia.

1497

Forcible conversion of the Jews of Portugal.

1502

Expulsion of all Muslims from Granada.

1504

Tribunal of the Spanish Inquisition founded in the Canaries.

1504–6

Inquisitor Lucero sentences hundreds of people to death for Judaizing in Cordoba; riots break out and Lucero is forced to flee.

1506

Approximately 2,000 conversos killed by mobs in Lisbon.

1510

Portugal conquers Goa under Afonso de Albuquerque.

1517

On 31 October Martin Luther posts his 95 Theses on the door of the castle in Wittenberg.

1520–2

Civil wars in Aragon and Castile led by comuneros and germanías against the court of Charles V; in Aragon and Valencia the germanías forcibly baptize many Muslims.

1522

Charles V of Spain bans conversos or moriscos from legally emigrating to the New World.

1524

First alumbrado arrested by the Spanish Inquisition.

1525

Spanish Inquisition issues first edict of faith regarding alumbrados.

1526

Expulsion of all Muslims from the kingdom of Aragon. A meeting in Granada draws up a series of repressive measures to be directed at the cultural practices of moriscos.

1528

First auto in the New World: two conversos burnt in Mexico City.

1529–36

Purges of the followers of Erasmus by the Inquisition in Spain.

1536

Papacy gives permission for a Portuguese Inquisition with reduced powers.

1540

First auto-da-fé in Lisbon.

1543

First burning ordered under inquisitorial law in Goa.

1547

Papacy gives permission for a Portuguese Inquisition with full powers. A statute of purity of blood is promulgated in the cathedral of Toledo.

1547–66

Fernando de Valdés, inquisitor-general of Spain, pushes through many important reforms of the Inquisition.

1551

Jurisdiction of the Tribunal of Lisbon is expanded toencompass Portugal’s Atlantic islands (Azores and Madeira), Angola, Brazil, Cape Verde, Guinea and São Tomé.

1553

Inquisitor-General Valdés introduces the Concordia, which standardizes the use of familiars across Spain.

1557

Holy Roman Emperor Charles V retires as king of Spain and is replaced by his son Philip II.

1559

Great autos in Valladolid and Seville. Archbishop Carranza of Toledo is arrested by the Inquisition. The most detailed index of censorship to date is published in Spain.

1560

First inquisitors appointed to Goa by the Portuguese Inquisition.

1561

Inquisitor-General Valdés issues General Instructions which standardize inquisitorial procedures.

1566

The measures drawn up in Granada in 1526 on the moriscos are implemented.

1568–70

Uprising of the moriscos of Andalusia; after their defeat, most are dispersed throughout the rest of Spain.

1569

Foundation of the Tribunal of the Inquisition in Lima, Peru.

1571

Foundation of the Tribunal of the Inquisition in Mexico City.

1576

Carranza is finally sentenced to abjure in Rome in April, and dies 18 days later.

1580

The crowns of Portugal and Spain are united under Philip II.

1591–5

Inquisitorial officials dispatched to the Azores, Brazil and Madeira from Lisbon to perform trials and receive denunciations.

1609

Foundation of the Tribunal of the Inquisition in Cartagena de las Indias, in modern Colombia.

1609–14

The moriscos of Spain are expelled, beginning in Valencia (1609) and ending in Murcia (1614).

1610

Grand auto in Logroño sees the last ever burning of witches by the Inquisition in Spain.

1618, 1627

Further inquisitorial visits to Brazil.

1633

Philip IV of Spain orders the Council of the Inquisition to create two courts, one of which deals solely with handling proofs of genealogy.

1636–49

Portuguese communities throughout Latin America are persecuted by the Inquisition. Great autos in Lima (1639) and Mexico City (1649).

1640

Portugal begins its war of independence against Spain.

1648

Spain recognizes the independence of the Dutch United Provinces.

1650–1700

Decline of Portuguese power in the Estado da Índia.

1668

Spain recognizes Portugal’s independence.

1680

Grand auto of Madrid, perhaps the most lavish auto in the history of the Inquisition.

1700–46

Reign of Philip V of Spain. Rekindling of the Inquisition, with 54 autos and 79 people ‘relaxed’.

1701–14

War of the Spanish Succession.

1713–15

Melchor de Macanaz, minister of state of Philip V of Spain, proposes reforms of the Inquisition; the Inquisition launches a case against him.

1743–4

Trial of Freemasons in Portugal.

1751

Edict issued against Freemasons in Spain.

1755

Great earthquake destroys Lisbon on 1 November.

1756

The works of Diderot, Montesquieu, Rousseau and Voltaire are banned by the Spanish Inquisition.

1759

Jesuits expelled from Portugal.

1761

Last burning of a relajado at an inquisitorial auto in Portugal.

1767

Jesuits expelled from Spain.

1773

Decree issued in Portugal removing legal distinctions between Old Christians and conversos.

1776–80

Arrest, trial and penance of Pablo de Olavide in Spain.

1789

French Revolution.

1807

Napoleon invades Portugal; the Portuguese royal family flees to Brazil.

1808

Napoleon invades Spain and installs his brother as puppet king. On 4 December the new regime issues a decree abolishing the Inquisition.

1810

Decree permitting freedom of the press is promulgated at Cádiz on 18 October.

1812

Liberal constitution proclaimed at Cádiz on 12 March. The Tribunal of Goa is definitively abolished on 16 June.

1813

A decree abolishing the Spanish Inquisition is approved by the parliament in Cádiz.

1820

Ferdinand VII is forced to accept the liberal constitution after a revolt in Cádiz. On 9 March he passes a decree suppressing the Inquisition in Spain.

1821

Official abolition of the Inquisition in Portugal.

1834

Law abolishing the Inquisition is formally passed in Spain.

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