Modern history

NOTES

Full details of published and unpublished memoirs, works of literature, reference, archives, and interviews cited in the Notes in abbreviated form can be found in the relevant section of the Bibliography. All references to memoirs are to the English translated version, except for where the Russian title of a work is given.

Introduction

1. Quoted in Cohen, p. 39.

2. Leggett, pp. 102–20.

3. Okhotin and Roginsky.

4. See Appendix for a fuller discussion of these statistics.

5. Rigoulot, Les Paupières Lourdes, pp. 1–10.

6. Quoted in Johnson, p. 243.

7. Quoted in Revel, p. 77.

8. Amis; John Lloyd, “Show Trial: The Left in the Dock,” New Statesman, September 2, 2002, vol. 15, issue 722, pp. 12–15; “Hit and Miss,” Guardian, September 3, 20.

9. Thurston, Life and Terror in Stalin’s Russia; Robert Conquest, “Small Terror, Few Dead,” The Times Literary Supplement, May 31, 1996.

10. This happened to the author in 1994. The phrase “too anti-Soviet” is a direct quote from a letter. A different publication, The Times Literary Supplement, eventually ran a much shortened version of the review.

11. “Neither Here nor There” (review of Between East and West, New York, 1994), The New York Times Book Review, December 18, 1994.

12. For a full discussion of this issue see Malia.

13. Webb, p. 31.

14. Quoted in Conquest, The Great Terror, p. 465.

15. See Klehr, Haynes, and Firsov; and Klehr, Haynes, and Anderson, for the archival history of the American Communist Party.

16. Quoted in N. Tolstoy, Stalin’s Secret War, p. 289.

17. See Thomas, pp. 489–95; and Scammell, Solzhenitsyn: A Biography, for details. The attempt to portray Solzhenitsyn as an alcoholic (Scammell, pp. 664–65) was particularly clumsy, since he was known for his dislike of alcohol.

18. Pipes, pp. 824–25.

19. Overy, pp. 112 and 226–27; Moskoff.

20. L. Ginzburg, p. 36.

21. Kozhina, p. 5.

22. image, p. 15.

23. Kennan, pp. 74–83.

24. Chekhov, p. 371.

25. image, pp. 16–27.

26. Popov, pp. 31–38.

27. Kennan, p. 242.

28. image, p. 65–85.

29. Anisimov, p. 177.

30. GARF, 9414/1/76.

31. image, pp. 44–64.

32. Ibid., p. 161.

33. Chekhov, p. 52.

34. image, pp. 161–74.

35. Sutherland, pp. 271–302.

36. Adams, pp. 4–11.

37. Volkogonov, Stalin, p. 9.

38. This photograph appears, among other places, in Figes.

39. This photograph appears in Volkogonov, Trotsky.

40. Bullock, pp. 28–45.

41. Volkogonov, Stalin, p. 9.

42. Kotek and Rigoulot, pp. 97–107; Okhotin and Roginsky, pp. 11–12.

43. I elaborated upon this definition in a “A History of Horror.”

44. Geller, p. 43.

45. Quoted in Kotek and Rigoulot, p. 92.

46. This account of the prehistory of concentration camps comes from Kotek and Rigoulot, pp. 1–94.

47. image, pp. 270–85.

48. L. Tolstoy, pp. 408–12.

49. See Martin, The Affirmative Action Empire, for a full discussion of Stalin’s attitude toward “enemy” ethnic groups.

50. Arendt, pp. 122–23.

51. Bullock, p. 24.

52. Weiner, “Nature, Nurture and Memory in a Socialist Utopia.”

53. Bullock, p. 488.

54. Sereny, p. 101.

55. I am grateful to Terry Martin for helping me to clarify this point.

56. Shreider, p. 5.

57. Lynne Viola makes this point about kulak exiles.

58. See Applebaum, “A History of Horror,” for more details.

Part One: The Origins of the Gulag, 1917–1939

1: Bolshevik Beginnings

1. From Stekla vechnosti, pp. 172–73.

2. Likhachev, Vospominania, p. 118.

3. Pipes, pp. 336–37.

4. See, for example, Service, Lenin.

5. Pipes, pp. 439–505; Figes, pp. 474–551.

6. Geller, pp. 23 and 24.

7. Jakobson, pp. 18–26.

8. Dekrety, vol. II, pp. 241–42, and vol. III, p. 80. Also Geller, p. 10; Pipes, pp. 793–800.

9. Jakobson, pp. 18–26; Decree “On Revolutionary Tribunals,” in Sbornik, December 19, 1917, pp. 9–10.

10. Hoover, Melgunov Collection, Box 1, Folder 63.

11. Okhotin and Roginsky, p. 13.

12. RGASPI, 76/3/1 and 13.

13. Jakobson, pp. 10–17; Okhotin and Roginsky, pp. 10–24.

14. Dekrety, vol. I, p. 401.

15. Hoover, Melgunov Collection, Box 1, Folder 4.

16. Anonymous, Vo vlasti Gubcheka, pp. 3–11.

17. Hoover, Melgunov Collection, Box 1, Folder 4.

18. Lockhart, pp. 326–45.

19. S. G. Eliseev, “Tyuremnyi dnevnik,” in Uroki, pp. 17–19.

20. Okhotin and Roginsky, p. 11.

21. Geller, p. 43.

22. Ibid., p. 44; Leggett, p. 103.

23. Initially, the Cheka were put in charge of the camps in conjunction with the Central Collegium for War Prisoners and Refugees (Tsentroplenbezh ). Okhotin and Roginskii, p. 11.

24. Leggett, p. 108.

25. Decree “On Red Terror,” in Sbornik, September 5, 1918, p. 11.

26. Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism, p. 13.

27. Istorichesky Arkhiv, no. 1, 1958, pp. 6–11; Geller, p. 52.

28. According to the historian Richard Pipes, Lenin did not want his name associated with these first camps, which is why the decrees were issued not by the Sovnarkom, a body he chaired, but by the Central Executive Committee of the Soviets (Pipes, p. 834).

29. Dekrety, vol. V, pp. 69–70 and 174–81.

30. RGASPI, 76/3/65.

31. Hoover, Melgunov Collection, Box 11, Folder 63.

32. Anonymous, Vo vlasti Gubcheka, pp. 47–53.

33. Izgoev, p. 36.

34. Bunyan, pp. 54–65.

35. Geller, pp. 55–64; Bunyan, pp. 54–114.

36. Okhotin and Roginsky, pp. 11–12; see also Jakobson for a full account of the institutional changes in the 1920s, as well as Lin.

37. RGASPI, 17/84/585.

38. For examples of these discussions see Hoover, Fond 89, 73/25, 26, and 27.

39. Volkogonov, Lenin, p. 179.

40. Service, Lenin, p. 186.

41. Hoover, Nicolaevsky Collection, Box 9, Folder 1.

42. Ibid., Box 99; RGASPI, Fond 76/3/87; Genrikh Yagoda, p. 265.

43. Razgon, p. 266.

44. Hoover, Nicolaevsky Collection, Box 99.

45. Ibid.

46. Letters from Russian Prisons, pp. 1–15.

47. Ibid., pp. 20–28.

48. Ibid., pp. 162–65.

49. Ibid.; Melnik and Soshina.

50. Letters from Russian Prisons, pp. 162–65.

51. Melnik and Soshina.

52. RGASPI, 17/84/395.

53. Doloi.

54. Guberman, pp. 72–74.

55. Bertha Babina-Nevskaya, “My First Prison, February 1922,” in Vilensky, Till My Tale Is Told, pp. 97–109.

56. RGASPI, 76/3/149.

57. RGASPI, 76/3/227; Hoover, Fond 89, 73/25, 26, and 27.

2: “The First Camp of the Gulag”

1. Ekran, no. 12, March 27, 1926.

2. For a description of the geography of Solovetsky, the various islands, and their development, see Melnik, Soshina, Reznikova, and Reznikov.

3. “Solovetskaya monastyrskaya tyurma,” Solovetskoe Obshchestvo Kraevedeniya, Vypusk, VII, 1927 (SKM).

4. Ivan Bogov, Izvestiya Arkhgubrevkoma i arkhbubkoma RKP (b) , May 4, 1920 (SKM); also quoted in Juri Brodsky, p. 13.

5. GARF, 5446/1/2. See also Nasedkin’s reference to Dzerzhinsky in GARF, 9414/1/77.

6. For example, see Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. II, pp. 25–70.

7. See Jakobson for an account of the prison systems of the 1920s.

8. GARF, 9414/1/77.

9. Juri Brodsky, pp. 30–31; Olitskaya, vol. I, pp. 237–40; Malsagov, pp. 117–31.

10. Olitskaya, pp. 237–40.

11. Hoover, Nicolaevsky Collection, Box 99; and Hoover, Fond 89, 73/34.

12. Letters from Russian Prisons, pp. 165–171.

13. Juri Brodsky, p. 194.

14. Shiryaev, pp. 30–37.

15. Volkov, p. 53.

16. Juri Brodsky, p. 65.

17. Likhachev, Kniga bespokoistv, pp. 98–100.

18. Juri Brodsky, p. 190.

19. Ibid., pp. 195–97.

20. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. II, p. 54.

21. Chukhin, Kanaloarmeetsi, pp. 40–44; also Chukhin, “Dva dokumenta.” Chukhin explains that these documents, reprinted in full, were a part of “criminal investigation number 885.” They are known to come from the Petrozavodsk FSB archive, where Chukhin worked.

22. Klinger, p. 210; also reprinted in Sever, vol. 9, September 1990, pp. 108–12. The mosquito torture is also mentioned in archival documents—see Zvenya, vol. I, p. 383—as well as in memoirs. See Letters from Russian Prisons, pp. 165–71; Volkov, p. 55.

23. Chukhin, “Dva dokumenta,” p. 359; Likhachev, Kniga bespokoistv, pp. 196–98.

24. Juri Brodsky, p. 129.

25. Tour guides on the Solovetsky Islands relate this story. It is also found in Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. II, pp. 37–38.

26. Tsigankov, pp. 196–97.

27. Likhachev, Kniga bespokoistv, p. 212.

28. GARF newspaper and journal archives: SLON, vol. III, May 1924.

29. Shiryaev, pp. 115–32; Likhachev, Kniga bespokoistv , pp. 201–5. Also books and journals in SKM.

30. SLON, vol. III, May 1924 (GARF).

31. Solovetskie Ostrova, vol. 12, December 1925 (SKM).

32. Conversation with SKM director Tatyana Fokina, September 12, 1998. See also, for example, Solovetskie Ostrova, 1925, nos. 1–7; Solovetskie Ostrova, 1930, no. 1; or the bulletins of the Solovetskoe Obshchestvo Kraevedeniya, in the collection of the museum and the collection of AKB. See also Dryakhlitsin.

33. Solovetskie Ostrova, vol. 9, September 1925, pp. 7–8 (SKM).

34. Reznikova, pp. 46–47.

35. Solovetskoi Lageram, vol. 3, May 1924 (SKM).

36. Reznikova, pp. 7–36; Hoover, Melgunov Collection, Box 7, Folder 44.

37. Nikolai Antsiferov, “Tri glavy iz vospominanii,” in Pamyat, vol. 4, pp. 75–76.

38. Klinger, pp. 170–77.

39. Ibid., pp. 200–1; Malsagov, pp. 139–45; Rozanov, p. 55; Hoover, Melgunov Collection, Box 7.

40. Tsigankov, pp. 96–127; Hoover, Melgunov Collection, Box 7.

41. Istoriya otechestvo v dokumentakh, Volume 2: 1921–1939 , pp. 51–52.

42. Jakobson, pp. 70–102.

43. Krasilnikov, “Rozhdenie Gulaga,” pp. 142–43. This is a collection of reprinted documents on the foundation of the Gulag, all of which come from the archives of the President of the Russian Federation, normally closed to researchers.

44. NARK, 689/1/(44/465).

45. NARK, 690/6/(2/9).

46. RGASPI, 17/3/65.

47. Okhotin and Roginsky, p. 18.

48. Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism, pp. 70–71.

49. GAOPDFRK, 1051/1/1.

50. Jakobson, p. 121, conversations in 1998 and 1999 with Nikita Petrov, Oleg Khlevnyuk, and Juri Brodsky. Solovki, the Italian edition of Brodsky’s book, does not mention Frenkel.

51. For example, Klementev; S. G. Eliseev, “Turemny dnevnk,” in Uroki, pp. 30–32.

52. Shiryaev, p. 138.

53. Chukhin, Kanaloarmeetsi, pp. 30–31.

54. Gorky, Belomor, pp. 226–28.

55. GAOPDFRK, 1033/1/35.

56. Duguet, p. 75.

57. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. II, p. 76.

58. Malsagov, pp. 61–73.

59. Shiryaev, pp. 137–38; Rozanov, pp. 174–91; Narinskii, Vremya tyazhkikh potryasenii, pp. 128–49.

60. Rozanov, pp. 174–91; Shiryaev, pp. 137–48.

61. Frenkel’s prisoner registration card, Hoover, St. Petersburg Memorial Collection.

62. Chukhin, Kanaloarmeetsi, pp. 30–31; Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. II, p. 78.

63. See “Posetiteli kabinetu I. V. Stalina,” Istoricheskii Arkhiv, no. 4, 1998, p. 180.

64. Hoover, St. Petersburg Memorial Collection.

65. NARK, 690/6/(1/3).

66. Baron, pp. 615–21.

67. NARK, 690/3/(17/148).

68. Ibid.

69. Kulikov, p. 99.

70. GAOPDFRK, 1033/1/15.

71. Nogtev, “USLON,” pp. 55–60; Nogtev, “Solovki,” 1926, pp. 4–5.

72. Juri Brodsky, p. 75.

73. Solovetsky’s deficit is cited in Khlevnyuk, “Prinuditelniy trud”; also GAOPDFRK, 1051/1/1.

74. Baron, p. 624.

75. GAOPDFRK, 1033/1/35.

76. Juri Brodsky, p. 75.

77. Ibid., p. 114.

78. Ibid., p. 195.

79. NARK, 690/6/(1/3).

80. Chukhin, “Dva dokumenta.”

81. Juri Brodsky, p. 115.

82. Letters from Russian Prisons, pp. 183–88.

83. Hoover, Fond 89, 73/32.

84. Ibid., 73/34.

85. Letters from Russian Prisons, pp. 218–20.

86. Krasikov, p. 2.

87. Letters from Russian Prisons, p. 215.

88. Hoover, Fond 89, 73/34, 35, and 36.

89. Hoover, Nicolaevsky Collection, Box 782; Melgunov Collection, Box 8.

90. Hoover, Nicolaevsky Collection, Box 782, Folder 6.

91. Ibid., Folder 1.

92. Letters from Russian Prisons, p. 160.

3: 1929: The Great Turning Point

1. Stalin interviewed by Emil Ludwig, 1934, in Silvester, pp. 311–22.

2. Likhachev, Kniga bespokoistv, pp. 183–89.

3. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. II, p. 63; Figes, pp. 400–5 and 820–21.

4. Juri Brodsky, pp. 188–89.

5. Likhachev, Kniga bespokoistv, pp. 183–89.

6. Volkov, p. 168.

7. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. II; Khesto, p. 245.

8. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, pp. 62–63; Khesto, pp. 243–54; Juri Brodsky pp. 185–88.

9. Chukhin, Kanaloarmeetsi, p. 36.

10. Gorky, Sobranie sochinenii, vol. XI, pp. 291–316. All Gorky quotes on Solovetsky come from this source.

11. Khesto, pp. 244–45.

12. Tolczyk, pp. 94–97. My interpretation of Gorky’s essay is based upon Tolczyk’s astute observations.

13. Tucker, Stalin in Power, pp. 125–27.

14. Payne, pp. 270–71.

15. Tucker, Stalin in Power, p. 96.

16. Sbornik, pp. 22–26.

17. See accounts in Tucker, Stalin in Power, and Conquest, Stalin, as well as Getty and Naumov.

18. See Conquest’s Harvest of Sorrow, still the most comprehensive English account of collectivization and the famine. Ivnitsky’s is an account that makes reliable use of archives. Like the exiles, the kulaks await their true chronicler.

19. Ivnitsky, p. 115; Zemskov, “Spetsposelentsy,” p. 4.

20. Getty and Naumov, pp. 110–12; Solomon, pp. 111–29.

21. Jakobson, p. 120.

22. Krasilnikov, “Rozhdenie Gulaga,” pp. 143–44.

23. Ibid., pp. 145–46.

24. Ibid., p. 145.

25. Nordlander, “Capital of the Gulag.”

26. Krasilnikov, “Rozhdenie Gulaga”; Jakobson, pp. 1–9.

27. Jakobson, p. 120.

28. Khlevnyuk, “Prinuditelniy trud”; Krasilnikov, Spetspereselentsy v zapadnoi Sibiri, vesna 1931 g.–nachalo 1933 g., p. 6.

29. GARF, 5446/1/54 and 9401/1a/1; Jakobson, pp. 124–25.

30. Harris.

31. Jakobson, p. 143.

32. See, for example, Kotkin, for a description of how plans for another Stalinist project—the Magnitogorsk steelworks, which had nothing to do with the Gulag—also went awry.

33. Evgeniya Ginzburg, for example, received a nonworking prison sentence as late as 1936. See E. Ginzburg, Journey into the Whirlwind.

34. Chukhin, Kanaloarmeetsi, p. 25.

35. Tucker, Stalin in Power, p. 64.

36. Quoted in Bullock, p. 374.

37. Volkogonov, Stalin, pp. 127 and 148.

38. Moynahan, photographs on pp. 156 and 157, for example.

39. Tucker, Stalin in Power, p. 273.

40. Jakobson, p. 121.

41. Lih, Naumov, and Khlevnyuk, p. 211; also Krasilnikov, “Rozhdenie Gulaga,” pp. 152–54; Khlevnyuk, “Prinuditelniy trud.”

42. Khlevnyuk, ibid., p. 74.

43. Jakobson, p. 121.

44. Khlevnyuk, “Prinuditelniy trud,” pp. 74–76; Jakobson, p. 121; Hoover, St. Petersburg Memorial Collection.

45. There are many examples in Stalin’s “osobaya papka ” (personal file) in GARF, 9401/2. Delo 64 contains an extensive report on Dalstroi, for example.

46. Nordlander, “Origins of a Gulag Capital,” pp. 798–800.

47. Genrikh Yagoda, p. 434.

48. Protocols of the Politburo, RGASPI, 17/3.

49. Volkogonov, Stalin, pp. 252, 308–9, and 519.

50. GARF, 9401/2/199 (Stalin’s personal file).

51. RGASPI, 17/3/746; Nordlander, “Capital of the Gulag.”

52. Nordlander, ibid.

53. Kaneva, p. 331.

54. Okhotin and Roginsky, p. 34.

55. Genrikh Yagoda, pp. 375–76.

56. Terry Martin suggested this to me in an email exchange in June 2002.

4: The White Sea Canal

1. Cited in Baron, p. 638.

2. Dallin and Nicolaevsky, pp. 218–19.

3. Bateson and Pim.

4. Dallin and Nicolaevsky, p. 219.

5. Ibid., p. 221.

6. Ibid., p. 220.

7. Ibid., p. 220; Jakobson, p. 126.

8. Dallin and Nicolaevsky, p. 220.

9. GARF, 5446/1/54 and 9401/1a/1.

10. GARF, 9414/1/2920.

11. Jakobson, p. 127.

12. Kitchin, pp. 267–70.

13. Jakobson, pp. 127–28.

14. GAOPDFRK, 26/1/41.

15. Gorky, Belomor, (translation of Kanal imeni Stalina) , pp. 17–19.

16. Ibid., p. 40.

17. Lih, Naumov, and Khlevnyuk pp. 225 and 212.

18. Makurov, p. 76. This is a collection of documents selected from the Karelian archives.

19. Okhotin and Roginskii, p. 163.

20. Baron, pp. 640–41; also Chukhin, Kanaloarmeesi.

21. Makurov, p. 86.

22. Gorky, Belomor, p. 173.

23. Makurov, pp. 96 and 19–20.

24. Baron, p. 643.

25. Makurov, pp. 37 and 197.

26. Ibid., pp. 43–44.

27. Ibid., p. 197.

28. Chukhin, Kanaloarmeetsi, p. 121.

29. Makurov, pp. 19–20.

30. Chukhin, Kanaloarmeetsi, p. 12.

31. Makurov, pp. 72–73.

32. Chukhin, Kanaloarmeetsi, pp. 127–31.

33. Tolczyk, p. 152.

34. Baranov, pp. 165–68.

35. Gorky, Belomor, pp. 46 and 47.

36. Ibid., pp. 158 and 165.

37. Pogodin, pp. 109–83; Geller, pp. 151–57.

38. Gliksman, p. 165.

39. Ibid., pp. 173–78.

40. GARF, 9414/4/1; Perekovka, January 18, 1933.

41. GARF, 9414/4/1; Perekovka, December 20, 1932–June 30, 1934.

42. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. I, p. 102.

5: The Camps Expand

1. Kuznitsa, March–September 1936; (GARF journal collection).

2. Khlevnyuk, “Prinuditelniy trud,” pp. 75–76.

3. Nicolas Werth, “A State against Its People: Violence, Repression and Terror in the Soviet Union,” in Courtois, p. 154. An account of the incident, as by an anonymous prisoner who met some survivors in the Tomsk prison, also appears in Pamyat, vol. I, pp. 342–43; also Krasilnikov, Spetspereselentsy v zapadnoi Sibiri, 1933–1938, pp. 76–119.

4. Elantseva. This article is based on archives found in the Tomsk Central State Archive of the Russian Federation, Far East.

5. Ibid.; Okhotin and Roginsky, p. 153.

6. N. A. Morozov, GULAG v Komi krae, p. 104.

7. Kaneva. My account is based on Kaneva’s, which is in turn based on documents in the archives of the Komi Republic, as well as memoirs in the collection of the Memorial Society.

8. Ibid., pp. 331 and 334–35.

9. GARF, 9414/1/8.

10. Mitin, pp. 22–26.

11. Exhibition at the Vorkuta Kraevedchesky Muzei; also “Vorkutinstroi NKVD” (MVD document of January 1941), in the collection of Syktyvkar Memorial, Komi Republic; Okhotin and Roginsky, p. 192.

12. Kaneva, p. 339.

13. Nadezhda Ignatova, “Spetspereselentsy v respublike Komi v 1930–1940 gg,” in Korni travy, pp. 23–25.

14. Ibid., pp. 25 and 29.

15. N. A. Morozov, GULAG v Komi krae, pp. 13–14.

16. Kaneva, pp. 337–38.

17. Nadezhda Ignatova, “Spetspereselentsy v respublike Komi v 1930–1940 gg,” in Korni travy, pp. 23–25.

18. Kaneva, p. 342.

19. Ibid.

20. Stephan, The Russian Far East, p. 225.

21. Nordlander, “Capital of the Gulag”; I am indebted to David Nordlander’s work on Kolyma—so far the only comprehensive, archive-based Western study of Kolyma—for the account of Kolyma’s history in this section and elsewhere.

22. Ibid.

23. Viktor Shmirov of the Perm Memorial Society, conversation with the author, March 31, 1998.

24. Shmirov, “Lager kak model Realnosti.”

25. Stephan, The Russian Far East, p. 225.

26. Nordlander, “Capital of the Gulag.”

27. Ibid.

28. Stephan, The Russian Far East, p. 226.

29. Nordlander, “Capital of the Gulag.”

30. Stephan, The Russian Far East, p. 227.

31. Kozlov, “Sevvostlag NKVD SSSR.”

32. Stephan, The Russian Far East, p. 226.

33. Conquest, Kolyma, p. 42.

34. Sgovio, p. 153.

35. Shalamov, Kolyma Tales, p. 369.

36. Kozlov, “Sevvostlag NKVD SSSR,” p. 81; Nordlander, “Capital of the Gulag.”

37. Ioffe, pp. 66–71.

38. Kozlov, “Sevvostlag NKVD SSSR,” p. 82.

39. E. Ginzburg, Within the Whirlwind, p. 201.

40. Ibid.

41. GARF, 9414/1/OURZ, in the collection of A. Kokurin.

42. Khlevnyuk, “Prinuditelniy trud,” p. 78.

43. Ibid.; Okhotin and Roginsky, pp. 376, 399, and 285.

44. Okhotin and Roginsky, p. 38.

6: The Great Terror and Its Aftermath

1. Akhmatova, p. 103.

2. Bacon, pp. 30 and 122. Bacon compiled his figures from various sources, adding together all of the different categories of forced laborers. See Appendix for further discussion of statistics.

3. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. I, p. 24.

4. Unless otherwise footnoted, this account of the Great Terror comes from Conquest, The Great Terror; Khlevnyuk, 1937; Getty and Naumov; and Martin, “The Great Terror.”

5. Getty and Naumov, p. 472.

6. Trud, no. 88, June 4, 1992; reprinted in Getty and Naumov, pp. 472–77; many similar documents are found in Sabbo, pp. 297–304.

7. Sabbo, pp. 297–304.

8. Kokurin and Petrov, Lubyanka, p. 15.

9. Veronica Znamenskaya, “To This Day,” in Vilensky, Till, My Tale Is Told, pp. 141–49.

10. Yurasova.

11. GARF, personnel files. Also Kokurin and Petrov, Gulag, pp. 797–857.

12. GARF, 8131/37/99.

13. This account of Berzin’s arrest comes from Nordlander’s “Capital of the Gulag” and “Magadan and the Evolution of the Dalstroi Bosses.”

14. Conquest, The Great Terror, pp. 182–213

15. Yelena Sidorkina, “Years Under Guard,” in Vilensky, Till, My Tale Is Told, p. 194.

16. GARF, 9401/12/94.

17. Conquest, The Great Terror, p. 298.

18. Geller, pp. 151–57.

19. Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism, p. 96.

20. Kokurin and Petrov, Gulag, pp. 863–69.

21. Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism, pp. 95–96; Makurov, pp. 183–84.

22. Rossi, The Gulag Handbook, p. 180.

23. Ibid., p. 60; Volkogonov, Stalin, p. 279.

24. Rossi, The Gulag Handbook, pp. 36 and 497; Sbornik , pp. 86–93.

25. Larina, p. 182.

26. Levinson, pp. 39–42.

27. Gorky, Belomor, p. 341.

28. Weiner, “Nature, Nurture and Memory in a Socialist Utopia.”

29. Herling, p. 10.

30. Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism, p. 95.

31. Rossi, The Gulag Handbook, p. 449.

32. Leipman, p. 38.

33. Nordlander, “Capital of the Gulag.”

34. Makurov, p. 160.

35. Chukhin, Kanaloarmeetsi, p. 120.

36. Shmirov.

37. Quoted in Shmirov, ibid.

38. Trud, no. 88, June 4, 1992, reprinted in Getty and Naumov, pp. 479–80; N. A. Morozov, conversation with the author, July 2001.

39. Papkov.

40. GARF, 9414/1/OURZ, in the collection of A. Kokurin.

41. This was Prikaz 00447, analyzed by N. Petrov and A. Roginsky, “Polskaya operatsiya NKVD, 1937–1938 gg,” in Guryanov, Repressii protiv polyakov, pp. 22–43.

42. Memorialne kladbishche Sandormokh, pp. 3 and 160–67 (a collection of documents about the executions of Sandormokh). Another source cites the date of the NKVD order on the repression of prisoners as August 16, 1937 (Binner, Junge, and Martin).

43. Florensky, pp. 777–80, from Chirkov.

44. Memorialne kladbishche Sandormokh, pp. 167–69.

45. Hoover, Nicolaevsky Collection, Box 233, Folder 23; also N. A. Morozov, GULAG v Komi krae, p. 28.

46. Conquest, The Great Terror, pp. 286–87.

47. FSB archive, Petrozavodsk, Fond 42, pp. 55–140: Akt Zasedaniya Troiki NKVD KSSR no. 13, September 20, 1937, in the collection of Yuri Dmitriev, Petrozavodsk Memorial.

48. Conquest, The Great Terror, p. 438.

49. Getty and Naumov, pp. 532–37.

50. Ibid., p. 562.

51. E. Ginzburg, Journey into the Whirlwind, p. 256.

52. N. A. Morozov, GULAG v Komi krae, pp. 28–29.

53. Nordlander, “Capital of the Gulag,” pp. 253–57.

54. Makurov, p. 163.

55. Khlevnyuk, “Prinuditelniy trud,” p. 79.

56. Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism, pp. 105–7.

57. Nordlander, “Capital of the Gulag.”

58. Khlevnyuk, “Prinuditelniy trud,” p. 73.

59. Nordlander, “Capital of the Gulag.”

60. GARF, 9401/1/4240.

61. Solzhenitsyn, The First Circle, pp. 25 and 29.

62. Golovanov; Raizman, pp. 21–23.

63. Kokurin, “Osoboe tekhnicheskoe byuro NKVD SSSR.”

64. Khlevnyuk, “Prinuditelniy trud,” p. 79.

65. GARF, 7523/67/1.

66. GARF, 9414/1/24 and 25.

67. GARF, 7523/67/1.

68. GARF, 8131/37/356; 7523/67/2; and 9401/1a/71.

69. Knight, Beria, pp. 105–6.

70. Khlevnyuk, “Prinuditelniy trud,” p. 80.

71. Zemskov, “Zaklyuchennie,” p. 63; Bacon, p. 30.

72. Zemskov, “Arkhipelag Gulag,” pp. 6–7; Bacon, p. 30.

73. Okhotin and Roginskii, p. 308.

74. Ibid., pp. 338–39.

75. Ibid., pp. 200–1, 191–92, and 303.

76. Vasileeva, interview with the author.

77. The phrase “camp-industrial complex” is used by M. B. Smirnov, S. P. Sigachev, and D. V. Shkapov, the co-authors of the historical Introduction to Okhotin and Roginsky.

Part Two: Life and Work in the Camps

7: Arrest

1. N. Mandelstam, pp. 10–11.

2. Robinson, p. 13.

3. Agnew and McDermott, pp. 145 and 143–49.

4. Gelb.

5. Martin, The Affirmative Action Empire, pp. 328–43.

6. Lipper, p. 35; Stephan, The Russian Far East, p. 229.

7. Conquest, The Great Terror, pp. 271–72.

8. Stajner, p. 33.

9. Martin, “Stalinist Forced Relocation Policies.”

10. Several versions of this poem exist in Russian. This one is based loosely on one found in E. Yevtushenko, ed., Strofi Veka.

11. Okunevskaya, p. 227.

12. Starostin; GARF, 7523/60/4105.

13. Razgon, p. 93.

14. GARF, 9401/12/253.

15. Weissberg, pp. 16–87.

16. Serebryakova, pp. 34–50.

17. Lipper, p. 3.

18. Starostin, pp. 62–69.

19. Wat, pp. 308–12.

20. Dolgun, pp. 8–9.

21. Okunevskaya, pp. 227–28.

22. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. I, p. 8.

23. Gagen-Torn, p. 58.

24. Hoover, Fond 89, 18/12, Reel 1.994.

25. V. Petrov, p. 17.

26. N. Mandelstam, pp. 9 and 8.

27. Naimark, The Russians in Germany, pp. 69–140.

28. RGVA, 40/71/323.

29. Głowacki, p. 329.

30. E. Ginzburg, Journey into the Whirlwind, p. 45.

31. Yelena Sidorkina, “Years Under Guard,” in Vilensky, Till My Tale Is Told, pp. 194–95.

32. Razgon, p. 56.

33. Zhenov, p. 44.

34. Shikheeva-Gaister, pp. 99–104.

35. GARF, 9410/12/3.

36. Joffe, pp. 90–91.

37. Solzhenitsyn, The First Circle, pp. 533–34.

38. Hoover, Polish Ministry of Information Collection, Box 114, Folder 2.

39. Milyutina, pp. 150–51.

40. Solzhenitsyn, The First Circle, p. 547.

41. Gnedin, pp. 68–69.

42. Dolgun, p. 11.

43. Vogelfanger, pp. 4–5.

44. Bershadskaya, pp. 37–39.

45. Adamova-Sliozberg, p. 16.

46. Walter Warwick, unpublished memoir. My thanks to Reuben Rajala for this text.

47. Kuusinen, p. 135.

48. Miranda v. Arizona, 384 US 436 (1966).

49. N. Werth, “A State against Its People: Violence, Repression and Terror in the Soviet Union,” in Courtois, pp. 193–94.

50. Gorbatov, p. 118.

51. Hoover, Sgovio Collection, Box 3.

52. Sgovio, p. 69.

53. Hoover, Sgovio Collection, Box 3.

54. Finkelstein, interview with the author.

55. Durasova, p. 77.

56. N. Petrov and A. Roginsky, “Polskaya operatsiya NKVD, 1937–1938 gg,” in Guryanov, Repressii protiv polyakov, pp. 37–38; N. Petrov, “Polska Operacja NKWD.”

57. Petrov and Roginsky, ibid., p. 24–25.

58. Iwanow, p. 370.

59. N. Petrov, “Polska Operacja NKWD,” pp. 27–29.

60. Ibid., pp. 24–43 and 32.

61. Hoover, Fond 89, 18/12, Reel 1.994; Getty and Naumov, pp. 530–37.

62. Conquest, The Great Terror, pp. 130 and 131.

63. V. Tchernavin, pp. 156–63.

64. Narinsky, Vospominaniya glavnogo bukhgaltera GULAG, p. 60.

65. Khrushchev’s secret speech, reprinted in Khrushchev, p. 585.

66. Jansen and Petrov.

67. Gnedin, pp. 24–31.

68. Conquest, The Great Terror, p. 121.

69. Shentalinsky, p. 26.

70. Hava Volovich, “My Past,” in Vilensky, Till My Tale Is Told, p. 251.

71. E. Ginzburg, Journey into the Whirlwind, p. 94.

72. Hoover, Polish Ministry of Information Collection, Box 114, Folder 2.

73. V. Tchernavin, p. 162.

74. Dolgun, pp. 37–38, 193, and 202.

75. Gorbatov, pp. 109–10.

76. Razgon, p. 73.

77. Pechora, interview with the author.

8: Prison

1. GARF, 9401/1a/14.

2. GARF, 9401/1a/128.

3. Sobolev, p. 66.

4. Garaseva, pp. 96–101; for a history of the Lubyanka building, see Sobolev, pp. 11–79.

5. Panin, p. 24.

6. Sergeev, pp. 232–38.

7. Gnedin, pp. 24–31.

8. Butyrsky and Karyshev, pp. 20–21.

9. Garaseva, pp. 96–101.

10. Chetverikov, p. 35.

11. Dolgun, p. 62. The Nazi leader Albert Speer made a very similar “walk,” over many years, in his cell in the Allied prison at Spandau.

12. E. Ginzburg, Journey into the Whirlwind, pp. 193 and 267.

13. Finkelstein, interview with the author.

14. GARF, 9413/1/17; 9412/1/25, and 9413/1/6.

15. GARF, 8131/37/360.

16. GARF, 8131/37/796, 1250, and 1251.

17. Zabolotsky, pp. 310–31.

18. Buber-Neumann, p. 36.

19. GARF, 9401/1a/14.

20. Buber-Neumann, p. 33.

21. Trubetskoi, p. 261.

22. Nadezhda Grankina, “Notes by Your Contemporary,” in Vilensky, Till My Tale Is Told, p. 119.

23. Yasnyi, pp. 1–50.

24. Dolgun, p. 15.

25. See, for example, Gorbatov, p. 111; or Zarod, p. 45. Yakov Éfrussi entitled his prison memoirs Kto na “E?” (Who Starts with “E?” ).

26. Vesyolaya, pp. 30–33.

27. Bershadskaya, pp. 37–39.

28. Vesyolaya, pp. 30–33.

29. Buber-Neumann, pp. 36 and 37.

30. Adamova-Sliozberg, pp. 17 and 8.

31. Shalamov, Kolyma Tales, pp. 200–16.

32. Shikheeva-Gaister, pp. 99–104.

33. Bystroletov, p. 115.

34. Pechora, interview with the author.

35. GARF, 9489/2/31.

36. Weissberg, p. 278.

37. Lipper, pp. 7–10.

38. Zarod, p. 39.

39. Finkelstein, interview with the author.

40. Razgon, p. 223.

41. Hoover, Polish Ministry of Information Collection, Box 116, Folder 2.

42. Shalamov, Kolyma Tales, p. 215.

43. Olitskaya, pp. 180–89.

44. E. Ginzburg, Journey into the Whirlwind, pp. 71–72.

45. Dolgun, p. 95.

46. Vesyolaya, p. 312.

47. Zhigulin, p. 53.

48. Shalamov, Kolyma Tales, pp. 200–16.

49. Ibid., pp. 213 and 216.

9: Transport, Arrival, Selection

1. Sutherland, p. 136.

2. E. Ginzburg, Journey into the Whirlwind, p. 205.

3. Sgovio, pp. 129–35.

4. Khachatryan, interview with the author.

5. E. Ginzburg, Journey into the Whirlwind, p. 100.

6. GARF, 8466/1/23.

7. Anonymous, conversation with the author, Vilnius, September 1991; Fidelgolts.

8. Głowacki, pp. 320–405.

9. Bardach, p. 156.

10. Dostoevsky, p. 170.

11. Finkelstein, interview with the author.

12. Buca, p. 26.

13. Finkelstein, interview with the author.

14. Larina, p. 149.

15. Gliksman, pp. 230–31.

16. Panin, p. 36.

17. Ptasnik, pp. 846–54.

18. Noble, p. 71.

19. Tiif, p. 125.

20. Buca, p. 29.

21. Znamenskaya, pp. 20–22.

22. Karta, Kazimierz Zamorski Collection, Folder 1, Files 1253 and 6294.

23. Zabolotsky, p. xx.

24. Bershadskaya, pp. 47–49.

25. E. Ginzburg, Journey into the Whirlwind, p. 229.

26. Yakovenko, pp. 176–79.

27. Gagen-Torn, pp. 69–72.

28. Hoover, Polish Ministry of Information Collection, Box 114, Folder 2.

29. Ibid., Box 110, Folder 2.

30. Ptasnik, p. 853.

31. Armonas, pp. 40–44.

32. Sandratskaya, unpublished memoir.

33. Kaufman, pp. 228–33.

34. Karta, Kazimierz Zamorski Collection, Folder 1, File 1253.

35. Stephan, The Russian Far East, pp. 225–32.

36. Tvardovsky, pp. 249–51.

37. Sgovio, pp. 135–44.

38. Conquest, Kolyma, p. 20.

39. Karta, Kazimierz Zamorski Collection, Folder 1, File 1253.

40. Nerler, pp. 360–79.

41. Karta, Kazimierz Zamorski Collection, Folder 1, File 15,876.

42. Hoover, Polish Ministry of Information Collection, Box 113, Folder 9.

43. Sgovio, p. 140.

44. Conquest, Kolyma, p. 24; E. Ginzburg, Journey into the Whirlwind, pp. 351–53.

45. Conquest, Kolyma, p. 25.

46. Ibid., pp. 25–27; Golovanov.

47. Nordlander, “Capital of the Gulag,” pp. 290–91; Conquest, Kolyma, p. 25.

48. Olitskaya, pp. 229–33.

49. E. Ginzburg, Journey into the Whirlwind, p. 353.

50. Karta, Kazimierz Zamorski Collection, Folder 1, Files 6294, 15882, and 15876.

51. Sgovio, p. 143.

52. Kuusinen, p. 150.

53. Lipper, pp. 92–95.

54. Karta, Kazimierz Zamorski Collection, Folder 1, File 1722.

55. Elena Glink, “Kolyma Tram,” in Vilensky, Osventsim bez pechei, pp. 10–16.

56. Bardach, pp. 191–93.

57. Karta, Kazimierz Zamorski Collection, Folder 1, File 1253.

58. GARF, 9401/1/614.

59. GARF, 9401/1a/61.

60. GARF, 9401/1a/64.

61. GARF, 9401/2/171 and 199.

62. GARF, 8131/37/2063.

63. GARF, 8131/37/2041.

64. Gagen-Torn, pp. 69–72.

65. Ekart, p. 44.

66. Yakovenko, pp. 176–79.

67. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. II, pp. 495–96.

68. Zhenov, p. 74.

69. Armonas, p. 137.

70. Gursky, unpublished memoir.

71. Chirkov, p. 22.

72. Colonna-Czosnowski, p. 53.

73. GARF, 9414/1/2743.

74. Olitskaya, pp. 234–44.

75. Adamova-Sliozberg, p. 47.

76. Smirnova, interview with the author.

77. Andreevna, interview with the author.

78. Bardach, p. 227.

79. Hoover, Polish Ministry of Information Collection, Box 114, Folder 2.

80. Ulyanovskaya, pp. 356–65.

81. Shalamov, Kolyma Tales, p. 341.

82. Shiryaev, pp. 31–37.

83. For example, GARF, 9489/2/25.

84. Weissberg, p. 92.

85. Gliksman, p. 240; Adamova-Sliozberg, p. 48.

86. Yakir, p. 117.

87. E. Ginzburg, Journey into the Whirlwind, p. 365.

88. GARF, 5446/1/54.

89. GARF, 9401/12/316.

90. Bien, unpublished memoir.

91. Gliksman, pp. 218–21.

92. Gagen-Torn, p. 149.

93. Herling, p. 27. The author’s name appears as he was published in English. The Polish spelling of his name is Gustaw Herling-Grudziimageski.

94. Gliksman, pp. 246–48.

10: Life in the Camps

1. Vilensky, reprinted by permission of the author.

2. Okhotin and Roginskii, pp. 137–525.

3. Okunevskaya, p. 391.

4. GARF, 5446/1/54 and 9401/12/316.

5. GARF, 9489/2/20.

6. GARF, 9401/12/316.

7. GARF, 9414/6/24.

8. Rossi, The Gulag Handbook, p. 137.

9. Buber-Neumann, p. 75.

10. GARF, 9401/12/316.

11. Rossi, The Gulag Handbook, p. 130.

12. Sofsky, p. 55.

13. GARF, 9489, the Dmitlag archives (9489/2/31, for example).

14. GARF, 9401/12/316.

15. GARF, 9401, in the collection of the author.

16. GARF, 8131/37/361.

17. GARF, 8131/37/542.

18. GARF, 9401/1a/136 and 9401/1/4240.

19. Guberman, p. 33.

20. Adamova-Sliozberg, p. 48.

21. Finkelstein, interview with the author.

22. Zarod, p. 103.

23. Kuts, p. 165.

24. Lvov, unpublished memoir.

25. Herling, p. 29.

26. Sofsky has also written about prisoners’ time and space in The Order of Terror. I have borrowed the idea from him.

27. Frid, p. 136.

28. GARF, 9401/12/316.

29. Zarod, pp. 99–100.

30. Frid, p. 136.

31. Zarod, p. 102.

32. GARF, 9401/12/316; Zarod, p. 102.

33. Rossi, The Gulag Handbook, p. 370.

34. Nordlander, “Capital of the Gulag,” p. 158; Mitin.

35. Olitskaya, pp. 234–44; Nordlander, “Capital of the Gulag,” p. 159.

36. Olitskaya, pp. 234–44.

37. GARF, in the collection of the author.

38. GARF, 9401/1a/127.

39. GARF, 9401/1a/128; Berdinskikh, pp. 24–43.

40. N. A. Morozov, GULAG v Komi krae, pp. 72–75.

41. Bondarevsky, p. 44.

42. Pavel Galitsky, “Étogo zabyt nelzya,” in Uroki, pp. 83–85.

43. MacQueen.

44. Hoover, Polish Ministry of Information Collection, Box 114, Folder 2.

45. GARF, 9414/1/2741.

46. Zarod, p. 104.

47. Mirek, Zapiski zaklyuchennogo, p. 116.

48. Herling, p. 113.

49. Lipper, p. 214; Zarod, pp. 104–5.

50. GARF, 9489/2/11.

51. Quoted in Zhigulin, p. 121.

52. Sulimov, pp. 45–55.

53. Sieminski, p. 45.

54. GARF, 8131/37/543.

55. GARF, 9414/1/2887.

56. GARF, 9414/1/496, an order of June 1951, setting up a camp “according to the Gulag plan.”

57. GARF, 9414/6/24.

58. Evstonichev, p. 88.

59. Sulimov, p. 53.

60. GARF, 8131/37/4547.

61. Buber-Neumann, p. 75.

62. GARF, 9401/1a/274.

63. Andreeva, interview with the author.

64. GARF, 9401/1a/141.

65. Lipper, p. 131.

66. Filshtinsky, interview with the author.

67. Arginskaya, interview with the author; GARF, 9401/1a/274.

68. Hoover, Polish Ministry of Information Collection, Box 114, Folder 2.

69. Petrus, pp. 58–65.

70. Pechora, interview with the author.

71. Pechora, interview with the author; Bulgakov, interview with the author.

72. Arginskaya, interview with the author.

73. Pechora, interview with the author; Petrus, pp. 58–65.

74. Rozina, pp. 67–75.

75. Smirnova, interview with the author.

76. Ibid.

77. Sgovio, p. 186.

78. Vardi, pp. 93–150.

79. GARF, 9414/6/24 and 25.

80. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. II, p. 268.

81. Rozina, pp. 67–75.

82. Vogelfanger, p. 67.

83. Okunevskaya, p. 391.

84. Golovanov, pp. 110–15 and 122.

85. Petrus, pp. 58–65.

86. Colonna-Czosnowski, p. 113.

87. GARF, 9414/4/1 (Perekovka of June 30, 1934).

88. Karta, Archiwum Wschodnie, V/AC/183.

89. GARF, 5446/1/54; Rossi, The Gulag Handbook, p. 14.

90. GARF, 9401/1/713.

91. Waydenfeld, p. 132.

92. Shalamov, Kolyma Tales, p. 132.

93. GARF, 9489/2/20.

94. GARF, 8131/37/357.

95. GARF, 8131/37.

96. GARF, 9401/1a/16.

97. GARF, 9489/2/20/64.

98. Arginskaya, interview with the author.

99. Sitko, interview with the author.

100. Filshtinsky, interview with the author.

101. Zhigulin, pp. 174–78.

102. Pechora, interview with the author.

103. GARF, 9414/3/9.

104. Shalamov, Kolyma Tales, pp. 337–38, 338–39, and 340.

105. Sgovio, p. 175.

106. Shalamov, Kolyma Tales, p. 341.

107. Rozina, pp. 67–75.

108. Shalamov, Kolyma Tales, p. 336.

109. Levinson, pp. 39–40.

110. Armonas, p. 123.

111. Sitko, interview with the author.

112. Sulimov, p. 43.

113. GARF, 9489/2/15.

114. GARF, 9401/1/713.

115. GARF, 9401/1a/128.

116. GARF, 9401/1a/140.

117. GARF, 9401/1a/189; 9401/1/713; 9401/1a/141 and 119.

118. GARF, 9489/2/20/109–113.

119. Kedrovyi Shor, in the collection of the author.

120. Narinsky, Vospominaniya, p. 138.

121. Ibid., pp. 136–37.

122. Kedrovyi Shor, in the collection of the author; GARF, 9489/2/5.

123. GARF, 9489/2/19.

124. Gliksman, p. 301.

125. GARF, 9401/1a/189.

126. V. Gorkhova, “Raport vracha,” in Uroki, pp. 103–5.

127. Alin, pp. 185–91.

128. Petrov, pp. 216 and 178.

129. Yakovenko, pp. 180–81.

130. Samsonov, Zhizn prodolzhaetsya, pp. 70–71.

131. GARF, 9414/1/25.

132. GARF, 9489/2/10.

133. GARF, 8131/37/809, 797, and 1251.

134. Kedrovyi Shor, in the collection of the author.

135. GARF, 8131/37/361.

136. E. Ginzburg, Journey into the Whirlwind, pp. 386–89.

137. E. Ginzburg, Within the Whirlwind, p. 65.

138. Kedrovyi Shor, in the collection of the author.

139. GARF, 8181/37/4544.

140. Veselovsky, p. 131.

141. Alin, pp. 185–91.

142. Zarod, p. 100.

143. Ibid., p. 140.

144. Shalamov, Kolyma Tales, p. 74.

145. Petrov, p. 99.

146. Sgovio, p. 161.

147. Zarod, p. 100.

148. Panin, pp. 74 and 162.

149. Pechora, interview with the author.

11: Work in the Camps

1. Reprinted in Cohen, pp. 96–97.

2. GARF, 9414/6 (photo albums).

3. Okhotin and Roginsky, pp. 137–476.

4. GARF, 9414/6/8.

5. E. Ginzburg, Journey into the Whirlwind and Within the Whirlwind.

6. Sitko, interview with the author.

7. Filshtinsky, p. 37.

8. GARF, 9489/2/9.

9. Pryadilov, pp. 113–14.

10. Weissberg, p. 96.

11. Solzhenitsyn, One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, p. 49.

12. Kress, “Novyi pioner, ili, Kolymskaya selektsiya,” in Vilensky, Osventsim Gez Pechei, pp. 62–70.

13. Zorin, interview with the author.

14. Mindlin, pp. 52–57.

15. Sofsky, p. 168.

16. Pechora, interview with the author.

17. See, for example, photographs in the Memorial Archive.

18. Rossi, The Gulag Handbook, p. 255.

19. E. Ginzburg, Journey into the Whirlwind, pp. 405 and 407.

20. Ulyanovskaya, pp. 356–65.

21. Petrov, pp. 208 and 178.

22. Zarod, p. 114.

23. Bardach, pp. 233–34.

24. Sulimov, p. 57.

25. Filshtinsky, p. 38.

26. Bystroletov, p. 162.

27. Bardach, pp. 232–33.

28. GARF, 9401/1a/141.

29. GARF, 8131/37/4547.

30. See, for example, Zhenov, p. 69.

31. Lipper, p. 135.

32. George Victor Zgornicki, from a tape sent to the author, April 1998.

33. Petrov, p. 178.

34. Filshtinsky, p. 39.

35. GARF, 9401/1/713.

36. Petrov, p. 208.

37. Zarod, p. 114.

38. Bardach, p. 233.

39. Olitskaya, pp. 234–44.

40. Weissberg, p. 63.

41. Ekart, p. 83.

42. Usakova, interview with the author.

43. Dolgun, p. 185.

44. GARF document in the author’s possession, no reference.

45. Razgon, p. 155. Examples of primitive saws are on display in the local history museum in Medvezhegorsk.

46. Hoover, Polish Ministry of Information Collection, Box 114, Folder 2.

47. Ibid.

48. Norlander, “Capital of the Gulag,” p. 170.

49. GARF, 9414/4/3.

50. Norlander, “Capital of the Gulag,” p. 182.

51. Dagor, p. 10.

52. Maksimovich, pp. 91–100.

53. A. Dobrovolsky; Okhotin and Roginsky, pp. 220–21 and 341–43.

54. GARF, 9414/6/23.

55. SLON, vol. I, 1924 (from GARF collection).

56. Chukhin, Kanaloarmeetsi, pp. 127–31.

57. Sgovio, p. 184.

58. GARF, 9401/1/567.

59. GARF, 9401/1a/68.

60. Feldgun, unpublished memoir.

61. GARF, 9401/1/567.

62. Herling, pp. 157–58.

63. Wigmans, p. 127; Korallov, interview with the author.

64. GARF, 9401/1/2443.

65. GARF, 9401/1/567.

66. GARF, 9414/1/1442.

67. Filshtinsky, pp. 163–69.

68. GARF, 9414/1/1441.

69. Ekart, p. 82.

70. GARF, 9414/1/1440.

71. GARF, 9414/4/145.

72. Kotkin, p. 232.

73. Andreeva, interview with the author.

74. Trus, interview with the author.

75. Ekart, p. 82.

76. Hoover, Polish Ministry of Information Collection, Box 114, Folder 2.

77. Herling, p. 155.

78. GARF, 9414/1/1460.

79. GARF, 9414/1/1461; Okhotin and Roginsky, p. 195.

80. GARF, 9414/1/1461.

81. Vladimir Bukovsky, conversation with the author, March 2002.

12: Punishment and Reward

1. Reprinted in Rossi, The Gulag Handbook, p. 460.

2. Kaufman, p. 249.

3. Herling, p. 199.

4. GARF, 9401/12/316.

5. Kuusinen, pp. 201–2.

6. Razgon, pp. 139–40.

7. GARF, 9401/1/713 and 9401/12/316.

8. Bardach, pp. 213–15.

9. Herling, pp. 199 and 200.

10. Ulyanovskaya, p. 358.

11. Herling, p. 200.

12. GARF, 9489/2/5.

13. Nordlander, “Capital of the Gulag,” pp. 230–31.

14. Adamova-Sliozberg, p. 66.

15. Svetlana Doinisena, director of the local history museum in Iskitim, conversation with the author, March 1, 1999.

16. I. Samakhova, “Lagernaya Pyl,” in Vozvrashchenie pamyati, vol. I, pp. 38–42.

17. GARF, 5446/1/54.

18. GARF, 9401/12/316.

19. Ibid.

20. GARF, 9401/1/3463.

21. See, for example, Chirkov, pp. 54–55; Maksimovich, pp. 82–90.

22. GARF, 8131/37/542.

23. GARF, 9489/2/20.

24. Bystroletov, pp. 377–78.

25. Rozina, p. 65.

26. Armonas, pp. 123–26.

27. Gorbatov, p. 121.

28. Bystroletov, pp. 385–86.

29. A. Morozov, pp. 101–3.

30. There is an example of this in the collection of documents from Kedrovyi Shor, in the author’s possession.

31. GARF, 9401/12/316.

32. A. Morozov, pp. 171–75.

33. Bystroletov, p. 169.

34. Ulyanovskaya, p. 403.

35. Zhenov, pp. 104–6.

36. GARF, 9489/2/5.

37. Herling, p. 93.

38. Golovanov, p. 128.

39. Koroleva, interview with the author.

40. Yasnyi, pp. 52–53.

41. Bystroletov, p. 391.

42. Herling, p. 92.

43. Gogua, unpublished memoir.

44. Herling, p. 95.

45. Solzhenitsyn, The First Circle, p. 221; Thomas, pp. 175–77.

46. Mazus, pp. 34–37.

47. Herling, p. 95.

13: The Guards

1. RGASPI, 119/7/96.

2. Viktor Shmirov, conversation with the author, March 31, 1998. Shmirov is the director of the Perm Gulag Museum.

3. See GARF, 9414/4/29 for a list of White Sea Canal administrators excluded from the Party for, among other things, having sex with prisoners.

4. NARK, 865/1/(10/52).

5. Kuperman, unpublished memoir.

6. Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism, p. 154.

7. See, for example, GARF, 9414/4/10.

8. GARF, 9401/1a/61 and 9401/1/743.

9. Kuzmina, pp. 93–99.

10. GARF, 9401/2/319.

11. GARF, 9414/3/40.

12. Razgon, pp. 201–10.

13. Petrov, “Cekisti e il secondino.” (The author read the manuscript in Russian.)

14. Ibid. There were exceptions, of which the career of Viktor Abakumov is one. He started his career in the Gulag, yet worked his way up the ladder to become head of SMERSH (Soviet counter-intelligence). See Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism, pp. 141–42.

15. Ivanova, ibid., p. 145.

16. I am grateful to Terry Martin for pointing this out.

17. Melgunov, p. 241. Also see Petrov, “Cekisti e il secondino.”

18. Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism, p. 140.

19. Ibid., p. 150.

20. GARF, 9401/1/743.

21. Petrov, “Cekisti e il secondino.”

22. Smirnova, interview with the author.

23. Kokurin and Petrov, Gulag, pp. 798–857.

24. RGASPI, 119/3/1, 6, 12, and 206; 119/4/66.

25. Petrov, “Cekisti e il secondino.”

26. GARF, 9414/4/3.

27. GARF, 9401/1/4240.

28. Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism, p. 163.

29. See, for example, GARF, 9414/3/40 and 9401/1/743.

30. Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism, pp. 143 and 161.

31. GARF, 9489/2/16.

32. GARF, 9414/3/40.

33. GARF, 8131/37/357.

34. GARF, 8131/37/2063.

35. Vasileeva, interview with the author.

36. GARF, 9401/1a/1.

37. GARF, 9401/1a/10; 9489/2/5; and 9401/1a/5.

38. GARF, 9401/1a/6.

39. Nordlander, “Capital of the Gulag,” p. 183.

40. Pechora, interview with the author.

41. Roeder, pp. 128–30.

42. Kuchin, Polyanskii ITL, pp. 10–16.

43. Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism, p. 159–60.

44. Ibid., p. 160.

45. Stajner, pp. 241–42.

46. Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism, p. 160.

47. MacQueen.

48. GARF, 8131/37/2063 and 9401/12/316.

49. Kuusinen, p. 173.

50. E. Ginzburg, Journey into the Whirlwind, pp. 376–78.

51. Sgovio, pp. 247–48.

52. Nordlander, “Capital of the Gulag.”

53. Rotfort, pp. 78–80.

54. Razgon, p. 214.

55. Vogelfanger, pp. 147 and 178.

56. Kopelev, pp. 372–75.

57. Nordlander, “Capital of the Gulag,” p. 277.

58. Razgon, p. 228.

59. Starostin, pp. 83–88.

60. GARF document in the author’s possession, no reference.

61. Ibid.

62. This is the argument in Goldhagen.

63. Smirnova, interview with the author.

64. Andreevna, interview with the author.

65. Arginskaya, interview with the author.

66. GARF, 8131/37/100.

67. R. Medvedev, p. 282.

68. Razgon, p. 221.

69. Gorchakov, L–1–105, pp. 156–57.

70. Pryadilov, pp. 81–95.

71. GARF, 8131/37/1253.

72. Levinson, p. 40.

73. Zhigulin, p. 154; Sandratskaya, unpublished memoir, p. 51.

74. Gnedin, p. 117.

75. Berdinskikh, p. 22.

76. GARF, 9489/2/20 and 9401/1a/61.

77. Bulgakov, interview with the author.

78. GARF, 8131/37/809.

79. Zhigulin, p. 157.

80. Berdinskikh, p. 22.

81. Dyakov, p. 65.

82. Lipper, pp. 241–43.

83. Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism, p. 149.

84. Ulyanovskaya, p. 316.

85. Kozlov, “Sevvostlag NKVD SSSR,” p. 89.

86. Weiner, “Nature, Nurture and Memory in a Socialist Utopia.”

87. Zhigulin, p. 157.

88. Stajner, p. 69.

89. Buber-Neumann, p. 125.

90. Shreider, p. 193.

91. MacQueen.

92. Anna Zakharova, “The Defense of a Prison Camp Official,” in Cohen, p. 143.

93. Anonymous interview with the author.

94. Hochschild, p. 65.

95. MacQueen.

96. Razgon, p. 214.

97. GARF, 8131/37/809.

98. Berdinskikh, p. 28.

99. Zarod, p. 94.

100. GARF, 8131/37.

14: The Prisoners

1. Dostoevsky, p. 29.

2. E. Ginzburg, Journey into the Whirlwind, pp. 353–54.

3. Gorbatov, p. 125.

4. Ekart, pp. 71–74.

5. Ioffe, pp. 8–9.

6. Razgon, p. 184.

7. Colonna-Czosnowski, p. 109.

8. Varese, pp. 162–64.

9. Abramkin and Chesnokova, pp. 7–22.

10. Ibid.

11. Dostoevsky, p. 35.

12. Abramkin and Chenokova, p. 10.

13. Razgon, p. 185.

14. Dolgun, pp. 139–60.

15. Korallov, interview with the author.

16. Abramkin and Chenokova, p. 9.

17. Korallov, interview with the author.

18. Varese, pp. 146–50.

19. N. Medvedev, pp. 14–16.

20. Ibid.

21. Shalamov, Kolyma Tales, p. 411.

22. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. II, p. 445.

23. Zhigulin, p. 136.

24. Berdinskikh, pp. 291–315.

25. Hoover, Polish Ministry of Information Collection, Box 114, Folder 2.

26. A. Akarevich, “Blatnye slova,” Solovetskie Ostrova , February 1925, no. 2 (SKM).

27. Guberman, pp. 72–73.

28. GARF, 9489/2/15.

29. Shalamov, Kolyma Tales, p. 7.

30. Feldgun, unpublished memoir.

31. Berdinskikh, p. 132.

32. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. II, p. 441.

33. Sgovio, pp. 165–69.

34. GARF, 8131/37/1261.

35. Likhachev, “Kartezhnye igri ugolovnikov,” Solovetskie Ostrova, 1930, no. 1., pp. 32–35 (SKM).

36. Finkelstein, interview with the author.

37. Herling, p. 18.

38. Hoover, Polish Ministry of Information Collection, Box 113, Folder 2.

39. Gorbatov, pp. 140–41.

40. Colonna-Czosnowski, pp. 126–31.

41. Antonov-Ovseenko, The Time of Stalin, p. 316.

42. Varese, p. 159.

43. Finkelstein, interview with the author.

44. Zemskov, “Zaklyuchennie v 1930-e gody,” p. 68.

45. Dugin “Gulag Glazomi Istovikei”; Zemskov, ibid., p. 65.

46. Adamova-Sliozberg, “My Journey,” in Vilensky, Till My Tale Is Told, p. 2.

47. Elletson, p. 2.

48. Kuchin, Polyansky ITL, pp. 37–38.

49. Ekart, p. 69.

50. E. Ginzburg, Within the Whirlwind, pp. 334–35; Razgon, p. 93.

51. Razgon, p. 93.

52. Shalamov, Kolyma Tales, pp. 258–59.

53. Warwick, unpublished memoir.

54. Frid, p. 235.

55. Federolf, p. 123.

56. Purizhinskaya, interview with the author.

57. Trus, interview with the author.

58. Gagen-Torn, p. 77.

59. Razgon, p. 138.

60. Ekart, p. 192.

61. Leipman, p. 69.

62. Ekart, pp. 67–68.

63. Noble, p. 121.

64. Leipman, p. 89.

65. Ekart, p. 191.

66. Dostoevsky, p. 51.

67. Chukhin, Kanaloarmeetsi, pp. 164–67.

68. GARF, 9489/2/5.

69. Herling-Grudziimageski, p. 25.

70. S. I. Kuznetsov.

71. Polonsky.

72. MacQueen.

73. Panin, p. 187.

74. Stajner, p. 203.

75. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. III, p. 401.

76. Hoover, Adam Galinski Collection.

77. Wat, p. 147.

78. Khachatryan, interview with the author.

79. Buca, p. 122.

80. Negretov, interview with the author.

81. Korallov, interview with the author.

82. Sitko, interview with the author.

83. Purizhinskaya, interview with the author.

84. GARF, 9414/1/206 (nationality statistics for 1954).

85. Petrov, pp. 119–37.

86. Trus, interview with the author.

87. Federolf, p. 234.

88. Gagen-Torn, p. 205.

89. Andreeva, interview with the author.

90. Pechora, interview with the author.

91. Larina, p. 159.

92. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. II, p. 330.

93. Dyakov, pp. 60–67.

94. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. II, pp. 351–52.

95. Shentalinsky, pp. 163–65.

96. Andreeva, interview with the author.

97. Gagen-Torn, p. 208.

98. Kuusinen, p. 202.

99. Solzhenityn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. II, pp. 65–66.

100. Ulyanovskaya, p. 300.

101. Arginskaya, interview with the author.

102. Gagen-Torn, p. 208.

15: Women and Children

1. Vilensky, Till My Tale Is Told, p. 53–54.

2. For example, Vilensky, interview with the author.

3. Buber-Neumann, p. 38.

4. Herling, p. 136.

5. Ibid., pp. 134–35.

6. Levinson, pp. 72–75.

7. GARF, 9401/1a/107.

8. See, for example, Alin, pp. 157–60 and Evstonichev, pp. 19–20.

9. Statistics compiled from various sources, GARF. I am grateful to Alexander Kokurin for them.

10. “Not Part of My Sentence: Violations of the Human Rights of Women in Custody.”

11. Shalamov, Kolyma Tales, pp. 415–31.

12. Sgovio, pp. 173–74.

13. Abramkin and Chesnokova, p. 18; Marchenko, To Live Like Everyone , p. 16.

14. Yakir, pp. 46–47.

15. Ulyanovskaya, pp. 388–91, and Lvov, unpublished memoir.

16. Ulyanovskaya, ibid.

17. Hoover, Polish Ministry of Information Collection, Box 114, Folder 2.

18. Frid, pp. 186–87.

19. Lvov, unpublished memoir.

20. Hoover, Polish Ministry of Information Collection, Box 114, Folder 2.

21. Pechora, interview with the author.

22. Andreeva, interview with the author.

23. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. II, p. 233.

24. Filshtinsky, interview with the author.

25. Hava Volovich, “My Past,” in Vilensky, Till My Tale Is Told, p. 260.

26. Lvov, unpublished memoir.

27. Buca, pp. 134–35.

28. Razgon, pp. 163–64.

29. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. II, p. 233.

30. Herling, p. 135.

31. Frid, p. 187.

32. Ibid., pp. 187–88.

33. Zhigulin, pp. 128–33.

34. Vogelfanger.

35. Sitko and Pechora, interviews with the author.

36. Kaufman, p. 223.

37. Sitko, interview with the author.

38. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. II, pp. 248–49.

39. Ibid., p. 249.

40. NKVD operation order of August 15, 1937, reprinted in Sbornik , pp. 86–93.

41. GARF, 9401/1a/66.

42. Kaufman, pp. 188–89.

43. Natalya Zaporozhets, in Vilensky, Till My Tale Is Told, pp. 532–39.

44. Vilensky, Deti Gulaga, p. 428.

45. Ibid., pp. 41–42.

46. Hoover, Polish Ministry of Information Collection, Box 114, Folder 2.

47. Vilensky, Deti Gulaga, p. 117.

48. For example, the amnesty for women with children in 1945 specifically excluded political prisoners, as did a similar one in 1948. GARF 8131/37/4554; 9401/1a/191; and 9401/1/743.

49. Khachatryan, interview with the author.

50. Lahti, unpublished memoir. I am grateful to Reuben Rajala for this manuscript.

51. Joffe, p. 124.

52. Frid, p. 184; GARF, 9414/1/2741.

53. Andreevna, interview with the author.

54. Yakovenko, p. 196.

55. Hava Volovich, “My Past,” in Vilensky, Dodnes Tiagoteet, pp. 260–64.

56. GARF, 9414/6/44 and 45.

57. E. Ginzburg, Within the Whirlwind, p. 3.

58. GARF, 9401/2/234.

59. GARF, 8313/37/4554 and 1261.

60. Vilensky, Deti Gulaga, p. 150.

61. Joffe, pp. 127–35.

62. GARF, 8313/37/4554.

63. Anonymous, interview with the author.

64. GARF, 8313/37/4554.

65. E. Ginzburg, Within the Whirlwind, pp. 3–11.

66. Although the anonymous nursery administrator I spoke to denied that this happened, many, many memoirists speak of mothers being separated from their children. Susanna Pechora says that in the special camps, it was standard practice.

67. Vilensky, Deti Gulaga, pp. 241–42.

68. Armonas, pp. 156–61.

69. Vilensky, Deti Gulaga, p. 320.

70. Bazarov, p. 362.

71. Ibid., pp. 370–76.

72. Vilensky, Deti Gulaga, p. 144.

73. GARF, 9401/1a/20.

74. Vilensky, Deti Gulaga, p. 248.

75. Ibid., p. 247.

76. GARF, 9401/1a/20.

77. Yakir, p. 31.

78. Anonymous, Ekho iz Nebutiya, pp. 289–92.

79. Yurganova, interview with the author.

80. Hochschild, p. 87.

81. Pechora, interview with the author.

82. Lahti, unpublished memoir.

83. GARF, 9414/1/27.

84. Serge, p. 28.

85. Bazarov, p. 383.

86. GARF, 9414/1/42 and 9401/1a/7; Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago , vol. II, pp. 447–51.

87. Vilensky, Deti Gulaga, p. 11.

88. GARF, 9414/1/42; Bazarov, pp. 385–93.

89. Razgon, p. 162.

90. GARF, 9412/1/58.

91. GARF, 9401/1a/62 and 7.

92. GARF, 8131/37/4553.

93. GARF, 9401/1a/57.

94. Yakir, pp. 32–62.

95. Kmiecik, pp. 70–74.

96. Vilensky, Deti Gulaga, pp. 283–93.

97. Conquest, The Great Terror, p. 274.

98. GARF, 8131/37/2063.

99. GARF, 9414/1/27.

100. Kmiecik, pp. 93–94.

101. GARF, 9401/1a/81.

102. GARF, 8131/37/2063.

103. Kmiecik, pp. 114–17.

104. GARF archives, in the collection of the author.

105. GARF, 9414/4/1; from the newspaper Perekovka, June 1, 1934.

106. GARF, 9412/1C/47.

107. GARF, 9401/1a/107.

108. GARF, 9401/1a/7/84.

109. GARF, 8131/37/4547.

110. Razgon, pp. 162–63.

111. Ibid., p. 162.

112. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. II, p. 457.

113. Wigmans, p. 90.

114. Klein, Ulybki nevoli, pp. 20–25.

115. See Vilensky, Deti Gulaga, for excerpts from these memoirs.

16: The Dying

1. Gagen-Torn, p. 244.

2. Rossi, The Gulag Handbook, pp. 107–8 and 476.

3. GARF, 9414/3/40.

4. Herling, p. 51.

5. Sgovio, p. 177.

6. Tamara Petkevich, “Just One Fate,” in Vilensky, Till My Tale Is Told, pp. 223–24.

7. Shalamov, from samizdat publication, translated with the help of Galya Vinogradova. While the author has good reason to believe this is the work of Varlam Shalamov, some work may have incorrectly circulated in the Soviet Union under his name.

8. Sgovio, pp. 162 and 160–61.

9. Bardach, p. 236.

10. Efrussi, “Dokhodyagi,” in Vilensky, Osventsim Bez Pechei, p. 59.

11. Herling, p. 136.

12. Gilboa, pp. 53–54.

13. Bardach, p. 235.

14. GARF, 8131/37/797.

15. N. Mandelstam, p. 263.

16. Gnedin, pp. 80–86.

17. Merridale, p. 261.

18. Todorov, Facing the Extreme, p. 37.

19. Rotfort, pp. 40–41.

20. Eizenberger, pp. 38–39.

21. Mindlin, p. 60.

22. E. Ginzburg, Within the Whirlwind, p. 91.

23. Todorov, Facing the Extreme, p. 63.

24. GARF, 8131/37/809.

25. Buca, p. 150; Berdinskikh, p. 28.

26. Vogelfanger, p. 80.

27. GARF, 8131/37/809.

28. GARF, 8131/37/542.

29. Merridale, p. 265.

30. Buca, p. 152.

31. Shalamov, p. 281.

32. GARF, 9414/1/2809.

33. GARF, 9414/1/2771.

34. Herling, p. 149.

17: Strategies of Survival

1. Shalamov, Neskolko moikh zhiznei, p. 391.

2. Vogelfanger, p. 206.

3. Zorin, interview with the author.

4. Quoted in Todorov, Facing the Extreme, p. 32.

5. Buca, p. 79.

6. Olitskaya, pp. 233–34.

7. Usakova, interview with the author.

8. Herling, p. 68.

9. Levi, p. 97.

10. Bettelheim, pp. 169–71.

11. Colonna-Czosnowski, p. 118.

12. Shalamov, Kolyma Tales, pp. 405–14.

13. This is Todorov’s observation. Todorov, Facing the Extreme , p. 35.

14. Quite a lot has been written about tufta in the USSR. See Fitzpatrick, Everyday Stalinism; Berliner; Ledeneva; and Andreev-Khomiakov.

15. Frid, pp. 134–36.

16. Dyakov, p. 54.

17. Anonymous, interview with the author.

18. Cohen, pp. 140–47.

19. Yasnyi, p. 51.

20. Ulyanovskaya, pp. 360–61.

21. Borin, pp. 234–36.

22. Shister, interview with the author.

23. Petrov, p. 179.

24. Herling, p. 37.

25. Razgon, p. 155.

26. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. II, p. 218.

27. Usova, unpublished memoir.

28. Karta, Kazimierz Zamorski Collection, Teczka 1, File 6107 (Halina Storozuk).

29. Frid, pp. 134–36.

30. E. Ginzburg, Journey into the Whirlwind, p. 416.

31. Sgovio, pp. 167–75.

32. S. Fomchenko, “Pervye desyat,” in Uroki, p. 225.

33. P. Galitsky, “Etogo Zobyt Nelzya” in Uroki, pp. 83–88.

34. Samsonov, Zhizn prodolzhaetsya, pp. 70–71.

35. Maksimovich, pp. 91–100.

36. Zorin, interview with the author.

37. Finkelstein, interview with the author.

38. Adamova-Sliozberg, pp. 50–51.

39. Rossi, The Gulag Handbook, pp. 247 and 255.

40. Maksimovich, pp. 91–100.

41. Klein, Ulybki nevoli, pp. 60–61 and 73.

42. GARF, 8131/37/1261, 797, and 1265.

43. GARF, 9414/1/28.

44. Filshtinsky, pp. 15–22.

45. Sofsky, p. 130.

46. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. II, pp. 253, 254, and 252.

47. Bien, unpublished memoir.

48. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. II, pp. 252–53.

49. Petrov, pp. 48–96.

50. GARF, 9489/2/19.

51. Razgon, p. 154.

52. GARF, 9401/12/316.

53. GARF, 8131/37/356.

54. Razgon, pp. 222–31; Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago , vol. II, p. 255.

55. Filshtinsky, pp. 120–21.

56. Yasnyi, pp. 50–51.

57. Berdinskikh, p. 113.

58. Ibid., pp. 113–14.

59. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. II, pp. 360–66.

60. Ibid., pp. 260–61.

61. Mukhina-Petrinskaya.

62. Panin, p. 176.

63. Razgon, p. 153.

64. Ibid., p. 156.

65. Shalamov, Kolyma Tales, p. 405.

66. Kopelev, pp. 142–44.

67. E. Ginzburg, Within the Whirlwind, p. 108.

68. Sgovio, p. 206.

69. Eisenberger, pp. 67–68.

70. Okunevskaya, p. 280.

71. Aleksandrovich, p. 11.

72. Rozsas, p. 282. I am grateful to Janos Rozsas for sending me this material.

73. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. I., p. 279; Reshetovskaya, pp. 121–22.

74. GARF, 9414/1/2736.

75. GARF, 9489/2/25.

76. Gliksman, p. 300.

77. Herling, pp. 101–2.

78. Bien, unpublished memoir.

79. GARF, 8131/37/356, 809, and 356.

80. Papkov, p. 57.

81. GARF, 9489/2/25.

82. Aleksandrovich, pp. 11 and 22.

83. GARF, 8131/37/4547.

84. GARF, 9489/2/25.

85. Shalamov, Kolyma Tales, pp. 408–10.

86. Colonna-Czosnowski, pp. 102–7.

87. Dolgun, p. 240.

88. Finkelstein, interview with the author.

89. Okunevskaya, p. 336.

90. Aleksandrovich, p. 12.

91. GARF, 8131/37/4547 and 542.

92. Vogelfanger, pp. 71–72.

93. Gliksman, pp. 211–12.

94. Buca, p. 150.

95. GARF, 8131/37/356.

96. Lipper, p. 251.

98. GARF, 8131/37/809.

98. Trus, interview with the author.

99. GARF, 9414/1/2739.

100. For example, GARF, 9489/2/18.

101. E. Ginzburg, Within the Whirlwind, p. 8.

102. Dolgun, p. 239.

103. Bardach, p. 259.

104. Vogelfanger, pp. 68 and 162.

105. GARF, 9414/1/2771.

106. GARF, 9489/2/5/474.

107. Zhigulin, p. 153.

108. Kudryavtsev, p. 288.

109. Lipper, pp. 257–58; Herling, p. 102; Aleksandrovich, pp. 24–25; A. Marchenko, My Testimony, pp. 140–42.

110. Frid, p. 137.

111. Dolgun, p. 273; Lipper, pp. 257–58.

112. Aleksandrovich, p. 24.

113. Herling, pp. 80–82.

114. Zhigulin, p. 151.

115. Bardach, pp. 332–33.

116. Lipper, p. 258.

117. Bystroletov, p. 407.

118. Dolgun, pp. 176–79.

119. Todorov, Facing the Extreme, pp. 47–120.

120. Federolf, p. 224.

121. Z. Marchenko, unpublished memoir. I am grateful to Zoya Marchenko for giving me her work.

122. Kekushev, pp. 84–85.

123. Panin, p. 79.

124. Bardach, pp. 207–8.

125. Adamova-Sliozberg, pp. 8–9.

126. S. I. Kuznetsov, p. 613.

127. Chetverikov, p. 35.

128. Bardach, pp. 122–39.

129. E. Ginzburg, Within the Whirlwind.

130. Gagen-Torn, p. 161.

131. Shalamov, from samizdat publication, translated with the help of Galya Vinogradova. While the author has good reason to believe this is the work of Varlam Shalamov, some work may have incorrectly circulated in the Soviet Union under his name.

132. Scammell, Solzhenitsyn, p. 284.

133. Pashnin, pp. 103–17.

134. Cherkhanov, unpublished memoir; Ulyanovskaya, p. 300.

135. Zorin, interview with the author.

136. Kopelev, p. 154.

137. Zarod, p. 118.

138. K. Golitsyn, pp. 267–68.

139. Dolgun, pp. 206–7.

140. Andreevna, interview with the author.

141. Tvardovsky, pp. 272–75.

142. Klein, Ulybki nevoli, pp. 70–71.

143. Feldgun, unpublished memoir.

144. GARF, 9489/2/20.

145. Sgovio, pp. 168–69.

146. Feldgun, unpublished memoir.

147. E. Sudakova, “Otryvok iz vospominanii,” in Uroki, pp. 132–37.

148. Panin, p. 79.

149. Chirkov, pp. 96–97.

150. Herling, p. 156.

151. Okunevskaya, p. 352.

152. Starostin, pp. 88–92.

153. Joffe, p. 139.

154. Głowacki, pp. 317–18.

155. Finkelstein, interview with the author.

156. E. Ginzburg, Journey into the Whirlwind, p. 292.

157. Wat, p. 142.

158. Dolgun, pp. 141–47.

159. Bardach, p. 190.

160. Colonna-Czosnowski, pp. 120–21.

161. Gagen-Torn, “Rukopis,” in Pamyat Kolymy, pp. 23–25.

162. Smirnov, conversation with the author, February 2001.

163. Herling, pp. 139–40.

164. Arginskaya, interview with the author.

165. Ulyanovskaya, pp. 356–65.

18: Rebellion and Escape

1. Rawicz, p. 96.

2. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. III, p. 97.

3. Zhigulin, p. 192.

4. Shalamov, Kolyma Tales, pp. 343–79.

5. MacQueen.

6. Herling, pp. 125–29.

7. Petrov, pp. 104–7.

8. Rossi, The Gulag Handbook, p. 204; Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. III, p. 161.

9. Solzhenitsyn, ibid., pp. 197–99.

10. A. Morozov, p. 187.

11. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. III, pp. 197–99.

12. Kusurgashev, pp. 34–36; Rossi, The Gulag Handbook , pp. 204–5.

13. GARF, 9401/1a/552 and 64.

14. Stajner, p. 78.

15. Zhigulin, pp. 191–212.

16. Rossi, The Gulag Handbook, p. 406.

17. GARF, 9401/1a/185.

18. GARF, 9401/1a/7.

19. Malsagov.

20. V. V. Ioffe, “Bolshoi Pobeg 1928-ogo goda,” in Solovetskie Ostrova, vol. II, pp. 215–16 (GARF).

21. GARF, 9414/1/8.

22. V. Tchernavin, p. 357; T. Tchernavin.

23. GULAG, BBC documentary, produced by Angus MacQueen, 1998.

24. Chukhin, Kanaloarmeetsi, pp. 188–92.

25. GARF, 9401/1a/5.

26. Makurov, p. 6.

27. GARF, 9401/1a/5 and 6.

28. Makurov, pp. 38–39.

29. Rossi, The Gulag Handbook, pp. 310–11.

30. Kozlov, “Sevvostlag NKVD SSSR,” p. 81.

31. GARF, 9401/1a/20.

32. GARF, 9401/1a/128; Kuchin, Polyanskii ITL, p. 148.

33. Poleshchikov, p. 39.

34. GARF, 9414/1/2632; Kuchin, Polyanskii ITL, p. 148.

35. Shalamov, Kolyma Tales, p. 345; Rossi, The Gulag Handbook , p. 342.

36. Rossi, ibid., p. 310.

37. Lvov, unpublished memoir.

38. V. Tchernavin, p. 319.

39. Buber-Neumann, p. 112.

40. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. III, p. 140.

41. GARF, 9401/1/2244.

42. Buca, p. 33.

43. GARF, 9401/1a/64.

44. Bardach, pp. 106–21.

45. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. III, p. 204.

46. Solzhenitsyn, ibid.; Yuri Morakov (former MVD officer), conversation with the author, November 1999.

47. Morakov, ibid.

48. GARF, 9414/4/10.

49. GARF, 9401/12/319.

50. Shalamov, Kolyma Tales, pp. 80–85.

51. GARF, 9401/1a/552.

52. GARF, 9401/1a/64 and 9401/12/319 among others.

53. Buca, pp. 123–27.

54. Vilensky, interview with the author.

55. Sgovio, p. 177.

56. Dvorzhetsky, p. 48.

57. Dolgun, p. 338.

58. C. A. Smith.

59. One of the most prominent Russian students of the Gulag, Veniamin Ioffe, the director of St. Petersburg Memorial, tried to find Rawicz’s files and failed. He was further thrown into doubt after carrying on a correspondence with the late author, which he felt was unconvincing.

60. Herling, pp. 124–25.

61. Ibid., pp. 194–95.

62. Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism, p. 45.

63. Petrus, p. 61.

64. Ratushinskaya, pp. 21–22.

65. Petrus, p. 63.

66. Osipova, pp. 87–109; Serge, p. 71.

67. V. M. Poleshchikov, unpublished monograph, in the author’s collection; Ioffe, pp. 122–130; Rossi, The Gulag Handbook, p. 120.

68. Osipova, pp. 109–34; M. Baitalsky, “Trotskisty na Kolyme,” in Minuvshee, vol. 2, 1990, pp. 346–57.

69. Vilensky, Soprotivlenia v Gulage, p. 158.

70. Kravchenko, p. 341.

71. The following account comes largely from Mikhail Rogachev, “Bunt nad Usa,” Karta, no. 17, 1995, pp. 97–105, and from conversations with Rogachev in July 2001. There are also some details from Poleshchikov, pp. 37–65; Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism, pp. 54–55; Osipova, pp. 167–82.

72. Ivanova, ibid., p. 45.

Part Three: The Rise and Fall of the Camp–Industrial Complex, 1940–1986

19: The War Begins

1. Sitko, untitled poem, from Tyazhest sveta, p. 11.

2. Stajner, p. 101.

3. Razgon, p. 210.

4. E. Ginzburg, Within the Whirlwind, pp. 26–42.

5. Warwick, unpublished memoir.

6. GARF, 9414/1/68; Imet silu pomnit, p. 166.

7. E. Ginzburg, Within the Whirlwind, p. 28.

8. Gogua, unpublished memoir.

9. Hoover, Polish Ministry of Information Collection, Box 114, Folder 2.

10. Adamova-Sliozberg, p. 63.

11. GARF, 9401/1a/107.

12. Herling, p. 197.

13. Kokurin and Morukov, “Gulag: struktura i kadry,” Svobodnaya Mysl, no. 7; Kokurin and Petrov, Gulag, p. 441.

14. Bacon, p. 149.

15. Ibid., p. 148.

16. Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism, p. 94.

17. GARF, 7523/4/37, 39, and 38.

18. L. Ginzburg, p. 14; Overy, pp. 104–8.

19. GARF, 9401/2/95, 94, and 168.

20. Overy, p. 77.

21. Brodsky, p. 285.

22. This is what I was told on the islands by at least three people, including the director of the Solovetsky museum.

23. Makurov, p. 195.

24. Guryanov, Kokurin, and Popiimageski, pp. 8–10. Drogi Smierci, published by the Karta Institute, consists of a collection of documents from Soviet archives, along with mostly unpublished memoirs from Karta’s Archiwum Wschodnie (“Eastern Archive”), concerning the fate of prisoners in eastern Poland during the early days of the war.

25. Bacon, p. 91; Guryanov, Kokurin, and Popiimageski, pp. 10–26.

26. Guryanov, Kokurin, and Popiimageski, pp. 10–26.

27. GARF, 9414/1/68.

28. Guryanov, Kokurin, and Popiimageski, p. 40.

29. Ibid., pp. 90–91.

30. Sabbo, pp. 1128–32.

31. Bacon, pp. 88–89.

32. M. Shteinberg, “Étap vo vremya voiny,” in Pamyat Kolymy, 1978, p. 167.

33. Guryanov, Kokurin, and Popiimageski, p. 90.

34. GARF, 9414/1/68.

35. M. Shteinberg, “Étap vo vremya voiny,” in Pamyat Kolymy, 1978, pp. 167–71.

36. GARF, 9414/1/68.

37. Bacon, p. 91.

20: “Strangers”

1. In Taylor-Terlecka, pp. 56–57. Translated with the help of Piotr Paszkowski.

2. Razgon, p. 138.

3. Ibid.

4. G-lowacki, p. 273.

5. Sabbo, p. 754.

6. Sword, p. 13.

7. Guryanov, pp. 4–9.

8. Martin, “Stalinist Forced Relocation Policies,” pp. 305–39.

9. Lieven, The Baltic Revolution, p. 82.

10. G-lowacki, p. 331.

11. Hoover, Polish Ministry of Information Collection, Box 123; Głowacki, p. 331.

12. GARF, 5446/57/65.

13. RGVA, 40/1/71/323.

14. Ptasnik.

15. Sabbo, pp. 804–9.

16. Gross and Grudziimageska-Gross, p. 77.

17. Ibid., p. 68.

18. Ibid., p. 146.

19. Ibid., pp. 80–81.

20. Ibid., p. xvi.

21. Conquest, The Soviet Deportation of Nationalities, pp. 49–50.

22. Martin, “Stalinist Forced Relocation Policies.”

23. Conquest, The Soviet Deportation of Nationalities, pp. 3–5.

24. Lieven, The Baltic Revolution, pp. 318–19.

25. Naimark, Fires of Hatred, p. 95.

26. Pohl, “The Deportation and Fate of the Crimean Tartars”; Naimark, ibid., pp. 99–107.

27. Naimark, ibid., pp. 98–101.

28. Martin, “Stalinist Forced Relocation Policies.”

29. Pohl, “The Deportation and Fate of the Crimean Tartars,” pp. 11–17.

30. Lieven, Chechnya, p. 319; Naimark, Fires of Hatred , p. 97.

31. Lieven, ibid., p. 320.

32. Pohl, “The Deportation and Fate of the Crimean Tartars,” pp. 17–19; Lieven, ibid., pp. 319–21.

33. Lieven, ibid., pp. 318–30; Naimark, Fires of Hatred , pp. 83–107.

34. Zagorulko (a large collection of documents from various archives, published under the auspices of the Federal Archive Services, GARF, TsKhIDK, and Volgograd University, with the financing of the Soros Foundation).

35. Overy, p. 52.

36. Sword, p. 5.

37. Pikhoya, Katyn, p. 36.

38. See Czapski, which describes the Polish government’s efforts to find the officers.

39. Sword, pp. 2–5.

40. Beevor, pp. 409–10.

41. Ibid., p. 411.

42. Zagorulko, pp. 31 and 333.

43. Ibid., pp. 25–33.

44. S. I. Kuznetsov, pp. 618–19.

45. The figures are from Overy, p. 297, and come from a Soviet document of 1956. Another Soviet document of 1949, reprinted in Zagorulko, pp. 331–33, contains similar numbers (2,079,000 Germans, 1,220,000 non-Germans, 590,000 Japanese, and 570,000 dead).

46. Gustav Menczer, head of the Hungarian Gulag survivors’ society, conversation with the author, February 2002.

47. Bien, unpublished memoir.

48. Knight, “The Truth about Wallenberg.”

49. Andrzej Paczkowski, “Poland, the Enemy Nation,” in Courtois, pp. 372–75.

50. “Kuzina Gitlera,” Novaya Izvestiya, April 3, 1998, p. 7.

51. Noble.

52. Zagorulko, p. 131.

53. Ibid., p. 333. There were about 20,000 POWs in the Gulag.

54. Ibid., pp. 1042 and 604–9.

55. Ibid., pp. 667–68.

56. Ibid., p. 38.

57. Naimark, The Russians in Germany, p. 43.

58. Zagorulko, pp. 40 and 54–58.

59. Vostochnaya Evropa, p. 270.

60. Ibid., pp. 370 and 419–22.

61. GARF, 9401/2/497.

62. Zagorulko, pp. 40 and 54–58. Most POWs were released by the early 1950s, though 20,000 remained in the USSR at the time of Stalin’s death.

63. Sitko, Tyazhest sveta, p. 10.

64. Bethell, p. 17.

65. Ibid.

66. Ibid., pp. 166–69.

67. Ibid., pp. 103–65.

68. Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism, p. 43.

69. Pohl, The Stalinist Penal System, p. 51.

70. Pohl, ibid., pp. 50–52.

71. GARF, 7523/4/164.

72. GARF, 9401/1a/135.

73. GARF, 9414/1/76.

74. GARF, 9401/1a/135; 9401/1/76; and 9401/1a/136.

75. Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism, p. 43.

76. Kruglov, pp. 66, 256, and 265.

77. Vilensky, interview with the author.

78. Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism, p. 43.

79. GARF, 9414/1/76.

80. Described in Joffe, pp. 199–200.

81. Klein, Ulybki nevoli, pp. 396–403.

82. Hava Volovich, “My Past,” in Vilensky, Till My Tale Is Told, p. 259.

83. Wallace, p. 137.

84. Ibid., p. 117.

85. GARF, 9401/2/65; Sgovio, p. 251; Wallace, pp. 33–41.

86. Wallace, pp. 33–41; and Sgovio, p. 251.

87. Vera Ustieva, “Podarok dlya vitse-prezidenta,” in Vilensky, Osventsim Gez Pechei, pp. 98–106.

88. Wallace, pp. 127–28.

89. Sgovio, p. 245.

90. Wallace, pp. 33–41.

91. Sgovio, p. 252.

92. Wallace, p. 205.

21: Amnesty—and Afterward

1. In Taylor-Terlecka, p. 144. Translated with the help of Piotr Paszkowski.

2. GARF, 9414/1/68; Zemskov, “Sudba Kulatskoi ssylki,” pp. 129–42; Martin, “Stalinist Forced Relocation Policies.”

3. GARF, 9401/1/743.

4. Bacon, p. 112.

5. The number of prisoners in forestry camps dropped from 338,850 in 1941 to 122,960 in 1944. Okhotin and Roginsky, p. 112.

6. Sgovio, p. 242.

7. Gorbatov, pp. 150–51.

8. Committee on the Judiciary (Testimony of Avraham Shifrin).

9. Gorbatov, pp. 169, 174–75, and 194.

10. GARF, 7523/64/687 and 8–15.

11. See, for example, Overy, pp. 79–80.

12. E. Ginzburg, Within the Whirlwind, p. 30.

13. GARF, 9414/1/1146.

14. Mindlin, p. 61.

15. GARF, 9414/4/145.

16. Bacon, pp. 135–37, 140–41, and 144.

17. GARF, 9414/1/68.

18. Sword pp. 30–36.

19. Ibid., p. 48.

20. Herling, p. 190.

21. Karta, Anders Army Collection, V/AC/127.

22. Karta, Kazimierz Zamorski Collection, Folder 1, File 15885 and Folder 1, File 15882.

23. Herling, p. 228.

24. Waydenfeld, pp. 195–334.

25. Zarod, p. 234.

26. Janusz Wedów, “Powitanie Wodza,” in Taylor-Terlecka, p. 145.

27. Czapski, p. 243.

28. Sword, pp. 60–87.

29. Slave Labor in Russia, p. 31.

30. Djilas, p. 114.

31. Kotek and Rigoulot, p. 527.

32. Ibid., pp. 549 and 542.

33. Ibid., pp. 539–43 and 548–56.

34. Ibid., pp. 543–44.

35. Ibid., pp. 544–48; also Andrzej Paczkowski, “Poland, the Enemy Nation,” in Courtois, pp. 363–93.

36. Kotek and Rigoulot, pp. 565–72.

37. Todorov, Voices from the Gulag, p. 124.

38. Ibid., pp. 123–28.

39. Kotek and Rigoulot, p. 559.

40. Naimark, The Russians in Germany, pp. 376–97.

41. Todorov, Voices from the Gulag, pp. 39–40.

42. Saunders, pp. 1–11; Kotek and Rigoulot, pp. 619–48.

43. Ogawa and Yoon, p. 15.

44. Ibid., p. 3.

45. Alla Startseva and Valerya Korchagina, “Pyongyang Pays Russia with Free Labor,” Moscow Times, August 6, 2001, p. 1.

22: The Zenith of the Camp–Industrial Complex

1. From Sred drugikh imen, p. 64.

2. E. Ginzburg, Within the Whirlwind, p. 279.

3. See Elena Zubkova, Russia After the War.

4. Service, A History of Twentieth-Century Russia, p. 299.

5. GARF, 9401/1/743 and 9401/2/104.

6. Kokurin and Petrov, Gulag, p. 540.

7. Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism, pp. 95–96.

8. Service, A History of Twentieth-Century Russia, p. 299; Ivanova, “Poslevoennye repressii.”

9. Andrew and Gordievsky, p. 341.

10. Ivanova, “Poslevoennye repressii,” p. 256.

11. Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism, pp. 48–53.

12. Operation WRINGER, HQ USAF Record Group 341, Box 1044, Air Intelligence Report 59B-B-5865-B. Records of this debriefing operation are kept in the National Archives, Washington, D.C. I am grateful to Major Tim Falkowski for bringing this story to my attention. The U.S. Air Force considers this story plausible, but has not yet confirmed it for certain.

13. Nikolai Morozov told me this story. Komi Memorial has interviewed the inhabitants of Sedvozh, looking for oral evidence, but has found only one man who has heard the whole story, second-hand. Lyuba Vinogradova found the reference to the Scotsmen at RGVA, but the document itself was missing. RGVA was not willing to provide further information.

14. Bacon, p. 24.

15. Nicolas Werth, “Apogee and Crisis in the Gulag System,” in Courtois, pp. 235–39.

16. Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism, p. 55–56.

17. E. Ginzburg, Within the Whirlwind, p. 283.

18. Ibid., pp. 290–91.

19. Ibid., p. 291.

20. Adamova-Sliozberg, p. 71.

21. Razgon, p. 220.

22. Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism, pp. 55–56.

23. Ibid., p. 56.

24. Kokurin and Morukov, “Gulag: struktura i kadry,” (part 14), Svobodnaya Mysl, no. 11, November 2000.

25. Kuts, p. 195.

26. Bulgakov, interview with the author.

27. Kuts, p. 165.

28. Pechora, interview with the author.

29. Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism, p. 61.

30. Kokurin and Petrov, Gulag, pp. 555–57; Kokurin, “Vosstanie v Steplage.”

31. Kokurin, “Vosstanie v Steplage”; Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism, p. 55.

32. Abramkin and Chesnokova, p. 10.

33. GARF, 9401/1a/270.

34. E. Ginzburg, Within the Whirlwind, p. 103.

35. Abramkin and Chesnokova, pp. 10–11.

36. Zhigulin, pp. 135–37.

37. Buca, pp. 59–61.

38. Georgy Feldgun, unpublished memoir.

39. Sitko, interview with the author.

40. Zhigulin, pp. 135–37.

41. GARF, 9401/1/4240.

42. See, for example, Ilya Golts, “Vorkuta,” in Minuvshee, vol. 7, 1992, pp. 317–55.

43. Craveri and Khlevnyuk.

44. Ivanova, “Poslevoennye repressii.”

45. Kokurin and Morukov.

46. Craveri and Khlevnyuk, p. 186.

47. Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism, p. 125.

48. Ivanova, “Poslevoennye repressii,” p. 272.

49. Craveri and Khlevnyuk, p. 183.

50. Craveri.

51. Nicolas Werth, “Apogee and Crisis in the Gulag System,” in Courtois, pp. 239–40.

52. Craveri and Khlevnyuk, p. 183.

53. Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism, p. 125.

54. See, for example, Klein, Ulybki nevoli, p. 61.

55. Berdinskikh, p. 56.

56. Craveri and Khlevnyuk, p. 185.

57. Ibid., p. 186.

58. Knight, Beria, pp. 160–69.

59. Naumov and Rubinstein, pp. 61–62.

60. Ibid., p. 62.

61. Adamova-Sliozberg, p. 79.

62. Filshtinsky, p. 114.

23: The Death of Stalin

1. Quoted in Conquest, Stalin, p. 312.

2. Aleksandrovich, p. 57.

3. Ulyanovskaya, p. 280.

4. Andreeva, interview with the author.

5. E. Ginzburg, Within the Whirlwind, p. 357.

6. Negretov, interview with the author.

7. Stajner, p. 358.

8. Berdinskikh, p. 204.

9. E. Ginzburg, Within the Whirlwind, p. 360.

10. Aleksandrovich, p. 57.

11. Adamova-Sliozberg, p. 80.

12. Roeder, p. 195.

13. Vasileeva, interview with the author.

14. Khrushchev, vol. I, pp. 322–23.

15. E. Ginzburg, Within the Whirlwind, p. 357.

16. Knight, Beria, p. 185.

17. Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism, p. 124.

18. Naumov and Sigachev, pp. 19–21 (APRF, 3/52/100).

19. Knight, Beria, p. 185.

20. Ibid.

21. Naumov and Sigachev, pp. 28–29 (GARF, 9401/1/1299).

22. Knight, Beria, pp. 188–94.

23. Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism, p. 124.

24. For analyses of Beria’s motives, see Khlevnyuk, “L. P. Beriya”; Pikhoya, Sovetskii Soyuz, p. xxx; Knight, Beria, pp. 176–200.

25. Knight, ibid., pp. 194–224.

26. Dolgun, p. 261.

27. Alexandrovich, p. 57.

28. Zorin, interview with the author.

29. Filshtinsky, interview with the author.

30. Armonas, pp. 153–60.

31. Pechora, interview with the author.

32. Trus, interview with the author.

33. Usakova, interview with the author.

34. Zorin, interview with the author.

35. Khachatryan, interview with the author.

36. GARF document, order from September 3, 1955, in the collection of the author.

37. Bulgakov, interview with the author; Ilya Golts, “Vorkuta,” in Minuvshee, vol. 7, 1992, p. 334.

24: The Zeks’ Revolution

1. Anna Barkova, “In the Prison Camp Barracks,” quoted in Vilensky, Dodnes tyagoteet, p. 341.

2. See, for example, E. Ginzburg, Within the Whirlwind, pp. 359–63; Dolgun, pp. 261–62; Hoover, Adam Galinski Collection.

3. Panin, p. 306.

4. Ilya Golts, “Vorkuta,” in Minuvshee, vol. 7, 1992, p. 334.

5. For a description of the Ukrainian underground’s attitudes to informers see Burds.

6. Panin, pp. 308–10.

7. Sitko, Gde moi veter?, pp. 181–90.

8. Craveri, p. 323.

9. Kosyk, p. 56.

10. GARF, 9413/1/159.

11. N. A. Morozov, Osobye lagerya MVD SSSR, pp. 23–24.

12. N. A. Morozov, ibid., pp. 24–25; Noble, p. 143.

13. Noble, p. 143.

14. GARF, 9413/1/160.

15. GARF, 9413/1/160; N. A. Morozov, Osobye lagerya MVD SSSR, p. 27.

16. Noble, p. 144.

17. GARF, 9413/1/160.

18. Buca. Buca was clearly there: aspects of his account tally with the official reports. What I doubt was his leading role.

19. Kosyk, pp. 61 and 56–65.

20. Vilensky, interview with the author.

21. Bulgakov, interview with the author.

22. Kuts, p. 198.

23. GARF, 9413/1/160.

24. Ibid.

25. Hoover, Adam Galinski Collection.

26. Buca, pp. 271 and 272.

27. Noble, p. 162.

28. Berdinskikh, pp. 239–40.

29. “Materialy soveshchaniya rukovodyashchikh rabotnikov ITL i kolonii MVD SSSR, 27 Sent–1 Okt 1954,” in the collection of Memorial.

30. Morozov and Rogachev.

31. GARF, 9401/1/4240.

32. GARF, 9413/1/160 and 159.

33. This account of the Kengir uprising was put together through a comparison and synthesis of several sources. A collection of archival documents concerning the uprising were compiled and annotated by Alexander Kokurin (“Vosstanie v Steplage”). The Italian historian Marta Craveri has written the most reliable account of the uprising to date, using these documents and others, as well as interviews with participants (Craveri, “Krizis Gulaga,” p. 324). A more uneven account of the uprising was also put together using Ukrainian opposition sources in Volodymyr Kosyk’s Concentration Camps in the USSR. I also made use of several written accounts of the uprising, notably Lyubov Bershadskaya’s Rastoptannye zhizni, pp. 86–97, and N. L. Kekushev’s Zveriada, pp. 130–43, as well as the documents and memoirs published in the periodical Volya (2–3), 1994, pp. 307–70. I interviewed Irena Arginskaya, who was present in Steplag during the uprising as well. Solzhenitsyn’s account, also put together from interviews with participants, appears in The Gulag Archipelago, vol. III, pp. 285–331. If not specifically footnoted, all descriptions of events are based on these sources. I have adhered to Craveri’s chronology.

34. This is Marta Craveri’s observation.

35. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. III, p. 209.

36. Volya (2–3), 1994, p. 309.

37. Bershadskaya, p. 87.

38. Ibid., pp. 95–97.

25: Thaw—and Release

1. Andrei Voznesensky, “Children of the Cult,” reprinted in Cohen, p. 184.

2. Craveri and Khlevnyuk, p. 187.

3. Negretov, interview with the author.

4. “Materialy soveshchaniya rukovodyashchikh rabotnikov ITL i kolonii MVD SSSR, 27 Sent–1 Okt. 1954,” in the collection of the Memorial Society. Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism, p. 66; Okhotin and Roginsky, pp. 58–59; Kovalchuk-Koval, p. 299; Filshtinsky, interview with the author.

5. Smirnova, interview with the author.

6. GARF, 9401/2/450.

7. GARF, 9401/2/450.

8. Khrushchev, p. 559.

9. Ibid., pp. 559–618.

10. Ibid., p. 351.

11. K. Smith, pp. 131–74.

12. GARF, 9401/2/479.

13. GARF, 9401/2/479; Craveri, p. 337; Ivanova, Labor Camp Socialism , p. 67.

14. Ivanova, ibid., pp. 67–68; Craveri and Khlevnyuk, p. 189.

15. Ivanova, ibid.; Craveri and Khlevnyuk, pp. 188–89.

16. Andreev-Khomiakov, pp. 3–4.

17. Kusurgashev, p. 70.

18. Vera Korneeva, quoted in Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago , vol. III, p. 454.

19. Zorin, interview with the author.

20. E. Ginzburg, Within the Whirlwind, p. 211.

21. Korol, p. 189.

22. GARF, 9489/2/20.

23. Efron, Miroedikha, pp. 127–28.

24. Usakova, interview with the author.

25. S. S. Torbin, Vospominaniya, Memorial Archive, 2/2/91; Korol, p. 190.

26. GARF, 9414/3/40.

27. Ilya Golts, “Vorkuta,” in Minuvshee, vol. 7, 1992, pp. 352–55.

28. Sgovio, p. 283.

29. A. Morozov, pp. 381–82.

30. Hoover, Fond 89, 18/38.

31. Bulgakov, interview with the author.

32. Antonov-Ovseenko, The Time of Stalin, p. 336.

33. K. Smith, p. 133.

34. Cohen, p. 36.

35. K. Smith, p. 135; Hochschild, pp. 222–23.

36. K. Smith, p. 138.

37. Adamova-Sliozberg, pp. 84–86.

38. Rotfort, p. 92.

39. Herling, p. 236.

40. Andreeva, interview with the author.

41. Solzhenitsyn, Cancer Ward, p. 202.

42. Cohen, p. 115.

43. Antonov-Ovseenko, The Time of Stalin, pp. 332–36.

44. Cohen, p. 26.

45. Antonov-Ovseenko, The Time of Stalin, pp. 332–36.

46. Cohen, p. 135.

47. Razgon, p. 50.

48. Yuri Dombrovsky, p. 77. Translated with the help of Galya Vinogradova.

49. Solzhenitsyn, The Gulag Archipelago, vol. III, p. 455.

50. Korolev, interview with the author.

51. Pechora, interview with the author.

52. Aksyonov, p. 382.

53. Quoted in Adler, p. 141.

54. Vilensky, Deti Gulaga, p. 460.

55. Adler, p. 145.

56. Olga Adamova-Sliozberg, “My Journey,” in Vilensky, Till My Tale Is Told, p. 70.

57. Adler, p. xx.

58. Merridale, p. 418.

59. Cohen, p. 38.

60. Rothberg, pp. 12–40.

61. The most complete account of Solzhenitsyn’s life is Michael Scammell’s biography, Solzhenitsyn. Unless otherwise footnoted, all biographical information about him comes from there.

62. Scammell, Solzhenitsyn, p. 415.

63. Ibid., pp. 423–24.

64. Ibid., pp. 448–49.

65. Ibid., p. 485.

66. Sitko, Gde moi veter?, p. 318.

67. Rothberg, p. 62.

68. Dyakov, pp. 60–67.

26: The Era of the Dissidents

1. Reprinted in Cohen, p. 183.

2. Sobolev, p. 68.

3. Prisoners of Conscience in the USSR, pp. 48–53.

4. Committee on the Judiciary (Testimony of Avraham Shifter).

5. GARF, 9410/2/497.

6. Committee on the Judiciary (Testimony of Avraham Shifter).

7. R. Medvedev, p. ix.

8. Sobranie dokumentov samizdata, AS 143. (This is a collection of samizdat documents gathered by RFE-RL from the 1960s onward. The documents were not “published,” but rather photocopied, bound, numbered, and placed in a few major libraries.)

9. Prisoners of Conscience in the USSR, pp. 18–23.

10. Sobranie dokumentov samizdata, AS 127.

11. Prisoners of Conscience in the USSR, pp. 18–23.

12. Reddaway, Uncensored Russia, p. 11.

13. Joseph Brodsky, pp. 26–27.

14. Rothberg, pp. 127–33.

15. Hoover, Josef Brodsky Collection, Transcript of the Brodsky Trial.

16. Ibid.

17. Browne, p. 3.

18. Cohen, p. 42; Reddaway, Uncensored Russia, p. 19.

19. Hopkins, pp. 1–14.

20. Prisoners of Conscience in the USSR, p. 21.

21. Browne, p. 9.

22. Litvinov, The Trial of the Four, pp. 5–11.

23. Browne, p. 13.

24. Thirty years later, Chornovil, then a leading figure in the Ukrainian independence movement, became independent Ukraine’s first ambassador to Canada. Before he left, I interviewed him in Lvov, in 1990.

25. Reddaway, Uncensored Russia, pp. 95–111.

26. Ibid., p. 19.

27. Info-Russ, #0044 (see Archives in Bibliography). This is where Vladimir Bukovsky has posted the documents he obtained while carrying out research for the trial of the Communist Party, described later in this book. The documents later became the subject of his 1996 book, Moskovskii protsess , published in French and Russian. Some are also stored at Hoover, Fond 89.

28. Reddaway, Uncensored Russia, p. 24.

29. Ibid., pp. 1–47; also Chronicle of Current Events.

30. Hopkins, p. 122.

31. Ratushinskaya, p. 67.

32. Marchenko, My Testimony, p. 17.

33. Ibid., pp. 220–27.

34. Sitko, interview with the author.

35. Ratushinskaya, pp. 60–62.

36. Viktor Shmirov, conversation with the author, March 31, 1998.

37. Fedorov, interview with the author.

38. Marchenko, My Testimony, p. 349.

39. Fedorov, interview with the author.

40. Ratushinskaya, pp. 174–75.

41. Fedorov, interview with the author.

42. Marchenko, My Testimony, p. 68.

43. E. Kuznetsov, p. 169.

44. Chronicle of Current Events, no. 32, July 17, 1974.

45. Bukovsky, To Build a Castle, p. 45.

46. Marchenko, My Testimony, pp. 90–91; E. Kuznetsov, pp. 165–66.

47. Chronicle of Current Events, no. 6, February 1969, quoted in Reddaway, Uncensored Russia, p. 207.

48. Chronicle of Current Events, ibid., quoted in Reddaway, ibid., pp. 20–216.

49. Marchenko, My Testimony, p. 69.

50. Sharansky, p. 236.

51. Marchenko, My Testimony, p. 115; Tokes, p. 84.

52. Sharansky, p. 235; Ratushinskaya, pp. 165–78.

53. Sobranie dokumentov samizdata, AS 2598.

54. Daniel, p. 35.

55. Marchenko, My Testimony, pp. 65–69.

56. Sobranie dokumentov samizdata, AS 2598.

57. Chronicle of Current Events, no. 32, July 1974.

58. Litvinov, The Trial of the Four, p. 17.

59. Reddaway and Bloch, p. 305; Yakir.

60. Chronicle of Current Events, no. 28, December 1972.

61. Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe (Testimony of Alexandr Shatravka and Dr. Anatoly Koryagin).

62. Chronicle of Current Events, no. 33, December 1974.

63. Viktor Shmirov, conversation with the author, March 31, 1998.

64. Sobranie dokumentov samizdata, AS 3115.

65. Bukovsky gave an account of his experience at a Warsaw press conference in 1998. The text appears on the Info-Russ Web site (see Archives in Bibliography).

66. Bukovsky, Moskovskii protsess, pp. 144–61.

67. Reddaway and Bloch, pp. 48–49; Seton-Watson, pp. 257–58.

68. Bukovksy, To Build a Castle, p. 357.

69. Reddaway and Bloch, pp. 176, 140, and 107.

70. Info-Russ, #0202.

71. Reddaway and Bloch, p. 226.

72. Nekipelov, p. 132.

73. Reddaway and Bloch, pp. 220–21; Nekipelov, p. 132.

74. Prisoners of Conscience in the USSR, p. 190; photograph on p. 194.

75. Reddaway and Bloch, p. 214.

76. Prisoners of Conscience in the USSR, pp. 197–98.

77. “Three Voices of Dissent,” Survey, no. 77 (Autumn 1970).

78. Nekipelov, p. 115.

79. Reddaway and Bloch, p. 348.

80. Ibid., pp. 79–96.

81. Ibid., pp. 178–80.

82. Info-Russ, #0204.

83. Ibid.

27: The 1980s: Smashing Statues

1. Reprinted in Reavey, pp. 8–9.

2. Beichman and Bernstam, pp. 145–89.

3. Prisoners of Conscience in the USSR, pp. 20 and 119; Alekseeva.

4. Beichman and Bernstam, p. 182.

5. Reagan, pp. 675–79.

6. Berdzenishvili, interview with the author.

7. Ibid.

8. Bukovsky, To Build a Castle, p. 408.

9. Ibid.

10. Berdzenishvili, interview with the author.

11. Ratushinskaya, p. 236.

12. Walker, p. 142.

13. Reddaway, “Dissent in the Soviet Union.”

14. Gorbachev, p. 24.

15. Remnick, p. 50.

16. Ibid., pp. 264–68.

17. K. Smith, pp. 131–74; Remnick, p. 68.

18. Remnick, pp. 101–19; K. Smith, pp. 131–74.

19. USSR: Human Rights in a Time of Change.

20. “Lata Dissidentów,” Karta, no. 16, 1995.

21. “On the Death of Prisoner of Conscience Anatoly Marchenko,” Amnesty International Press Release, May 1987 (ML).

22. Ibid.

23. The closure of the camps does not, for example, figure in Walker’s The Waking Giant; Matlock’s, Autopsy on an Empire; Brown’s The Gorbachev Factor; or Kaiser’s Why Gorbachev Happened. The important exception is Remnick’s Lenin’s Tomb, which includes a chapter on the last prisoners of Perm-35.

24. Paul Hofheinz, former Moscow-based reporter, conversation with the author, February 13, 2002.

25. Matlock, p. 275.

25. Remnick, p. 270.

27. Walker, p. 147.

28. Info-Russ, #0128.

29. Ibid., #1404.

30. Ibid., #0130.

31. USSR: Human Rights in a Time of Change.

32. The Recent Release of Prisoners in the USSR, Amnesty International Press Release, April 1987 (ML).

33. Ibid.

34. Amnesty International Weekly Update Service, April 8, 1987 (ML).

35. Berdzenishvili, interview with the author.

36. Amnesty International Newsletter, June 1988, vol. XVIII, no. 6 (ML).

37. “Four Long-Term Prisoners Still Awaiting a Review,” Amnesty International Press Release, April 1990; also Amnesty International Newsletter, October 1990, vol. XX, no. 10 (ML); Klymchak was released by the end of the year.

38. Matlock, p. 287.

39. “Russian Federation: Overview of Recent Legal Changes,” Amnesty International Press Release, September 1993 (ML).

40. Matlock, p. 295.

41. Quoted in Cohen, p. 186.

Epilogue: Memory

1. Razgon, True Stories, p. 27.

2. K. Smith, pp. 153–59.

3. Alexander Yakovlev, Chairman of the Russian Presidential Commission on Rehabilitation of the Victims of Political Repression, conversation with the author, February 25, 2002.

4. Merridale, pp. 407–8.

5. Gessen.

6. Alexander Yakovlev, conversation with the author, February 25, 2002.

7. I described this incident in “Secret Agent Man,” The Weekly Standard, April 10, 2000.

8. About 130 skeletons were discovered in the cellar of a west Ukrainian monastery in July 2002, for example. Moscow Times, July 18, 2002.

9. Applebaum, “Secret Agent Man,” The Weekly Standard , April 10, 2000.

10. Olga Adamova-Sliozberg, “My Journey,” in Vilensky, Till My Tale Is Told, p. 16.

11. Andrew Alexander, “The Soviet Threat Was Bogus,” The Spectator, April 20, 2002.

12. Vidal.

Appendix: How Many?

1. Bacon, pp. 8–9.

2. Conquest, The Great Terror, p. 485.

3. Getty, p. 8.

4. Zemskov, “Arkhipelag Gulag,” pp. 6–7; Getty, Ritterspoon, and Zemskov, Appendixes A and B, pp. 1048–49.

5. Getty, Ritterspoon, and Zemskov, p. 1047.

6. Bacon, p. 112.

7. Pohl, The Stalinist Penal System, p. 17.

8. Pohl, ibid., p. 15; Zemskov, “Gulag,” p. 17.

9. The best summary to date of the debate about the post-1991 statistical revelations can be found in Bacon, pp. 6–41 and 101–22: the 18 million in his figure, based on turnover rates and available statistics. For the record, Dugin claims that 11.8 million people were arrested between 1930 and 1953, but I find this hard to reconcile with the 8 million known to have been arrested by 1940, particularly given the huge numbers arrested and released during the Second World War (Dugin, “Stalinizm, Legendy i Fakty”).

10. Overy, p. 297; Zagorulko, pp. 331–33.

11. Pohl, The Stalinist Penal System, pp. 50–52; Zemskov, “Gulag,” pp. 4–6.

12. Polyan, p. 239.

13. Pohl, The Stalinist Penal System, p. 5.

14. Pohl, ibid., p. 133.

15. Although some have been published. See Getty, Ritterspoon, and Zemskov, pp. 1048–49.

16. GARF, 9414/1/OURZ. These figures were compiled by Alexander Kokurin.

17. Berdinskikh, p. 28.

18. Pohl, The Stalinist Penal System, p. 131.

19. Getty, Ritterspoon, and Zemskov, p. 1024.

20. Courtois, p. 4.

21. Razgon, pp. 290–91.

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