*1 The modern republic of Mexico was known as ‘Nueva España’, or New Spain, in the colonial period. In order to make things clearer, in this book I shall refer to New Spain as Mexico.

*2 The area known today as Colombia was called the New Kingdom of Granada, ‘Nuevo Reino de Granada’, in colonial times; for clarity’s sake, I shall refer to this as Colombia.

*3 Known today as Salvador, but in the colonial period more commonly as Bahia, a use I follow in this book.

*4 Founded in the early 13th century in southern France and brought to Aragon – but not Castile – in 1237.


*1 Over the long history of the Inquisition, many different terms were used to describe the descendants of converted Jews. For the sake of clarity, I shall describe them as conversos throughout this book, although it needs to be remembered that this is a word usually limited to 15th-century Spain, and that the term New Christian (cristão novo) was used instead in Portugal; however as in Spain New Christian referred to people of Muslim as well as Jewish descent, I shall stick to converso.

*2 Under Ferdinand III, Castilian forces took Cordoba (1236), Murcia (1241), Jaén (1246) and Seville (1248).

*3 There were attacks in Medina del Campo (1461), Toledo (1467), Jaén (1468), Valladolid (1470) and Cordoba (1473); the latter was perhaps the most serious, as the riots spread throughout the surrounding province.

*4 See here.

*5 He would become king of Aragon in 1479.


*1 See here.

*2 See Chapter Ten.


*1 Many historians dismiss Llorente’s figures out of hand. During the 19th century he suffered a withering attack from conservative historians such as Marcelino Menéndez y Pelayo, from which his reputation has never entirely recovered. Nevertheless, although there evidently was a large dose of ideology in Llorente’s critical history of the Inquisition, Llorente was secretary of the Suprema and had access to many records which were lost during the Napoleonic Wars (partly, it is true, because he himself stole some of them). Where records exist with which to compare his estimates, he is broadly borne out.

*2 See here.

*3 See pages here.

*4 Seehere.

*5 The Portuguese converso whose fate we followed in the last chapter.

*6 See here.

*7 Although the number of relaxations declined in the late-16th and 17th centuries, this was not the common perception. Many prisoners believed that they would be burnt right up until the day of the auto, since it was only then that their sentence would be revealed to them. This is made clear by Dellon’s (1815) account of his sentencing in Goa in the late 17th century.


*1 This Luis was the uncle of the Luis the Younger we met in the previous chapter, and was called in Mexico Luis the Elder. However as he is a young man in this chapter I will simply call him Luis to avoid confusion.

*2 Today, however, malaria has been almost entirely eradicated from the islands.

*3 See Chapter Two. This was prior to their release as part of the general pardon in July of that year.

*4 See here.

*5 For more discussion of the treatment of sodomy by the Inquisition, see Chapter Twelve.

*6 See Chapter Eight for a full discussion of this idea.

*7 This is not the Melchior Cano who was an enemy of Archbishop Carranza of Toledo – see these pages.

*8 San Juan de Ulúa lies on the outskirts of the modern city of Veracruz.

*9 For a description of these events, see here.


*1 Tarshish is thought to have been the biblical name for Spain, and the destination of Jonah’s ship suspected to be on the eastern coast in the region of Valencia.

*2 See here.

*3 See these pages.

*4 For a full discussion of beatas, see Chapter Twelve.

*5 See here.

*6 For a more detailed account of the relationship of washing and crypto-Islam, see these pages.

*7 See here.

*8 See here.

*9 Comentarios del Catecismo Cristiano.


*1 See these pages.

*2 See here.

*3 It is difficult to be precise about numbers; Miles Phillips said three died, but the trial records reveal only one execution – (Conway (ed.) (1927: 158) – but as this is one of the three mentioned by Phillips, the likelihood is that the figure of three may be accurate.

*4 See these pages.

*5 See these pages for an account of Luis the Younger.

*6 Phillip III of Spain.

*7 See pages here.


*1 This was not the case in Portugal, however, where the conversos remained the principal target of the Inquisition.

*2 See pages here.

*3 Joan being the Catalan variant of the Castilian name Juan.

*4 See page here.

*5 See pages here.

*6 See pages here.


*1 See pages here.

*2 As I shall call him to distinguish him from his son.

*3 See pages here.

*4 The first centre, it will be recalled, of inquisitorial activity in Castile – See pages here.


*1 See page here.

*2 See page here.

*3 It was here that the provocative farce performed by Mestre Diogo, and witnessed by Luis de Carvajal’s uncle Francisco Jorge, had been performed in 1562. See above, page here.

*4 The modern town of Ziguinchor, in the Casamance region of southern Senegal.

*5 In the Iberian colonies of Africa and Latin America, slaves usually took the surname of their ethnicity, Bran being then a common term for an ethnic group found in modern Guinea-Bissau.

*6 See page here.


*1 See pages here. here and here.

*2 Of Spain, and Philip III of Portugal.

*3 See page here.

*4 See page here.

*5 See pages here.

*6 See page here.

*7 Then in Peru, now in Bolivia, and capital of the world’s silver trade in the colonial period.

*8 See page here.

*9 See pages here.

*10 A league is equivalent to approximately three miles.


*1 See here.

*2 For a discussion of these conversions in the 14th and 15th centuries, see here.

*3 Later of course himself tried by the Roman Inquisition for his ideas.

*4 This is because the heroine of the festival of Purim, Esther, was herself a sort of crypto-Jew.

*5 See here.

*6 Quod Nihil Scitur in the original Latin.

*7 See here.

*8 Gran Índice Prohibitorio.

*9 An octavo page is 20 centimetres high.

*10 A folio page is 30 centimetres high.

*11 See here.


*1 In recent years the ideas of Freud have come under sustained attack from numerous quarters. Freud is accused of suppressing actual cases of sexual abuse (Masson 1990), of scientific laxity in the development of psychoanalytic theory (Eysenck: 1985 and Crews: 1993), of willfully mythologizing his own role in the development of psychoanalytic ideas (Eysenck: 1985) and of the fact that the psychoanalytic process itself fails to demonstrate any measurable success in its treatment of patients (Stannard: 1980). Thus in spite of the unquestioned influence Freud’s ideas have had, the critical strength of psychoanalysis has been shaken. I use some Freudian terminology in this book because of my own argument that, although Freud’s use of certain concepts is questionable, this does not mean that the concepts themselves are invalid. The concept of neurosis clearly does describe some phenomena which do occur. See Green (2007: Appendix A) for a fuller discussion.

*2 See here.

*3 Although there is little evidence that many of them whipped themselves – as is the implication of the English term.


*1 See here.

*2 See here.


*1 See here.

*2 See here.

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!