Abbreviations

AHR The American Historical Review

AQ American Quarterly

JAM The Journal of American History

NYH New York History

NYHS New-York Historical Society

NYHSQ The New-York Historical Society Quarterly

PSQ Political Science Quarterly

WMQ The William and Mary Quarterly

References

INTRODUCTION TO SOURCES AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER READING

A synthesizer, looking back, sees a thief’s shadow. Our book draws upon thousands of studies made by myriad specialists who in the last generation have rewritten the city’s history. It is they who produced the strands of scholarship that we have woven into a narrative.

In the resource notes that follow, we have space to offer only the most truncated acknowledgment of the immense debt we owe those upon whose research and insights we have relied. The alphabetized author and date listings are intended only to suggest those works we found most valuable in sorting our way through the subject of each particular section. This approach does not allow us to differentiate between those interpretations we support and follow and those which we disagree with but nevertheless consider provocative or informative. Under these circumstances, it is more important than usual to insist that those we cite are to be held blameless for our infelicities of analysis and errors of fact. As to the latter, we acknowledge that this work, by its very scope, will inevitably contain mistakes and misstatements, and we invite correction and comment (bouquets as well as brickbats). Readers can email us at gotham@oup-usa.org.

Finally, a note, for those who might be interested, about the nature of our scholarly collaboration. It began a quarter century ago, when we jointly wrote, in 1972, a lengthy essay on the American Revolution. In the early 1980s, we embarked on this study of New York City. The end product is the result not only of years of discussion and debate but of decades of mutual support and sustenance without which this daunting enterprise would never have come to fruition. Our method of work involved one of us doing the reading, researching, structuring, and writing of a chapter, then passing it to the other, whose commentary, critique, and at times additional research, new writing, or rewriting, would inform the second, third, or however many drafts it took until both partners were basically satisfied with the result. The authors’ contributions of intellect and energy are therefore so interlaced that each page bears the mark of their affiliation.

Practical considerations, however, demanded a rough division of labor and attained expertise. Accordingly, Burrows took primary responsibility for producing drafts of chapters 1-26—essentially the seventeenth, eighteenth, and early nineteenth centuries. Wallace did the same for the Introduction and for the remainder of the nineteenth-century material (embracing chapters 27-69). The story of the twentieth century, which swelled to such dimension that it required a volume of its own, has been and will be tackled by MW alone.

We consulted several indispensable reference works so often that it would be tiresome to mention them in each of the section notes that follow. They are Jackson, Encyclopedia of New York (1995), Kouwenhoven, Columbia Historical Portrait of New York(1953), and Stokes, Iconography of Manhattan (1915-28). For the city’s history in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, we likewise made heavy and repeated use of the primary materials collected by Fernow (1887, 1897, 1902-7, 1907), Lincoln (1894), Hastings and Corwin (1901-16), O’Callaghan, 1849, 1853-87, 1868), Osgood (1905), and Van Laer (1974).

INTRODUCTION

Allen, 1990; Atkins, 1973; Botkin, 1976; Bubrinski, 1995; Clarkson, 1915; Clouston, 1903; Conrad, 1984; Cunningham, 1889; Fox, 1899; Francis, Jr., 1986; Hazlitt, ed., 1866; Irving, 1984; Jagendorf, 1950; Kahrl, ed., 1965; Kandell, 1988; Kane, 1989; Knickerbocker, 1968; Miller, 1886; Opie and Opie, 1997; Paulding, 1839; Pearson, 1991; Stapleton, 1910; Throsby, 1677; Tyrell, 1991; Walter, 1988

PART ONE:

LENAPE COUNTRY ANDNEW AMSTERDAM TO 1664

CHAPTER 1:

FIRST IMPRESSIONS

Andrews, 1908; Andrews, 1984; Bayer, 1925; Boyle, 1969; Burnaby, 1904; Danckaerts and Sluyter, 1867; Denton, 1966; Earle, 1938; Habeit, 1949; Honour, 1975; Innis, 1902; Jameson, 1909; Kessler and Rachlis, 1959; Lipinsky, 1958; McManis, 1972; Meinig, 1966; Morison, 1971—74; Murphy, 1969; Raesly, 1945; Rink, 1986; Van der Donck, 1841; Van Gelder, 1982; Van Rensselaer, 1898; Wolley, 1902

Immigrant Ice: Barlow, 1969; Boyle, 1969; Cressy, 1966; Homberger, 1994; Joyce, 1988; Kieran, 1959; McPhee, 1983; Miller, 1970; Nicholas, 1988; Raymo and Raymo, 1989; Rensberger, 1976; Schuberth, 1968; Suggs, 1966; Van Diver, 1985; White, 1987

Where the Lenapes Dwell: Axtell, 1981; Axtell, 1982; Axtell, 1987; Axtell, 1992; Berkhofer, 1978; Brasser, 1971; Ceci, 1990; Cronon, 1983; Farb, 1968; Gehring, Starna, and Fenton, 1987; Gibson, 1980; Grumet, 1981; Grumet, 1995; Hauptman and Knapp, 1977; Jacobs, 1972; Jacobs, 1974; Jaffe, 1975; Jameson, 1909; Jennings, 1975; Jennings, 1979; Kammen, 1975; Kraft, 1986; Kupperman, 1980; Lurie and Leacock, 1971; Martin, 1978; Miller and Hamell, 1986; Pearce, 1965; Salisbury, 1982; Salisbury, 1996; Sauer, 1971; Sauer, 1980; Strong, 1997; Trelease, 1960; Trelease, 1962; Trelease, 1969; Washburn, 1971; Washburn, 1975; Wessel, 1981; Wolf, 1982

Lazy and Barbarous People: Brasser, 1971; Bridenbaugh, 1981; Ceci, 1990; Cronon, 1983; Denton, 1966; Etienne and Leacock, 1980; Farb, 1968; Gehring and Grumet, 1987; Gehring, Starna, and Fenton, 1987; Gibson, 1980; Grumet, 1980; Grumet, 1981; Grumet, 1995; Grumet, 1996; Hauptman and Knapp, 1977; Jacobs, 1974; Jafie, 1979; Jameson, 1909; Jennings, 1975; Jennings, 1979; Kammen, 1975; Kraft, 1986; Kupperman, 1980; Lodwick, 1849; Lurie, 1959; Lurie, 1971; Lurie and Leacock, 1971; Miller and Hamell, 1986; Pearce, 1965; Pyne, 1997; Richter, 1992; Richter, 1983; Rink, 1986; Salisbury, 1982; Salisbury, 1996; Sauer, 1971; Sauer, 1980; Starna, 1986; Strong, 1997; Suggs, 1966; Trelease, 1960; Trelease, 1962; Trelease, 1969; Washburn, 1971; Washburn, 1975; Wessel, 1981; Wolf, 1982; Wolley, 1902

The Fur Trade: Burke, 1986; Dennis, 1994; Fenton, 1971; Hunt, 1940; Josephy, 1958; Krech, 1981; Lipinsky, 1958; Martin, 1978; McBride, 1994; Murray, 1938; Norton, 1974; Richter, 1983; Richter, 1992; Starna, 1986; Strong, 1997; Trelease, 1960; Trelease, 1962; Trelease, 1969; Vecsey, 1986

CHAPTER 2:

THE MEN WHO BOUGHTMANHATTAN

Asher, 1860; Burke, 1986; Grumet, 1981; Hart, 1959; Heckwelder, 1841; Jameson, 1909; Murphy, 1972; Norton, 1974; Strong, 1997

Mighty Amsterdam: Anderson, 1974a; Anderson, 1974b; Bachman, 1969; Barbour, 1950; Bayer, 1925; Boxer, 1965; Braudet, 1981; Condon, 1968; Davies, 1961; Dillon, 1981; Francis, 1986; Goslinga, 1971; Huey, 1988; Israel, 1989; Israel, 1995; Kistemaker, 1983; Masselman, 1963; Murphy, 1972; Murray, 1938; Newton, 1933; Norton, 1974; Raesly, 1945; Rink, 1986; Scammell, 1981; Schama, 1987; Smit, 1970; Smith, 1973; Van Deusen, 1991; Van Loon, 1928; Wallerstein, 1974; Weslager, 1961; Wilson, 1968 The West India Company: Bachman, 1969; Barbour, 1950; Condon, 1968; Davies, 1961; Francis, 1986; Jameson, 1909; Rink, 1986; Smith, 1973

New Netherland: Bachman, 1969; Baird, 1985; Bayles, 1915; Burke, 1986; Butler, 1983; Ceci, 1990; Condon, 1968; Davies, 1961; Duffy, 1968; Fayden, 1993; Hart, 1959; Israel, 1977; Israel, 1989; Jameson, 1909; Kavenagh, 1973; Kenney, 1975; Maika, 1995; Norton, 1974; Rink, 1978; Rink, 1986; Smith, 1973; Wright, 1973; Zwierlein, 1910

Farms or Factories?: Bachman, 1969; Bayer, 1925; Burke, 1986; Condon, 1968; Jacobs, 1972; jameson, 1909; Jennings, 1975; Kammen, 1975; Norton, 1974; Rink, 1986

War and Wampum: Boyle, 1969; Brasser, 1971; Burke, 1986; Ceci, 1980; Ceci, 1990; Cronon, 1983; Francis, 1986; Gehring, 1980; Grumet, 1995; Hauptman and Knapp, 1977; Jacobs, 1972; jacobs, 1974; Jameson, 1909; Lodwick, 1849; Lowensteyn, 1984; McBride, 1994; Norton, 1974; Otto, 1995; Richter, 1992; Rink, 1986; Salisbury, 1982; Strong, 1997; Taxay, 1970; Vecsey, 1986

New Amsterdam: Bayles, 1915; Francis, 1986; Gehring, 1980; Grumet, 1981; Hunt, 1940; Jameson, 1909; Jennings, 1975; Quinn, 1993; Rink, 1986; Starna, 1986

CHAPTERS 3:

COMPANY TOWN

Bayles, 1915; Cohen, 1992; Condon, 1968; Davies, 1961; De Jong, 1968; Dubois, 1884; Goodfriend, 1978; Jameson, 1909; Kammen, 1975; Kavenagh, 1973; Kenney, 1975; Kessler and Rachlis, 1959; Kruger, 1985; McManus, 1966; Nissenson, 1937; Postma, 1990; Raesly, 1945; Schama, 1987

Patroons and Puritans: Bachman, 1969; Condon, 1968; Goslinga, 1971; Rink, 1978; Rink, 1986

The Case for Colonization: Bachman, 1969; Condon, 1968; Jameson, 1909; Rink, 1986

Personnel and Chattel: Bakker, 1995; Berlin, 1996; Bridenbaugh, 1966; Cohen, 1992; Foote, 1993; Goodfriend, 1978; Goodfriend, 1992; Janvier, 1894; Kessler and Rachlis, 1959; Kruger, 1985; McManus, 1966; Rink, 1981; Rink, 1986; Swan, 1990; Swan, 1993; Wilder, 1994

Wild West m the Hudson: Biemer, 1983; Cohen, 1981; Cohen, 1992; Davies, 1961; Foglesong, 1986; Foote, 1993; Gehring and Grumet, 1987; Goodfriend, 1978; Goodfriend, 1992; Harlow, 1931; Hershkowitz, 1965; Innis, 1902; Jameson, 1909; Kenney, 1975; Kruger, 1985; McLaughlin, 1981; Narrett, 1988; Narrett, 1992; Raesly, 1945; Riker, 1983; Rink, 1981; Rink, 1986; Rink, 1994; Schama, 1987; Singleton, 1909; Strong, 1842; Van der Zee, 1978; Van Deusen, 1991; Van Rensselaer, 1898; Van Rensselaer, 1909; Wagman, 1983a; White, 1953; Wilcoxen, 1984; Zwierlein, 1910

Development: Bridenbaugh, 1966; Duffy, 1968; Innis, 1902; Jameson, 1909; Kross, 1983; Kruger, 1985; Maika, 1995; Otto, 1995; Riker, 1852; Riker, 1904; Rink, 1986; Seymann, 1939; Singleton, 1909; Wilder, 1994; Wright, 1973

Disaster. Biemer, 1981; Boyle, 1969; Brasser, 1971; Ceci, 1990; Cronon, 1983; Denton, 1966; Gibson, 1980; Grumet, 1981; Hauptman and Knapp, 1977; Innis, 1902; Jameson, 1909; Lodwick, 1849; Lowensteyn, 1984; Macleod, 1928; Norton, 1974; Otto, 1995; Raesly, 1945; Richter, 1983; Richter, 1992; Rink, 1986; Starna, 1986; Strong, 1997; Trelease, 1960; Wagman, 1979; Wessel, 1981; Williams, 1995

Losing Ground: Bachman, 1969; Biemer, 1981; Biemer, 1983; Waller, 1975; Winthrop, 1996

CHAPTER 4:

STUYVESANT

Goslinga, 1971; Kenney, 1975; Kessler and Rachlis, 1959; Raesly, 1945; Rink, 1986; Smith, 1973; Van der Zee, 1978

Town Building: Bridenbaugh, 1966; De Jong, 1970; Duffy, 1968; Gehring, 1991; Innis, 1902; Jameson, 1909; Kammen, 1975; Kessler and Rachlis, 1959; Kilpatrick, 1912; Raesly, 1945; Rink, 1986; Schneider, 1938; Singleton, 1909; Van Rensselaer, 1909; Van Zwieten, 1996; Weidner, 1974

A Well-Regulated Economy: Barbour, 1950; Berlin, 1996; Blackmar, 1989; Ceci, 1980; Davies, 1961; Davis, 1991; De Jong, 1968; Dunn, 1972; Fayden, 1993; Goodfriend, 1978; Goodfriend, 1992; Hobhouse, 1986; Hodges, 1988; Innis, 1902; Jameson, 1909; Kessler and Rachlis, 1959; Kruger, 1985; Maika, 1995; Mintz, 1985; Moss, 1985; Postma, 1990; Quinn, 1993; Richter, 1992; Rink, 1986; Rink, 1987; Rink, 1994; Sheridan, 1974; Swan, 1990; Syrett, 1954; Van den Boogaart, 1986; Van der Zee, 1978; Wagman, 1983a; White, 1953; White, 1956; Wright, 1973

“Persons of Quality”: Biemer, 1983; Burke, 1986; Cohen, 1981; Cooper, 1968; Innis, 1902; Kilpatrick, 1912; Maika, 1995; McCormick, 1989; Narrett, 1992; Raesly, 1945; Riker, 1904; Riker, 1981; Rink, 1986; Schama, 1987; Singleton, 1909; Wagman, 1983a, Wagman, 1983b; White, 1956

Common Folk: Bayles, 1915; Bridenbaugh, 1966; Burke, 1978; Hodges, 1988; Kessler and Rachlis, 1959; Newman, 1993; Raesly, 1945; Riker, 1904; Riker, 1981; Rose, 1988; Schama, 1979; Schama, 1987; Singleton, 1909; Van den Boogaart, 1986; Van der Zee, 1978; Van Deusen, 1991; Wagman, 1983

The Negroes’ Lot: Davis, 1991; Foote, 1993; Innis, 1902; Jameson, 1909; Kessler and Rachlis, 1959; Kruger, 1985; Moss, 1985; Newman, 1993; Swan, 1990; Wilder, 1994

CHAPTER 5:

A CITY LOST, A CITY GAINED

Cohen, 1992; Earle, 1938; Gehring, 1991; Innis, 1902; Kammen, 1975; Hertzberg, 1989; Katz, 1983; Kessler and Rachlis, 1959; Raesly, 1945; Riker, 1904; Rink, 1986; Schama, 1987; Singleton, 1909; Van der Zee, 1978; Van Deusen, 1991; Van Rensselaer, 1909; Wilder, 1994; Zwierlein, 1910

Servants of Baal: De Jong, 1968; Faber, 1994; Goodfriend, 1992; Hertzberg, 1989; Innis, 1902; Israel, 1989; Jameson, 1909, Kessler and Rachlis, 1959; Marcus, 1970; Pool, 1955; Pratt, 1967; Raesly, 1945; Rink, 1986; Smith, 1973; Van der Zee, 1978; Waller, 1975

“Our Great Muscovy Duke”: Biemer, 1981; Biemer, 1983; Ellis, 1997; Fernow, 1902-7; Innis, 1902; Jameson, 1909; Kammen, 1975; Kavenagh, 1973; Kessler and Rachlis, 1959; Kilpatrick, 1912; Maika, 1995; Narrett, 1988; New-York Historical Society, 1886; Raesly, 1945; Reynolds, 1984; Riker, 1983; Rink, 1986; Seybolt, 1918; Seymann, 1939; Syrett, 1954; Teaford, 1975; Van der Zee, 1978; Van Rensselaer, 1898; Wagman, 1983b; Waller, 1975; White, 1953; Wright, 1973

The Struggle for Power: Jameson, 1909; Kavenagh, 1973; Raesly, 1945; Rink, 1986; Seybolt, 1918; Seymann, 1939; Teaford, 1975; Wagman, 1983b; White, 1953, Wright, 1973

Imperiled Periphery: Biemer, 1981; Cohen, 1981; Cohen, 1992; Danckaerts and Sluyter, 1966; De Jong, 1968; Dilliard, 1974; Dubois, 1884; Earle, 1938; Goodfriend, 1992; Grumet, 1996; Harlow, 1931; Hauptman and Knapp, 1977; Hunt, 1940; Innis, 1902; Kammen, 1975; Kenney, 1975; Kessler and Rachlis, 1959; Kross, 1983; McLaughlin, 1981; Merwick, 1980; Nooter, 1995; Raesly, 1945; Riker, 1982; Rink, 1986; Rink, 1991; Rink, 1994; Salisbury, 1982; Singleton, 1909; Strong, 1842; Strong, 1997; Trelease, 1960; Van den Boogaart, 1986; Van der Donck, 1968; Van Gelder, 1982; Van der Zee, 1978; Wagman, 1979; Wessel, 1981; Williams, 1995; Wright, 1973; Wright, 1980

James Stuart, Duke of York: Andrews, 1934-38; Biemer, 1983; Calder, 1981; Dunn, 1972; Israel, 1989; Kessler and Rachlis, 1959; Mowrer, 1960; Raesly, 1945; Riker, 1982; Ritchie, 1977; Shomette and Haslach, 1988; Van der Zee, 1978; Van Rensselaer, 1909; Waller, 1975

New York, New York: Andrews, 1934-38; Balmer, 1989a; De Jong, 1968; Israel, 1989; Kessler and Rachlis, 1959; Kruger, 1985; Maika, 1995; Moss, 1985; Mowrer, 1960; Murphy, 1969; Quinn, 1993; Raesly, 1945; Ritchie, 1977; Shomette and Haslach, 1988; Van der Zee, 1978; Van Rensselaer, 1909

PART TWO:

BRITISH NEW YORK (1664-1783)

CHAPTER 6:

EMPIRE AND OLIGARCHY

Andrews, 1934-38; Goebel and Naughton, 1943; Goebel, 1969; Goodfriend, 1992; Greene, 1996; Kavenagh, 1973; Maika, 1995; Pennypacker, 1944; Pratt, 1967; Ritchie, 1977; Van der Zee, 1978; Van Rensselaer, 1898; Van Rensselaer, 1909

Collaborators: Balmer, 1983; Balmer, 1989a; Bayles, 1915; Biemer, 1983; Danckaerts and Sluyter, 1966; Denton, 1966; Earle, 1938; Ellis, 1997; Fabend, 1994; Greene, 1996; Harlow, 1931; Kavenagh, 1973; Kessler and Radilis, 1959; Kupp, 1974; Maika, 1995; Matson, 1987; Murrin, 1988; Narrett, 1992; Reynolds, 1984; Ritchie, 1977; Severini, 1981; Singleton, 1909; Steele, 1986; Stern, 1974; Still, 1956; Van Rensselaer, 1898; Van Rensselaer, 1909; White, 1987

Dissidents: Andrews, 1934-38; Archdeacon, 1976b; Banner, 1983; Balmer, 1989a; Biemer, 1983; Johnson, 1965; Kavenagh, 1973; Kim, 1970; Lovejoy, 1972; McCormick, 1989; McKinley, 1900; Mowrer, 1960; Nooter, 1995; Pratt, 1967; Reich, 1953; Riker, 1982; Ritchie, 1977; Stern, 1974; Van Rensselaer, 1909; Waller, 1975

Naw Orange: Balmer, 1989a; De jong, 1975; Israel, 1989; Reich, 1953; Ritchie, 1977; Shomette and Haslach, 1988; Van der Zee, 1978; Van Rensselaer, 1909

Andros: Bridenbaugh, 1966; Greene, 1996; Hodges, 1982; Kanunen, 1975; Kavenagh, 1973; McCormick, 1989; Peterson, 1917; Reich, 1953; Ritchie, 1977; Severini, 1981; Van Rensselaer, 1909; Webb, 1976; Webb, 1984

The Covenant Chain: Cohen, 1992; Gehring and Grumet, 1987; Jennings, 1975; Jennings, 1984; Martin, 1985; McCormick, 1989; Richter, 1992; Webb, 1984

New York in 1680: Archdeacon, 1976b; Bayles, 1915; Cohen, 1974; Danckaerts and Sluyter, 1966; Davis, 1991; Denton, 1966; Goodfriend, 1992; Hodges, 1982; Kruger, 1985; Looney, 1982; Lovejoy, 1972; Matson, 1987; McCormick, 1989; McLaughlin, 1981; Murrin, 1988; Reich, 1953; Ritchie, 1977; Van Rensselaer, 1909; White, 1956; Wolley, 1902

Standing Mere on Naturethan Names: Andrews, 1934-38; Archdeacon, 1976b; Biemer, 1983; Danckaerts and Sluyter, 1966; Ellis, 1997; Fabend, 1997; Goodfriend, 1992; Lovejoy, 1972; McCormick, 1989; McLaughlin, 1981; Merwick, 1981; Morris, 1935; Narrett, 1988; Narrett, 1992; Reich, 1953; Ritchie, 1977; Rocbcr, 1991; Shammas, 1987; Shammas, et al., 1987; Sheridan, 1974; Smith, 1983; Stern, 1974; Strong, 1842; Van Rensselaer, 1909

CHAPTER 7:

JACOB LEISLER’SREBELLION

Andrews, 1934-38; Kammen, 1975; Kennedy, 1930; Phelan, 1933; Van Rensselaer, 1909

The Reorganization of Government: Andrews, 1934-38; Biemer, 1983; Duffy, 1968-74; Hartog, 1983; Hodges, 1982; Kammen, 1975; Kavenagh, 1973; Lovejoy, 1972, McCormick, 1989; Merwick, 1981; Murrin, 1988; Narrett, 1988; Narrett, 1992; Phelan, 1933; Reich, 1953; Ritchie, 1977; Seymann, 1939; Singleton, 1909; Still, 1956; Van Rensselaer, 1909

The Gathering Storm: Archdeacon, 1976b; Biemer, 1983; Bosher, 1995; Butler, 1983; Christoph, 1994; Cray, 1988a; Cray, 1988b; Goodfriend, 1992; Kierner, 1992; Kim, 1970; Kim, 1978; Leder, 1961; Levinson, 1961; Mark, 1965; Monaghan, 1935; Murrin, 1988; Narrett, 1988; Nissenson, 1937; Pound, 1975; Ritchie, 1977; Steele, 1986; Still, 1956; Van Rensselaer, 1909

A Glorious Revolution: Lovejoy, 1972; McCormick, 1989; Ritchie, 1977; Van Rensselaer, 1909

“this confused businesse “: Andrews, 1915; Andrews, 1934-38; Archdeacon, 1976b; Leder, 1961; Lovejoy, 1972; McCormick, 1978; McCormick, 1989; McCully, 1982; Merwick, 1989; Murrin, 1988; Nash, 1976; Reich, 1953; Ritchie, 1977; Sosin, 1982; Steele, 1986; Stern, 1974; Van Rensselaer, 1909; Webb, 1966

Leisler and the Leislerians: Andrews, 1915; Archdeacon, 1976a; Archdeacon, 1976b; Balmer, 1989a; Balmer, 1989b; Fabend, 1994; Howe, 1990; Leder, 1954; Lovejoy, 1972; Maika, 1994; Mason, 1949; McCormick, 1989; Mowrer, 1960; Narrett, 1992; Nooter, 1995; Raesly, 1945; Reich, 1953; Ritchie, 1977; Sosin, 1982; Stern, 1974; Van Rensselaer, 1909; Voorhees, 1989; Voorhees, 1994a; Voorhees, 1994b; White, 1956 “Kill Urn/Kill Urn!”: Archdeacon, 1976b; Hodges, 1982; Kierner, 1992; Leder, 1961; Leder, 1955; McCormick, 1989; Nash, 1976; Peckham, 1964; Peterson, 1917; Reich, 1953; Richter, 1992; Ritchie, 1977

“For they have devoured Jacob”: Balmer, 1989a; Biemer, 1983; Bonotni, 1971; Budd, 1978; Goebel and Naughton, 1943; Greenberg, 1974; Johnson, 1965; Leder, 1952; McCormick, 1989; Nan-en, 1992; Reich, 1953; Ritchie, 1977; Van Rensselaer, 1909; Voorhees, 1994a

CHAPTER 8:

HEATS AND ANIMOSITYES

Church and State: Andrews, 1956; Archdeacon, 1976b; Balmer, 1981; Banner, 1988; Balmer, 1989a; Balmer, 1989b; Biemer, 1983; Bonomi, 1971; Bonomi, 1986; Bridenbaugh, 1966; De Jong, 1975; Earle, 1938; Fowler, 1981; Fox, 1926;

Goodfriend, 1992; Greenberg, 1974; Greenberg, 1975; Hodges, 1982; Kammen, 1975; Kavenagh, 1973; Kemp, 1969; Kilpatrick, 1912; Leamon, 1963; Leder, 1960; Lodwick, 1849; McCormick, 1989; Miller, 1843; Morehouse, 1973; Nooter, 1995; Olson, 1973; Phelan, 1933; Pointer, 1988; Pool, 1955; Pratt, 1967; Reich, 1953; Roeber, 1991; Sosin, 1985; Still, 1956; Wilier, 1960; White, 1956

The Pirates of New York: Andrews, 1956; Bayles, 1915; Bonomi, 1971; Fox, 1926; Goodfriend, 1992; Harlow, 1931; Johnson, 1963; Judd, 1975; Kammen, 1975; Leamon, 1963; Leder, 1961; Lydon, 1970; McCormick, 1989; Miller, 1843; Monaghan, 1935; Morris, 1952; Nash, 1976; Rediker, 1987; Reich, 1953; Risjord, 1981; Ritchie, 1986; Ritchie, 1988; Singleton, 1902; Valentine, 1853; Waller, 1960; White, 1956

The Anglicization of City Life: Andrews, 1956; Bayles, 1915; Bridenbaugh, 1966; De Jong, 1975; Eames, 1928; Earle, 1938; Gilje, 1987; Goebel, 1969; Goodfriend, 1992; Harlow, 1931; Howe, 1990; Kammen, 1970; Kammen, 1975; Katz, 1968; Levinson, 1961; Mintz, 1985; Phelan, 1933; Plumb, 1967; Rediker, 1981; Reynolds, 1984; Ritchie, 1986; Rosen, 1987; Shaw, 1981; Singleton, 1902; Steele, 1986; Straka, 1973

“Trumpet and Drumms”: Balmer, 1989a; Balmer, 1989b; Bayles, 1915; Budd, 1978; De Peyster, 1879; Fox, 1926; Howe, 1990; Kammen, 1975; Klein, 1964; Knittle, 1970; Leamon, 1963; Leder, 1961; Leder, 1971; McCormick, 1989; Reich, 1953; Runcie, 1969; Sosin, 1985; Varga, 1960; Waller, 1960; White, 1956

The Strange Career of Captain Kidd: Earle, 1938; Leder, 1954; Leder, 1961; Miller, 1843; Morris, 1935; Ritchie, 1986

“A very well humourd Affable Gent.”: Archdeacon, 1976b; Balmer, 1981; Balmer, 1988; Balmer, 1989a; Bayles, 1915; Bonomi, 1994; Bonomi, 1998; Earle, 1938; Ellis, 1997; Hodges, 1986; Howe, 1990; Katz, 1983; Kemp, 1969; Kierner, 1992; Kim, 1970; Leder, 1961; McAnear, 1967; Nooter, 1995; Olson, 1973! Pratt. 1967; Reich, 1953; Sheridan, 1981; Sosin, 1985; Valentine, 1853; Van Rensselaer, 1898

Political Interests: Bonomi, 1971; Craven, 1968; Egnal, 1988; Ellis, 1997; Goebel, 1969; Jennings, 1984; Johnson, 1963; Kammen, 1975; Katz, 1968; Katz, 1970; Klein, 1964; Klein, 1966; Kramnick, 1968; Leder, 1960; Leder, 1961, Lustig, 1995; Lydon, 1961; Maika, 1995; Nash, 1976; Olson, 1973a; Olson, 1973b; Pares, 1956; Peckham, 1964; Reich, 1953; Sosin, 1985; Steele, 1986; Valentine, 1853; Van Rensselaer, 1985; Waller, 1960; White, 1956

CHAPTER 9:

IN THE KINGDOM OF SUGAR

Davisson and Bradley, 1971; Kammen, 1975; Kouwcnhoven, 1953; Wilkenfeld, 1977

White Gold, Black Slaves: Brock, 1975; Calder, 1981; Davis, 1991; Dunn, 1972; Henretta and Nobles, 1986; Hobhouse, 1986; Kruger, 1985; Liss, 1983; McCusker, 1978; Mintz, 1985; Pares, 1956; Price, 1974; Sheridan, 1970; Sheridan, 1974; Steele, 1986

The West Indian Connection: Archdeacon, 1976b; Bridenbaugh and Bridenbaugh, 1972; Bruchey, 1966; Davisson and Bradley, 1971; Duffy, 1974; Dunn, 1972; Goodfriend, 1992; Jaher, 1982; Kammen, 1975; Kierner, 1992; Marcus, 1970; McCusker and Menard, 1985; Mintz, 1985; Monaghan, 1935; Narrett, 1988; Pares, 1956; Rediker, 1987; Reich, 1953; Risjord, 1981; Rosen, 1992; Scoville, 1866; Sheridan, 1974; Singleton, 1902; Steele, 1986; Still, 1956; White, 1956; Wilkenfeld, 1978

The Town that Trade Built: Archdeacon, 1975; Bayles, 1915; Bridenbaugh, 1966; Bruchey, 1966; Davisson and Bradley, 1971; DeVoe, 1970; Goodfriend, 1992; Kammen, 1975; McCusker and Menard, 1985; McKee, 1935; Still, 1956; White, 1956; Wilkenfeld, 1977; Wilkenfeld, 1978

City of Slaves: Archdeacon, 1975; Bonomi, 1971; Cray, 1988; Cray, 1988; Davis, 1991; Dillard, 1972; Fox, 1926; Goodfriend, 1992; Kammen, 1975; Kruger, 1985; Lydon, 1978; McCormick, 1989; McKee, 1935; McManus, 1966; Moss, 1985; Narrett, 1989; Newman, 1993; Smith, 1983

“Boony Country”: Balmer, 1989a; Bender, 1987; Bonomi, 1971; Butler, 1983; Calder, 1981; Cray, 1988a; Cray, 1988b; Crimmins, 1905; Dickson, 1966; Doyle, 1981; Faber, 1992; Goodfriend, 1989; Goodfriend, 1902; Goodfriend, 1996; Graham, 1956; Grinstein, 1945; Hamlin, 1939; Hamlin and Baker, 1959; Hershkowitz, 1976; Hershkowitz and Meyer, 1968; Kammen, 1975; Keys, 1967; Kierner, 1992; Klein, 1964; Klein, 1978; Knittle, 1970; Leder, 1971; Lustig, 1983; Lustig, 1995; Marcus, 1970; Maury, 1853; McGregor, 1988; McKee, 1935; Miller, 1985; Mintz, 1985; Morris, 1935; Morris, 1978; Narrett, 1989; Nash, 1979; Otterness, 1994; Pool, 1952; Pool, 1955; Pryde, 1935; Roeber, 1993; Rosenwaike, 1972; Scott and Stryker-Rodda, 1975; Sheridan, 1974; Smith, 1978; Van Rensselaer, 1985; Wells, 1973; White, 1956

An Epitaph far Dutch New York: Archdeacon, 1976b; Balmer, 1989a; Benson, 1964; Bonomi, 1971; Bridenbaugh, 1948; Butler, 1983; Cohen, 1971; Cohen, 1992; De Jong, 1975; Dunshee, 1952; Earle, 1938; Fabend, 1991; Fabend, 1997; Gehring, 1984; Goebel, 1969; Goodfriend, 1992; Greenberg, 1974; Harlow, 1931; Harrington, 1933; Hershkowitz and Meyer, 1968; janvier, 1894; Jordan, 1977; Kemp, 1969; Kierner, 1992; Klingberg, 1940; Krassner, 1985; Maury, 1853; Maxson, 1920; Miller and Johnson, 1963; Narrett, 1988; Narrett, 1992; Nooter, 1995; Norton, 1980; Pointer, 1988; Roeber, 1991; Rosenwaike, 1972; Singleton, 1902; Sweeney, 1992; Tanis, 1967; Wacker, 1986; Wertenbaker, 1949

CHAPTER 10:

ONE BODY CORPORATE AND POLITIC?

Kavenagh, 1973; McAnear, 1967

“A Free City of Itself”: Andrews, 1900; Archdeacon, 1976b; Black, 1967; Edwards, 1967; Gilje, 1987; Goebel, 1969; Hartog, 1983; Hodges, 1986; Hodges, 1988; Kavenagh, 1973; Kent, 1956; Klein, 1964; McAnear, 1967; McKee, 1935; Peterson, 1917; Seybolt, 1918;. Teaford, 1975; Vargs, 1960; Wagman, 1983b; Wilkenfeld, 1971; Williamson, 1960

Deference or Indifference?: Archdeacon, 1976b; Blackmar, 1989; Bonomi, 1971; Duffy, 1968-74; Flexner, 1980; Fox, 1926; Goodfriend, 1992; Greene, 1996; Hsrtog, 1983; Howe, 1990; Kammen, 1975; Katz, 1968; Klein, 1964; McKee, 1935; Morgan, 1988; Narrett, 1988; Nash, 1976; Peterson, 1917; Rothschild, 1990; Varga, 1960; Wagman, 1983b; Wilkenfeld, 1976; Wilkenfeld, 1978

The Master’s Voice: Cray, 1988a; Duffy, 1968-74; Edwards, 1967; Ekirch, 1987; Goodfriend, 1992; Greenberg, 1974; Kavenagh, 1973; Kross, 1983; McKee, 1935; Mohl, 1969; Morris, 1935; Narrett, 1988; Peterson, 1917; Richardson, 1970; Ross, 1988; Rothman, 1990; Schneider, 1980; Seybolt, 1918; Smith, 1947; Van Rensselaer, 1909; Wilkenfeld, 1976; Wilkenfeld, 1978

The City and the Poor: Cray, 1988a; McKee, 1935; Mohl, 1969; Narrett, 1988; Ross, 1988; Schneider, 1980

“a terror to others”: Cohen, 1971; Cohen, 1974; Cohen, 1992; Davis, 1991; Goodfriend, 1992; Graydon, 1979; Greenberg, 1974; Higginbotham, 1978; Hodges, 1986; Kavenagh, 1973; Kemp, 1969; Klingberg, 1940; Kobrin, 1971; Kross, 1983; Kruger, 1985; Lustig, 1995; Lydon, 1978; McKee, 1935; McManus, 1966; Olson, 1973b; Riker, 1982; Scott, 1961; Sheridan, 1974; Skemer, 1975; Trelease, 1960; Vsnderbilt, 1881

CHAPTER 11:

RECESSION, REVIVAL, AND REBELLION

Bridenbaugh, 1966; Calder, 1981; Countryman, 1981a; Cray, 1988a; Cray, 1988b; Davis, 1973; Davis, 1985; Duffy, 1968-74; Greenberg, 1974; McKee, 1935; Nssh, 1976; Rosenwsike, 1972; Ross, 1989

The Party of the People: Bailyn, 1967; Bayles, 1915; Bonomi, 1971; Henderson, 1982; Hershkowitz and Meyer, 1968; Jacobson, 1965; Katz, 1968; Klein, 1963; Klein, 1964; Lustig, 1995; Nash, 1976; Rankin, 1965; Vsrga, 1960; Wertenbsker, 1949; White, 1956 The Case of the Poor Printer.Bayles, 1915; Botein, 1985; Hershkowitz and Meyer, 1968; Kammen, 1975; Katz, 1963; Katz, 1968; Kstz, 1970; Katz, 1971; Levy, 1960; Lustig, 1995; Morris, 1952; Nash, 1976; Singleton, 1902; Steers, 1968; Wertenbaker, 1949

“Such a Single I Never Sam”: Bayles, 1915; Bonomi, 1971; Jordan, 1977; Cray, 1988a; Cray, 1988b; Katz, 1968; Lustig, 1995; Olson, 1973a

“Gethsemane! Gethsemane!”: Bushman, 1970; Duer, 1867; Fowler, 1981; Hodges, 1988; Kammen, 1975; Klingberg, 1940; Pratt, 1967; Vedder, 1898

“G—id—nail the whitepeople”: Chase, 1983; Davis, 1985; Davis, 1991; Goodfriend, 1992; Harris, 1993; Hershkowitz and Meyer, 1968; Horsmanden, 1971; Sheridan, 1974; Szasz, 1967

CHAPTER 12:

WAR AND WEALTH

Anderson, 1972; Bridenbaugh, 1971; Buffington, 1933; Harris, 1993; Nash, 1976; Peckham, 1964

Spoils of War. Abbott, 1974; Bridenbaugh, 1971; Buffington, 1933; Byard, 1989; DeVoe, 1970; Egnal, 1988; Gilje, 1987; Harlow, 1931; Harrington, 1933; Harrington, 1935; Hershkowitz, 1976; Hershkowitz and Meyer, 1968; Hodges, 1986; Janvier, 1984; Kim, 1970; Lydon, 1961; Lydon, 1968; Marcus, 1970; McKee, 1933; McKee, 1935; Narrett, 1989; Nash, 1976; O’Conor, 1938; Reducer, 1981; Swanson, 1991; White, 1956; Whiteman, 1971

Industry and Empire: Bruchey, 1965; Bruchey, 1966; Calder, 1981; Coleman, 1977; Egnal, 1985; Egnal, 1988; Fox, 1967; Harrington, 1933; Henretta and Nobles, 1986; Kammen, 1970; Kierner, 1992; Kouwenhoven, 1953; Lorillard, 1960; Price, 1980; White, 1956

Refinement: Alexander, 1938; Bender, 1987; Breen, 1986; Breen, 1992; Bridenbaugh, 1948; Bushman, 1993; Calvert, 1992; Earle, 1938; Garrett, 1978; Gerardi, 1978; Gottesman, 1938; Henderson, 1982; Kierner, 1988; Kierner, 1992; Klein, 1963; Klein, 1967; Klingenberg, 1940; Kraus, 1949; Narrett, 1988; Norton, 1980; Odell, 1927-49; Rankin, 1965; Silverman, 1976; Singleton, 1902; Sweeney, 1992; Wertenbaker, 1949; White, 1956; Wilkenfeld, 1978; Wright, 1957

Genteel Retorts: Abbott, 1974; Bayles, 1915; Black, 1984; Breen, 1986; Bushman, 1983; Chappell, 1992; Dunshee, 1952; Earle, 1938; Garrett, 1978; Gottesman, 1938; Harlow, 1931; Harrington, 1935; Harris, 1993; Henderson, 1982; Hershkowitz and Meyer, 1968; Kierner, 1988; Kierner, 1992; McAnear, 1967; McKendrick, et al., 1982; Mintz, 1970; Mintz, 1985; Monaghan, 1935; Narrett, 1988; O’Conor, 1938; Price, 1974; Reynolds, 1984; Scoville, 1863-66; Severini, 1981; Singleton, 1902; Sweeny, 1992; Wertenbaker, 1949; White, 1956; Wilkenfeld, 1978

Politics Among Gentlemen: Bender, 1987; Benson, 1964; Countryman, 1981a; Dillon, 1949; Doyle, 1981; Egnal, 1988; Ford, 1902; Gerardi, 1977-8; Gilje, 1987; Humphrey, 1976; Keep, 1909; Kierner, 1992; Kim, 1970; Klein, 1963; Klein, 1971a; Klein, 1971b; Klein, 1993; Launitz-Schurer, 1981; Lustig, 1995; Mark, 1965; McCaughey, 1980; Miller, 1985; Nelson, 1979; Pratt, 1967; Schneider, 1980; Singleton, 1902; Upton, 1969; Van Rensselaer, 1898

Wages of War: Bayles, 1915; Benson, 1964; Bridenbaugh, 1971; Gilje, 1987; Gottesman, 1938; Hodges, 1986; Jennings, 1988; Jordan, 1977; Lemisch, 1977; Lydon, 1961; Lydon, 1968; McKee, 1933; McKee, 1935; Narrett, 1989; Nash, 1976; Rediker, 1981; Singleton, 1902; Swanson, 1991; White, 1956; Whiteman, 1971; Wilkenfeld, 1978

Municipal Improvements: Bridenbaugh, 1971; Cray, 1988a; DeVoe, 1970; Dunshee, 1952; Edwards, 1967; Greenberg, 1974; Hodges, 1986; Klein, 1963; Richardson, 1970; Rosen, 1950; Schneider, 1938-41; Schneider, 1980

Artistmal Wards: Abbott, 1974; Bayles, 1915; Benson, 1964; Blackmar, 1989; Boydston, 1990; DeVoe, 1970; Hodges, 1986; Jordan, 1977; McEllhenny, 1982; McKee, 1935; Morehouse, 1973; Rothschild, 1990

CHAPTER 13:

CRISES

Bridenbaugh, 1971; Dructor, 1975; Edwards, 1967; Egnal, 1985; Egnal, 1988; Goodfriend, 1996;

Harrington, 1935; Henretta and Nobles, 1986; Nash, 1976; Rogers, 1974; Walton and Shepherd, 1979; Wertenbaker, 1948; Wilkenfeld, 1977; Wilkenfeld, 1978

Newcomers: Bailyn, 1986a; Bailyn, 1986b; Bayles, 1915; Bridenbaugh, 1971; Calder, 1981; Countryman, 1981a; Doyle, 1981; Earle, 1938; Edwards, 1967; Gilje, 1987; Greenberg, 1974; Harrington, 1935; Knollenberg, 1960; Mason, 1966; Mohl, 1969; Nash, 1976; Odell, 1927-49; Rankin, 1965; Singleton, 1902; Wertenbaker, 1949; Wilkenfeld, 1976

Policy: Calder, 1981; Calhoon, 1973; Egnal, 1988; Johnson and Syrett, 1968; Kammen, 1975; Kierner, 1992; Kim, 1970; Klein, 1960; Knollenberg, 1960; Lusrig, 1995

Resistance: Egnal, 1988; Gilje, 1988; Kammen, 1975; Lusrig, 1995; Mohl, 1971; Morgan, 1953; Scull, 1882; Shy, 1965; Wertenbaker, 1948

Riotous Proceedings; Becker, 1909; Christen, 1968; Engleman, 1953; Gerlach, 1972; Gilje, 1987; Lemisch, 1997; Morgan, 1953; Nash, 1976; Ranlet, 1986; Scull, 1882; Singleton, 1902; Wertenbaker, 1948

Sons of Liberty: Champagne, 1967; Champagne, 1975a; Champagne, 1975b; Christen, 1968; Countryman, 1981a; Launitz-Schurer, 1981; MacDougall, 1977; Maier, 1980; Morals, 1939; Nash, 1976; Wertenbaker, 1948

“Our port is shut up”: Alexander, 1938; Becker, 1909; Bonomi, 1971; Christen, 1968; Countryman, 1976b; Countryman, 1981a; Egnal, 1988; Ernst, 1993; Gerlach, 1972; Gilje, 1987; Jensen, 1968; Kim, 1970; Kim, 1982; Lynd, 1967; Mark, 1965; Ranlet, 1986; Scull, 1882; Singleton, 1902

Repeal: Egnal, 1988; Gilje, 1987; Scull, 1882; Upton, 1969

CHAPTER 14:

THE DEMON OF DISCORD

Christen, 1968; Gilje, 1987; Launitz-Schurer, 1981; Olm, 1974

The Transformation of Politics: Bonomi, 1971; Champsgne, 1963; Champagne, 1975a; Christen, 1968; Egnal, 1988; Friediran, 1965; Gerlach, 1972; Kammen, 1975; Launitz-Schurer, 1981; Leder, 1962-63; Lusrig, 1995; Nash, 1976; Vargs, 1956; Wertenbaker, 1948

A City “Alive to God”: Dillon, 1949; Fowler, 1981; Goodfriend, 1996; Klein, 1993; Maxon, 1920; McEllhcnncy, 1992; Pointer, 1988; Pratt, 1967; Upton, 1969; Vedder, 1898; Wilkenfeld, 1978

The Wilkes of America: Bayles, 1915; Boyer, 1973; Champagne, 1975a; Christen, 1968; Egnal, 1988; Gilje, 1987; Lusrig, 1995; Ranlet, 1986; Scull, 1882

Nonimportation Defeated: Chsmpsgne, 1975a; Christen, 1968; Countryman, 1981a; Egnal, 1988; Maier, 1980; McKee, 1935; Ranlet, 1986; Upton, 1969; Wertenbaker, 1948

“A New Flame Kindling in America”: Bridenbaugh, 1971; Calder, 1981; Christen, 1968; Countryman, 1981a; De Pauw, 1974; Dickson, 1966; Egnal, 1988; Gerlach, 1972; Graham, 1956; Greenberg, 1974; Labaree, 1975; Lustig, 1995; Mason, 1966; Mintz, 1970; Nash, 1976; Nelson, 1990; Still, 1956; Wertenbaker, 1948.

The “New Arcadia” of Liberty: Christen, 1968; Countryman, 1981a; Kerber, 1980; Lustig, 1995; Lynd, 1967; Mason, 1966; Norton, 1980; Wertenbaker, 1948

The Continental Association: Alexander, 1938; Ammerman, 1974; Christen, 1968; Countryman, 1981a; Lustig, 1995; Odell, 1927-49; Rankin, 1965; Wertenbaker, 1948

Whigs of the OU Stamp: Ashton, 1976; Balmer, 1989a; Benton, 1975; Black, 1984; Calhoon, 1973; Champagne, 1975a; Countryman, 1976a; Countryman, 1981a; Crary, 1973; De Jong, 1975; Dructor, 1975; Egnal, 1988; Ernst, 1993; Flick, 1969; Gerardi, 1978; Hull, et al. 1978; Judd, 1975; Judd, 1983; Kammen, 1976; Klingle, 1979; Lsunitz Schurer, 1981; Lustig, 1995; Mason, 1966; McNamara, 1995; Pointer, 1988; Potter, 1983; Pratt, 1967; Ranlet, 1986; Smith, 1969-71; Tiedemann, 1983; Tiedemann, 1984; Tiedemann, 1988; Warnock, 1988; Wertenbaker, 1948; Wright, 1975

“The Mob Begin to Think and Reason”: Adams, 1976; Alexander, 1938; Becker, 1966; Griswold, 1856; Klein, 1983; Mintz, 1970; Monaghan, 1935; Morris, 1973; Wertenbaker, 1948; Young, 1967

CHAPTER 15:

REVOLUTION

Champagne, 1975a; Christen, 1968; Countryman, 1981a; Egnal, 1988; Judd, 1983; Launitz Schurer, 1981; Lustig, 1995; Mason, 1966; Mitchell, 1962; Nelson, 1990; Nelson, 1991; Ranlet, 1986; Schachner, 1947; Smith, 1969-71; Tyler, 1975; Wertenbaker, 1948

“Good and Well-Ordered Governments”: Bliven, 1972; Countryman, 1981a; Egnal, 1988; Flick, 1969; Gilje, 1987; Lustig, 1995; Mason, 1966; Mintz, 1970; Wertenbaker, 1948

Yankee Doodle Comes to Town: Abbott, 1929; Alden, 1951; Bangs, 1968; Billias, 1964; Bliven, 1972; Christen, 1968; Fleming, 1776; Flexner, 1968; Fuck, 1969; Higginbotham, 1971; Luke and Venablcs, 1976; Lustig, 1995; MacDougall, 1977; Maier, 1972; Mason, 1966; Mather, 1913; Moore, 1969; Nelson, 1979; Potter, 1983; Ranlet, 1986; Shy, 1976; Still, 1956; Wertenbaker, 1948

“People Treading on Their Leaders’ Heels”: Egly, 1981; Flick, 1969; Flexner, 1968; Flexner, 1980; Gallagher, 1995; Gilje, 1987; Johnston, 1971; Lustig, 1995; Lynd, 1967; Mason, 1966; Ranlet, 1986; Schaukirk, 1979

“I Thought All London Was A float”: Bangs, 1968; Bliven, 1972; Blumenthal, 1952; De Pauw, 1975; Flexner, 1968; Flick, 1969; Gerlach, 1972; Gruber, 1972; Lynd, 1967; Marston, 1987; Mason, 1966; Pratt, 1967; Scheer and Rankin, 1957; Wall, 1975; Wertenbaker, 1948

Such Unsoldierly Conduct: Abbott, 1929; Doyle, 1981; Fleming, 1776; Flexner, 1968; Flick, 1969; Gallagher, 1995; Gruber, 1972; Higginbotham, 1971; Koke, 1975; Mackenzie, 1979; Scheer and Rankin, 1957; Wertenbaker, 1948

The Battle of Brooklyn: Balderston and Syren, 1975; Black, 1991; Dann, 1980; Flexner, 1968; Flick, 1969; Gallagher, 1995; Graydon, 1979; Gruber, 1972; Gruber, 1986; Hayes, 1995; Johnston, 1971; Kruger, 1985; Leggett, 1979; Manders, 1978; Nelson, 1979; Peckham, 1974; Sabine, 1954; Sabine, 1973; Scheer, 1962; Scheer and Rankin, 1957; Tucker, 1975; Vanderbilt, 1881

The Fall of New York: Black, 1991; Fleming, 1975; Flexner, 1968; Gruber, 1972; Gruber, 1986; Johnson, 1976; Johnston, 1897; Johnston, 1971; Paltsits, 1975; Scheer and Rankin, 1957; Serle, 1940; Still, 1956; Wagner, 1963; Wertenbaker, 1948

Heaven in Flames: Crary, 1973; Ellis, 1997; Fleming, 1975; Flexner, 1968; Graydon, 1979; Johnston, 1897; Kerber, 1980; Mackenzie, 1979; Moore, 1969; Scheer and Rankin, 1957; Wertenbaker, 1948

Finale: Billias, 1975; Bonwick, 1977; Booth, 1973; De Pauw, 1975; Engle, 1976; Plumb, 1986; Scheer and Rankin, 1957

CHAPTER 16:

THE GIBRALTAR OFNORTH AMERICA

Barck, 1966; Cohen, 1974; De Pauw, 1975; Flexner, 1980; Flick, 1969; Gerlach, 1972; Johnson, 1976; Keep, 1909; Klein, 1983; Klingle, 1979; Kruger, 1985; Lorenz, 1972; Luke and Venables, 1976; Mason, 1966; Msther, 1913; Ranlet, 1986; Ritchie, 1975; Silverman, 1976; Tiedemann, 1987; Vail, 1975; Wertenbaker, 1948

“Toujours delagaiete”: Barck, 1966; Dructor, 1975; East, 1938; Graydon, 1979; Harlow, 1931; Johnson, 1976; Lorenz, 1972; Moore, 1969; Ridge, 1988; Ritchie, 1975; Schaukirk, 1979; Silverman, 1976; Spalding, 1932; Wertenbaker, 1948

“Every Negro Who Shall Desert the Retell Standdard”: Davis, 1991; Hodges, 1987; Johnson, 1976; Klingle, 1979; Kruger, 1985; McKee, 1935! Narrett, 1988; Nash, 1992; Watson, 1846

Herrings in a Barrel: Barck, 1966; Conway, 1986; Conway, 1990; Eddis, 1972; Flexner, 1980; Flick, 1969; Gilje, 1987; Graydon, 1979; Hodges, 1987; Klein, 1983; Klein and Howard, 1983; Klingle, 1979; Leary, 1975; Marcus, 1970; Onderdonk, 1894; Pennypacker, 1930; Pennypacker, 1939; Pool, 1952; Pool, 1955; Ranlet, 1986; Ritchie, 1975; Schaukirk, 1979; Still, 1956; Upton, 1969; Wertenbaker, 1948

“Blood-Sucking Harpies”: Conway, 1990; De Pauw, 1974; Flexner, 1980; Klein, 1980; Klein, 1983; McNamara, 1995; Nelson, 1990; Schaukirk, 1979; Silverman, 1976; Young, 1977

“Kennel, Ye Sons of Bitches!”: Blatchford, 1865; Booth, 1973; Bray and Bushnell, 1978; Dunshee, 1952; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Graydon, 1979; Hawkins, 1979; Hayes, 1995; Lemisch, 1969; Onderdonk, 1894; Ranlet, 1986; Watson, 1846; Wertenbaker, 1948

“One General Scene of Ravage and Desolation”: Balderston and Syrett, 1975; Barck, 1966; Booth, 1973; Buck, 1995; Conway, 1986; Conway, 1990; Crary, 1975; De Pauw, 1974; Dunkak, 1988; Fingerhut, 1983; Graydon, 1979; Hodges, 1887; Hufeland, 1926; Johnson, 1976; Judd, 1983; Kammen, 1982; Kelsay, 1984; Kemble, 1885; Kim, 1993; Klein and Howard, 1983; Klingle, 1979; Luke 3nd Venables, 1976; McNamara, 1995; Mintz, 1970; Norton, 1980; Parmet, 1967; Ranlet, 1986; Reynolds, 1960; Riker, 1982; Shy, 1975; Tiedemann, 1976; Waller, 1975; Wertenbaker, 1948

“Curses Upon Their King”: Barck, 1966; Booth, 1973; Conway, 1990; Crary, 1959; De Pauw, 1974; Ernst, 1983; Fingerhut, 1983; Flexner, 1980; Judd, 1983; Kemble, 1885; Klein and Howard, 1983; Mason, 1966; Pennypacker, 1930; Pennypacker, 1939; Ranlet, 1986; Schaukirk, 1979; Still, 1956; Upton, 1969; Wertenbaker, 1948

The State of New York: Adams, 1980; Barck, 1966; Bielinski, 1975; Cochran, 1932; Countryman, 1981a; Countryman, 1981b; Dangerrield, 1960; Ernst, 1983; Flick, 1969; Graymont, 1972; Hartog, 1983; Kaminski, 1993; Kammen, 1976; Kelsay, 1984; Kierner, 1992; Kruger, 1985; Lynd, 1967; Main, 1973; Mason, 1966; Mintz, 1970; Mitchell, 1962; Monaghan, 1935; Overall, 1887; Polf, 1977; Pratt, 1967; Quarles, 1961; Ranlet, 1986; Scoville, 1863-66; Upton, 1969; Wertenbaker, 1948; Wright, 1984; Young, 1967; Zeichner, 1940

Evacuation Day: Balderston and Syrett, 1975; Bayles, 1915; Ernst, 1983; Flexner, 1968; Gilje, 1987; Kaminski, 1993; Mather, 1913; Pomerantz, 1938; Ranlet, 1986; Silverman, 1976; Tiedemann, 1987; Wright, 1984

PART THREE:

MERCANTILE TOWN (1783-1843)

CHAPTER 17:

PHOENIX

Alexander, 1938; Crowley, 1993; Dangerfield, 1960; Griswold, 1856; Hershkowitz, 1990; Lynd, 1967; Mason, 1966; Monaghan, 1935; Nettels, 1962; Pomerantz, 1938; Pound, 1931

Radical Resurgence: Alexander, 1938; Champagne, 1975a; Cooke, 1960; Countryman, 1981a; Dangerfield, 1960; East, 1938; Garrett, 1978; Gilje, 1987; Hartog, 1983; Humphery, 1976; Kaminski, 1993; Kierner, 1989, Lynd, 1967; Main, 1973; Mason, 1966; Mohl, 1969; Nevins, 1969; Odell, 1927-49; Pomerantz, 1938; Pool, 1955; Pratt, 1967; Prescott and Zimmerman, 1972; Ranlet, 1986; Silverman, 1976; Smith, 1984; Smith, 1989; Spaulding, 1932; Tiedemann, 1987; Wilkenfeld, 1978; Willis, 1967; Young, 1967

New New Yorkers: Armbruster, 1929; Black, 1984; Cress, 1975; Davis, 1965; Duffy, 1968-74; East, 1938; Ernst, 1989; Haeger, 1991; Harlow, 1931; Hartfield, 1993; Hartog, 1983; Henderson, 1974; Jaher, 1982; Jones, 1975; Jones, 1987; Jones, 1992; Lomask, 1979-82; Main, 1965; Mason, 1966; Matson, 1987; Matson, 1989; Meehan, 1906; Monaghan, 1935; Parmet, 1967; Peters, 1984; Pomerantz, 1938; Porter, 1931; Pratt, 1967; Rosenwaike, 1972; Ryan, 1935; Scoville, 1863—66; Smith, 1989; Spaulding, 1932; Stiles, 1867-70; Still, 1956; Young, 1967

Phocion Speaks: Cooke, 1960; Dangerfield, 1960; Horton, 1939; Kent, 1898; Lynd, 1967; Kline, 1973; Mitchell, 1962; Spaulding, 1932

The Empress of China: Barck, 1966; Cochran, 1932; Countryman, 1981a; East, 1938; Fischer, 1965; Matson, 1989; McDonald, 1958; Smith, 1984; Smith, 1989; Spaulding, 1932; Wright, 1984; Young, 1967

CHAPTER 18:

THE REVOLUTION SETTLEMENT

Alexander, 1938; Champagne, 1975; Cooke, 1960; Countryman, 1981a; Kline, 1973; Lynd, 1967; Matson, 1987; Mitchell, 1962; Morris, 1935; Nevins, 1969; Pomerantz, 1938; Spaulding, 1932; Willis, 1967; Young, 1967

Rapprochement: Barck, 1966; Cochran, 1932; Cooke, 1960; Countryman, 1981; Crowley, 1993; De Pauw, 1966; Hartog, 1983; Lynd, 1967; Main, 1973; Matson, 1987; McDonald, 1958; Mohl, 1969; Pomerantz, 1938; Ranlet, 1986; Smith, 1989; Spaulding, 1932; Willis, 1967; Young, 1967

The Radical Retreat: Alexander, 1938; Benton, 1975; Champagne, 1975; Countryman, 1981; Ernst, 1983; Fingerhut, 1983; Flick, 1969; Lynd, 1967; McDonald, 1958; Overall, 1987; Pomerantz, 1938; Pratt, 1967; Spaulding, 1932; Young, 1967; Zeichner, 1940

Estate Sales: Blackmar, 1989; Countryman, 1981a; Dangerfield, 1960; Davis, 1965; East, 1938; Harlow, 1931; Lynd, 1967; Main, 1973; McDonald, 1958; Pomerantz, 1938; Ranlet, 1986; Spaulding, 1932; Yoshpe, 1939; Young, 1967

Order out of Confusion: Cooke, 1960; Countryman, 1981a; Hartog, 1983; Murrin, 1980; Spaulding, 1932

Daughters of Liberty: Basch, 1982; Berg, 1978; Blackmar, 1989; Booth, 1973; Boydston, 1990; Burrows and Wallace, 1972; Countryman, 1981a; De Pauw, 1974; De Pauw, 1975; Fliegelman, 1982; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Kami, 1991; Kerber, 1980; Kerber, 1992; Lewis, 1987; Norton, 1980; Rock, 1979; Scoville, 1863-66; Spalletta, 1955; Stansell, 1986; Vanderbilt, 1881; Wilson, 1976

Emancipation: Cooke, 1960; Gilje, 1987; Johnson, 1930; Kaplan, 1989; Kruger, 1985; Main, 1973; McManus, 1966; Monaghan and Lowenthal, 1943; Nsrrett, 1988; Nash, 1992; Pomerantz, 1938; Roediger, 1991; Wegelin, 1969; White, 1991; Zilversmit, 1967

CHAPTER 19:

THE GRAND FEDERAL PROCESSION

Cochran, 1932; De Pauw, 1966; Kaminski, 1993; Kline, 1973; Matson, 1987; McDonald, 1958; McDonald, 1965; Miner, 1921; Mitchell, 1962; Monaghan, 1935; Pomerantz, 1938; Spaulding, 1932

“What are you, boy, FEDERAL or ANTI-FEDERAL?”: Boyd, 1976; Brooks, 1967; Burrows, 1966; Cochran, 1932; Cooke, 1960; De Pauw, 1966; Jeffrey, 1971; Kaminski, 1988; Kanunski, 1993; Kenyon, 1966; Kline, 1973; Lynd, 1963; Main, 1973; McDonald, 1958; Miner, 1921; Monaghan, 1935; Pomerantz, 1938; Spaulding, 1932; Webking, 1987; Wood, 1974

Vox Populi: Barck, 1966; Boyd, 1976; Brooks, 1967; Burrows, 1966; Countryman, 1981a; De Pauw, 1966; Ernst, 1968; Ernst, 1989; Kaminski, 1988; Kaminski, 1993; Kent, 1898; Kenyon, 1966; Lynd, 1963; Lynd, 1967; McDonald, 1958; Monaghan, 1935; Pomerantz, 1938; Rutland, 1955; Spaulding, 1932; Still, 1956

The Federal Ship Hamilton: Alexander, 1938; Bell, 1962; Brooks, 1967; Countryman, 1981a; Dangerfield, 1960; De Pauw, 1966; Ernst, 1989; Lynd, 1967; McDonald, 1958; Pomerantz, 1938; Smith, 1989; Spaulding, 1932; Wilentz, 1983

Inauguration Day: Alexander, 1938; Bernstein, 1989; Bickford and Bowling, 1989; Bowling, 1990; Boyd, 1976; Countryman, 1981a; Den Boer, 1989; Flexner, 1968; Griswold, 1856;

Kaminski, 1993; Kenyon, 1966; Maclay, 1965; Miller, 1960; Monaghan and Lowenthal, 1943; Pomerantz, 1938; Riley, 1990; Silverman, 1976; Smith, 1989; Spaulding, 1932; Young, 1967

CHAPTER 20:

CAPITAL CITY

Alexander, 1938; Bender, 1987; Bowling, 1990; Dangerfield, 1960; Davis, 1965; Elkins and McKitrick, 1993; Ernst, 1968; Garrett, 1978; Gilder, 1938; Griswold, 1856; Harlow, 1931; Harris, 1968; Man/.o, 1986; Mitchell, 1962; Monaghan, 1935; Monaghan and Lowenthal, 1943; Pomerantz, 1938; Reynolds, 1984; Silverman, 1976; Smith, 1989

A “Vortex of Folly and Dissipation”: Blau, 1973; Bowling, 1990; Brissot, 1964; Dangerfield, 1960; Davis, 1965; Elkins and McKitrick, 1993; Ernst, 1968; Ernst, 1993; Flexner, 1968; Griswold, 1856; Kammen, 1982; Maclay, 1965; Monaghan, 1935; Monaghan and Lowenthal, 1943; Pomerantz, 1938; Silverman, 1976; Smith, 1989; Still, 1956; Wecter, 1937; Young, 1967

Moneyed Men: Alexander, 1938; Bates, 1962; Bruchey, 1965; Cooke, 1964; Davis, 1965; Ernst, 1993; Graydon, 1979; Jones, 1992; Matson, 1987; Matson, 1989; Mitchell, 1962; Young, 1967

The Compromise of 1790: Allen, 1990; Bender, 1987; Bickford and Bowling, 1989; Bowling, 1971; Bowling, 1991; Charles, 1961; Cooke, 1970; Davis, 1965; Ernst, 1968; Griswold, 1856; Jefferson, 1970; Kammen, 1982; Maclay, 1965; Miller, 1960; Mitchell, 1962; Pomerantz, 1938; Risjord, 1976; Young, 1967

The Problem of Manufactures: Appleby, 1984; Barck, 1966; Carman, 1933; Clark, 1916-28; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Monaghan and Lowenthal, 1943; Nelson, 1979; Pomerantz, 1938; Smith, 1989; Strickland, 1971, Wilentz, 1984; Young, 1967

Scriptomania: Davis, 1965; East, 1938; Hurst, 1978; Jones, 1992; Kennedy, 1989; Matson, 1987; Matson, 1989; Miller, 1960; Nelson, 1979; Sobel, 1968; Young, 1967

Panic: Oangerfield, 1960; Davis, 1965; Ernst, 1993; Gilje, 1987; Harris, 1968; Jones, 1992; Matson, 1987; Matson, 1989; Mitchell, 1962; Pomerantz, 1938; Sobel, 1968; Sterling, 1979; Werner and Smith, 1991; Young, 1967

Under the Buttonvood Tree Blau, 1973; Cochran, 1981; Davis, 1965; De Peyster, 1855; Friedman, 1990; Gardner, 1982; Geisst, 1997; Harris, 1968; Hemming, 1905; Kouwenhoven, 1953; Miller, 1960; Pomerantz, 1938; Scoville, 1863-66; Severini, 1981; Sobe], 1970; Sterling, 1979; Warshaw, 1929; Werner and Smith, 1991

CHAPTER 21:

REVOLUTIONS FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC

Babb, 1954; Blau, 1973; Brillat-Savarin, 1926; Quids, 1940; Hickey, 1982; Hunt, 1988; James, 1962; Jones, 1927; Kennedy, 1989; Kouwenhoven, 1953; Pomerantz, 1938; Raddin, 1940; Raddin, 1953; Sheehan, 1955, Tarry, 1981; Watson, 1846; White, 1988; Young, 1967

Wars and Rumors of Wars: Albion, 1961; Blau, 1973; Davison, 1964; De Conde, 1966; Lampard, 1986; Miller, 1960; Perkins, 1967; Pomerantz, 1938; Young, 1967

Republican Spirits: Ammon, 1973; Bender, 1987; Blackmar, 1989; Blau, 1973; Booth, 1859; Bushman, 1992; Dangerfield, 1960; Durey, 1987; Durey, 1997; Ernst, 1968; Francis, 1866; Furman, 1937; Gilje, 1987; Gronowicz, 1987; Harlow, 1931; Hatcher, 1940; Hodges, 1986; Irwin, 1968; Kaestle, 1973; Kaminski, 1993; Link, 1942; Macky, 1965; McClung, 1958;

Miller, 1960, Mohl, 1969; Monaghan, 1935; Mushkat, 1971; Paulson, 1953; Raddin, 1953; Rock, 1979; Rock, 1989; Scoville, 1863-66; Smith, 1989; Still, 1956; Wansey, 1796; Wecter, 1937; Wilentz, 1983; Wilentz, 1984; Young, 1967

The Democratic-Republicans: Blau, 1973; Hatcher, 1940; Kaminski, 1993; Miller, 1960; Kaestle, 1973; Kline, 1983; Link, 1942; Lomask, 1979-82; McClung, 1958; Mushkat, 1971; Pomerantz, 1938; Rock, 1979; Rock, 1989; Scoville, 1863-66; Young, 1967

Broken Heads: Blau, 1973; Combs, 1970; Dangerfield, 1960; Gilje, 1987; Hurst, 1978; Kennedy, 1989; Kline, 1983; Lomask, 1979-82; Miller, 1960; Mitchell, 1962; Monaghan, 1935; Pomerantz, 1938; Rorabaugh, 1986; Thorburn, 1845; Young, 1967

“As Good As Any Buggers”: Blau, 1973; Gilje, 1987; Hodges, 1986; Pomerantz, 1938; Young, 1967

Black Cockades: Dangerfield, 1960; DeConde, 1966; Gilder, 1938; Gilje, 1987; Miller, 1960; Monaghan, 1935; Pomerantz, 1938; Shuffelton, 1985; Shulim, 1964; Smith, 1965

Federalists in Retreat: Blau, 1973; Bickford and Bowling, 1989; Bobbc, 1933; Dangerfield, 1960; Davis, 1955; DeConde, 1966; Ernst, 1968; Evans, 1952; Gilje, 1987; Hall, 1934; Hatcher, 1940; Hodges, 1986; Horton, 1939; Kaminski, 1993; Kate, 1963; Kline, 1983; Lomask, 1979-82; Miller, 1960; Mitchell, 1962; Monaghan, 1935; Mushkat, 1971; Pomerantz, 1938; Rock, 1979; Rock, 1989; Smith, 1965; Syrett, 1960; Wecter, 1937; Willis, 1967; Young, 1967

“Political Equality and the Corporation”: Blackmar, 1989; Bobbe, 1933; Bowden, 1980; Chambers, 1963; D’Innocenzo, 1974; Fischer, 1965; Fox, 1965; Hartog, 1983; Hatcher, 1940; Hodges, 1986; Kline, 1983;

Lomask, 1979-82; Mitchell, 1962; Morgan, 1969; Pomerantz, 1938; Reynolds, 1984; Rock, 1979; Rock, 1989; Seybolt, 1918; Siry, 1990; Syrett and Cooke, 1960; Teaford, 1975; Willis, 1967; Young, 1967

Interview at Weehaaken: Fox, 1965; Kline, 1983; Lomask, 1979-82; Mitchell, 1962; Slaughter, 1985; Syrett and Cooke, 1960

CHAPTER 22:

QUEEN OF COMMERCE, JACK OF ALL TRADES

Albion, 1961; Bjork, 1967; Blau, 1973; De Conde, 1966; Haeger, 1991; jaher, 1982; Lampard, 1986; Luke, 1953; Miller, 1960; Nelson, 1987; Nettels, 1962; Peters, 1984; Pomerantz, 1938; Sellers, 1991; Smelser, 1968; Still, 1956; White, 1991

Connections: Albion, 1961; Bjork, 1967; Booth, 1859; Bowling, 1990; Bushman, 1983; Cornog, 1988; Davis, 1965; Davison, 1964; Duffy, 1968-74; East, 1938; Ernst, 1968; Ernst, 1993; Frug, 1984; Hammond, 1957; Harlow, 1931; Hartog, 1983; Jaher, 1982; Kline, 1983; Lampard, 1986; Lockwood, 1976; Luke, 1953; Mohl, 1969; Peters, 1984; Pomerantz, 1938; Rosenberg, 1971; Scoville, 1863-66; Shaw, 1966; Smith, 1989; Syrett and Cooke, 1960; Teaford, 1975; White, 1987; Willis, 1967

Riding the Wave: Albion, 1961; Ellis, 1991; Haeger, 1991; Jaher, 1982; Scoville, 1863-66; Simon, 1978; Willis, 1967

Concomitants of Commerce: Albion, 1961; Allen, 1990; Blackmar, 1989; Blau, 1973; Bone, 1973; Evans, 1952; Hartog, 1983; Luke, 1953; Moehring, 1981; Nettels, 1962; Pomerantz, 1938; Rosenwaike, 1972; Still, 1956; Strickland, 1971; Wall, 1994; Wansey, 1796; Young, 1967

Down to the Sea in Ships: Haeger, 1991; Hanyan, 1972; Morrison, 1903; Philip, 1983; Porter, 1931; Whitcman, 1971

Capitalizing Crafts: Appleby, 1984; Barck, 1966; Blackmar, 1989; Carman, 1933; Davidson, 1977; Dyer, 1915; Fox, 1967; Gilje, 1989; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Gowans, 1976; Hartog, 1983; Lorillard, 1960; McClelland, 1990; Monaghan and Lowenthal, 1943; Nelson, 1979; Pomerantz, 1938; Rock, 1979; Rock, 1989; Rorabaugh, 1986; Smith, 1989; Strickland, 1971; Teaford, 1975; Wilentz, 1984; Young, 1967

The End of Slavery: Blackburn, 1988; Blackmar, 1989; Blau, 1973; Blockson, 1987; Bolster, 1997; Cohen, 1992; Countryman, 1981a; Cray, 1986; De Voe, 1970; Freeman, 1966; George, 1973; Gilje, 1987; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Gilje and Rock, 1994; Hanyan, 1972; Johnson, 1930; Kaplan, 1989; Kruger, 1985; Litwack, 1961; Main, 1973; McManus, 1961; McManus, 1966; Nash, 1988; Perlman, 1971; Pomerantz, 1938; Rock, 1979; Rock, 1994; Roediger, 1991; Rosenwaike, 1972; Strickland, 1971; Thorburn, 1845; Watson, 1846; White, 1986; White, 1988; White, 1989; White, 1991; White, 1994; Wilder, 1994; Young, 1967; Zilversmit, 1967

Progress and Poverty: Blackmar, [979; Blackmar, 1989; Cray, 1988a; Cray, 1988b; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Harlow, 1931; Kaestle, 1973; Lynd, 1964; Mohl, 1969; Pomerantz, 1938; Rock, 1979; Stansell, 1986; White, 1991; Wilkenfeld, 1978; Wilentz, 1984; Willis, 1967

CHAPTER 23:

THE ROAD TO CITY HALL

Blackmar, 1989; Blackmar, 1995; Dufty, 1968-74; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Goldman, 1997; Harlow, 1931; Kammen, 1982; Mitchill, 1807; Moehring, 1981; Mohl, 1969; Pomerantz, 1938; Rosenwaike, 1972; Schechter and Tripp, 1990; Teaford, 1975; Vail, 1954; Young, 1967

Shaking Hands mith Death: Blau, 1973; Duffy, 1968-74; Duffy, 1966; Harlow, 1931; Mohl, 1969; Pernick, 1972; Pomerantz, 1938; Raddin, 1940; Raddin, 1953; Robbins, 1964; Thorburn, 1845; Young, 1967,

Excrement and Frog-Spawn: Duffy, 1968-74; Goldman, 1997; Harlow, 1931; Janvier, 1894; Mack, 1947; Pomerantz, 1938; Smith, 1989

Water: Blake, 1956; Duffy, 1968-74; Ginsberg, 1968; Goldman, 1997; Hammond, 1957; Hanyan, 1972; Harlow, 1931; Hartog, 1983; Hunter, 1989; Kline, 1983; Lockwood, 1976; Moehring, 1981; Pomerantz, 1938; Reubens, 1957, 1958; Weidner, 1974; White, 1987

Fin: Duffy, 1968-74; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Ginsberg, 1968; Lockwood, 1976; Pomerantz, 1938

Poverty: Cray, 1988a; Mohl, 1969; Pomerantz, 1938

Up the River: Buckley, 1984; Cunliffe, 1968; Gilje, 1987; Hirsch, 1992; Janvier, 1984; Kraus, 1949; Lewis, 1963; Lewis, 1965; Miller, 1962; Miller, 1980; Miller, 1990; Mohl, 1970b; Monaghan and Lowenthal, 1943; Picket!, 1969; Pomerantz, 1938; Rienders, 1976; Rothman, 1990; Watson, 1846; White, 1991

Departments and Debts: Duffy, 1968—74; Pomerantz, 1938

City Hall: Blackmar, 1989; Cornog, 1988; Dunshec, 1952; Goldstone and Dalrymple, 1974; Gowans, 1976; Harris, 1966; Holloway, 1928; Janvier, 1894; Kennedy, 1989; Kouwenhoven, 1953; Lockwood, 1972; Lockwood, 1976; Pomerantz, 1938; Reynolds, 1984; Sloan and Anthony, 1968; Tauranac, 1979; Walsh, 1996; Whiffen and Keeper, 1981

CHAPTER 24:

PHILOSOPHES AND PHIL-ANTHROPISTS

Baily, 1856; Batterberry, 1973; Blackmar, 1989; Bushman, 1983; Collins, 1946; Cook, 1887; Dangerfield, 1960; Evans, 1952; Gilder, 1938; Hartog, 1983; Henderson, 1982; Kennedy, 1989; Kouwenhoven, 1953; Luke, 1953; Lynd, 1964; Monaghan, 1935; Monaghan and Lowenthal, 1943; Pomerantz, 1938; Smith, 1989; Still, 1956; Thorburn, 1845

Parlor Society: Baily, 1856; Bayles, 1915; Blackmar, 1989; Blumin, 1989; Boydston, 1990; Bushman, 1983; Collins, 1946; Cook, 1887; Dudden, 1983; Ellis, 1997; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Hall, 1934; Horton, 1939; Kerber, 1989; Kouwenhoven, 1953, Lockwood, 1972; Luke, 1953; Lynd, 1964; Monaghan, 1935; Monaghan and Lowenthal, 1943; Morgan, 1969; Pomerantz, 1938; Raddin, 1954; Roche, 1971; Roediger, 1991; Scott, 1933; Smith, 1989; Still, 1956; Vail, 1954; Willis, 1967; Young, 1967

Learned Men and Cultivated Women: Axelrod, 1985; Basch, 1982; Bender, 1987; Blackmar, 1989; Blau, 1973; Blumin, 1989; Bobbe, 1933; Bottoroff, 1985; Canary, 1970; Clawson, 1989; Cronin, 1973; Cutler, 1972; Dangerfield, 1960; Duffy, 1966; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Griffin, 1960; Hall, 1934; Hanyan, 1972; Heale, 1968; Heale, 1971; Heale, 1973; Heale, 1976; Hopkins, 1975; Horton, 1939; Jaher, 1982; Jensen, 1968; Kann, 1991; Kerber, 1980; Krause, 1977; Leary, 1975; May, 1976; Nevins, 1969; Raddin, 1940; Nord, 1988; Norton, 1980; Philip, 1985; Pomerantz, 1938; Raddin, 1953; Robbins, 1964; Roche, 1971; Rosenberg, 1971; Rosenthal, 1985; Sterling, 1959; Still, 1956; Vail, 1954; Young, 1967

Cultivating Citizens: Gottesman, 1959; Harris, 1966; Hedges, 1965; Kerber, 1980; Miller, 1966; Mondello, 1968; Norton, 1980; Pomerantz, 1938; Rosenthal, 1985; Tart, 1947; Vail, 1954

“Active Exertions & Useful Improvements”: Boylan, 1986; Brooks, 1944; Foster, 1960; Griffin, 1960; Hall, 1934; Heale, 1968; Heale, 1976; Kaestle, 1973; Kerber, 1980; Lomask, 1979-82; Miller, 1962; Mohl, 1969; Morais, 1934; Norton, 1980; Pomerantz, 1938; Rosenberg, 1971

“The Slow Process of Education & Religious Instruction”: Allen, 1990; Coleman, 1974; Cutler, 1972; Dunlap, 1930; Elliot, 1985; Foster, 1960; Hatch, 1989; Heale, 1968; Hofstadter, 1965; Horton, 1939; Kaestle, 1973; Kierner, 1992; Koch, 1933; Mann, 1994; Matthews, 1991; Mohl, 1969; Mohl, 1970a; Mohl, 1970b; Monaghan and Lowenthal, 1943; Morais, 1934; Pickett, 1969; Pomerantz, 1938; Rock, 1989; Rosenberg, 1971; Siry, 1990; Thistlethwaite, 1959; Walters, 1990; Willis, 1967; Young, 1967

The Picture of New York: Mitchill, 1807

CHAPTER 25:

FROM CROWD TO CLASS

Duffy, 1968-74; Gilje, 1987; Hofstadter and Wallace, 1970; Monaghan, 1935; Pomerantz, 1938

Working Neighborhoods: Blackmar, 1989; Boyer, 1993; Foote, 1993; Freeman, 1966; Harlow, 1931; Gilje, 1994; Gilje, 1996a; Gilje, 1996b; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Kroessler, 1991; Kruger, 1985; Miller, 1990; Mohl, 1969; Pomerantz, 1938; Rock, 1979; Stiles, 1867-70; Wall, 1994; White, 1991; Wilder, 1994

Five Points: Blackmar, 1989; Dunshee, 1952; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Pomerantz, 1938; Rock, 1979

Turmoil in the Trades: Blackmar, 1989; Bolster, 1997; Durey, 1987; Durey, 1997; Gilje, 1989; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Hodges, 1986; Mohl, 1969; Monaghan and Lowenthal, 1943; Nord, 1988; Odell, 1927-49; Pomerantz, 1938; Raddin, 1940; Raddin, 1953; Rock, 1979; Rock, 1989; Stevens, 1913; Thorburn, 1845; Wansey, 1796; Wilentz, 1984; Young, 1967

Infidels and Evangelicals: Andrews, 1985; Blau, 1973; Carwardine, 1972; Carwardine, 1978; Foner, 1976; Fruchtman, 1994; Gilje, 1987; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Gribbin, 1972; Griffin, 1960; Harlow, 1931; Hatch, 1989; Hawke, 1974; Keane, 1995; Koch, 1933; Kring, 1974; Morais, 1934; Newman, 1993; Pomerantz, 1938; Rock, 1989; Schultz, 1995; Sellers, 1928; Siry, 1990; Walters, 1990; Wilentz, 1984; Young, 1967

Out from the Back of the Church: Blockson, 1987; Bolster, 1997; Cohen, 1992; Countryman, 1981a; Cray, 1986; Earle, 1938; Freeman, 1966; George, 1973; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Gravely, 1983; Hardie, 1827; Harlow, 1931; Hatch, 1989; Johnson, 1930; Jordan, 1968; Kaplan, 1989; Kruger, 1985; McManus, 1966; Nash, 1988; Perlman, 1971; Pomerantz, 1938; Roff, 1986; Rosenwaike, 1972; Sellers, 1928; Sernett, 1975; Stansell, 1986; Strickland, 1971; Thorburn, 1845; Walker, 1993; White, 1986; White, 1988; White, 1989a; White, 1989b; White, 1991; White, 1994; Wilder, 1994; Wilentz, 1984

“Irishtown”: Doyle, 1981; Ellis, 1997; Gilje, 1987; Gilje, 1996a; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Greene, 1987; Hagan, 1923; Haines, 1829; Hartfield, 1993; Mcchan, 1906; Mohl, 1969; Otter, 1995; Pomerantz, 1938; Postgate, 1932; Pratt, 1967; Rock, 1989; Smith, 1989; Walsh, 1996; Wilentz, 1984

“Honest Folks in the Pit”: Blsu, 1973; Blackmar, 1989; Bolster, 1997; Brooks, 1944; Brown and Ment, 1980; Buckley, 1984; Canary, 1970; Culhane, 1990; De Voe, 1970; Dudden, 1994; Dunlap, 1930; Ellis, 1979; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Grimsted, 1968; Harlow, 1931; Henderson, 1982; Johnson, 1975; johnson, 1985; Kaestle, 1973; Kasson, 1990; Leary, 1948; Leary, 1975; Levine, 1988; Monaghan and Lowenthal, 1943; Morgan, 1969; Odell, 1927-49; Otter, 1995; Pomerantz, 1938; Pye, 1991; Rock, 1979; Rock, 1989; Silverman, 1976; Smith, 1989; Stiles, 1867-70; Taft, 1947; Thorburn, 1845; Vail, 1956; White, 1991; Wilentz, 1984

“The Life of a Citizen in the Hands of a Woman”: Arnold, 1989; Blackmar, 1979; Blackmar, 1989; Bolster, 1997; Boydston, 1990; Davidson, 1977; De Voe, 1970; Dudden, 1994; Franchot, 1985; Gilje, 1987; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Harlow, 1931; Hone, 1927; Kerber, 1980; Monaghan and Lowenthal, 1943; Nash, 1988; Norton, 1980; Pomerantz, 1938; Stansell, 1986; Wall, 1994

CHAPTER 26:

WAR AND PEACE

Adams, 1947; Cook, 1887; Ellis, 1997; Gilje, 1987; Haeger, 1991; Perkins, 1961; Smelser, 1968; Tchen, 1990; W.P.A., 1941

O Grab Me: Cray, 1988a; Daitsman, 1963; Folsom, 1991; Gilje, 1987; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Goldstone and Dalrymple, 1974; Guernsey, 1889; Haeger, 1991; Hodges, 1986; Irwin, 1968; Janvier, 1894; Kaplan, 1987; Mohl, 1969; Nettels, 1962; Perkins, 1961; Pomerantz, 1938; Schneider, 1938-41; Smelser, 1968; Spivak, 1979; Still, 1956; Tauranac, 1979

“Bread or Work”: Folsom, 1991; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Schneider, 1938-41

Unlawful Combinations and Riotous Assemblies: Boydston, 1990; Carwardine, 1972; Carwardine, 1978; Ernst, 1968; Fox, 1965; Gilje, 1987; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Greene, 1987; Hagan, 1923; Haines, 1829; Postgate, 1932; Rock, 1989; Stevens, 1913; Still, 1956; Walsh, 1996; Wilentz, 1984; W.P.A., 1941

“Muck Exultation Among the Federalists”: Alexander, 1969; Bayles, 1915; Bender, 1987; Bobbe, 1933; Cray, 1988a; Dangerfield, 1960; D’lnnocenzo, 1974; Ernst, 1968; Fischer, 1965; Fox, 1965; Hammond, 1957; Hodges, 1986; Irwin, 1968; July, 1951; Mohl, 1969; Mushkat, 1971; Rock, 1989; Strum, 1981

Diedrich Knickerbocker. Adkins, 1930; Batterberry, 1973; Bayles, 1915; Bender, 1987; Black, 1974; Bowdcn, 1980; Bowden, 1981; Brooks, 1944; Buckley, 1984; Callow, 1967; Conrad, 1984; Cooper, 1968; Evans, 1952; Hedges, 1965; Herold, 1926; Irving, 1965; Leary, 1975; Marx, 1983; Myers, 1976; O’Connell, 1994; Paulding, 1867; Pomerantz, 1938; Reynolds, 1984; Seelye, 1991; Taft, 1947; Wilson, 1976

Internal Improvements: Allen, 1993; Blackmar, 1989; Blackmar, 1995; Bobbe, 1933; Brown, 1964; Cohen and Augustyn, 1997; Dunshec, 1952; Fischer, 1965; Fox, 1965; Gilje, 1987; Hanyan, 1972; Hartog, 1983; Irving, 1984; Irwin, 1968; Janvier, 1894; July, 1951; Koolhaas, 1978; Lockwood, 1976; Miller, 1962; Miller, 1990; Mintz, 1970; Mushkat, 1971; Perkins, 1961; Plunz, 1990; Pound, 1975; Reps, 1965; Rock, 1989; Shanor, 1988; Shaw, 1966; Smelser, 1968; Sutclifie, 1981; Taylor, 1992; Van Leeuwen, 1988; White, 1987

The Mayor Who Would Be President: Alexander, 1969; Brown, 1964; Ernst, 1968; Fischer, 1965; Fox, 1965; Gilje, 1987; Guernsey, 1889; Hammond, 1957; Hanyan, 1972; Irwin, 1968; July, 1951; Mintz, 1970; Mushkat, 1971; Nevins, 1922; Perkins, 1961; Prescott and Zimmerman, 1972; Rock, 1989; Sellers, 1991; Siry, 1990; Smelser, 1968; W.P.A., 1941

The War of 1812: Bobbe, 1933; Bolster, 1997; Booth, 1859; Brown, 1964; Cleveland, 1985; Ernst, 1968; Freeman, 1966; Guernsey, 1889; Haeger, 1991; Hammond, 1957; Horsman, 1969; Irwin, 1968; Jonas, 1982; Mohl, 1969; Morrison, 1909; Rock, 1989; Sellers, 1991; Smelser, 1968; Still, 1956; Wall, 1994; Walsh, 1906; Werner, 1991; White, 1991; Wilder, 1994; W.P.A., 1941

Peace! Peace! Peace!: Bayles, 1915; Sellers, 1991; Still, 1956

CHAPTER 27:

THE CANAL ERA

Albion, 1939; Gilchrist, 1967; Lindstrom, 1988; Sellers, 1991

The Wedding of the Waters: Carp, 1986; Gunn, 1988; Hanyan, 1972; Miller, 1962; Seelye, 1991; Shaw, 1966; Shaw, 1990; Siry, 1990; Stone, 1825; Wilentz, 1984

Under Steam and Sail: Albion, 1939; Browder, 1985; Condit, 1980-81; Coombe, 1991; Cudahy, 1990; Flexner, 1964; Haeger, 1991; Hartog, 1983; Horwitz, 1977; Howard, 1984; Hoyt, 1962; Hutchins, 1941; Lane, 1942; Morrison, 1909; Patterson, 1989; Philip, 1985; Fred, 1973; Seelye, 1991; Sellers, 1991; Smith, 1989; Tchen, 1992; Weld, 1950

Emporium: Albion, 1939; Bayles, 1915; Bixby, 1972; Blumin, 1989; Blunt, 1817; Brooks Brothers, 1918; Brooks Brothers, 1943; Collins, 1934; Cooper, 1963; De Voe, 1970; Devorkin, 1987; Dodge, 1987; Dunshee, 1952; Evans, 1952; Gilder, 1938; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Greene, 1834; Greene, 1837; Gunn, 1988; Kidwell, 1974; Larkin, 1988; Lockwood, 1976; Lowitt, 1954; Lurkis, 1982; McKay, 1934; Moehring, 1981; Pomerantz, 1938; Rosebrock, 1975; Severini, 1981; Shumway, 1975; Somerville, 1983; Stott, 1990; Stotz, 1948; Thomas, 1967; W.P.A., 1941; Wyatt Brown, 1969

The Word from Manhattan: Albion, 1939; Barth, 1982; Bixby, 1972; Blunt, 1817; Brown, 1971; Charvat, 1959; Crouthamel, 1989; Exman, 1965; Greene, 1837; Lehmann-Haupt, 1951; Mushkat, 1971; Overton, 1925; Pred, 1973; Sarna, 1981; Schiller, 1980; Schudson, 1978; Sobel, 1965; Tebbel, 1972-81

Industrial Revolutions: Albion, 1939; American Sugar, 1918; Blunt, 1817; Clark, 1916-28; Coombe, 1991; Exman, 1965; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Haswell, 1896; Morrison, 1909; Porter and Livesay, 1971; Pred, 1966; Pred, 1972; Sachs, 1988; Stansell, 1986; Stott, 1990; Whiteman, 1971; Wilentz, 1984

Wall Street: Albion, 1939; Carosso, 1970; Cleveland, 1985; Fox, 1992; Gilchrist, 1967; Gunn, 1988; Haeger, 1981; Haeger, 1991; Hammond, 1957; Hidy, 1949; Jaher, 1982; jenks, 1927; Keller, 1963; Levinson, 1961; Miller, 1962; Morrison, 1973; Myers, 1931; Nevins, 1934; Olmstead, 1976; Porter, 1931; Rezneck, 1968; Rothbard, 1962; Scoville, 1863-66; Sellers, 1991; Severini, 1981; Sobel, 1975; Sylla, 1967; Tucker, 1991; Werner and Smith, 1991; Wilkins, 1989; Ziegler, 1988

Land Lords: Blackmar, 1989; Boyer, 1993; Brown, 1971; Byard, 1989; Chapin, 1917; Cooke, 1995; Cowles, 1979; Fox, 1965; Gardner, 1994; Garrett, 1978; Gates, 1981; Haeger, 1991; Haswell, 1896; Limpus, 1940; Lockwood, 1976; Miller, 1990; Moehring, 1981; Parton, 1858; Patterson, 1935; Pessen, 1973; Porter, 1931; Rosenzweig and Blackmar, 1992; Shachtman, 1991; Simon, 1978; Sinclair, 1984; Tauranac, 1985; Trager, 1987; Wecter, 1937

On the Heights of Brooklyn: Armbruster, 1929; Cooke, 1995; Everdell and MacKay, 1973; Jackson, 1985; Lancaster, 1961; Snyder Grenier, 1996; Stiles, 1867-70; Weld, 1938 “The London of the New World”: Blunt, 1817; Conkin, 1980; Fox, 1992; Gilchrist, 1967; Hartog, 1983; Hodges, 1986; Moehring, 1981; Nord, 1984; Stiles, 1867-70; Trollope, 1832

CHAPTER 28:

THE MEDICI OF THE REPUBLIC

Adebnan, 1990; Albion, 1939; Amory, 1960; Blumin, 1989; Brooks, 1944; Buckley, 1984; Cunliffe, 1976; Dayton, 1882; Garrett, 1978; Hardie, 1827; Haswell, 1896; Henderson, 1973; Henderson, 1986; Jaher, 1982; Jentz, 1977; John, 1990; Kasson, 1990; Lang, 1922; Miller, 1967; Stankowski, 1978; Trollope, 1832; Weinbaum, 1979; Wilentz, 1984; Wyatt Brown, 1969

E Pluribus Unum: Banner, 1983; Bender, 1993; Blackmar, 1989; Boydston, 1990; Churchill, 1970; Danforth, 1974; Dayton, 1882; Gilder, 1938; Greene, 1837; Grinstein, 1945; Hall, 1992; Harvey, 1995; Kasson, 1990; Kidwell, 1974; Landau, 1982; Lindsley, 1984; Lockwood, 1972; Lockwood, 1976; Milbank, 1989; Miller, 1962; Moehring, 1981; Pessen, 1972; Fessen, 1973; Ryan, 1990; Shank, 1956; Taylor, 1966; Trollope, 1832; Wall, 1994; Whiteman, 1971; Wilentz, 1984

Spheres of Influence: Blackmar, 1989; Blumin, 1989; Boydston, 1990; Kasson, 1990; Larkin, 1988; Lockwood, 1976; Wall, 1994

The Domestication of Christmas: Blackmar, 1989; Haswell, 1896; Moore, 1818; Nissenbaum, 1996; Patterson, 1935; Patterson, 1956

Parlor Business: Blackmar, 1989; Bushman, 1993; Dudden, 1983; Gowans, 1976; Halttunen, 1982; Kasson, 1990; Katzman, 1978; Ryan, 1990; Stott, 1990

True Republicans: Albion, 1939; Golden, 1825; Cooper, 1963; Gilder, 1938; Haswell, 1896; Huxtable, 1964; Jenkins, 1992; Kennedy, 1985; Kennedy, 1989; Landau, 1982; Mack, 1949; Nathan, 1965; Newton, 1942; Nolan, 1934; Pierson, 1938; Somkin, 1967

Civic Patrons: Auchincloss, 1989; Ayres, 1993; Bender, 1987; Brown, 1971; Callow, 1967; Cole, 1994; Foshay, 1990; Howat, 1972; Leary, 1975; Lees, 1985; Miller, 1966; Miller, 1973; Myers, 1974; Rebora, 1990; Staiti and Reynolds, 1982; Taylor, 1992; Tebbel, 1972-81

Nature and Nostalgia: Auchincloss, 1989; Ayres, 1993; Beard, 1953; Bender, 1987; Brooks, 1944; Bryant, Sands and Verplanck, 1828-30; Buckley, 1984; Callow, 1967; Colden, 1825; Gates, 1987; Hills, 1974; July, 1951; Landy, 1970; Leiry, 1975; Lees, 1985; Lowenthal, 1976; Myers, 1987; Pierson, 1938; Pilat, 1941; Shank, 1956

CHAPTER 29:

WORKING QUARTERS

Gilje, 1987; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Nissenbaum, 1996

Working Quarters: Blackmar, 1989; Blumin, 1989; Boydston, 1990; Dover, 1993; Browder, 1985; Buckley, 1984; Bushman, 1993; Gardner, 1979; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Haswell, 1896; Hodges, 1982; Hodges, 1986; Jentz, 1977; Larkin, 1988; Mack, 1949; Pernicone, 1973; Stiles, 1867-70; Stott, 1900; Tchen, 1990; Wall, 1994; Weld, 1950; Weld, 1938; Wilentz, 1984

Women at Work: Blackmar, 1989; Boydston, 1990; Dudden, 1983; Gilje, 1987; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Hartog, 1983; Ryan, 1990; Stansell, 1986; Stott, 1990; Wall, 1994

“the vilest rabble, black Swhite, mixt together”: Blackmar, 1989; Bolster, 1997; Connolly, 1977; Foots, 1993; Freeman, 1966; Gilje, 1987; Haswell, 1896; Hoffman, 1976; Kroessler, 1991; Miller, 1985; Richards, 1970; Rosenberg, 1962; Rosenzweig and Blackmar, 1992; Walker, 1993; Weld, 1938; White, 1991

They Gathered at the River. Carwardine, 1972; Dolan, 1975; Farley, 1908; Gilje, 1987; Grinstein, 1945; Haswell, 1896; Hatch, 1989; Johnson, 1994; Mack, 1949; McCadden, 1969; Smith Rosenberg, 1971; Stiles, 1867-70; Swift, 1989; Weld, 1950; Weld, 1938; Whiteman, 1971; Wilentz, 1984

On the Toon: Blackmar, 1989; Buckley, 1984; Gilfoyle, 1992; Hill, 1992; Whiteaker, 1977

“Let’s Liquor”: Blumin, 1989; Browder, 1985; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Jentz, 1977; Miller, 1985; Otter, 1995; Pernicone, 1973; Rock, 1979; Rorabaugh, 1979; Sellers, 1991; Stiles, 1867-70; Stott, 1990; Weld, 1938; Wilentz, 1984

On the Bowery: Adelman, 1990; Buckley, 1984; De Voe, 1970; Dizikes, 1993; Gilfoyle, 1992; Gilje, 1987; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Harlow, 1931; Haswell, 1896; Otter, 1995; Shank, 1956; Stiles, 1867-70; Wilentz, 1984

Jump Jim Croa: Blunt, 1817; Buckley, 1984; Foote, 1993; Garrett, 1978; Gilje, 1987; Harlow, 1931; Harris, 1968; Jentz, 1977; Levine, 1988; Lott, 1993; Marshall, 1958; McArthur, 1984; Odell, 1927-49; Roediger, 1991; Saxton, 1990; Thompson, 1997; Toll, 1976

Running arith the Machine: Asbury, 1928; Buckley, 1984; Calhoun, 1973; Dayton, 1882; Gilje, 1987; Ginsberg, 1968; Hasweli, 1896; Hodges, 1982; Jentz, 1977; Limpus, 1940; Morrison, 1909; Weinbaum, 1979; Wilentz, 1984

CHAPTER 30:

REFORMS AND REVIVALS

Abramovitz, 1988; Blunt, 1817; Boyer, 1978; Bridges, 1984; Cray, 1988; Griffin, 1960; Heale, 1971; Jaher, 1982; Katz, 1986; Klips, 1980; Lubove, 1968; Miller, 1985; Mohl, 1971; Pascu, 1980; Pickett, 1969; Rothman, 1971; Rothman, 1989; Sellers, 1991; Smith Rosenberg, 1971; Stiles, 1867-70; Weinbaum, 1979

Urban Missionaries: Berg, 1978; Blackmar, 1989; Blumin, 1989; Davis, 1979; Foster, 1960; Fowler, 1981; Ginzberg, 1990; Jackman, 1964; Jentz, 1977; Johnson and Wilentz, 1994; Mohl, 1971; Sellers, 1991; Smith Rosenberg, 1971; Whiteaker, 1977; Wilentz, 1984; Wyatt Brown, 1969

Spreading the Good News: Blunt, 1817; Foster, 1960; Grinstein, 1945; Hatch, 1989; Kaestle, 1973; Katz, 1986; Lehmann-Haupt, 1951; Miller, 1962; Nord, 1984; Smith-Rosenberg, 1971; Stiles, 1867-70; Tebbel, 1972-81; Weld, 1938; Wyatt-Brown, 1969

Off to School: Bender, 1987; Blumin, 1989; Blunt, 1817; Boyer, 1978; Boylan, 1988; Bridges, 1984; Buetow, 1970; Cooke, 1995; Fowler, 1981; Freeman, 1966; Harris, 1968; Heale, 1971; Jaher, 1982; Kaestle, 1983; Kaestle, 1973; Katz, 1986; Lowitt, 1954; Mohl, 1971; Pascu, 1980; Pettit, 1991; Ravitch, 1974; Smith-Rosenberg, 1971; Stiles, 1867-70; Tyack, 1974; Walker, 1993; Weld, 1938; Wilentz, 1984

Juvenile Delinquents: Heale, 1971; Lewis, 1965; Pickett, 1969; Pierson, 1938; Rothman, 1989; Rothman, 1971

The Bellevue Institution: Blackmar, 1989; Dowling, 1982; Gilje, 1996; Grinstein, 1945; Hardie, 1824; Hardie, 1827; Haswell, 1896; Heale, 1971; Katz, 1986; Klips, 1980; Lewis, 1965; Marx, 1983; Masur, 1989; Moehring, 1981; Mohl, 1971; O’Grady, 1930; Rosenberg, 1987; Rothman, 1971; Rothman, 1989; Russell, 1945; Schneider, 1938-41; Starr, 1957; Sutton, 1874; Weinbaum, 1979; Whiteman, 1971

On to Blackaell’s Island: Bender, 1987; Hardie, 1827; Klips, 1980; Pierson, 1938

CHAPTER 31:

THE PRESS OFDEMOCRACY

Bender, 1987; Brooks, 1944; Dickinson, 1992; Eckhardt, 1984; Fruchtman, 1994; Ginzberg, 1994; Jentz, 1977; John, 1990; Keane, 1995; Osborne, 1966; Pascu, 1980; Pessen, 1967; Rosenberg, 1962; Ryan, 1990; Saxton, 1990; Smith-Rosenberg, 1971; Stansell, 1986; Tucher, 1994; Wilentz, 1984

Aristocrats and Democrats: Gilje, 1996; Jaher, 1982; Peterson, 1966; Pomerantz, 1938; Sellers, 1991; Strum, 1981; Wilentz, 1984; Williamson, 1960

Tammany Democracy: Allen, 1993; Blackmar, 1989; Bridges, 1984; Brunson, 1989; Danforth, 1974; Fox, 1965; Freeman, 1966; Gelfand, 1975; Gunn, 1988; Haswell, 1896; Hershkowitz, 1960; Jaher, 1982; July, 1951; Kaestle, 1983; Moehring, 1981; Mushkat, 1971; Pessen, 1973; Peterson, 1966; Pickett, 1969; Roediger, 1991; Sellers, 1991; Stott, 1990; Wallace, 1968; Werner, 1928; Wilentz, 1984

Workers and “Bases”: Albion, 1939; Blackmar, 1989; Blumin, 1989; Boydston, 1990; Conkin, 1980; Gilje, 1987; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Lehmann Haupt, 1951; Pessen, 1967; Roediger, 1991; Stansell, 1986; Stevens, 1913; Stott, 1990; Wilentz, 1984

Workingmen’s Advocates: Blackmar, 1989; Boydston, 1990; Bridges, 1984; Brown, 1971; Coleman, 1974; Ernst, 1949; Gilchrist, 1967; Ginzberg, 1994; Gorelick, 1981; Hartog, 1983; Hodges, 1982; Hodges, 1986; Hofstadter, 1943; Hugins, 1960; Jentz, 1977; Kaestle, 1973; Mohl, 1971; Pascu, 1980; Pessen, 1967; Roediger, 1991; Saxton, 1990; Sellers, 1991; Teaford, 1975; Tucher, 1994; Tyack, 1974; Wilentz, 1984

The Sun Shines far All: Barth, 1982; Bender, 1987; Bergmann, 1995; Blunt, 1817; Brown, 1971; Buckley, 1984; Butler, 1992; Crouthamel, 1989; Henkin, 1995; Hershkowitz, 1960; Lott, 1993; Reynolds, 1988; Richards, 1970; Saxton, 1990; Schiller, 1980; Schudson, 1978; Stansell, 1986; Stott, 1990; Tucher, 1994; Weinbaum, 1979; Whitby, 1984; Wilentz, 1984

Exhilarating the Breakfast Table: Banner, 1983; Bergmann, 1995; Crouthamel, 1989; Haswell, 1896; Juergens, 1966; Kluger, 1986; Mushkat, 1971; Tucher, 1994

A Glance At New York Greene, 1837; Marx, 1983

CHAPTER 32:

THE DESTROYING DEMON OF DEBAUCHERY

Carwardine, 1972; Ginzberg, 1990; Hardman, 1987; Hatch, 1989; Howe, 1971; Johnson and Wilentz, 1994; Mohl, 1971; Sellers, 1991; Smith-Rosenberg, 1971; Stansell and Wilentz, 1994; Swerdlow, 1976; Thomas, 1989; Wall, 1994; Whiteaker, 1977; Wyatt-Brown, 1969

Onward, Christian Soldiers: Bender, 1987; Blumin, 1989; Bridges, 1984; Foster, 1960; Fowler, 1981; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Handy, 1987; Miller, 1962; Nichols, 1963; Nord, 1984; Patterson, 1956; Smith-Rosenberg, 1971; Swift, 1989

Spirit versus Spirits: Bernstein, 1990; Blackmar, 1989; Blumin, 1989; Boyer, 1978; Foshay, 1990; Mohl, 1971; Pickett, 1969; Rorabaugh, 1979; Sellers, 1991; Stiles, 1867-70; Tyrrell, 1979; Weld, 1938; Weld, 1950; Wilentz, 1984; Wyatt-Brown, 1969

“The Destroying Demon of Debauchery”: Berg, 1978; Brooks, 1944; Bushman, 1993; Cohen, 1992; Gilfoyle, 1992; Jentz, 1977; Larkin, 1988; Le Due, 1939; Nissenbaum, 1980; Otter, 1995; Pivar, 1973; Roediger, 1991; Rothman, 1989; Ryan, 1990; Sellers, 1991; Smith Rosenberg, 1985; Sokolow, 1983; Stansell, 1986; Whiteaker, 1977; Wyatt Brown, 1969

“Is it not more likely the mark of a woman?”: Berg, 1978; Buckley, 1984; Cohen, 1992; Crouthamel, 1989; Gilfoyle, 1992; Greene, 1834; Hill, 1992; Kluger, 1986; Schiller, 1980; Srebnick, 1995; Stansell, 1986; Tucher, 1994

CHAPTER 33:

WHITE, GREEN, AND BLACK

The Coming of the Green: Buetow, 1970; Cohalan, 1983; Cooke, 1995; Dolan, 1975; Ernst, 1949; Gilje, 1996; Haswell, 1896; Hodges, 1986; McCadden, 1969; Miller, 1985; O’Connor, 1989; Ravitch, 1974; Ridge, 1988; Roediger, 1991; Stiles, 1867-70; Tebbel, 1972-81; Walsh, 1996

“Popery ought always to beloathed and execrated”: Billington, 1938; Dickinson, 1992; Gilje, 1987; Gilje, 1996; Hershkowitz, 1960; Jentz, 1977; Knobel, 1986; Ravitch, 1974; Scisco, 1901; Weld, 1950; Wyatt-Brown, 1969

“Damned Irish!”: Feldberg, 1980; Fox, 1965; Gilje, 1987; Gilje, 1996; Grimsted, 1972; Hershkowitz, 1960; Litwack, 1961; Prince, 1985; Weinbaum, 1979; Werner, 1086

Life Along the Color Line: Blackmar, 1989; Bolster, 1997; Boylan, 1988; Brown, 1971; Buckley, 1984; Coleman, 1982; Curry, 1981; Dann, 1971; Foote, 1993; Freeman, 1966; Garrett, 1978; George, 1973; Gilfoyle, 1992; Gilje, 1987; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Harris, 1968; Haswell, 1896; Hershkowitz, 1960; Hodges, 1982; Hodges, 1986; Ignatiev, 1995; Kaestle, 1973; Kaestle, 1983; Kerber, 1967; Litwack, 1961; Lowitt, 1954; Ottley and Weatherby, 1967; Painter, 1996; Pascu, 1980; Richards, 1970; Roediger, 1991; Sellers, 1991; Seyfried, 1995; Stiles, 1867-70; Swift, 1989; Walker, 1993; Weinbaum, 1979; Werner, 1986; Wilentz, 1984; Wilson, 1991

“Crush this hydra in the bud”: Carter, 1964; Feldberg, 1980; Gilje, 1987; Grimsted, 1972; Hardman, 1987; Kerber, 1967; Prince, 1985; Quarks, 1969; Ratner, 1968; Richards, 1970; Sellers, 1991; Sortn, 1978; Swift, 1989; Weinbaum, 1979; Werner, 1986; Wyatt-Brown, 1969

White Slaves and “Smoked Irish”: Blackmar, 1989; Bolster, 1997; Cooper, 1969; Gilje, 1987; Hodges, 1986; Ignatiev, 1995; Jentz, 1981; Litwack, 1961; Lott, 1993; Otter, 1995; Roediger, 1991; Saxton, 1990; Sellers, 1991; Swift, 1989; Wall, 1994

“He called my Saviour anigger!”: Feldberg, 1980; Gilfoyle, 1992; Gilje, 1987; Grimsted, 1972; Kerber, 1967; Prince, 1985; Ratner, 1968; Richards, 1970; Swift, 1989; Weinbaum, 1979; Wyatt-Brown, 1969

The Railroad that Ran Underground: Blockson, 1994; Freeman, 1966; Gilje, 1987; Gilje and Rock, 1992

CHAPTER 34:

RAIL BOOM

Blunt, 1817; Condit, 1980-81; Dayton, 1882; Dodge, 1987; Dolan, 1975; Dunshee, 1952; Fox, 1992; Garmey, 1984; Gates, 1981; Greene, 1837; Gunn, 1988; Haeger, 1991; Harlow, 1931; Haswell, 1896; Hershkowitz, 1960; Hugins, 1960; Jackson, 1985; Jaher, 1982; Kroessler, 1991; Lockwood, 1976; Mack, 1949; Marx, 1983; Miller, 1990; Moehring, 1981; Pred, 1980; Saint, 1992; Schaefier, 1975; Sellers, 1991; Stiles, 1867-70; Stoff, 1989; Stott, 1990; Taylor, 1966; Trollope, 1832; Wall, 1994

Smokestacks and Speculators: Browder, 1985; Chandler, 1977; Clark, 1916-28; Condit, 1980-81; Coombe, 1991; Greene, 1834; Gunn, 1988; Hammond, 1957; Haswell, 1896; Hidy, 1949; Jaher, 1982; Perret, 1982; Sobel, 1965; Stott, 1990; Werner and Smith, 1991; Whiteman, 1971; Ziegler, 1988

Pioneers of Capital: Albion, 1939; Crouthamel, 1989; Fox, 1965; Haeger, 1981; Hammond, 1957; Hershkowitz, 1960; Jaher, 1982; July, 1951; Miller, 1967; Mushkat, 1971; Remini, 1988; Sellers, 1991; Wilentz, 1984; Wilkins, 1989; Zelizer, 1979; Ziegler, 1988

Bank War. Brown, 1971; Callow, 1967; Cleveland, 1985; Crouthamel, 1989; Fox, 1965; Gatell, 1966; Gilchrist, 1967; Gunn, 1988; Haeger, 1981; Hammond, 1957; Haswell, 1896; Hershkowitz, 1960; Huxtable, 1964; July, 1951; McFaul, 1972; Miller, 1962; Moehring, 1981; Newton, 1942; Remini, 1988; Sellers, 1991; Severini, 1981; Sushka, 1976; Temin, 1969

Bank Riof. Albion, 1939; Brooks, 1944; Brown, 1971; Clark, 1916-28; Danforth, 1974; Fox, 1965; Gilje, 1996; Hammond, 1957; jaher, 1982; July, 1951; Kaplan, 1996; Mushkat, 1971; Weinbaum, 1979; Wilentz, 1984

City Builders: Albion, 1939; Bender, 1993; Blackmar, 1989; Blunt, 1817; Boyer, 1993; Brooks, 1944; Buckley, 1984; Bushman, 1993; Cooke, 1995; Dayton, 1882; Fox, 1965; Garmey, 1984; Gilder, 1938; Greene, 1837; Gunn, 1988; Haeger, 1991; Harlow, 1931; Haswell, 1896; Landau, 1982; Lockwood, 1976; Mack, 1949; McGrane, 1924; Miller, 1962; Moehring, 1981; Patterson, 1935; Rosenwaike, 1972; Rosenzweig and Blackmar, 1992; Saint, 1992; Severini, 1981; Simon, 1978; Still, 1982; Stott, 1990; Taylor, 1966; Thompson, 1946; Trager, 1987; Wall, 1994; Werner and Smith, 1991

Second City: Conklin, 1983; Cudahy, 1990; Gardner, 1979; Hall, 1898; Hartog, 1983; Hcrshkowitz, 1960; Hoffman, 1976; Kioessler, 1991; Landesman, 1977; Patterson, 1989; Rainone, 1985; Schoenebaum, 1977; Snyder-Grenier, 1996; Stankowski, 1978; Stiles, 1867-70; Weld, 1938; Weld, 1950

Good Timer. Amory, 1960; Banner, 1983; Blumin, 1989; Buckley, 1984; Bushman, 1993; Di/ikes, 1993; Fairfield, 1873; Garrett, 1978; Haswell, 1896; Hershkowitz, 1960; Pessen, 1972; Pessen, 1973; Rorabaugh, 1979; Scoville, 1863-66; Thompson, 1946; Townsend, 1936; Wecter, 1937

CHAPTER 35:

FILTH, FEVEH, WATER, FIRE

Armstrong, 1976; Blackmar, 1989; Corey, 1994; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Ginsberg, 1968; Goldman, 1997; Hartog, 1983; Haswell, 1896; Hodges, 1982; Hodges, 1986; Limpus, 1940; Lockwood, 1976; Moehring, 1981; Smith-Rosenberg, 1971; Wall, 1994; W.P.A., 1938b

Cholera: Blackmar, 1989; Brown, 1971; Dolan, 1975; Duffy, 1968-74; Foote, 1993; Freeman, 1966; Hershkowitz, 1960; Hoyt, 1962; Klips, 1980; Larkin, 1988; McCadden, 1969; Moehring, 1981; Nissenbaum, 1980; Plunz, 1990; Pred, 1973; Rosenberg, 1962; Smith-Rosenberg, 1971; Sokolow, 1983; Starr, 1957; Tebbel, 1972-81; Wilentz, 1984; Wyatt Brown, 1969

Water. Blake, 1956; Calhoun, 1973; Costello, 1887; Gilje and Rock, 1992; Ginsberg, 1968; Hartog, 1983; Lockwood, 1976; Miller, 1990; Moehring, 1981; Plunz, 1990; Rosenberg, 1962; Weidner, 1974

Fire: Calhoun, 1973; Costello, 1887; Foshay, 1990; Ginsberg, 1968; Ginsberg, 1971; Haswell, 1896; Hodges, 1982; Miller, 1962; Mohr, 1973; Stiles, 1867-70; Werner and Smith, 1991; Wilentz, 1984

Phoenix: Blackmar, 1989; Buckley, 1984; Gunn, 1988; Haswell, 1896; Lockwood, 1976; Miller, 1962; Moehring, 1981; Plunz, 1990; Rosebrock, 1975; Severini, 1981; Spann, 1986b; W.P.A., 1938b

Fevered Finance: Briggs, 1839; Cleveland, 1985; Gatell, 1966; Gunn, 1988; Hammond, 1957; McGrane, 1924; Mushkat, 1971; Sellers, 1991; Werner and Smith, 1991

CHAPTER 36:

THE PANIC OF 1837

Boydston, 1990; Cleveland, 1985; Commons, 1910-11; Gilje, 1987; Hammond, 1957; Hershkowitz, 1960; Hofstadter, 1943; Lewis, 1965; Morrison, 1909; Mushkat, 1971; Pessen, 1967; Richards, 1970; Roediger, 1991; Sellers 1991; Stansell, 1986; Stott, 1990; Tucher, 1994; Walkowitz, 1993; Werner, 1986; Wilentz, 1984; Wilkins, 1989

“Down with Monopolies!”: Bender, 1987; Bridges, 1984; Brown, 1971; Buckley, 1984; Byrdsall, 1842; Eckhardt, 1984; Fox, 1965; Gilchrist, 1967; Ginsberg, 1968; Greene, 1837; Gunn, 1988; Harlow, 1931; Haswell, 1896; Hershkowitz, 1960; Hodges, 1982; Hodges, 1986; Hofstadter, 1943; Jentz, 1977; Mushkat, 1971; Pessen, 1967; Roediger, 1991; Schiller, 1980; Schlesinger, 1945; Sellers, 1991; Stotz, 1948; Vidal, 1973; Weinbaum, 1979

“To Hart’s flow store!”: Bridges, 1984; Byrdsall, 1842; Greene, 1837; Hershkowitz, 1960; Hodges, 1986; Hugins, 1960; Lockwood, 1976; Weinbaum, 1979; Werner, 1986; Wilentz, 1984

“The volcano has hurst andoverwhelmed New York”: Blackmar, 1989; Brunson, 1989; Byrdsall, 1842; Clark, 1864; Conklin, 1983; Eckhardt, 1984; Folsom, 1991; Gardner, 1979; Garmey, 1984; Ginsberg, 1968; Greene, 1834; Haeger, 1981; Hammond, 1957; Haswell, 1896; Hershkowitz, 1960; Hoffman, 1976; Kroessler, 1991; Landesman, 1977; Lockwood, 1976; McGrane, 1924; Nevins, 1927; Pessen, 1978; Pred, 1973; Rainone, 1985; Rezneck, 1968; Richards, 1970; Rosenzweig and Blackmar, 1992; Sellers, 1991; Sobel, 1988; Stiles, 1867-70; Stott, 1990; Weinbaum, 1979; Wyatt Brown, 1969

Causes and Remedies: Blackmar, 1989; Bridges, 1984; Cleveland, 1985; Crouthamel, 1989; Fox, 1965; Gatell, 1966; Gunn, 1988; Haeger, 1981; Hammond, 1957; Hershkowitz, 1960; Hidy, 1949; McFaul, 1972; McGrane, 1924; Miller, 1962; Pessen, 1978; Rezneck, 1968; Sellers, 1991; Sobel, 1988; Temin, 1969; Werner and Smith, 1991; Whiteman, 1971; Wilkins, 1989; Ziegler, 1988

From Boom to Bust: Auchincloss, 1989; Bender, 1987; Blackmar, 1989; Folsom, 1991; Grund, 1959; Hammond, 1957; Hershkowitz, 1960; Lockwood, 1976; McGrane, 1924; Miller, 1962; Miller, 1973; Patterson, 1935; Rezneck, 1968; Schneider, 1938-41; Sellers, 1991; Siles, 1986; Stevens, 1913; Stott, 1990; Whiteman, 1971; Wilentz, 1984

CHAPTER 37:

HARD TIMES

Barth, 1982; Beckert, 1995; Billington, 1938; Folsom, 1991; Jentz, 1977; Kaestle, 1973; Katz, 1986; Rezneck, 1968; Schneider, 1938—41; Shaftel, 1978; Smith Rosenberg, 1971; Spann, 1986b; Tucher, 1994; Weinbaum, 1979

The Politics of Laissez-Faire: Bridges, 1984; Brown, 1971; Brunson, 1989; Byrdsall, 1842; Coleman, 1974; Crouthamel, 1989; Folsom, 1991; Fox, 1965; Freeman, 1966; Gatell, 1966; Gunn, 1988; Haeger, 1981; Hammond, 1946; Hammond, 1957; Hartog, 1983; Hershkowitz, 1960; Hodges, 1982; Hodges, 1986; Hofstadter, 1943; Howe, 1971; Jaher, 1982; July, 1951; Klips, 1980; Kluger, 1986; McFaul, 1972; McGrane, 1924; Miller, 1967; Moehring, 1981; Mushkat, 1971; Mushkat, 1971; Meyers, 1965; Myers, 1901; Rezneck, 1968; Schneider, 1938-41; Scisco, 1901; Sellers, 1991; Shaw, 1990; Sobel, 1988; Spann, 1986b; Teaford, 1975; Temin, 1969; Thompson, 1946; Walker, 1993; Werner, 1928; Werner and Smith, 1991; Wilkins, 1989

“Water! Water!”: Armstrong, 1976; Blake, 1956; Clark, 1864; Cooke, 1995; Ellis, 1997; Ginsberg, 1968; Goldman, 1997; Larkin, 1990; Limpus, 1940; Lockwood, 1976; Mack, 1949; Moehring, 1981; Olmstead, 1976; Rosenzweig and Blackmar, 1992; Ryan, 1990; Weidner, 1974; Wilentz, 1984

Rum, Revivals,. . .: Blumin, 1989; Buckley, 1984; Dolan, 1975; Harlow, 1931; Hatch, 1989; Jentz, 1977; Johnson and Wilentz, 1994; Mack, 1949; Numbers and Butler, 1987; Painter, 1996; Reynolds, 1988; Rezneck, 1968; Rorabaugh, 1979; Sellers, 1991; Stott, 1990; Wilentz, 1984

. . . and Romanism: Billington, 1938; Brown, 1976; Buetow, 1970; Cooney, 1984; Crouthamel, 1989; Dolan, 1975; Farley, 1908; Fox, 1965; Gorelick, 1981; Kaestle, 1973; Lott, 1993; Pascu, 1980; Ravitch, 1974; Scisco, 1901; Shaw, 1977

The Return of the Natives: Billington, 1938; Buckley, 1984; Clark, 1864; Fox, 1965; Hershkowitz, 1960; Miller, 1985; Mushkat, 1971; Roediger, 1991; Scisco, 1901; Stott, 1990; Wilentz, 1984

Roach Guards and Dead Rabbits: Asbury, 1928; Bridges, 1984; Brown, 1976; Corn, 1984; Grand, 1959; Harlow, 1931; Hershkowitz, 1960; Kaplan, 1996; Limpus, 1940; Myers, 1901; Same, 1991; Srebnick, 1995; Stott, 1990; Weinbaum, 1979; Wilentz, 1984

“Active ARMY”: Bacon, 1939; Buckley, 1984; Costello, 1885; Gilje, 1987; Ginsberg, 1971; Hoffman, 1976; Klips, 1980; McCullough, 1983; Miller, 1977; Moehring, 1981; Newton, 1942; Richardson, 1970; Spann, 1986b; Srebnick, 1995

Bottomfeeders: Albion, 1939; Earth, 1982; Black, 1981; Blackmar, 1989; Collier, 1994; Gardner, 1979; Haeger, 1981; Hammond, 1957; Harris, 1968; Haswell, 1896; Jackson, 1985; Maynard, 1983; Nissenbaum, 1996; Norris, 1978; Porter, 1931; Resseguie, 1964; Stiles, 1867-70; Wyatt-Brown, 1969

“Laugh and Gram Fat”: Auchincloss, 1989; Barnes, 1974; Bergmann, 1995; Brown, 1971; Buckley, 1984; Crouthamel, 1989; Dizikes, 1993; Freeman, 1966; Garrett, 1978; Harlow, 1931; Harris, 1973; Kluger, 1986; Lehmann-Haupt, 1951; Lott, 1993; Reynolds, 1988; Saxton, 1990; Shank, 1956; Simon, 1978; Tebbel, 1972-81; Toll, 1976; Tucher, 1994; Walker, 1993

PART FOUR:

EMPORIUM AND MANUFACTURING CITY (1844-1879)

CHAPTER 38:

FULL STEAM AHEAD

Albion, 1939; Birmingham, 1984; Bunker, 1979; Carr, 1963; Carse, 1961; Caughey, 1962; Clark, 1910; Cray, 1978; Croffut, 1975; Cudahy, 1990; Cutler, 1961; Cutler, 1930; Hall, 1992; Hartog, 1983; Hobsbawm, 1975; Hodges, 1982; Howard, 1984; Howe and Matthews, 1926/27; Hoyt, 1962; Jackson, 1985; Laing, 1966; Manchester, 1924; Moehring, 1981; Morrison, 1903; Morrison, 1909; Nevins, 1927; Scroggs, 1916; Slotkin, 1985; Spann, 1986b; Stampp, 1990; Stiles, 1867-70; Taylor, 1966; Tchen, 1992; Whipple, 1987; Wright, 1968

Rail: Browder, 1985; Carosso, 1987; Chandler, 1977; Condit, 1980-81; Gunn, 1988; Lowit, 1954; Spann, 1986a

Dollars and Dry Goods: Beckert, 1995; Bonner, 1924; Browder, 1985; Carosso, 1987; Chandler, 1954; Chandler, 1977; Chernow, 1990; Cleveland, 1985; Clough, 1946; Hammack, 1982; Hodas, 1974; jaher, 1982; Keller, 1963; Lockwood, 1976; Norris, 1978; Severini, 1981; Sobel, 1965; Sobel, 1988; Spann, 1986a; Spann, 1986b; Strasser, 1989; Tchen, 1993; Werner and Smith, 1991; Zelizer, 1979

Iron Age: Abbot, 1851; Albion, 1939; American Sugar Refining Company, 1918; Armbruster, 1942; Beckert, 1995; Bixby, 1972; Brown and Ment, 1980; Bunker, 1979; Cook, 1913; Degler, 1952; Purer, 1965; Gayle, 1974; Goldman, 1997; Hecht, 1978; Hobsbawm, 1968; Hobsbawm, 1975; Jenkins, 1912; Jonnes, 1986; Kroessler, 1991; Ment, 1979; Ment, 1980; Morrison, 1909; New York (N.Y.), 1973; Sachs, 1988; Schoenebaum, 1977; Schwartz, 1972; Seyfried, 1985; Shaw, 1990; Spann, 1986b; Stankowski, 1977; Stankowski, 1978; Steinmeyer, 1975; Stiles, 1867-70; Stott, 1990; Weitzenhoffer, 1986; Whitetnan, 1971

Metropolitan Manufacturing: Brandon, 1977; clark, 1930; Degler, 1952; Ernst, 1949; Mack, 1949; Malon, 1981; Mitchell, 1992; Nadel, 1990; New York (N.Y.), 1973; Sachs, 1988; Spann, 1986b; Stansell, 1986; Stott, 1990; Wilentz, 1984

Palaces of Consumption: Agnew, 1983; Boyer, 1985; Chandler, 1977; Devorkin, 1987; Elias, 1992; Gardner, 1979; Gayle, 1974; Morris, 1975; Resseguie, 1964; Resseguie, 1965

A Palace of Crystal: Brand, 1991; Hornung, 1970; Jayne, 1990; Koolhaas, 1978; Petersen, 1945; Post, 1983; Reynolds, 1995

Palates for Travelers: Boyer, 1985; Buckley, 1984; Gayle, 1974; Kouwenhoven, 1953; Morris, 1975; Steen, 1970

The Pigeon Perspective: Bergmann, 1995; Brand, 1991; Kasson, 1990; Kelley, 1996; Kouvenhowen, 1953; Marx, 1983

CHAPTER 39:

MANHATTAN, INK

Bender, 1987; Carter, 1968; Czitrom, 1982; Garmey, 1984; Gilder, 1938; Harlow, 1936; Hindle, 1981; Nevins, 1927; Prime, 1874; Sobel, 1965; Staiti and Reynolds, 1982, 1989; Tarr, 1987

“Extra, Extra, Read all About It!”: Bernstein, 1984; Blondheim, 1994; Brown, 1951; Crouthamel, 1989; Henkin, 1995; Hoe, 1902; Kluger, 1986; Lears, 1995; Lehmann-Haupt, 1951; Malon, 1981; Pred, 1973; Reynolds, 1988; Saxton, 1990; Schudson, 1978; Sellers, 1991; Spann, 1986b; Tebbel, 1972-81; Whitby, 1984

A Pageant of Text: Henkin, 1995

Book Mart: Barnes, 1974; Beckert, 1995; Bridges, 1984; Buckley, 1984; Callow, 1967; D’Emilio, 1988; Denning, 1987; Douglas, 1977; Exman, 1965; Hoffman, 1949; Kray, 1982; Lehmann-Haupt, 1951; New York (N.Y), 1973; Papke, 1987; Reynolds, 1988; Sellers, 1991; Spann, 1986b; Tebbel, 1972-81; Tompkins, 1985; Warner, 1987; Widmer, 1993; Zboray, 1993

“The Centre of Literary Planer”: Bender, 1987; Buckley, 1984; Denning, 1987; Gilmore, 1985; Malon, 1981; Marx, 1983; Miller, 1966; Morris, 1975; Papke, 1987; Reynolds, 1988; Saxton, 1984; Saxton, 1990; Schiller, 1980; Sellers, 1991; Spann, 1986b; Srebnick, 1995; Warren, 1992; Zboray, 1993

Young America: Bergmann, 1995; Bernstein, 1984; Douglas, 1977; Miller, 1966; Sellers, 1991; Widmer, 1993

Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction: Bergmann, 1995; Brown, 1993; Buckley, 1984; Callow, 1967; Crouthamel, 1989; Degler, 1952; Dudden, 1983; Hales, 1984; Henkin, 1995; Kasson, 1990; Klein, 1995; Kowenhoven, 1953; Meredith, 1946; Miller, 1966; Miller, 1990; New York (N.Y.), 1973; Prime, 1874; Reynolds, 1988; Spann, 1986b; Staiti and Reynolds, 1989; Trachtenberg, 1989; Welling, 1978; Widmer, 1993

CHAPTER 40:

SEEING NEW YORK

Bender, 1987; Bergmann, 1995; Brand, 1991; Buckley, 1984; Callow, 1967; Conrad, 1984; Cooke, 1995; Kelley, 1996; Kray, 1982; Miller, 1973; O’Connell, 1994; Reynolds, 1988; Robertson Lorant, 1996; Saxton, 1990; Stansell, 1986; Williams, 1973; Zweig, 1984

Crowds and Civilization: Barth, 1982; Bergmann, 1995; Brand, 1991; Kasson, 1990; Kovenhoven, 1953; Marx, 1983; Spann, 1986b; Van Leeuwen, 1988

Lonely Crowds, Confidence Men Baym, 1995; Bergmann, 1969; Buckley, 1984; Child, 1845; Gilder, 1938; Halttunen, 1979; Harlow, 1931; Henkin, 1995; Kasson, 1990; Kelley, 1996; Kluger, 1986; Lears, 1995; Leary, 1975; Lees, 1985; Marx, 1983; Miller, 1977; O’Connell, 1994; Reynolds, 1995; Robertson-Lorant, 1996; Ryan, 1990; Spann, 1986b; Stiles, 1867-70; Trachtenberg, 1989; Tucher, 1994

Unquiet Boner. Ayres, 1993; Beard, 1953; Booth, 1859; Brodhead, 1853-71; Curry, 1853; Guy, 1935; Kammen, 1979; Lawrence, 1906; Moulton, 1843; New York City Common Council, 1841-70; O’Callaghan, 1846-48; Scoville, 1863-66; Vail, 1954; Valentine, 1853

Mysteries of the City: Berg, 1978; Bergmann, 1995; Blackmar, 1989; Blumin, 1984; Blumin, 1989; Buckley, 1984; Denning, 1987; Dickens, 1961; Kasson, 1990; Kelley, 1996; Lott, 1993; Marx, 1983; Papke, 1987; Reynolds, 1988; Reynolds, 1995; Ryan, 1990; Saxton, 1990; Srebnick, 1995

Man of the Crowd: Berg, 1978; Bergmann, 1995; Brand, 1991; Jenkins, 1912; Jonnes, 1986; Kasson, 1990; Kray, 1982; Lees, 1985; Meredith, 1946; Miller, 1973; Morris, 1987; Moss, 1963; Papke, 1987; Parry, 1933; Reynolds, 1988; Saxton, 1990; Silverman, 1991; Sokolow, 1983; Spann, 1986b; Srebnick, 1995; Tebbell, 1972-81; Widmer, 1993

“Dollars Damn Me”: Bender, 1987; Bergmann, 1995; Boydston, 1990; Boyer, 1978; Brand, 1991; Bremner, 1956; Conrad, 1984; Douglas, 1977; Exman, 1965; Gilmore, 1985; Hardwick, 1983; Johnson and Wilentz, 1994; Kasson, 1990; Kazin and Finn, 1989; Kelley, 1996; Kray, 1982; Lears, 1995; Lees, 1985; Lott, 1993; Masur, 1989; Matthiessen, 1941; Melville, 1996; Miller, 1973; O’Connell, 1994; Parker, 1996; Post-Lauria, 1996; Reynolds, 1988; Robertson, 1996; Rogin, 1983; Srebnick, 1995; Trachtenberg, 1982; Trimpi, 1987; Tucher, 1994; Wall, 1994; Zelnick, Winter 1979-80; Zweig, 1984

“My City!”: Allen, 1969; Allen, 1993; Bender, 1987; Berry, 1983; Brand, 1991; Brooks, 1944; Brown, 1971; Brown and Merit, 1980; Buckley, 1984; Callow, 1992; Christman, 1963; Conrad, 1984; Cooke, 1995; Dolan, 1975; Douglas, 1977; Erkkila, 1989; Harrington, 1973; Holloway, 1921; Howe, 1986; Kray, 1982; Lott, 1993; Lynch, 1985; Machor, 1987; Marx, 1983; Miller, 1900; Miller, 1989; Morris, 1975; Museum of the City of New York, 1990; Parry, 1933; Pilat, 1941; Reynolds, 1988; Reynolds, 1995; Robertson, 1996; Rubin, 1973; Saxton, 1990; Thomas, 1987; Whitman, 1950; Whitman, 1973; Zweig, 1984

CHAPTER 41:

LIFE ABOVE BLEECKBR

Adelman, 1990; Beckert, 1995; Bender, 1987; Boyer, 1985; Brown, 1924; Buckley, 1984; Croffut, 1975; Elias, 1992; Garmey, 1984; Hoyt, 1902; jaher, 1982; July, 1951; Klein, 1987; Lockwood, 1976; Miller, 1967; Morris, 1975; Nevins, 1927; Nevins and Thomas, 1952; Pcssen, 1973; Spann, 1986b; Wecter, 1937

“. . . fled by dignified degrees up Broadway”: Blackmar, 1989; Blackmar, 1991; Bristed, 1852; Brown, 1924; Buckley, 1984; Frick, 1983; Garmey, 1984; Goldstone and Dalrymple, 1974; Jaher, 1982; Landy, 1970; Lockwood, 1972b; Lockwood, 1976; Miller, 1967; Moehring, 1981; Morris, 1975; Nevins, 1927; Simon, 1978; Spann, 1986b; Tauranac, 1985; Thompson, 1946; Trager, 1990; Warren, 1992; Wecter, 1937

Suburbs and Summer Spots: Brooks, 1944; Hartog, 1983; Jackson, 1985, Jenkins, 1912; Lockwood, 1972b; Lockwood, 1976; Schoenebaum, 1977; Scobey, 1992; Simon, 1972

“I never saw such luxury and extravagance”: Adelman, 1990; Albion, 1939; Allen, 1991; Banner, 1983; Berg, 1978; Black, 1981; Bristed, 1852; Brooks, 1944; Brown, 1924; Buckley, 1984; Bushman, 1993; Colcman, 1972; Elks, 1992; Gcrnshcim, 1981; Graves, 1843; Gunn, 1857; Henderson, 1986; Kasson, 1990; Larkin, 1988; Lcvinc, 1988; Lockwood, 1972b; Lockwood, 1976; Lowitt, 1954; Mayer, 1983; Miller, 1967; Morris, 1975; Nevins, 1927; Pessen, 1973; Spann, 1986b; Still, 1956; Stone, 1982; Thomas, 1987; Warren, 1992; Watson, 1992; Wecter, 1937

The Respectable Classes: Barth, 1982; Blumin, 1985; Blumin, 1989; Boydston, 1990; Boyer, 1985; Bridges, 1984; Buckley, 1984; Bushman, 1993; Clark, 1978; Cromley, 1990; Curtis, 1853; Douglas, 1977; Duduit, 1983; Gardner, 1979; Gunn, 1857; Halttunen, 1979; Jackson, 1985; Kasson, 1990; Kirsch, 1989; Livingston, 1994; Lockwood, 1972b; Lockwood, 1976; McCullough, 1983; McLoughlin, 1970; Mem, 1979; Nevins, 1927; O’Hanlon, 1982; Rosenberg, 1987; Ryan, 1982; Schwartz, 1972; Simon, 1972; Spann, 1986; Stiles, 1867-70; Stuart-Wortley, 1851; Waller, 1982; Wecter, 1937; Wolfe, 1994

Genteel Performances: Adelman, 1990; Auser, 1969; Banner, 1983; Blumin, 1989; Boydston, 1990; Buckley, 1984; Bushman, 1993; Cromley, 1990; Douglas, 1977; Dudden, 1983; Goldstein, 1992; Green, 1986; Halttunen, 1979; Henderson, 1986; Kirsch, 1989; Lang, 1922; Lieberman, 1995; Lockwood, 1972b; Miller, 1967; Ryan, 1982; Sklar, 1973; Ward, 1994

CHAPTER 42:

CITY OF IMMIGRANTS

Coleman, 1972; Cutler, 1961; Diggins, 1972; Diner, 1996; Dolan, 1975; Ernst, 1949; Gunn, 1857; Hendin, 1993; Kraut, 1996; Marraro, 1949; Miller, 1985; Nadel, 1990; Rosenwaike, 1972; Schneider, 1994; Shaw, 1977; Spann, 1986b; Stott, 1990; Taylor, 1966; Tchen, 1992; United States, 1961; W.P.A., 1938a

Reception Center. Beckert, 1995; Coleman, 1972; Degler, 1952; Diner, 1996; Duffy, 1968-74; Ernst, 1949; Kraut, 1996; Levine, 1992; Spann, 1986b; Still, 1956; Wust, 1984

Immigrants at Work: Anderson, 1976; Bernstein, 1984; Blumin, 1989; Bolster, 1997; Curry, 1853; Degler, 1952; Devlin, 1996; Diner, 1996; Ernst, 1949; Furer, 1973; Gilfoyle, 1992; Grinstein, 1945; Hertzberg, 1989; Hodges, 1982; Hodges, 1996; Ignatiev, 1995; Jackman, 1964; Jenkins, 1912; Jonnes, 1986; Kaplan, 1996; Lapham, 1977; Levine, 1992; Lieberman, 1995; Lockwood, 1976; Melville, 1983; Miller, 1967; Moehring, 1981; Nadel, 1990; Nadel, 1991; O’Donovan, 1969; Quiroga, 1989; Stansell, 1986; Steinmeyer, 1975; Stott, 1990; Sunset Park Restoration Committee, 1980?; Supple, 1957; Tchen, 1993; Tebbel, 1972-81; Truax, 1952; Wilentz, 1984

Settling In: Blackmar, 1989; Blumin, 1989; Boydston, 1990; Coleman, 1972; Cooke, 1995; Cromley, 1990; Diner, 1996; Dolan, 1975; Dunshee, 1952; Ernst, 1949; Grinstein, 1945; Hecht, 1978; Hodges, 1996; Jenkins, 1912; Jonnes, 1986; Judd, 1959; Lapham, 1977; Lockwood, 1972b; Lockwood, 1976; McCullough, 1983; Ment, 1979; Ment, 1980; Nadel, 1990; North, 1951; Osofsky, 1966; Perniconc, 1973; Scharf, 1886; Scherzer, 1982; Schoenebaum, 1977; Schwartz, 1972; Seyfried, 300; Simon, 1972; Stansell, 1986; Still, 1956; Stott, 1990

Jews and Hughes: Billington, 1938; Brown and Ment, 1980; Buetow, 1970; Buhle, 1987; Burns, 1969; Comfort, 1906; Cooke, 1995; Cudahy, 1990; Diner, 1996; Dolan, 1975; Ernst, 1949; Farley, 1908; Fine and Wolfe, 1978; Grinstein, 1945; Hertzberg, 1989; Hodges, 1996; Hofstadter and Wallace, 1970; Jackson, 1989; Jenkins, 1912; Jonnes, 1986; Kaplan, 1996; Katz, 1986; Kraut, 1996; Kroessler, 1991; Lannie, 1968; Nadel, 1990; O’Grady, 1930; Ridge, 1988; Rosenzweig and Blackmar, 1992; Scharf, 1886; Shaw, 1977; Shea, 1878; Stankowski, 1977; Starr, 1957; Stiles, 1867-70; Sunset Park Restoration Committee, 1980?; Walsh, 1960; Weinbaum, 1979; Wittke, 1952

Rude B’hoys: Allen, 1991; Allen, 1993; Beckert, 1995; Blumin, 1989; Crouthamel, 1989; Devlin, 1996; Diner, 1996; Ernst, 1949; Gorn, 1984; Hertzberg, 1989; Hodges, 1996; Horowitz, 1987; Kaplan, 1996; Lees, 1985; Leuchs, 1928; Lott, 1993; Melville, 1996; Meyer, 1987; Nadel, 1990; Nissenbaum, 1996; North, 1951; Otter, 1995; Reynolds, 1995; Ridge, 1988; Ryan, 1990; Saxton, 1990; Schneider, 1994; Shanet, 1975; Shea, 1878; Spann, 1986; Stott, 1990; Wall, 1994; Wecter, 1937; Wilentz, 1984; Wust, 1984

The Manly An: Adelman, 1990; Gilfoyle, 1992; Gorn, 1984; Gorn, 1986; Halttunen, 1982; Hodges, 1996; Koolhaas, 1978; Nadel, 1990; Nevins, 1927; Nissenbaum, 1996; Pilat, 1941; Reynolds, 1995; Saxton, 1990; Schiller, 1980; Sellers, 1991; Spann, 1986b; Stott, 1990; Weinstein, 1984

Underworld: Asbury, 1928; Asbury, 1938; Crapsey, 1872; Fabian, 1990; Kaplan, 1996; Matsell, 1859; Nelli, 1976; Sante, 1991; Spann, 1986b; Srebnick, 1995

“If I don’t have a muss soon, I’ll spile”: Allen, 1991; Blumin, 1989; Buckley, 1984; Dorson, 1943; Frick, 1983; Henderson, 1973; Hodges, 1996; Ignatiev, 1995; Knobel, 1986; Lott, 1993; McConachie, 1992; Nadel, 1990; Nathan, 1962; Odell, 1927-49; Roediger, 1991; Saxton, 1990; Spann, 1986b; Stansell, 1986; Stott, 1990; Tchen, 1993; Toll, 1976; Weinbaum, 1979

CHAPTER 43:

CO-OP CITY

Asbury, 1928; Beckert, 1995; Bergmann, 1995; Blumin, 1989; Brown, 1951; Buckley, 1984; Bushman, 1993; Cooke, 1995; Crouthamel, 1989; Dizikes, 1993; Frick, 1983; Headley, 1970; Henderson, 1973; Hodges, 1996; Kaplan, 1996; Kasson, 1990; Levine, 1988; Lott, 1993; McConachie, 1992; Moody, 1958; Mueller, 1951; Reynolds, 1995; Srebnick, 1995; Weinbaum, 1979

Tenants versus Landlords: Blackmar, 1989; Blumin, 1989; Boston, 1971; Bridges, 1984; Conkin, 1980; Crouthamel, 1989; Ernst, 1949; Freeman, 1966; Grinstein, 1945; Haeger, 1991; Jackson, 1985; Kluger, 1986; Kraut, 1996; Nadel, 1991; Pessen, 1967; Saxton, 1990; Sellers, 1991; Shanet, 1975; Slotkin, 1985; Slotkin, 1973; Spann, 1986b; Tucher, 1994; Zahler, 1941

Towards a Cooperative Metropolis: Degler, 1952; Denholm, 1972; Guarneri, 1988; Harvey, 1985; Hobsbawm, 1975; Horowitz, 1987; Kluger, 1986; Levine, 1992; McKay, 1934; Nadel, 1991; Raynor, 1978; Rude, 1964; Shanet, 1975; Wilentz, 1984

“We did not expect to find in this free country a Russian police”: Beckert, 1995; Bernstein, 1984; Bridges, 1984; Degler, 1952; Devlin, 1996; Diner, 1996; Ernst, 1949; Guarneri, 1988; Ignatiev, 1995; Levine, 1992; Ment, 1979; Migliore, 1975; Nadel, 1991; Nadel, 1990; Seyfried, 1984; Spann, 1986b; Stevens, 1913; Stott, 1990; Wilentz, 1984; Wust, 1984; Zboray, 1993

CHAPTER 44

INTO THE CRAZY-LOVED DENS OF DEATH

Asbury, 1928; Beckert, 1995; Berg, 1978; Child, 1845; Rosenzweig and Blackmar, 1992; Stansell, 1986

“Penitential Tears”: Asbury, 1938; Beckert, 1995; Bridges, 1984; Browder, 1988; Crouthamel, 1989; Diner, 1983; Dolan, 1975; Ernst, 1949; Fabian, 1990; Healy, 1992; Hodges, 1996; Horlick, 1975; Kaestle, 1973; Kaplan, 1996; Katz, 1986; Klips, 1980; Kraut, 1996; MacLeod, 1983; McCabe, 1868; Rorabaugh, 1976; Rosenberg, 1987; Smith Rosenberg, 1971; Rothman, 1971; Shaw, 1977; Spann, 1986b; Stott, 1990; Weinbaum, 1975; Weinbaum, 1979

“To Expel Idleness and Beggary from the City”: Bremner, 1956; Brieger, 1978; Crouthamel, 1989; Diner, 1983; Duffy, 1968-74; Ernst, 1949; Hodges, 1906; Klips, 1980; McLachlin, 1970; Smith-Rosenberg, 1971; Rosenwaike, 1972; Russell, 1945; Spann, 1986b

“Idle and Vicious Children of Both Sexes”: Beckert, 1995; Berg, 1978; Newt Davidson Collective, 1974; Duffy, 1968-74; Gorelick, 1981; Grinstein, 1945; Hodges, 1996; Mack, 1949; Pickett, 1969; Quiroga, 1989; Rudy, 1949; Ryan, 1990; Schneider, 1938-41; Stansell, 1986

Westward Ho! (Children’s Version): Bellingham, 1983; Brace, 1872; Buckley, 1984; Buetow, 1970; Degler, 1952; Diner, 1983; Dolan, 1975; Katz, 1986; Marraro, 1949; O’Grady, 1930; Quiroga, 1989; Schneider, 1938-41; Spann, 1986b; Stansell, 1986

Enter the Environmentalists: Blackmar, 1989; Blackmar, 1995; Bluestone, 1991; Blumin, 1989; Boydston, 1990; Duffy, 1968-74; Freeman, 1966; Goldman, 1997; Hodges, 1906; Kaplan, 1996; Kraut, 1996; Lockwood, 1976; Loop, 1964; Moehring, 1981; Peterson, Fall 1979; Pickett, 1969; Quiroga, 1989; Rosenberg, 1962; Smith Rosenberg, 1971; Rosenberg and Rosenberg, 1968; Rosenzweig and Blackmar, 1992; Shaftel, 1978; Spann, 1986b; Stansell, 1986; Starr, 1957; Stiles, 1867-70; Stott, 1990; Tarr, 1979; Wilentz, 1984; Williams, 1991

Tenement Troubles: Blackmar, 1989; Blackmar, 1995; Bremner, 1958; Duffy, 1968-74; Gardner, 1979; Jackson, 1976; Nadel, 1990; Plunz, 1990; Stansell, 1986

“Lungs of the City”: Adelman, 1990; Bernstein, 1984; Buckley, 1984; Bushman, 1993; Garrett, 1978; Green, 1986; Henkin, 1995; Kelley, 1996; Roper, 1973; Rosenzweig and Blackmar, 1992; Scobey, 1989; Scobey, 1992; Spann, 1986b

CHAPTER 45:

FEME DECOVERT

Banner, 1983; Berg, 1978; Bushman, 1993; D’Emilio, 1988; Gilfoyle, 1902; Hill, 1992; Kasson, 1990; Katz, 1983; Lockwood, 1976; Lynch, 1985; Reynolds, 1995! Ryan, 1990; Stansell, 1986; Watt, 1994; Wecter, 1937

“The utter idleness of the ladyclass”: Banner, 1983; Baym, 1995; Belden, 1849; Berg, 1978; Boydston, 1990; Brewer, 1987; Butcher, 1989; Child, 1845; Clifford, 1992; Cogan, 1989; Douglas, 1977; Ernst, 1949; Graves, 1843; Karcher, 1994; Levine, 1992; Quiroga, 1989; Reynolds, 1995; Robertson, 1996; Rudy, 1949; Sellers, 1991; Srebnick, 1995; Stansell, 1986; Stiles, 1867-70; Tompkins, 1985; Tucher, 1994; Urbanski, 1994; Walker, 1993; Walsh, 1977

A Family Wage: Banner, 1983; Boydston, 1990; Brewer, 1987; Buhle, 1981; Cogan, 1989; Degler, 1952; Devlin, 1996; Diner, 1983; Diner, 1996; DuBois, 1978; Dudden, 1983; Hodges, 1996; Lerner, 1977; Levine, 1992; Lott, 1993; Nadel, 1990; Pernicone, 1973; Schneider, 1994; Stansell, 1986; Stevens, 1913; Tchen, 1993

“. . . grows rich on the hardlabors of our sex.”: Asbury, 1928; Beckett, 1995; Berg, 1978; Boyer, 1978; Cogan, 1989; Dolan, 1975; Dudden, 1983; Freedman, 1981; Hodges, 1996; Kaplan, 1996; Katz, 1986; McCauley, 1992; O’Grady, 1930; Quiroga, 1989; Smith-Rosenberg, 1971; Ryan, 1990; Spann, 1986b; Stansell, 1986; Strasser, 1989; Urbanski, 1994; Whiteaker, 1977

City of Orgies: Allen, 1991; Berg, 1978; Boyer, 1978; Browder, 1988; Buckley, 1984; D’Emilio, 1988; Gilfoyle, 1992; Henderson, 1973; Hill, 1992; Kaplan, 1996; Marx, 1983; McConachie, 1992; Nadel, 1990; New York (N.Y.), 1973; Reynolds, 1995; Ryan, 1990; Sellers, 1991; Stansell, 1986; Urbanski, 1994; Whiteaker, 1977

“Mistress of Abominations”: Browder, 1988; Crouthamel, 1989; D’Emilio, 1988; Duffy, 1968-74; Gilfoyle, 1992; Gordon, 1976; Leach, 1980; Miller, 1990; Mohr, 1978; Morris, 1975; Olasky, 1986; Parry, 1933; Quiroga, 1989; Srebnick, 1995; Stoehr, 1979; Waller, 1982

“fashion’s despotic rule”: Allen, 1991; Banner, 1983; Berg, 1978; Boyer, 1985; Buckley, 1984; Child, 1845; Cogan, 1989; Ellington, 1869; Hill, 1992; Kasson, 1990; Leach, 1980; Lockwood, 1976; McConachie, 1992; Morris, 1975; Ryan, 1990; Scobey, 1992; Shanet, 1975; Stansell, 1986; Stuart-Wortley, 1851; Thomas, 1967

“Lindomania” and “High-flyer Stampedes”: Berg, 1978; Buckley, 1984; Dayton, 1882; Dizikes, 1993; Harris, 1973; Hodges, 1996; Horowitz, 1987; Kaplan, 1996; Kasson, 1990; McConachie, 1992; Parry, 1933; Ryan, 1990; Srebnick, 1995; Stansell, 1986

Feme Decovert: Basch, 1982; Berg, 1978; Blackmar, 1989; Boylan, 1990; Cogan, 1989; Crouthamel, 1989; Douglas, 1977; Gilfoyle, 1992; Ginzberg, 1986; Gurko, 1974; Hersh, 1978; Meyer, 1987; Painter, 1996; Reynolds, 1995; Sicherman, et al., 1980; Stansell, 1986; Slanton, Anthony, and Gage, 1881—1922; Swerdlow, 1976; Walker, 1993

CHAPTER 46:

LOUIS NAPOLEON AND FERNANDO WOOD

Boyer, 1985; Bridges, 1984; Danforth, 1974; Gronowicz, 1998; Guarneri, 1988; Harvey, 1985; Hobsbawm, 1975; jaher, 1982; McGerr, 1986; Pinkney, 1958; Shefter, 1993; Spann, 1986a; Spann, 1986b

Tammany’s Toam: Allen, 1993; Anbinder, 1987; Beckert, 1995; Blumin, 1989; Bridges, 1984; Brown, 1976; Callow, 1966; Gorn, 1984; Hershkowitz, 1977; Hodges, 1996; Moehring, 1981; Mollenkopf, 1981; Montgomery, 1967; Mushkat, 1990; Myers, 1901; Reynolds, 1995; Spann, 1986b; Summers, 1987; Werner, 1928

Municipal Politics Indicted: Albion, 1939; Beckert, 1995; Blackmar, 1989; Buckley, 1984; Callow, 1966; Cleveland, 1985; Diner, 1996; Duffy, 1968-74; Ginsberg, 1968; Harlow, 1931; Hodas, 1976; Hofstadter and Wallace, 1970; Kaplan, 1996; Klips, 1980; Rosenzweig and Blackmar, 1992; Sante, 1991; Spann, 1986b; Stiles, 1867-70; Stott, 1990; Stotz, 1948; Urbanski, 1994; Wilentz, 1984

Reform: Anbinder, 1987; Baker, 1983; Baker, 1990; Barth, 1982; Beckert, 1995; Berg, 1978; Brown, 1966; Buckley, 1984; Carman, 1919; Gorn, 1984; Gronowicz, 1998; Hodges, 1986; Hofstadter and Wallace, 1970; Kaplan, 1996; Knobel, 1986; Mack, 1949; Miller, 1977; Moehring, 1981; Mushkat, 1990; Pickett, 1969; Rosenzweig and Blackmar, 1992; Saxton, 1990; Spann, 1986b; Srebnick, 1995; Stott, 1990; Summers, 1987; Wilentz, 1984

“Our Civic Hero “: Anbinder, 1987; Beckert, 1995; Blackmar, 1989; Browder, 1988; Brown, 1976; Folsom, 1991; Hill, 1992; Levine, 1992; Mushkat, 1990; Nadel, 1990; Nadel, 1991; Reynolds, 1995; Richardson, 1970; Rosenzweig and Blackmar, 1992; Rudy, 1949; Scobey, 1989; Spann, 1986b; Stampp, 1990

State over City: Allen, 1991; Anbinder, 1987; Asbury, 1928; Beckert, 1995; Bridges, 1984; Brown, 1976; Buckley, 1984; Callow, 1966; Chalmers, 1969; Crouthamel, 1989; Duffy, 1968-74; Hartog, 1983; Ment, 1979; Miller, 1977; Moehring, 1981; Mushkat, 1990; Nadel, 1990; North, 1951; Otter, 1995; Rorabaugh, 1976; Rosenzweig and Blackmar, 1992; Seyfried, 1985; Snyder-Grenier, 1996; Spann, 1986b; Stansell, 1986; Stiles, 1867-70; Stott, 1990; Summers, 1987; Tarr, 1979; Weinbaum, 1975

CHAPTER 47:

THE PANIC OF 1857

Black, 1981; Browder, 1985; Crouthamel, 1989; Gibbons, 1859; Huston, 1987; Norris, 1978; Stampp, 1990

“appalling picture of social wretchedness”: Adeunan, 1990; Banner, 1983; Barth, 1982; Bolster, 1997; Folsom, 1991; Garmey, 1984; Hendrickson, 1979; Hodas, 1976; Huston, 1987; Jackson, 1985; Jaher, 1982; Lebhar, 1952; Lockwood, 1972; Moehring, 1981; Nadel, 1990; Nadel, 1991; Rush, 1920; Stampp, 1990; Stansell, 1986; Stott, 1990; Tebbell, 1972-81; Winkler, 1934

“paper bubbles of all descriptions”: Clark, 1978; Crouthamel, 1989; Fishlow, 1966; Gibbons, 1859; Hobsbawm, 1975; Huston, 1987; Jaher, 1982; Moehring, 1981; Spann, 1986b; Temin, 1975; Van Vleck, 1943; Waller, 1982

Wood Redux-. Beckert, 1995; Bernstein, 1984; Btackmar, 1989; Bridges, 1984; Degler, 1952; Folsom, 1991; Huston, 1987; Levine, 1992; May, 1949; Moehring, 1981; Mushkat, 1990; Nadel, 1991; Nadel, 1990; Rosenzweig and Blackmar, 1992; Ryan, 1990; Stampp, 1990

“We Want Work!”: Bernstein, 1984; Bridges, 1984; Degler, 1952; Huston, 1987; Klebaner, 1960; Rosenzweig and Blackmar, 1992

Wood Removed: Anbinder, 1987; Beckert, 1995; Huston, 1987; Lapham, 1977; Levine, 1992; Mushkat, 1990; Rosenzweig and Blackmar, 1992; Walker, 1993

CHAPTER 48:

THE HOUSE DIVIDES

Bernstein, 1984; Foner, 1970; Foner, 1980; Hobsbawm, 1975; Brewer, 1976; McKay, 1990; Slotkin, 1985; Taylor, 1961

Black Republicans’. Aptheker, 1951; Beard, 1993; Berg, 1978; Blockson, 1994; Bolster, 1997; Cook, 1974; Crouthamel, 1989; Dann, 1971; Dudden, 1983; Foner, 1983; Foote, 1993; Freeman, 1966; Gronowicz, 1998; Harris, 1968; Hershkowitz, 1960; Hirsch, 1931; Hodges, 1996; Hutchinson, 1972; Hutton, 1993; Ignatiev, 1995; Klips, 1980; Lee, 1943; Litwack, 1961; Lockwood, 1976; Man, 1951; Maynard, 1983; Ment, 1980; Mitchell, 1959; Mitchell, 1992; Ottley and Weatherby, 1967; Ovington, 1911; Quarles, 1969; Rainone, 1985; Scheiner, 1965; Stansell, 1986; Stiles, 1867-70; Swift, 1989; Taylor, 1994; Walker, 1993; Werner, 1986; Wesley, 1939; Wilder, 1994

White Republicans: Beckert, 1995; Bernstein, 1984; Booraem, 1983; Brown, 1971; Foner, 1975; Fredrickson, 1965; Gienapp, 1987; Lott, 1993; Marx and Engels, 1937; McLoughlin, 1970; Migliore, 1975; Mushlat, 1971; Nadel, 1991; Richards, 1970; Roediger, 1991; Saxton, 1990; Sellers, 1991; Whitby, 1984; Wilder, 1994; Wyatt-Brown, 1969

Metropolitan Dixiecrats: Anbinder, 1992; Bernstein, 1984; Browder, 1985; Crouthamel, 1989; Foner, 1975; Foner, 1982; Foner, 1980; Hamm, 1979; Lee, 1943; Man, 1951; McKay, 1990; McLoughlin, 1970; Migliore, 1975; Mushkat, 1971; Sacks and Sacks, 1993; Schluter, 1913; Slotkin, 1985

John Brown’s Body: Dann, 1971; Hutchinson, 1972; Quarles, 1969; Slotkin, 1985; Swift, 1989; Walker, 1993; Wilder, 1994; Wyatt-Brown, 1969

CHAPTER 49:

CIVIL WARS

Bernstein, 1984; Degler, 1952; Foner, 1968; Foner, 1975; Genovese, 1965; Genovese, 1971; Hofstadter, 1948; McKay, 1990; Migliore, 1975; Moore, Jr., 1966; Randall, 1945; Ryan, 1975; Trachtenberg, 1989

Grass in the Streets?: Bernstein, 1984; Foner, 1968; Hammond, 1957; Hammond, 1970; Hershkowitz, 1977; Migliore, 1975; Ruffin, 1860; Ryan, 1990; Slotkin, 1985

Lincoln Redux: Kaplan, 1980; Lee, 1943; McKay, 1990; Dates, 1977; Randall, 1945; Zweig, 1984

The Republic of New York?: Anbinder, 1987; Beckert, 1995; Bernstein, 1984; Lee, 1943; McKay, 1990; Migliore, 1975; Mushkat, 1990

Beat! Beat! Drums!: Adams, 1958; Beckert, 1995; Browder, 1985; Catalfamo, 1989; Clark, 1864; Devlin, 1996; Ellis, 1997; Foner, 1968; Purer, 1973; Harlow, 1931; Hershkowitz, 1977; Hobsbawm, 1975; Kaplan, 1980; McKay, 1990; Migliore, 1975; Miller, 1985; Montgomery, 1967; Nadel, 1990; Ridge, 1988; Spann, 1996

The B’hoys at War. Bernstein, 1984; Foner, 1975; Frederickson, 1965; Kaplan, 1980; Lee, 1943; Migliore, 1975

Entrepot and Works/tap: Artie, 1987; Beckert, 1995; Bernstein, 1984; Browder, 1985; Brown and Mem, 1980; Cook, 1974; Costello, 1967; Cruder, 1972; Fite, 1976; Foner, 1968; Hecht, 1978; Hobsbawm, 1975; Hutchins, 1941; jackson, 1984; Jonncs, 1986; Lapham, 1977; Lee, 1943; Livingston, 1994; McKay, 1990; Migliore, 1975; Nevins, 1950-70; New York (N.Y.), 1973; Poole, 1915; Rischin, 1962; Rosenzweig and Blackmar, 1992; Singer, 1986; Snyder-Grenier, 1996

Greenbacks and Goldbugf. Beckert, 1995; Browder, 1985; Cleveland, 1985; Gische, 1979; Hammond, 1957; McKay, 1990; Montgomery, 1967; Sharkey, 1959; Shefter, 1993; Sobel, 1965; Supple, 1957; Winkler, 1934

The Shoddy Aristocracy. Adelman, 1990; Asbury, 1938; Attie, 1987; Earth, 1982; Boyer, 1985; Browder, 1985; Cruden, 1972; File, 1976; Gardner, 1979; McKay, 1990; Migliore, 1975; Nevins, 1959-70; Ross, 1963; Sobel, 1965; Thomas, 1967

Reformers at War: The Sanitary Commission: Attie, 1987; Fredrickson, 1965; Kaplan, 1980; McKay, 1990; Migliore, 1975; Smith, 1957

Carnage and Class: Cruden, 1972; Fredrickson, 1965; Griffin, 1990; Hershkowitz, 1977; Kaplan, 1980; Kouwenhoven, 1953; Lee, 1943; Lonn, 1951; McKay, 1990; Nevins, 1959-70; Ryan, 1975; Slotkin, 1985; Spann, 1996; Starr, 1957

CHAPTER 50:

THE BATTLE FOR NEW YORK

Beckert, 1995; Bernstein, 1984; Costello, 1967; Cruden, 1972; Fite, 1976; Lee, 1943; Man, 1951; McKay, 1990; Migliore, 1975; Montgomery, 1967; Spann, 1996; Wilder, 1994

Politics of Emancipation: Anbinder, 1987; Aptheker, 1951; Artie, 1987; Beckert, 1995; Bernstein, 1984; Callow, 1966; Cook, 1974; Fehrenbacher, 1987; Frederickson, 1965; Hershkowitz, 1977; Hutchinson, 1972; Marx, 1937; McKay, 1990; Migliore, 1975;

Montgomery, 1967; Mushkat, 1971; Mushkat, 1990; Slotkin, 1985; Wyatt Brown, 1969

The Draft: Bernstein, 1984; Cook, 1974; Costello, 1967; Lee, 1943; Migliore, 1975; Montgomery, 1967; Ryan, 1990

Day One: Bernstein, 1984; Brown, 1976; Cook, 1974; McKay, 1990; Ryan, 1990; Spann, 1996

The Battle for New York City. Bernstein, 1984; Brooks Brothers, 1943; Cook, 1974; Costello, 1967; Hodges, 1996; Livingston, 1994; McKay, 1990; Montgomery, 1967; Snyder Grenier, 1996

Aftermaths: Beckert, 1995; Bernstein, 1984; Callow, 1966; Duffy, 1968-74; Frederickson, 1965; Hershkowitz, 1977; Maynard, 1983; McKay, 1990; Migliore, 1975; Montgomery, 1967; Mushkat, 1990; Roediger, 1991; Scobey, 1989; Seraile, 1977; Slotkin, 1985; Spann, 1996

Back to Business: Browder, 1985; Chernow, 1990; Costello, 1967; Cruden, 1972; Fite, 1976; Klein, 1986; Lee, 1943; McKay, 1990; Nevins, 1959-70; Sobel, 1965

The Election of 1864: Brandt, 1986; Longacre, 1984; McKay, 1990; Migliore, 1975; Mohr, 1973; Van Deusen, 1947; Zornow, 1954

Peace: Boyer, 1985; Hershkowitz, 1977; Kaplan, 1980; Kouwenhoven, 1953; McKay, 1990; Migliore, 1975

CHAPTER 51:

WESTWARD, HO!

Beckert, 1995; Bernstein, 1984; Coben, 1962; Field, 1982; Foner, 1988; Katz, 1968; Migliore, 1975; Montgomery, 1967; Scobey, 1989

Wall Street and the West: Beckert, 1995; Black, 1981; Carosso, 1970; Carosso, 1976; Chernow, 1990; Cook, 1974; Katz, 1968; Klein, 1986; Lane, 1942; Montgomery, 1967; Simon, 1978; Supple, 1957

The Scarlet Woman of Wall Street. Browder, 1985; Callow, 1966; Carosso, 1970; Chandler, 1977; Chernow, 1990; Gordon, 1988; Klein, 1986; Lane, 1942; Morris, 1975; Scobey, 1989; Sharkey, 1959; Trager, 1990; Unger, 1964

The West and Wall Street: Foner, 1988; Gische, 1979; Montgomery, 1967; Sharkey, 1959; Slotkin, 1985; Trachtenberg, 1982; Unger, 1964

CHAPTER 52:

RECONSTRUCTING NEW YORK

Bernstein, 1984; Migliore, 1975; Scobey, 1989; Waugh, 1992

Fire: Calhoun, 1973; Costello, 1887; Ginsberg, 1968; Mandlebaum, 1965; Moehring, 1981; Mohr, 1973

Health: Corey, 1994; Duffy, 1968-74; Goldman, 1997; Hershkowitz, 1977; Kaplan, 1975; Kaplan, 1979; Mandlebaum, 1965; Mohr, 1973; Peterson, 1979; Rosenberg, 1962; Rosner, 1995; Scobey, 1989; Williams, 1991

Housing: Bender, 1987; Costello, 1967; Cromley, 1990; Lane, 1974; Lubove, 1962; Moehring, 1981; Plunz, 1990; Schiesl, 1977; Simon, 1978

City Building: Boyer, 1985; Cooke, 1995; Foord, 1913; Hall, 1898; Kaplan, 1975; Kaplan, 1979; Lane, 1942; Leng and Davis, 1930-33; MacCracken, 1905; Mazaraki, 1966; Real Estate Record, 1898; Roper, 1973; Rosenzweig and Blackmar, 1992; Salwen, 1989; Schwarz, 1972; Schyuler, 1986; Scobey, 1989; Simon, 1972; Steinmeyer, 1975; Stone, 1969; Syrett, 1944

White Men Shall Rule America!: Field, 1982; Foner, 1988; Mohr, 1973; Scheiner, 1965

The End of Radical Reconstruction in New York”. Beckett, 1995; Bernstein, 1984; Coben, 1962; Cohen, 1976; Field, 1982; Foner, 1988; Gordon, 1993; Henderson, 1976; Katz, 1968; Kolchin, 1967; Migliore, 1975; Mohr, 1973; Mushkat, 1988; Scheiner, 1965

CHAPTER 53:

CITY BUILDING

Bernstein, 1984; Boyer, 1985; Gardner, 1979; Goldman, 1997; Gordon, 1977; Harvey, 1981; Hood, 1993; Lane, 1942; Lockwood, 1976; Mandlebaum, 1965; McCullough, 1972; Moehring, 1981; Mohr, 1973; Morris, 1975; Real Estate Record, 1898; Rosenzweig and Blackmar, 1992; Scobey, 1989; Shanor, 1988; Simon, 1978; Teaford, 1984; Trachtenberg, 1982; Trager, 1987; Trager, 1990

Rapid Transit: Boyer, 1985; Derrick, 1979; Fischler, 1976; Hood, 1993; McCullough, 1972; Sullivan, 1995; Walker, 1970

Bosses, Boosters, and Bridgemakers: Chandler, 1977; Cooke, 1995; Hershkowitz, 1977; Lightfoot, 1981; Mandlebaum, 1965; McCullough, 1972; Schoenebaum, 1977; Schuyler, 1986; Simon, 1972; Syrett, 1944

Constructing Queens; Condit, 1980-81; Diamond and Ricciardi, 1983; Hecht, 1978; Kroessler, 1991; Lieberman, 1995; Seyfried, 1986; Seyfried, 1985; Seyfried, 1984; Singer, 1986

High Finance: Earth, 1982; Bender, 1987; Chandler, 1977; Costello, 1967; Czitrom, 1982; Gabler, 1988; Gardner, 1979; Garside, 1939; Gayle, 1974; Hariow, 1936; Henderson, 1986; Herskowitz, 1977; Klein, 1986; Kluger, 1986; Landau and Condit, 1996; Lane, 1942; Lockwood, 1976; Mandlebaum, 1965; Markham, 1987; McCullough, 1972; Moehring, 1981; Papke, 1987; Real Estate Record, 1898; Scobey, 1989; Silver, 1967; Syrett, 1944; Trager, 1990

Communication Giants: Gardner, 1979; Harlow, 1936; Klein, 1986; Landau and Condit, 1996; Mandlebaum, 1965; Papke, 1987; Real Estate Record, 1898; Scobey, 1989; Weisman, 1970; Weisman, 1953

Rail Complex: Condit, 1980-81; Lane, 1942; Scobey, 1989; Trager, 1990

Ladies’ Mile: Abelson, 1989; Earth, 1982; Boyer, 1985; Chandler, 1977; Cooke, 1995; Devorkin, 1987; Frick, 1983; Gardner, 1979; Hobsbawm, 1975; Hower, 1943; Lockwood, 1976; Montgomery, 1967; Scobey, 1989

Rialto: Boyer, 1985; Corey, 1994; Frick, 1983; Henderson, 1986; Lockwood, 1976; Morris, 1975; Scobey, 1989

Downtown Downsides: Bernstein, 1984; Mandlebaum, 1965; Moehring, 1981; Scobey, 1989

CHAPTER 54:

HAUTE MONDE AND DEMIMONDE

Beckert, 1995; Langenderfer, 1980; Rosenzweig and Blackmar, 1992

Hot to Trot: Adelman, 1990; Asbury, 1938; Earth, 1982; Beckert, 1995; Birmingham, 1967; Boyer, 1985; Fabian, 1990; Leslie, 1954; Lockwood, 1976; McCullough, 1972; Morris, 1975; Riess, 1989; Rosenzweig and Blackmar, 1992; Sante, 1991; Scobey, 1992; Sell and Weybright, 1955; Simon, 1978; Slotkin, 1985; Wecter, 1937; Wright, 1983

Les Girls: Allen, 1991; Gilfoyle, 1992; Lockwood, 1976; McCabe, 1868; Morris, 1975; Odell, 1927-49; Ross, 1963; Seyfried, 1986; Simon, 1978; Snyder, 1989

On the Avenue: Beckert, 1995; Birmingham, 1967; Boyer, 1985; Canton, 1975; Cromley, 1990; Frick, 1983; Gardner, 1979; Lockwood, 1972; Lockwood, 1976; Moehring, 1981; Real Estate Record, 1898; Ross, 1963; Scharnhorst, 1985; Simon, 1978; Steele, 1985

McCallister Among the Patriarchs: Beckert, 1995; Dudden, 1983; Frick, 1983; Gardner, 1979; Gates, 1981; Morris, 1975; Rosenzweig and Blackmar, 1992; Thomas, 1967; Wecter, 1937

“still destitute of such an institution”: Bender, 1987; Blaugrund, 1982; Clark, 1954; Dizikes, 1993; Frick, 1983; Gardner, 1979; Hellman, 1969; Kennedy, 1968; Morris, 1975; Rosenzweig and Blackmar, 1992; Simon, 1978; Trachtenberg, 1982

CHAPTER 55:

THE PROFESSIONAL-MANAGERIAL CLASS

Beckert, 1995; Blumin, 1985; Blumin, 1989; Montgomery, 1967; Walker, 1979

Noble Professions: Beckert, 1995; Bledstein, 1976; Calhoun, 1960; Chandler, 1977; Coon, 1947; Duffy, 1990; Gardner, 1979; Goldman, 1997; Horlick, 1975; Lockwood, 1976; Martin, 1970; McAdam, 1897-99; McCullough, 1972; Montgomery, 1967; Noble, 1977; Powell, 1988; Scobey, 1989; Teaford, 1984

Home Sweet Apartment: Cromley, 1990; Hawes, 1993; Kroessler, 1991; Lockwood, 1976; McCullough, 1983; Morris, 1975; Plunz, 1990; Schemer, 1965; Schoenebaum, 1977; Scobey, 1989; Snyder-Grenier, 1996; Syrett, 1944; Taylor, 1904; Wilder, 1994

Tie Cultivated Life: Adelman, 1990; Earth, 1982; Bledstein, 1976; Costello, 1967; Dudden, 1983; Foner, 1988; Frick, 1983; Goldstein, 1992; Kaufman, 1972; Morris, 1975; Riess, 1989; Rosenzweig and Blackmar, 1992; Smith, 1967; Strasser, 1989; Trachtenberg, 1982; Turner, 1980; Ward, 1994

Rags to ‘Specta Hlity Religion: Beckert, 1995; Cawelti, 1967; Clark, 1978; Douglas, 1977; Duduit, 1983; Findlay, 1969; Johnson, 1973; Klein, 1986; McCullough, 1983; McLoughlin, 1970; Scharnhorst, 1985; Simon, 1978; Slotkin, 1985; Syrett, 1944; Trachtenberg, 1982; Wagenknecht, 1972; Waller, 1982

The Politics of Decency: Bannister, 1979; Beckert, 1995; Bender, 1987; Bernstein, 1984; Fine, 1964; Foner, 1988; Fredrickson, 1965; Haskell, 1977; Hobsbawm, 1975; Leach, 1980; Mandlebaum, 1965; Milne, 1956; Montgomery, 1987; Ross, 1991; Slotkin, 1985; Sproat, 1968; Teaford, 1984; Trachtenberg, 1982; Waugh, 1992; Whitman, 1949

“Women: Their Rights and Nothing Less”: Banner, 1980; Barry, 1988; Blair, 1980; Boyer, 1985; Buhle, 1981; Buhle, 1987; Cooke, 1995; Costello, 1967; D’Emilio and Frccdman, 1988; Devorkin, 1987; DuBois, 1978; Foner, 1988; Gabriel, 1998; Gardner, 1979; Gardner, 1994; Goldsmith, 1998; Gordon, 1976; Griffith, 1984; Lane, 1942; Leach, 1980; Morris, 1975; Paterson, 1955; Ross, 1963; Sears, 1977; Solomon, 1985; Stanton, 1898; Stanton, Anthony and Gage, 1881-1922; Truax, 1952; Underbill, 1995

CHAPTER 56:

EIGHT HOURS FOR WHAT WE WILL

Beckert, 1995; Costello, 1967; McKivigan and Robertson, 1096

The Eight-Hour Day: American Social History Project, 1989; Aptheker, 1951; Bernstein, 1984; Costello, 1967; Foner, 1988; Malon, 1981; Mohr, 1973; Montgomery, 1967; Montgomery, 1987; Schneider, 1994; Scobey, 1989; Singer, 1986

Marxists, Feminists, and the Money Power. Banner, 1980; Barry, 1988; Beckert, 1995; Bernstein, 1984; Boyer, 1985; Buhle, 1987; Costello, 1967; Foner, 1988; Gardner, 1979; Gilfoyle, 1992; Gordon, 1976; Lieberman, 1995; Malon, 1981; Morris, 1975; Schneider, 1994; Scobey, 1989; Sears, 1977; Sharkey, 1959; Unger, 1964

Walking to Work Bruce, 1877; Costello, 1967; Gardner, 1979; Harlow, 1931; Hecht, 1978; Moehring, 1981; Montgomery, 1967; O’Connor, 1958; Schoenebaum, 1977; Seyfried, 1984

Colored Quarters: Aptheker, 1951; Bernstein, 1984; Connolly, 1977; Costello, 1967; DuBois, 1978; Foner, 1988; Schemer, 1965; Seraile, 1991a; Seraile, 1991b; Snyder-Grenier, 1996; Taylor, 1994; Wilder, 1994

Having Fun: Frick, 1983; Gilfoyle, 1992; Hecht, 1978; Kroessler, 1991; McCabe, 1868; McConachie, 1992; Morris, 1975; Rosenzweig and Blackmar, 1992; Scobey, 1989; Seyfried, 1984; Snyder, 1989

Old Sleuth and Buffalo Bill: Denning, 1987; Papke, 1987; Trachtenberg, 1982 Underworld: Asbury, 1928; Bruce, 1877; Campbell, 1900; Crapsey, 1872; Harlow, 1931; Hartsfield, 1985; Johnson, 1979; Papke, 1987; Peterson, 1983; Richardson, 1970; Rovere, 1947; Sante, 1991; Scobey, 1989; Sutton, 1874; Van Every, 1930; Walling, 1887; Wunsch, 1976

CHAPTER 57:

THE NEW YORK COMMUNE?

Beckert, 1995; Bernstein, 1984; Bruce, 1877; Castells, 1978; Cherry, 1950; Costello, 1967; Edwards, 1971; Harvey, 1985; Herreshoff, 1967; Montgomery, 1967; Scobey, 1989; Slotkin, 1985; Williams, 1968

Orange and Green: Brown, 1966; Buhle, 1987; Gordon, “977; Gordon, 1993; Mandlebaum, 1965; McKivigan and Robertson, 1996; Montgomery, 1967; Slotkin, 1985

Slaughter on Eighth Avenue: Bernstein, 1984; Clark, 1864; Costello, 1967; Gordon, 1993; Headley, 1970; Mandlebaum, 1965

Tweed Toppled: Beckert, 1995; Bender, 1987; Bernstein, 1984; Callow, 1966; Carosso, 1987; Foner, 1988; Gardner, 1979; Hershkowitz, 1977; Katz, 1968; Klein, 1986; Mack, 1949; Mandlebaum, 1965; Mazaraki, 1966; McCullough, 1972; Moehring, 1981; Montgomery, 1967; Morris, 1975; Mushkat, 1988; Powell, 1988; Teaford, 1984; Trachtenberg, 1982

Back to the Ten-Hour Day. Bernstein, 1984; Bruce, 1877; Costello, 1967; Lieberman, 1995; Mohr, 1973; Montgomery, 1967; Yellowitz, 1978

Special Agent Anthony Comstock: Beckert, 1995; Beisel, 1997; Boyer, 1968; Browder, 1988; Brown, 1993; D’Emilio and Freedman, 1988; Duduit, 1983; Johnson, 1973; Leach, 1980; Morris, 1975; Sears, 1977; Waller, 1982

“The Slaughter of the Innocents”: Browder, 1995; Buhle, 1981; Buhle, 1987; Costello, 1967; DuBois, 1978; Foner, 1977; Fox, 1993; Herreshoff, 1967; Leach, 1980; Mohr, 1973; Montgomery, 1967; Waller, 1982

CHAPTER 58:

WORK OR BREAD!

Browder, 1985; Foner, 1988; Lane, 1942; Sobel, 1988; Sobel, 1965; Unger, 1964

Taking Stock: Beckert, 1995; Chernow, 1990; Pels, 1959; Gordon, 1982; Hobsbawm, 1975; Lane, 1942; Livingston, 1987; Livingston, 1994; Rezneck, 1968; Scobey, 1989; Slotkin, 1985; Sobel, 1988

Work or Bread!: Beckert, 1995; Bender, 1987; Boyer, 1985; Carosso, 1987; Chernow, 1990; Feder, 1936; Folsom, 1991; Foner, 1988; Gutman, 1965; Mandlebaum, 1965; Moehring, 1981; O’Donnell, 1995; Real Estate Record, 1898; Rezneck, 1968; Rosenzweig and Blackmar, 1992; Salwen, 1989; Seyfried, 1985; Sobel, 1988; Unger, 1964

Tompkins Square: Bender, 1987; Bernstein, 1956; Bruce, 1877; Gutman, 1965; Gutman, 1965; Montgomery, 1987; Rezneck, 1968; Ringenbach, 1973; Trachtenberg, 1982

Retrenchment: Bender, 1987; Cohen, 1976; Lui, 1993; Mandlebaum, 1965; Mazaraki, 1966; Moehring, 1981; Mushkat, 1988; Ringenbach, 1973; Scobey, 1989; Shelter, 1993; Teaford, 1984; Yearley, 1970

“Charity Rages Like an Epidemic”: Kaplan, 1978; Lui, 1993; Mandlebaum, 1965; Rezneck, 1968; Ringenbach, 1973; Slotkin, 1985; Waugh, 1992

Of Beggars and Tramps: Beckert, 1995; Bruce, 1877; Denning, 1987; Fitzgerald, 1992; Foner, 1988; Kaplan, 1978; Katz, 1983; Katz, 1986; Kurland, 1971; Lui, 1993; Mandlebaum, 1965; Moehring, 1981; Reznick, 1968; Ringenbach, 1973; Schneider, 1938-41; Slotkin, 1985; Stanley, 1992; Trachtenberg, 1982; Trattner, 1983; Waugh, 1992

Dispensing with Democracy. Beckert, 1995; Bender, 1987; Bernstein, 1984; Erie, 1988; Foner, 1988; Kaplan, 1978; Mandlebaum, 1965; McGerr, 1986; Mushkat, 1988; Rosenzweig and Blackmar, 1992; Slotkin, 1985; Teaford, 1984

A Monumental Aside: McCabe, 1868; Unrau, 1984

Farewell to Reconstruction: Cohen, 1976; Foner, 1988; Mushkat, 1988; Slotkin, 1985; Trachtenberg, 1982

The Gnat Strike: Beckert, 1995; Bernstein, 1956; Brown, 1966; Bruce, 1877; Carosso, 1987; Chandler, 1977; dark, 1864; Cohen, 1976; Duduit, 1983; Flick, 1939; Fogelson, 1989; Foner, 1977; Foner, 1988; Garmey, 1984; Hershkowitz, 1977; Kluger, 1986; Lane, 1942; Mack, 1949; Mandlebaum, 1965; Mushkat, 1988; Papke, 1987; Ringenbach, 1973; Roper, 1973; Scheiner, 1965; Scobey, 1989; Slotkin, 1985; Trachtenberg, 1982; Trager, 1990; Waugh, 1992; Woodward, 1951

PART FIVE:

INDUSTRIAL CENTER AND CORPORATE COMMAND POST (1880-1898)

CHAPTER 59:

MANHATTAN, INC.

Aronowitz, 1983; Carosso, 1987; Chandler, 1977; Cohen, 1976; Pels, 1959; Hobsbawm, 1987; Livingston, 1986; Sklar, 1988; Slotkin, 1985; Sobel, 1988; Stokes, 1928; Trachtenberg, 1982

The Corporate Solution: Bannister, 1979; Beckert, 1995; Brown and Ment, 1980; Carosso, 1987; Chandler, 1977; Chernow, 1990; Dean, 1957; Donnelly, 1982; Pels, 1959; Fine, 1964; Gordon, 1982; Hammack, 1982; Hower, 1943; Klein, 1986; Kluger, 1996; Kobler, 1988; Kroessler, 1991; Leopold, 1954; Lisagor, 1989; Livingston, 1986; McAdam, 1897-99; McCabe, 1868; Myers, 1931; Kevins, 1940; Sklar, 1988; Swaine, 1946; Tomsich, 1971; Trachtenberg, 1982; Wecter, 1937; Winkler, 1934

Associates and Agents: Barth, 1982; Beckert, 1995; Dean, 1957; Fox, 1984; Hammack, 1982; Hobsbawm, 1987; Hobson, 1984; Hodgson, 1990; Jaher, 1982; Kluger, 1996; Lears, 1995; Lisagor, 1989; Morris, 1990; Parrini, 1969; Pope, 1983; Powell, 1988; Schudson, 1984; Seyfried, 1984; Starrer, 1938; Strasser, 1989; Swaine, 1946; Trachtenberg, 1982; Winkler, 1934

Tall Towers: Beckert, 1995; Boyer, 1985; Burchard and Bush-Brown, 1961; Costello, 1887; Derrick, 1979; Domosh, 1985; Donner, 1990; Finney, 1970; Gibbs, 1976; Goldberger, 1981; Hammack, 1982; Hendin, 1993; Kessner, 1977; Klein, 1986; Landau and Condit, 1996; Lisagor, 1989; Lockwood, 1976; McCabe, 1868; McShane, 1979; Morris, 1975; Myers, 1974; New York Steam Corporation, 1932; Snyder-Grenier, 1996; Starrett, 1928; Stern, 1900; Still, 1956; Van Leeuwen, 1988

High Rollers: Bobrick, 1981; Boyer, 1983; Bronx Museum, 1986; Carosso, 1987; Chandler, 1977; Cheape, 1980; Derrick, 1979; Donnelly, 1982; Fischler, 1976; Fox, 1977; Hammack, 1982; Hirsch, 1948; Klein, 1986; Mandlebaum, 1965; McCabe, 1868; McCullough, 1981; Moerhing, 1981; Morris, 1975; Nye, 1990; Skolnik, 1971; Snyder Grenier, 1996; Stern, 1900; Sullivan, 1995; Tabb, 1984; Ultan, 1985; Walker, 1970; Wecter, 1937

CHAPTER 60:

BRIGHT LIGHTS, BIG CITY

Hello, Central: Barnouw, 1966; Chandler, 1977; Cleveland, 1985; Dean, 1957; Garnet, 1985; Green, 1990; Josephson, 1969; Klein, 1986; Landau and Condit, 1996; Lisagor, 1989; Lockwood, 1976; Morris, 1975; Pool, 1977; Rudolph, 1986; Schlesinger, 1933; Van Leeuwen, 1988

Let There Be Light. Abelson, 1989; Bruce, 1987; Carosso, 1987; Conot, 1979; Cromley, 1990; Harlow, 1936; Millard, 1990; Nye, 1990; Rudolph, 1986; Schivelbusch, 1988; Trachtenberg, 1982

Bright Lights: Abelson, 1989; Burchard and Bush-Brown, 1961; Cheape, 1980; Gilfoyle, 1992; Landau and Condit, 1996; McCabe, 1868; Morris, 1975; Nye, 1990; Trager, 1990

Useful ami Unuseful Utilities: Earth, 1982; Carosso, 1987; Chandler, 1977; Chernow, 1990; Cleveland, 1985; Collins, 1934; Daley, 1959; Hodas, 1976; Hurwitz, 1943; Lurkis, 1982; Myers, 1974; Novick, 1976; Nye, 1990; Rudolph, 1986; Stotz, 1948; Sullivan, 1995; Teaford, 1984

CHAPTER 61:

CHÂ TEAUX SOCIETY

Beckert, 1995; Lasch, 1973; Livingston, 1986; Livingston, 1994; Morris, 1975; Nye, 1990; Wecter, 1937

From the Four Hundred to the Too Thousand: Amory, 1960; Beer, 1941; Chernow, 1990; Douglas, 1991; Hammack, 1982; Jaher, 1982; McCabe, 1868; Morris, 1975; Schiesl, 1977; Stern, 1900; Trachtenberg, 1982; Wecter, 1937

To the Opera House: Bannister, 1979; Dizikes, 1993; Henderson, 1973; Horowitz, 1987; Jaher, 1982; Kasson, 1990; Kolodin, 1966; Levine, 1988; Mayer, 1983; Mueller, 1951; Raynor, 1978; Schickel, 1960; Shanet, 1975; Trager, 1987; Wecter, 1937

Châ teaux Country: Bacon, 1986; Baker, 1980; Baker, 1989; Boyer, 1985; Burchard and Bush-Brown, 1961; Chernow, 1990; Cooke, 1995; Cromley, 1990; Fairfield, 1985; Fogelson, 1989; Gowans, 1976; Hawes, 1993; Landau and Condit, 1996; Lockwood, 1976; Lowe, 1992; McCabe, 1868; Morris, 1975; Mumford, 1971; Norton, 1984; Presa, 1981; Roth, 1983; Stern, 1900; Trager, 1987; Wecter, 1937; Wilson, 1983

Manhattan Renaissance: Beard, 1993; Beer, 1941; Brooklyn Museum, 1979; Carosso, 1987; Conrad, 1984; Fogelson, 1989; Gowans, 1976; Hammack, 1982; Hoopes, 1979; Mayer, 1958; Mumford, 1971; Naifeh and Smith, 1976; Norton, 1984; Simpson, 1986; Trachtenberg, 1982; Trager, 1987; Watson, 1992; Weitzenhoner, 1986

Pork into Porcelain: Ayres, 1993; Earth, 1982; Brown, 1955; Jaher, 1982; Kraus, 1980; McCabe, 1868; Morris, 1975; Simpson, 1986; Tompkins, 1970

Making History: Beard, 1993; Bender, 1987; Bernstein, 1989; Bluestone, 1991; Dayton, 1882; Gilmartin, 1994; Hammack, 1982; Harris, 1970; Harris, 1990; Hobsbawm, 1987; Hosmer, 1965; Jaher, 1982; Marling, 1988; McNamara, 1997; Page, 1995; Stern, 1900; Vail, 1954; Wecter, 1937

Inclusions: Baltzell, 1987; Beckert, 1995; Cookson and Persell, 1985; Fox and Lears, 1983; Hobsbawm, 1987; Jaher, 1982; Levine, 1988; Livingston, 1986; McCabe, 1868; McLachlin, 1970; Stern, 1983; Wecter, 1937

Exclusions: Beer, 1941; Diner, 1992; Gorelick, 1981; Hammack, 1982; Higham, 1988; Howe, 1976; Kobler, 1988; Mayo, 1988; McSeveney, 1972; McWilliams, 1948; Rischin, 1962; Wecter, 1937

CHAPTER 62:

“THE LEECHESMUST GO!”

Aronowitz, 1983; Barnes, 1915; Beckert, 1995; Buhle, 1987; Devlin, 1996; Fink, 1983; Foner, 1988; Foner, 1975; Gabler, 1988; Gompers, 1984; Gutman, 1977; Hurwitz, 1943; Klein, 1986; LaFeber, 1963; Lieberman, 1995; McSeveney, 1972; Mendel, 1989; Mollenkopf, 1992; O’Donnell, 1995; Ringcnbach, 1973; Schneider, 1994; Scobey, 1989; Seretan, 1979; Trachtenberg, 1982; Trautmann, 1980; Walkowitz, 1993; Ware, 1929

The First Labor Day. Foner, 1973; McKivigan and Robertson, 1996; Montgomery, 1987; Watts, 1983

Progress and Poverty: Beckert, 1995; Blackmar, 1989; Blythe, 1983; Boyer, 1978; Bremner, 1956; Donnelly, 1982; Fine, 1964; Foner, 1980; George, 1900; Hammack, 1982; Hellman, 1987; O’Donnell, 1995; Rezneck, 1968; Scobey, 1989; Jones, 1971; Thomas, 1983; Trachtenberg, 1982

“Christ Himself Was But an Evicted Peasant”: Bell, 1937; Cohalan, 1983; Curran, 1978; Donnelly, 1982; Fairfield, 1985; Hammack, 1982; Hellman, 1987; Howells, 1976; Mendel, 1989; Montgomery, 1987; O’Donnell, 1995; Shanaberger, 1993

Dynamite!: Avrich, 1988; Beckert, 1995; Donner, 1990; Fogelson, 1989; Glickman and Glickman, 1984; Harlow, 1931; Kosak, 1987; O’Donnell, 1995; Trautmann, 1980; Ware, 1929; Wexler, 1984

May Day!: Anderson, 1976; Avrich, 1984; Avrich, 1988; O’Donnell, 1995

“Honest Labor Against Thieving Landlords and Politicians”: Atkins, 1947; Beckert, 1995; Hammack, 1982; Hellman, 1987; Mollenkopf, 1992; O’Donnell, 1995; Scobey, 1989; Sullivan, 1995; Trachtenberg, 1982

The “Tailboard” Campaign: Hammack, 1982; Hellman, 1987; Mollenkopf, 1992; O’Donnell, 1995; Post and Leubuscher, 1887; Rezneck, 1968; Scobey, 1984; Scobey, 1989; Speek, 1917

The College-Bred Tribune: Beckert, 1995; Bender, 1987; Collier, 1994; Donnelly, 1982; Fox and Lears, 1983; Gompers, 1984; Hammack, 1982; Hurwitz, 1943; Kurland, 1971; McCabe, 1868; McCullough, 1981; Morris, 1979; Roosevelt, 1891; Schiesl, 1977; Skolnik, 1971; Slotkin, 1985; Sullivan, 1995; Teaford, 1984; Tomsich, 1971; Wecter, 1937

Bosses, Bishops, and the Man of Iron: Allen, 1993; Beckert, 1995; Bernstein, 1984; Binder, 1995; Cohalan, 1983; Curran, 1978; Czitrom, 1991; Donnelly, 1982; Gibson, 1951; Gilfoyle, 1992; Hammack, 1982; Hurwitz, 1943; Marti, 1975; McCabe, 1868; McCullough, 1972; McGerr, 1986; McSeveney, 1972; Montgomery, 1987; Nadel, 1990; Nevins, 1935; O’Donnell, 1995; Post and Leubuscher, 1887; Rezneck, 1968; Rosenwaike, 1972; Rosenzweig and Blackmar, 1992; Shefter, 1993; Speek, 1917; Stoddard, 1931; Trachtenberg, 1982; Werner, 1928

Denouement: Avrich, 1988; Beckert, 1995; Curran, 1978; Donnelly, 1982; Hammack, 1982; Hellman, 1987; Higham, 1988; Marti, 1975; Mendel, 1989; Nevins, 1935; Norton, 1984; Rumbarger, 1989; Scobey, 1989; Speek, 1917; Sullivan, 1995; Trachtenberg, 1982; Ware, 1929; Werner, 1928

The New Tammany Hall: Beckert, 1995; Binder, 1995; Cheape, 1980; Donnelly, 1982; Donner, 1990; Erie, 1988; Fairfield, 1985; Fogelson, 1989; Gronowicz, 1991; Gronowicz, 1998; Hammack, 1982; Hellman, 1987; Hirsch, 1948; Hirsch, 1978; Hurwitz, 1943; James, 1993; McNickle, 1993; McSeveney, 1972; O’Donnell, 1995; Riordon, 1948; Shefter, 1976; Shefter, 1978; Skolnik, 1971; Sullivan, 1995; Teaford, 1984; Thomas, 1932; Thomas, 1983; Trachtenberg, 1982; Waugh, 1992; Werner, 1928; Zeisloft, 1899

CHAPTER 63:

THE NEW IMMIGRANTS

Aronowitz, 1973; Bayor and Meagher, 1996; Binder, 1995; Gordon, 1982; Harvard Encyclopedia, 1980; Higham, 1988; Hobsbawm, 1987; Lapham, 1977; McCaffrey, 1996; McSeveney, 1972; Mendel, 1989; Miller, 1985; Nadel, 1990; Nilsen, 1996; Rosenwaike, 1972; Scheiner, 1965; Schneider, 1994; Schudson, 1978; Stokes, 1928; Trachtenberg, 1982; Unrau, 1984; Wilder, 1994

Shtetls under Siege: Binder, 1995; Ewen, 1985; Harvard Encyclopedia, 1980; Hertzberg, 1989; Howe, 1976; Kessner, 1977; Kosak, 1987; Mendel, 1989; New York Historical Society, 1970; Rischin, 1962; Rosenwaike, 1972; Sanders, 1969; Sanders, 1988

Occidentals, Orientals: Binder, 1995; Cooke, 1995; Cremin, 1988; Dain, 1972; Fierstien, 1990; Goodman, 1979; Gorelick, 1981; Goren, 1970; Gurock, 1979; Harvard Encyclopedia, 1980; Howe, 1976; Kosak, 1987; Mayo, 1988; McCabe, 1868; Mendel, 1989; Rischin, 1962; Rosner, 1982; Sanders, 1969

The Lower East Side: Binder, 1995; Bluestone, 1991; Cooke, 1995; Diner, 1992; Ewen, 1985; Fried, 1980; Gorelick, 1981; Gurock, 1979; Hammack, 1982; Harlow, 1931; Howe, 1976; Joselit, 1983; Kessner, 1977; Kosak, 1987; McNickle, 1993; Mendel, 1989; O’Donnell, 1995; Rischin, 1962; Rosenwaike, 1972; Sanders, 1969; Schudson, 1978; Snyder-Grenier, 1996; Trautmann, 1980; Wexler, 1984

Mezzogiorno Miseria: Brown, 1986; Ewen, 1985; Fenton, 1957; Gabaccia, 1984; Harvard Encyclopedia, 1980; Hendin, 1993; Hobsbawm, 1987; Mendel, 1989; Pozzetta, 1971; Tomasi, 1975; Unrau, 1984

Manhattan Colonia: Harvard Encyclopedia, 1980; Hendin, 1993; Kessner, 1977; McCullough, 1983; Mendel, 1989; Ment and Donovan, 1980; Montgomery, 1987; Orsi, 1985; Osofsky, 1966; Pozzetta, 1971; Rosenwaike, 1972; Snyder-Grenier, 1996

The Madonna of 115th Street: Brown, 1986; Cohalan, 1983; Curran, 1978; Di Giovanni, 1983; Donnelly, 1982; Hendin, 1993; Higham, 1988; McCabe, 1868; McCullough, 1983; Mendel, 1989; Orsi, 1985; Pozzetta, 1971; Sullivan, 1992; Tomasi, 1975; W.P.A., 1938b

Chinatown: Beck, 1898; Binder, 1995; Bonner, 1997; Chen, 1941; Gardner, 1894; Gong and Grant, 1930; Harvard Encyclopedia, 1980; Hobsbawm, 1987; Hsiong, 1939; Leinenweber, 1969; Light, 1974; Mendel, 1989; Tchen, 1990; Tchen, 1992; Tchen, 1996; Torres, 1995

CHAPTER 64:

THAT’S ENTERTAINMENT!

Hammack, 1982; Kasson, 1978; Koolhaas, 1978; Marti, 1975; McCabe, 1868; Mendel, 1989; Pilat, 1941; Snyder-Grenier, 1996; Stern, 1983; Weinstein, 1984

Pleasure and Commerce: Bronx Museum, 1986; Czitrom, 1991; Garrett, 1978; Kasson, 1978; Kroessler, 1991; Lieberman, 1995; Marti, 1975; Mendel, 1989; Pilat, 1941; Riess, 1989; Rosenzweig and Blackmar, 1992; Seyfried, 1984; Snyder, 1989; Snyder Grenier, 1996; Thomas, 1969; Weinstein, 1984; Younger, 1978

All the World’s Onstage: Bonner, 1997; Harlow, 1931; Harvard Encyclopedia, 1980; Heintze, 1990; Howe, 1976; Kaufman, 1990; McArthur, 1984; McConachie, 1992; Mendel, 1989; Rischin, 1962; Sanders, 1988; Slobin, 1982; Snyder-Grenier, 1996; Sogliuzzo, 1985

Variety: the Spice of Bowery Life: Allen, 1991; Barth, 1982; Gilbert, 1940; Gilfoyle, 1992; Corn, 1986; Harlow, 1931; Howe, 1976; Huggins, 1973; Marks, 1934; Mendel, 1989; Nasaw, 1993; Ottley and Weatherby, 1967; Pilat, 1941; Rischin, 1962; Snyder, 1989; Tchen, 1992; Toll, 1976; Woll, 1989; W.P.A., 1938b; Zellers, 1971

“Prominent Types Which Goto Make up Life in the Metropolis”: Allen, 1991; Alpert, 1991; Brown, 1966; Gilbert, 1940; Hanun, 1979; Henderson, 1986; Josephson, 1969; Kahn, 1955; Lott, 1993; Marks, 1934; Moody, 1980; Rischin, 1962; Snyder, 1989; Taylor, 1992; Tchen, 1992; Woll, 1989

Sex Redivmts: Chauncey, 1989; Erenberg, 1981; Gilfoyle, 1992; Gorn, 1986; Katz, 1983; Lewis, 1988; McCabe, 1868; Miller, 1990; Morris, 1975; Pivar, 1973; Same, 1991

Pastorized Variety: Allen, 1991; Barth, 1982; Beer, 1941; Gilbert, 1940; Hanun, 1979; Huggins, 1973; Marks, 1934; Morris, 1975; Snyder, 1989; Toll, 1976; W.P.A., 1938b; Zellers, 1971

The Roots of Tin Pan Alley: Bergreen, 1990; Erenberg, 1981; Furia, 1990; Goldberg, 1930; Hamm, 1979; Harlow, 1931; Huggins, 1973; jasen, 1993; Johnson, 1933; McArthur, 1984; Meyer, 1977; Slobin, 1982; Snyder, 1989; Whitcomb, 1987

Big Tent on Madison Square: Asbury, 1938; Boyer, 1985; Chauncey, 1989; Durso, 1979; Garrett, 1978; Gilfoyle, 1992; Koolhaus, 1978; Lowe, 1992; Moody, 1980; Riess, 1989; Stern, 1983

Satan’s Circus: Asbury, 1928; Asbury, 1938; Erenberg, 1981; Gilfoyle, 1992; Gorn, 1986; Lewis, 1988; McCabe, 1868; Morris, 1975; Pivar, 1973; Same, 1991; Stern, 1983

Best of Broadway. Allen, 1991; Barth, 1982; Boyer, 1985; Burke, 1972; Frick, 1983; Hammack, 1982; Henderson, 1973; Henderson, 1989; McArthur, 1984; McCabe, 1868; Morris, 1975; Stern, 1983; Taylor, 1991; Trager, 1987; Wecter, 1937

Pulitzer’s World: Barth, 1982; Buhle, 1987; Chauncey, 1989; Cole, 1979; Filler, 1976; Fox, 1984; Fox and Lears, 1983; Gorn, 1986; Hofstadter, 1955; Juergens, 1966; Lewis, 1978; Pope, 1983; Ryan, 1990; Schudson, 1978; Schudson, 1984; Swanberg, 1967; Taylor, 1992; Trachtenberg, 1982; Trachtenberg, 1989

CHAPTER 65:

PURITY CRUSADE

Bannister, 1979; Boyer, 1978; Donnelly, 1960; Jaher, 1964; Mayo, 1988; Miller, 1886; Strong, 1891; Trachtenberg, 1982

Armies of Salvation: Boyer, 1978; Campbell, 1900; Cross, 1967; Davis, 1967; Harlow, 1931; Magnuson, 1977; May, 1949; McKinley, 1980; McKinley, 1986

“Friendly Visitors”: Bender, 1987; Boyer, 1978; Bremner, 1956; Ehrenreich, 1985; Gordon, 1988; Hammack, 1982; Higham, 1988; Jaher, 1982; Kaplan, 1978; Katz, 1986; Kurland, 1971; Lubove, 1965; Lui, 1993; Ringenbach, 1973; Rischin, 1962; Stanley, 1992; Stewart, 1911; Taylor, 1963; Ward, 1989; Waugh, 1992; Zeisloft, 1899

Save the Children: Boyer, 1978; Comfort, 1906; DiDonato, 1960; Fitzgerald, 1992; Gilfoyle, 1992; Katz, 1986; O’Grady, 1930; Schneider, 1938-41; Waugh, 1992; Zeisloft, 1899

The War on Sin: Beer, 1941; Beisel, 1997; Bernstein, 1984; Bordin, 1981; Boyer, 1978; Chauncey, 1989; Chernow, 1990; Crane, 1979; Czitrom, 1991; Erie, 1988; Fabian, 1990; Fishman, 1980; Fox, 1989; Gilfoyle, 1986; Gilfoyle, 1992; Gordon, 1988; Hammack, 1982; Howe, 1976; Johnson, 1973; Kasson, 1978; Kasson, 1990; Katz, 1983; Lewis, 1988; Papke, 1987; Peiss, 1985; Pivar, 1973; Richardson, 1970; Riess, 1989; Ryan, 1990; Skolnik, 1971; Trachtenberg, 1982; Walkowitz, 1992; Weinstein, 1984; Wunsch, 1976

Decentest Nation: Barth, 1982; Beer, 1941; Bender, 1987; Bendroth, 1985; Blair, 1980; Bordin, 1981; Boyer, 1978; Brown, 1966; Conrad, 1984; Douglas, 1977; Ellmann, 1987; Fox and Lears, 1983; Fox, 1989; Gordon, 1976; Hammack, 1982; Hobsbawm, 1987; Kasson, 1990; Lasch, 1973a; Leonard, 1932; Levine, 1988; Livingston, 1986; May, 1959; McCullough, 1981; Morris, 1975; Perry, 1984; Pivar, 1973; Raleigh, 1957; Rubin, 1991; Smith-Rosenberg, 1985; Stern, 1983; Taylor, 1994; Tomsich, 1971; Trachtenberg, 1982

“Hey, Whiskers!”: Chauncey, 1989; Crane, 1979; Fox, 1977; Gardner, 1894; Gilfoyle, 1992; Greenberg, 1988; Katz, 1983; Knerr, 1957; Lewis, 1988; Reynolds, 1995; Trachtenberg, 1982; Werner, 1957

CHAPTER 66:

SOCIAL GOSPEL

Boyer, 1978; Campbell, 1900; Carosso, 1987; Chernow, 1990; Fine, 1964; Fishburn, 1981; Fox and Lears, 1983; Hartsfield, 1985; Higham, 1988; Hurwitz, 1943; Jaher, 1982; Jaher, 1964; McCabe, 1868; Miller, 1985; Moulton, 1964; Rischin, 1962; Wagenknecht, 1972; Wecter, 1937

Christian Radicals: Fine, 1964; Hurwitz, 1943; Keyser, 1910; Rischin, 1962; Scudder, 1940; Waugh, 1992

Creed into Deed: Boyer, 1978; Cromley, 1990; Friess, 1981; Gurock, 1979; Guttchen, 1974; Kraus, 1980; Plunz, 1990; Rischin, 1962; Scobey, 1989; Trachtenberg, 1982

Supping Sorrow with the Poor. Bordin, 1981; Boyer, 1978; Brown, 1986; Cohalan, 1983; Cook, 1913; Davis, 1967; DiDonato, 1960; Ewen, 1986; Fox and Lears, 1983; Gorelick, 1981; Groshen, 1989; Hammack, 1982; Howe, 1976; Johnson and Wilentz, 1994; Katz, 1986; Kraus, 1980; Lubove, 1962; O’Donnell, 1995; Paulding, 1937; Quiroga, 1989; Rosenberg, 1987; Rousmaniere, 1980; Smith Rosenberg, 1985; Waugh, 1992

The White List: Barth, 1982; Bender, 1987; Benson, 1986; Bremner, 1956; Dye, 1980; Fitzgerald, 1992; Katz, 1986; Sklar, 1995; Stewart, 1911; Tax, 1980; Ward, 1989; Waugh, 1992

Realists: Avrich, 1984; Bender, 1987; Bremner, 1956; Conrad, 1984; Giamo, 1989; Howells, 1976; Kazin, 1942; May, 1959; Morris, 1975; Scobey, 1989; Slotkin, 1985

How the Other Half Lived: Boyer, 1978; Bremner, 1956; Conrad, 1984; Davis, 1967; Fried, 1990; Giamo, 1989; Harlow, 1931; Higham, 1988; Hurwitz, 1943; Katz, 1983; Kroessler, 1991; Lane, 1974; Page, 1995; Perry, 1984; Riis, 1890; Schudson, 1978; Trachtenberg, 1982; Trachtenberg, 1989; Ward, 1989

“Strike at a Given Signal”: Boyer, 1978; Hammack, 1982; Jaher, 1982; Kaplan, 1978; Knerr, 1957; Muccigrosso, 1968; Schiesl, 1977; Skolnik, 1971; Sullivan, 1995; Waugh, 1992

CHAPTER 67:

GOOD GOVERNMENT

American Social History Project, 1989; Beer, 1941; Boyer, 1978; Chernow, 1990; Conrad, 1984; Feder, 1936; Fels, 1959; Hoffman, 1970; Howe, 1976; LaFeber, 1963; Navin and Scars, 1955; Osofsky, 1966; Painter, 1987; Rezneck, 1968; Rischin, 1962; Roth, 1983; Sklar, 1988; Sobel, 1965; Sobel, 1988; Waugh, 1992; White, 1982

Dealing with Hard Times: Barth, 1982; Boyer, 1978; Burgess, 1962; Carosso, 1987; Czitrom, 1991; Erie, 1988; Feder, 1936; Fine, 1964; Gordon, 1982; Higham, 1988; Hoffman, 1970; Jaher, 1982; Kaplan, 1978; Katz, 1986; Kosak, 1987; Lane, 1974; Leinenweber, 1969; Linderman, 1974; May, 1949; McCormick, 1981; Mendel, 1989; Museum of the City of New York, 1990; Osofsky, 1966; Painter, 1987; Presa, 1981; Rezneck, 1968; Ringenbach, 1973; Rosenzweig and Blackmar, 1992; Skolnik, 1971; Stewart, 1911; Swanberg, 1967; Taylor, 1963; Waugh, 1992; Wexler, 1984; White, 1982; Zeisloft, 1899

Revolt of the Privileged: Beer, 1941; Boyer, 1983; Boyer, 1978; Corey, 1994; Czitrom, 1991; Donner, 1990; Finegold, 1985; Fox, 1977; Hammack, 1982; Howe, 1976; Jaher, 1982; Jeffers, 1994; Knerr, 1957; Lane, 1974; Lui, 1993; McCormick, 1981; McSeveney, 1972; Morris, 1975; Muccigrosso, 1968; Nevins and Krout, 1948; O’Connor, 1963; Rischin, 1962; Schiesl, 1977; Skolnik, 1971; Sullivan, 1995; Swanberg, 1967; Syrett, 1944; Taylor, 1963; Teaford, 1984; Thomas, 1969; Waugh, 1992; Weinstein, 1984; White, 1982; Williams, 1991

Colonel Waring Cleans the Streets: Armstrong, 1976; Corey, 1994; Knerr, 1957; Kroessler, 1991; Krogius, 1978; Loop, 1964; McSeveney, 1972; Melosi, 1981; O’Donnell, 1995; Pozzetta, 1971; Scobey, 1989; Skolnick, 1968; Skolnik, 1971; Teaford, 1984; Trachtenberg, 1982; Zeisloft, 1899

Germ Warfare: Duffy, 1990; Duffy, 1968-74; Fee, 1995; Kraus, 1980; Lubove, 1962; Rischin, 1962; Skolnik, 1971; Starr, 1957; Starr, 1982; Teaford, 1984; Williams, 1991

Housing Front: Bacon, 1986; Bender, 1987; Boyer, 1978; Carosso, 1987; Davis, 1967; Dolkart, 1988; Knerr, 1957; Lane, 1974; Lubove, 1962; Page, 1995; Plunz, 1990; Rischin, 1962; Rosenzweig and Blackmar, 1992; Schiesl, 1977; Stern, 1983; Teaford, 1984; Tomsich, 1971; Zeisloft, 1899

Roosevelt Cracks Doom: Asbury, 1938; Beer, 1941; Boyer, 1978; Filler, 1976; Fogelson, 1989; Gilfolyle, 1992; Hammack, 1982; Harbaugh, 1963; Henry, 1991; Howe, 1976; Hurwitz, 1943; Jeffers, 1994; Katz, 1986; Knerr, 1957; Kosak, 1987; Kraus, 1980; Lane, 1974; McCormick, 1981; McSeveney, 1972; Mendel, 1989; Moulton, 1964; Museum of the City of New York, 1990; Rischin, 1962; Schiesl, 1977; Sullivan, 1995; Swanberg, 1961; Swanberg, 1967; Syrett, 1944; Thomas, 1969

Populists and Goldbugs: Beer, 1941; Buhle, 1987; Carosso, 1987; Carosso, 1970; Fels, 1959; Goodwyn, 1976; Hammack, 1982; Hammond, 1970; Harvey, 1963; Hobsbawm, 1987; Hofstadter, 1955; Jones, 1964; LaFeber, 1963; Linderman, 1974; Livingston, 1986; May, 1959; McSeveney, 1972; Painter, 1987; Sklar, 1988; Sobel, 1988; Swanberg, 1961; Trachtenberg, 1982; White, 1982; Zeisloft, 1899

Fusion Defused: Boyer, 1978; Ccrillo, 1969; Erie, 1988; Gordon, 1982; Hammack, 1982; Hellman, 1987; Hoffman, 1970; Knerr, 1957; Kurland, 1971; McSeveney, 1972; O’Connor, 1963; Schiesl, 1977; Skolnik, 1971; Swanberg, 1961; Thomas, 1969; Waugh, 1992; Wecter, 1937; Weiss, 1968; Zeisloft, 1899

CHAPTER 68:

SPLENDID LITTLE WAR

Bannister, 1979; Beer, 1941; Bayer, 1978; Carosso, 1987; Chandler, 1977; Fels, 1959; Foner, 1972; Hall, 1898; Healy, 1988; Hirsch, 1948; Hobsbawm, 1987; Hofstadter, 1967; Kiernan, 1978; Klein, 1986; La Feber, 1963; Lears, 1981; Leopold, 1954; Linderman, 1974; Livingston, 1986; Magdoff, 1969; McCullough, 1981; Myers, 1931; Painter, 1987; Pratt, 1936; Rischin, 1962; Sanchez-Korrol, 1983; Sklar, 1988; Strong, 1891; Trachtenberg, 1982; Williams, 1969

Pro Patria: Foner, 1972; Harvard Encyclopedia, 1980; Healy, 1988; Kiernan, 1978; Linderman, 1974; Maldonado-Denis, 1972; Sanchez Korrol, 1983; Sinnette, 1989; Turton, 1986; Vega, 1984; Wakefield, 1960

“Blood, Blood, Blood!”: Barth, 1982; Crane, 1979; Foner, 1972; Healy, 1988; Juergens, 1966; Leinenweber, 1969; Linderman, 1974; Pivar, 1973; Schudson, 1978; Swanberg, 1961

Winners and Losers: Beisner, 1968; Bogart, 1989; Brooklyn Museum, 1979; Carosso, 1987; Gucci, 1979; Fels, 1959; Foner, 1972; Gordon, 1982; Healy, 1988; Hobsbawm, 1987; Hodgson, 1990; Hoffman, 1970; Kiernan, 1978; Leopold, 1954; Linderman, 1974; Magdoff, 1969; May, 1959; McNamara, 1997; Morris, 1975; Painter, 1987; Sanchez-Korral, 1983; Shefter, 1993; Sklar, 1988; Skolnik, 1971; Starr, 1957; Vega, 1984; Waugh, 1992; Welch, 1979; White, 1982; Winkler, 1934; Zeisloft, 1899

CHAPTER 69:

IMPERIAL CITY

Annexation and Its Enemies: Graves, 1894; Hall, 1898; Hammack, 1982; Kaplan, 1975; Kaplan, 1979; MacCracken, 1905; Mazaraki, 1966; Schroth, 1974; Scobey, 1989; Stiles, 1867-70; Stone, 1969

“Imperial Destiny”: Graves, 1894; Green, 1896; Hammack, 1982; Kaplan, 1975; Kroessler, 1991; Skolnik, 1971; Trachtenberg, 1982

Green’s Dream of New York: Foord, 1913; Green, 1896; Hammack, 1982; Kaplan, 1975; Kaplan, 1979; MacCracken, 1905; Mazaraki, 1966;

Imperium or Colony?: Bradford, 1894; Brooklyn League of Loyal Citizens, 1895; Costello, 1887; Fitzpatrick, 1927; Graves, 1894; Hall, 1898; Hammack, 1982; Jenkins, 1912; Kaplan, 1975; Knerr, 1957; Kroessler, 1991; Mazaraki, 1966; McCormick, 1981; Moehring, 1981; Rosenwaike, 1972; Skolnik, 1971; Sullivan, 1995; Syrett, 1944; Thomas, 1969; Weidner, 1974; Weinstein, 1984

The Great Debate: Bradford, 1894; Erie, 1988; Fitzpatrick, 1927; Graves, 1894; Hall, 1898; Hammack, 1982; Hirsch, 1948; Jenkins, 1912; Kaplan, 1975; Knerr, 1957; Kroessler, 1991; Mazaraki, 1966; McCormick, 1981; McSeveney, 1972; Moehring, 1981; Nevins and Krout, 1948; Rosenwaike, 1972; Skolnik, 1971; Sullivan, 1995; Syrett, 1944; Teaford, 1984; Thomas, 1969; Weinstein, 1984

Endgame: Backus, 1895; Bronx Museum, 1986; Cook, 1913; Fitzpatrick, 1927; Foord, 1903; Foord, 1913; Hall, 1898; Hammack, 1982; Jeffers, 1994; Kaplan, 1975; Kaplan, 1978; Kroessler, 1991; Krout, 1948; Lubove, 1962; Lui, 1993; MacCracken, 1905; Mazaraki, 1966; McCormick, 1981; Syrett, 1944; Waugh, 1992

Toward the Twentieth Century: Banker’s Magazine, 1902

MAPS:

Rendered maps throughout the text: Grumet, 1981; Homberger, 1996; Cohen and Augustyn, 1997.

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