Modern history


Book One

1 “Niggers down here don’t need to vote”: Eric Burner, And Gently He Shall Lead Them: Robert Parris Moses and Civil Rights in Mississippi (New York: New York University Press, 1994), p. 118.

2 “I’m not going to talk to you”: Charles Payne, I’ve Got the Light of Freedom: The Organizing Tradition and the Mississippi Freedom Struggle (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1995), p. 122.

2 “I’m not playing with you this morning!”: Taylor Branch, Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954-1963 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1988), p. 511.


6 “Paul Stood Tall Last Fall”: New York Times, July 5, 1964.

6 “Niggers, Alligators, Apes, Coons, and Possums”: “Mississippi: Battle of the Kennedys,” Newsweek, August 19, 1963, p. 24.

6 “white folks’ business”: John Dittmer, Local People: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Mississippi (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994), p. 205.

7 “goddamned NAACP Communist trouble makers”: Ivanhoe Donaldson, “Southern Diaries,” in Mississippi Freedom Summer, ed. John F. McClymer (Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, 2004), p. 90.

7 “not only have a right but a duty”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, June 12, 2005.

7 “too beautiful to burn”: Port Gibson Heritage Trust Web site,

8 “the War for Southern Independence”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 112.

8 “It’s a rotten, miserable life” and “We don’t hate niggers”: “How Whites Feel About a Painful America,” Newsweek, October 21, 1963, pp. 44-51.

9 “Negroes are oversexed,” and “I don’t like to touch them”: Ibid., p. 50.

9 “There is no state with a record”: Henry Hampton, dir., “Mississippi—Is This America?” episode 5 of Eyes on the Prize: America’s Civil Rights Movement (Boston: Blackside, 1987).

9 “During the past ten years”: Walker Percy, Signposts in a Strange Land (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1991), p. 42.

9 “Everybody knows about Mississippi, goddamn”: “Mississippi Goddam,” The Nina Simone Web

10 “Foreign Mail”: “Mississippi Airlift,” Newsweek, March 11, 1963, p. 30.

10 “as common as a snake”: Roy Torkington Papers, Civil Rights Collection, McCain Library and Archives, University of Southern Mississippi (hereafter, USM).

10 “the long staple cotton capital of the world”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 129.

10 “America’s Most Beautiful Street”, Vintage Postcards and Collectibles,

10 “neckid, buck-barefoot, and starvin’”: Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee Papers, Harvard University (hereafter, SNCC Papers), reel 40.

11 “makes it clear that the Negroes of Mississippi”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 206.

11 “Before the Negro people get the right to vote”: “Mississippi: Allen’s Army,” Newsweek, February 24, 1964, p. 30.

11 “invasion,” “invaders,” and “dastardly scheme”: Richard Woodley, “A Recollection of Michael Schwerner,” Reporter, July 16, 1964, p. 23.

12 “We are going to see that law and order is maintained”: Marilyn Mulford and Connie Field, dirs., Freedom on My Mind (Berkeley, Calif.: Clarity Film Productions, 1994).

12 “This is it”: “Mississippi: Allen’s Army.”

12 “We give them everything”: Seth Cagin and Philip Dray, We Are Not Afraid: The Story of Goodman, Schwerner, and Chaney, and the Civil Rights Campaign for Mississippi (New York: Nation Books, 2006), p. 193.

12 “our way of life”: Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), WATS line report (hereafter, WATS line), August 12, 1964, COFO documents, Hillegas Collection, Jackson, Miss.

12 “nigger-communist invasion of Mississippi”: Howard Ball, Murder in Mississippi: United States v. Price and the Struggle for Civil Rights (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004), p. 55.

12 “dedicated agents of Satan”: Famous Trials: U.S. vs. Cecil Price et al. (“Mississippi Burning Trial”) Web site,

12 “Get your Bible out and PRAY!”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 265.

13 “Nobody never come out into the country”: Howell Raines, My Soul Is Rested: Movement Days in the Deep South Remembered (New York: Penguin, 1977), p. 233.

13 “Mississippi changed everything”: Gloria Clark, personal interview, October 3, 2007.

CHAPTER ONE: “There Is a Moral Wave Building”

16 “At Oxford, my mental picture of Mississippi”: Elizabeth Martinez, ed., Letters from Mississippi (Brookline, Mass.: Zephyr Press, 2006), p. 186.

17 “I may be killed and you may be killed”: New York Times, June 17, 1964.

17 “They—the white folk”: John Lewis, Walking with the Wind: A Memoir of the Movement (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998), p. 249.

17 “They take you to jail”: New York Times, June 21, 1964.

18 “A great change is at hand”: John F. Kennedy, “Radio and Television Report to the American People on Civil Rights,” June 11, 1963,

18 “cannon fodder for the Movement”: Bob Cohen, “Sorrow Songs, Faith Songs, Freedom Songs: The Mississippi Caravan of Music in the Summer of 1964,” in Freedom Is a Constant Struggle: An Anthology of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement, ed. Susie Erenrich (Montgomery, Ala.: Black Belt Press, 1999), p. 178.

18 “honor the memory” and “carry out the legacy”: Doug McAdam, Freedom Summer (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988), p. 48.

18 “Through nonviolence, courage displaces fear”: Ibid., p. 30.

18 “possess a learning attitude”: SNCC Papers, reel 39.

18 “John Brown complex”: John Fischer, “A Small Band of Practical Heroes,” Harper’s, October 1963, p. 28.

18 “A student who seems determined”: SNCC Papers, reel 39.

19 “an unmistakable middle-class stamp”: New York Times, June 17, 1964, p. 18.

19 “I don’t see how I have any right”: New York Times, July 11, 1964, p. 22.

19 “You’ve deserted us for the niggers”: Alice Lake, “Last Summer in Mississippi,” Redbook, November 1964; reprinted in Library of America, Reporting Civil Rights: American Journalism, 1963-1973 (New York: Library of America, 2003), p. 234.

19 “Absolutely mesmerized”: McAdam, Freedom Summer, p. 56.

19 “Surely, no challenge looms larger”: Ibid., p. 46.

20 “You didn’t run into many situations”: Chris Williams, personal interview, October 9, 2007.

20 “to actually do something worthwhile”: Ibid.

20 “The Birmingham church bombing had occurred”: Williams, interview, November 23, 2007.

20 “do-nothings”: Greenfield Recorder-Gazette, June 26, 1964.

21 “like I was the nation’s most wanted criminal”: Chris Williams, journal, Summer 1964, p. 7.

21 “That government which governs best”: Ibid.

21 “a homosexual,” “a car full of hoods”: Ibid.

21 “and the whole Mississippi adventure began”: Williams, interview, October 9, 2007.

21 “I realized Mississippi was more educational”: Ibid.

22 “the hairy stories”: Williams, journal, pp. 8-9.

22 “When you go down those cold stairs”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 22.

23 “That man beat me till he give out”: Ibid., pp. 24-25.

23 “It just scared the crap out of us”: Williams, journal, pp. 8-9.

23 “I turned down a chance to work”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 11.

23 “I just ran until I was really tired”: Williams, journal, p. 9.

23 “We don’t know what it is to be a Negro”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 5.

24 “They would argue with a signpost”: Cheryl Lynn Greenburg, ed., A Circle of Trust: Remembering SNCC (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1998), p. 143.

24 “beautiful community,” and “a circle of trust”: Ibid.

24 “cracking Mississippi,” “beachheads,” and “behind enemy lines”: James Atwater, “If We Can Crack Mississippi . . . ,” Saturday Evening Post, July 25, 1964, p. 16; Calvin Trillin, “Letter from Jackson,” New Yorker, August 29, 1964, p. 105; Dittmer, Local People, p. 198.

24 “To be with them, walking a picket line”: Howard Zinn, SNCC: The New Abolitionists (Boston: Beacon Press, 1964), pp. 1-2.

24 “because I met those SNCC people”: Sara Evans, Personal Politics (New York: Vintage, 1980), p. 70.

24 “group-centered leadership”: Daniel Perlstein, “Teaching Freedom: SNCC and the Creation of the Mississippi Freedom Schools,” History of Education Quarterly 30, no. 3 (Fall 1990): 298.

25 “He is more or less the Jesus”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 19.

25 “the Masters’ degree from Harvard”: Atwater, “If We Can Crack,” p. 16.

26 “Before, the Negro in the South had always looked”: Burner, And Gently He Shall Lead Them, p. 17.

26 “words are more powerful than munitions”: Albert Camus, “Neither Victims nor Executioners,” in The Power of Nonviolence: Writings by Advocates of Peace, ed. Howard Zinn (Boston: Beacon Press, 2002), p. 73.

26 “We were immensely suspicious of him”: Payne, I’ve Got the Light, p. 105.

27 “uncover what is covered”: Raines, My Soul Is Rested, p. 235.

27 “a tree beside the water”: Burner, And Gently He Shall Lead Them, p. 28.

27 “There’s something coming”: Ibid., p. 41.

27 “rural, impoverished, brutal”: Robert P. Moses and Charles E. Cobb Jr., Radical Equations: Math Literacy and Civil Rights (Boston: Beacon Press, 2001), p. 24.

28 “You the nigger that came down from New York”: Ibid., p. 48.

28 “Boy, are you sure you know”: Burner, And Gently He Shall Lead Them, p. 49.

28 “Dr. King and some other big people”: Hollis Watkins, personal interview, June 14, 2008.

29 “No administration in this country”: New York Times, June 21, 1964; Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 30.

29 “It’s not working”: Tracy Sugarman, Stranger at the Gates: A Summer in Mississippi (New York: Hill and Wang, 1966), p. 8.

29 “No one should go anywhere alone”: SNCC Papers, reel 39.

29 “We have talked about interracial dating”: “The Invaders,” Newsweek, June 29, 1964, p. 25.

30 “You should be ashamed!”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 243.

30 “The flash point”: Mulford and Field, Freedom on My Mind.

30 “Ask Jimmie over there what he thinks”: “Mississippi—Summer of 1964: Troubled State, Troubled Time,” Newsweek, July 13, 1964, p. 20.

31 “The crisis is past, I think”: William Hodes Papers, State Historical Society of Wisconsin (hereafter, SHSW).

31 “When you turn the other cheek”: Nicholas Von Hoffman, Mississippi Notebook (New York: David White, 1964), p. 31.

31 “You must understand that nonviolence”: Sugarman, Stranger at the Gates, p. 28.

31 “Your legs, your thighs”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 33.

31 “I got me a twen’y foot pit out bay-ack”: Muriel Tillinghast, personal interview, November 28, 2007.

32 “morally rotten outcasts of the White race”: SNCC Papers, reel 38.

32 “We were renegades”: Tillinghast, interview, November 28, 2007.

32 “NAG’s local Mississippi”: Stokely Carmichael, Ready for Revolution: The Life and Struggles of Stokely Carmichael (Kwame Ture), with Ekwueme Michael Thelwell (New York: Scribner, 2003), pp. 337-48.

32 “I did not come out of a family”: Tillinghast, interview, November 28, 2007.

32 “no bigger than a match stick”: Ibid.

33 “a distant well of human woe”: Ibid.

33 “He would tell me about”: Ibid.

33 “At NAG meetings, I was informed”: Ibid.

34 “a sponge”: Ibid.

34 “brought us to the stark reality”: Tillinghast, interview, October 31, 2007.

34 “It was esprit de corps”: Ibid.

34 “As we depart for that troubled state”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 239.

34 “Part of it is the American dream”: Atwater, “If We Can Crack,” p. 18.

34 “The injustices to the Negro in Mississippi”: Los Angeles Times, June 20, 1964.

35 “a long, hot summer,” and “racial explosion”: “Mississippi Girds for Its Summer of Discontent,” U.S. News & World Report, June 15, 1964, p. 46.

35 “guerilla war”: Joseph Alsop, “The Gathering Storm,” Hartford Courant, June 17, 1964.

35 “The guy from Life was a real jerk”: Williams, journal, pp. 10-11.

35 Look magazine is searching”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 22.

35 “Now get this in your heads”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 31.

36 “real heroes”: New York Times, June 20, 1964.

36 “What are you going to do”: Len Holt, The Summer That Didn’t End (New York: William Morrow, 1965), p. 50.

36 “We can protect the Vietnamese”: National Observer, n.d., Hillegas Collection.

36 “We don’t do that”: Carmichael, Ready for Revolution, p. 370.

36 “Dear People at home”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 10.

37 “Before You Leave Oxford”: New York Times, June 21, 1964.

37 “We hit the Mississippi state line”: Tillinghast, interview, November 28, 2007.

CHAPTER TWO: “Not Even Past”

38 “more or less bunk”: Justin Kaplan, ed., Familiar Quotations, 16th ed. (Boston: Little, Brown, 1992), p. 499n.

38 “The past is never dead”: William Faulkner, Requiem for a Nun (New York: Penguin Books, 1953), p. 81.

39 “Mississippians don’t know”: Geoffrey C. Ward, Ric Burns, and Ken Burns, The Civil War: An Illustrated History (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1990), p. 212.

39 “Meridian, with its depots”: Shelby Foote, The Civil War: A Narrative—Fredericksburg to Meridian (New York: Random House, 1963), p. 926.

39 “Chimneyville”: John Ray Skates, Mississippi: A Bicentennial History (New York: W. W. Norton, 1979), p. 108.

40 “Things was hurt”: Eric Foner, A Short History of Reconstruction, 1863- 1877 (New York: Harper & Row, 1990), p. 86.

41 “The whole public are tired out”: William C. Harris, The Day of the Carpetbagger: Republican Reconstruction in Mississippi (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1979), p. 668.

41 “Democrats Standing Manfully by Their Guns!”: Atlanta Constitution, November 3, 1875.

41 “A revolution has taken place”: Foner, Short History, pp. 235-36.

42 “we could study the earth through the floor”: Aaron Henry, Aaron Henry: The Fire Ever Burning, with Constance Curry (Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 2000), p. 91.

42 “Naught’s a naught”: Richard Wright, Uncle Tom’s Children (New York: HarperCollins, 1993), p. 157.

42 “jus’ as different here from other places”: Sally Belfrage, Freedom Summer (New York: Viking, 1965), p. 46.

42 “the necessity of it”: C. Vann Woodward, The Strange Career of Jim Crow, 3d ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1974), p. 73.

42 “one of the most grotesque bodies”: Claude G. Bowers, The Tragic Era: The Revolution after Lincoln (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1929), pp. 414, 448.

42 “Rape is the foul daughter”: Ibid., p. 308.

42 “was organized for the protection”: Ibid., p. 309.

43 “The South needs to believe”: Gunnar Myrdal, An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy (New York: Harper & Row, 1962), p. 448.

43 “The problem of the twentieth century”: W. E. B. DuBois, The Souls of Black Folk (New York: Vintage, 1990), p. 16.

43 “What are the three largest cities in Mississippi?”: John Beecher, “McComb, Mississippi: May 1965,” Ramparts, May 1965; reprinted in Library of America, Reporting Civil Rights, p. 398.

43 “worse than slavery”: David M. Oshinsky, “Worse Than Slavery”: Parchman Farm and the Ordeal of Jim Crow Justice (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), flyleaf epigram.

44 “Never was there happier dependence”: David W. Blight, Beyond the Battlefield: Race, Memory, and the American Civil War (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2002), p. 260.

44 “the loveliest and purest of God’s creatures”: Hodding Carter III, The South Strikes Back (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1959), p. 30.

44 “reckless eyeballing”: Kim Lacy Rogers, Life and Death in the Delta: African American Narratives of Violence, Resilience, and Social Change (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006), p. 37.

44 “Nigger, Don’t Let the Sun”: Adam Gussow, Seems Like Murder Here: Southern Violence and the Blues Tradition (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002), p. 70.

44 “making such criticism so dangerous”: W. J. Cash, The Mind of the South (New York: Random House, 1941), p. 93.

45 “When civil rights came along”: Jason Sokol, There Goes My Everything: White Southerners in the Age of Civil Rights, 1945-1975 (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2006), p. 63.

45 “The Negro is a lazy”: Curtis Wilkie, Dixie: A Personal Odyssey Through Events That Shaped the Modern South (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2003), p. 57.

45 “I am calling upon every red-blooded American”: Skates, Mississippi, p. 155.

45 “Segregation will never end in my lifetime”: Carter, South Strikes Back, p. 13.

46 “shocked and stunned”: Neil R. McMillen, The Citizens’ Council: Organized Resistance to the Second Reconstruction, 1954-1964 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1971), p. 15.

46 “We are about to embark”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 37.

46 “to separate them from others”: Diane Ravitch, ed., The American Reader: Words That Moved a Nation (New York: Harper Perennial, 1991), p. 306.

46 “The Citizens’ Council is the South’s answer”: Carter, South Strikes Back, p. 43.

46 “the uptown Klan”: Hodding Carter quoted in James W. Silver, Mississippi: The Closed Society, rev. ed. (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1966), p. 36.

46 “Why Separate Schools Should be Maintained”: McMillen, Citizens’ Council, p. 242.

47 “right thinking”: Carter, South Strikes Back, p. 34.

47 “God was the original segregationist”: New York Times, November 7, 1987.

47 “dat Brown mess”: Endesha Ida Mae Holland, From the Mississippi Delta: A Memoir (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997), p. 65.

47 “And then there were the redneck boys”: Willie Morris, North Toward Home (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1967), pp. 21-22.

48 “odd accident”: Dittmer, Local People, pp. 53-54.

48 “the world see what they did to my boy”: Juan Williams, Eyes on the Prize: America’s Civil Rights Years, 1954-1965 (New York: Penguin, 2002), p. 44.

48 “Good morning, niggers” and “every last Anglo Saxon one of you”: Paul Hendrickson, Sons of Mississippi: A Story of Race and Its Legacy (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2003), pp. 9-10.

48 “If we in America”: Dittmer, Local People, 57.

48 “There’s open season on Negroes now”: Ibid., p. 58.

48 “From that point on”: Raines, My Soul Is Rested, p. 235.

48 “It was the so-called dumb people”: Youth of the Rural Organizing and Cultural Center, Minds Stayed on Freedom: The Civil Rights Struggle in the Rural South, an Oral History (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1991), p. 59.

49 “that damn few white men”: Winson Hudson and Constance Curry, Mississippi Harmony: Memoirs of a Freedom Fighter (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002), p. 37.

49 “invalid, unconstitutional, and not of lawful effect”: Dittmer, Local People, pp. 59-60.

49 “working hand-in-glove with Communist sympathizers”: Sokol, There Goes My Everything, p. 88.

50 “Sorry, Cable Trouble”: Dittmer, Local People, pp. 65-66.

50 “The following program”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, 109.

50 “Negro cow-girl”: Dan Classen, Watching Jim Crow: The Struggles over Mississippi TV, 1955-1969 (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2004), pp. 101-3.

50 “a veiled argument for racial intermarriage”: Mark Harris, Pictures at a Revolution: Five Movies and the Birth of the New Hollywood (New York: Penguin Press, 2008), p. 57.

51 “intellectual straight-jacketing”: New York Times, June 18, 1964.

51 “who will lynch you from a low tree”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 56.

51 “private Gestapo”: Lynne Olson, Freedom’s Daughters: The Unsung Heroines of the Civil Rights Movement from 1830 to 1970 (New York: Scribner, 2001), p. 327.

51 “Today we live in fear”: Silver, Mississippi, p. 39.

51 “assdom”: John Howard Griffin, Black Like Me, 2nd ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1961), p. 82.

51 “Join the Glorious Citizens Clan”: McMillen, Citizens’ Council, p. 257.

51 “goons” and “Hateists”: Ira B. Harkey Jr., The Smell of Burning Crosses: An Autobiography of a Mississippi Newspaperman (Jacksonville, Fla.: Delphi Press, 1967), p. 126.

52 “We hate violence”: Silver, Mississippi, p. 46.

52 “The project is concerned with construction”: COFO letter to Mississippi sheriffs, May 21, 1964, Hillegas Collection.

52 “communists, sex perverts”: Yasuhiro Katagiri, The Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission: Civil Rights and States’ Rights (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2001), p. 159.

52 “It will be a long hot summer”: Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission Files, Mississippi Department of Archives and History, Jackson, Miss. (hereafter, MDAH) SCR ID# 9-31-1-43-1-1-1.

52 “The white girls have been going around”: James L. Dickerson, Dixie’s Dirty Secret (Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1998), p. 91.

53 “where black and white will walk together”: MDAH SCR ID# 9-32-0-1-2-1-1.

53 “carpetbagger” and “scalawag”: Carter, South Strikes Back, pp. 143, 191.

53 “I know we’ve had a hundred years”: Von Hoffman, Mississippi Notebook, p. 3.

53 “In my life span”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, June 16, 1964.

53 thirty thousand “invaders”: Los Angeles Times, June 18, 1964.

53 Negro gangs were “ forming to rape white women”: Tupelo Journal, June 19, 1964.

54 “This is just a taste”: Chicago Tribune, June 9, 1964.

54 “Don’t do no violence”: Atwater, “If We Can Crack,” p. 18.

54 “Guidelines for Self-protection and Preservation”: Hodding Carter, So the Heffners Left McComb (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1965), pp. 69-71.

54 “This summer, within a very few days”: Don Whitehead, Attack on Terror: The FBI Against the Ku Klux Klan in Mississippi (New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1970), pp. 6-8.

54 “I hear that this summer”: Suzanne Marrs, Eudora Welty: A Biography (Orlando, Fla.: Harcourt, 2005), p. 309.

54 “increased activity in weapon shipments”: Simon Wendt, The Spirit and the Shotgun: Armed Resistance and the Struggle for Civil Rights (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2007), p. 116.

CHAPTER THREE: Freedom Street

56 “unpleasant, to say the least”: Chris Williams, correspondence, June 21, 1964.

56 “Impeach Earl Warren”: Frederick M. Wirt, Politics of Southern Equality: Law and Social Change in a Mississippi County (Chicago: Aldine, 1970), p. 136.

57 “so big they could stand flatfooted”: Karl Fleming, Son of the Rough South: An Uncivil Memoir (New York: Public Affairs, 2005, p. 361).

57 “We’re gonna give you a hard time”: Williams, correspondence, June 21, 1964.

58 “that you did not come down”: New York Times, June 21, 1964, p. 64.

58 “Their demeanor, how they treated us”: Mulford and Field, Freedom on My Mind.

58 “He thinks out his moves carefully”: Williams, correspondence, June 21, 1964.

58 “something I had to live with”: Robert Miles memorial service, program.

59 “on account of your father”: Congressional Record 111, pt. 10 (June 22, 1965): H 13929.

59 “I don’t see why they don’t let us swim”: Williams, correspondence, June 30, 1964.

59 “Y’all gonna hear”: Williams, personal interview, February 1, 2008.

60 “Have you seen my girls yet?”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 51.

60 “skinny” or “pretty”: Ibid.

60 “We’re mighty glad” and “It’s a right fine Christian thing”: Sugarman, Stranger at the Gates, p. 53.

60 “There they is!”: Ibid., p. 50.

60 “I’ve waited eighty years”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 51.

61 “There are people here”: Ibid., p. 61.

61 “I could kick down”: Ibid., p. 64.

61 “the most appalling example”: McAdam, Freedom Summer, p. 87.

61 “a fiery and fast moving old woman”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, pp. 47-48.

62 “I was really surprised”: Mulford and Field, Freedom on My Mind.

62 “Greetings from Batesville, Miss.”: Williams, correspondence, June 21, 1964.

63 “some good old southern bourbon”: Ibid.

63 “Had Moses not wanted it to happen”: Raines, My Soul Is Rested, p. 287.

63 “either an act of madness”: Carmichael, Ready for Revolution, p. 350.

63 “We had worked so hard”: Watkins, interview, June 16, 2008.

63 “This was Bob Moses talking”: Carmichael, Ready for Revolution, p. 350.

63 “taken over the Jackson office”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 208.

63 “a bunch of Yalies”: Ibid., p. 209.

63 “If we’re trying to break down”: Zinn, SNCC, p. 188.

63 “We don’t have much to gain”: Nicolaus Mills, Like a Holy Crusade: Mississippi 1964—The Turning of the Civil Rights Movement in America (New York: Knopf, 1992), p. 58.

64 “get rid of the whites”: Burner, And Gently He Shall Lead Them, p. 129.

64 “all black”: Raines, My Soul Is Rested, p. 287.

64 “a question of rational people”: Burner, And Gently He Shall Lead Them, p. 129.

64 “How large a force”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 208.

64 “Too difficult,” “huge influx” and “sociological research”: SNCC Papers, reel 38.

64 “You killed my husband!”: Branch, Parting the Waters, p. 510.

64 “when you’re dead”: Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), Mississippi Black Paper: Fifty-seven Negro and White Citizens’ Testimony of Police Brutality (New York: Random House, 1965), p. 37.

65 “For me, it was as if everything”: Moses and Cobb, Radical Equations, p. 76.

65 “other than to dedicate”: Bob Moses, personal interview, December 10, 2008.

65 “The staff had been deadlocked”: Moses and Cobb, Radical Equations, p. 76.

65 “Notes on Teaching,” “Techniques for Field Work,” and “The General Condition”: SNCC Papers, reels 39, 40, 64.

67 “Niggers . . . Beatnicks”: SNCC Papers, reel 38.

67 “Would you please give”: SNCC Papers, reel 64.

67 “ for the good work”: Ibid.

67 “Robert Moses, 708 Avenue N”: Fischer, “Small Band,” p. 26.

67 “I’m sorry it isn’t more”: SNCC Papers, reel 64.

68 “hooking people up”: Constance Curry, Joan C. Browning, Dorothy Dawson Burlage, Penny Patch, Theresa Del Pozzo, Sue Thrasher, Elaine DeLott Baker, Emmie Schrader Adams, and Casey Hayden, Deep in Our Hearts: Nine White Women in the Freedom Movement (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2000), p. 346.

68 “The mass media are”: SNCC Papers, reel 38.

68 “ for we think it is important”: Ibid.

68 “a clear and present danger”: Ibid., reel 40.

69 “I can say there will be a hot summer”: Congressional Record 111, pt. 10 (June 22, 1965): H 14002.

69 “They don’t arrest white people in Mississippi”: Ibid., H 14003.

69 “I was”: Ibid., H 14008.

69 “incidents of brutality and terror”: SNCC Papers, reel 38.

69 “nearly incredible that those people”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 239.

69 “Sojourner Motor Fleet”: Lewis, Walking with the Wind, p. 259.

69 “We’re sitting this one out”: Ibid., p. 249.

70 “danger to local Negroes”: SNCC Papers, reel 38.

70 “more convinced than ever”: Mary King, Freedom Song: A Personal Story of the 1960s Civil Rights Movement (New York: Quill/William Morrow & Co., 1987), pp. 226, 312.

70 “lead people into the fire”: Ibid., p. 313.

70 “No one can be rational about death”: SNCC Papers, reel 38.

70 “is so deeply ingrained”: King, Freedom Song, p. 318.

70 “When whites come into a project”: SNCC Papers, reel 38.

71 “to take the revolution one step further”: Ibid.

71 “We have a responsibility”: King, Freedom Song, p. 319.

72 “It was so quick”: Tillinghast, interview, November 28, 2007.

73 “I was petrified”: Ibid.

73 “rather get arrested in Greenville”: Sugarman, Stranger at the Gates, p. 167.

73 “Many Mississippi towns were predatory”: Tillinghast, interview, November 28, 2007.

74 “Mississippi has a black and inky night”: Ibid.

75 “said they knew nothing at all about the case”: SNCC Papers, reel 39.

76 “Keep me informed of what happens”: Ibid.

CHAPTER FOUR: “The Decisive Battlefield for America”

77 “handle the niggers and the outsiders”: William Bradford Huie, Three Lives for Mississippi (New York: WCC Books, 1964, 1965), p. 132.

77 “one of the wettest dry counties”: Florence Mars, Witness in Philadelphia (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1977), p. 18.

78 “ folks yah met on the street”: Huie, Three Lives, p. 130.

78 “We don’t bother no white folks”: Ibid., p. 140.

78 “reddish to vote”: Raines, My Soul Is Rested, p. 260.

78 “You don’t know me”: William M. Kunstler, My Life as a Radical Lawyer, with Sheila Isenberg (New York: Birch Lane Press, 1994), p. 140.

79 “ for investigation”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 18.

79 “lay low”: Williams, journal.

79 “Mississippi is closed, locked”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 10.

79 “There is an analogy”: Ibid., p. 11.

79 “Yesterday morning, three of our people”: Ibid.

80 “You are not responsible”: Taylor Branch, Pillar of Fire: America in the King Years, 1963-65 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998), p. 363.

80 “that Communist Jew Nigger lover”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 274.

80 “ full of life and ideas”: Huie, Three Lives, pp. 46, 54.

80 “More than any white person”: Ibid., p. 114.

81 “I am now so thoroughly identified”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 259.

81 “I would feel guilty”: New York Times, June 25, 1964, p. 18.

81 “Mississippi’s best hope”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 261.

81 “We’re actually pretty lucky here”: Woodley, “Recollection of Michael Schwerner,” p. 23.

81 “I just want you to know”: “Interview with Civil Rights Activist Rita Bender,” in Microsoft Encarta Premium 2007 (Redmond, Wash.: Microsoft, 2006).

82 “You must be that Communist-Jew”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 274.

82 “That Jewboy is dead!”: Ball, Murder in Mississippi, p. 32.

82 “a marked man”: Huie, Three Lives, p. 81.

82 “I belong right here in Mississippi”: Ibid., p. 117.

82 “Mickey could count on Jim”: Ibid., p. 95.

82 “Mama,” he said, “I believe I done found”: “Mississippi—‘Everybody’s Scared,’ ” Newsweek, July 6, 1964, p. 15.

83 “a born activist”: Carolyn Goodman, “Andrew Goodman—1943-1964,” in Erenrich, Freedom Is a Constant Struggle, p. 321.

83 “Because this is the most important thing”: New York Times, June 25, 1964.

83 “I want to go off to war” and “a great idea”: Carolyn Goodman, “My Son Didn’t Die in Vain!” with Bernard Asbell, Good Housekeeping, May 1965, p. 158.

83 “We couldn’t turn our backs”: New York Times, June 25, 1964.

83 “I’m scared”: Carolyn Goodman Papers, SHSW.

84 “Don’t worry,” he told them: Mills, Like a Holy Crusade, p. 103.

84 Dear Mom and Dad: Federal Bureau of Investigation, Mississippi Burning Case, File 44-25706 (hereafter, MIBURN), part 3, p. 53.

84 “issuing dictatorial orders”: Association of Tenth Amendment Conservatives brochure, MDAH SCR ID# 2-61-1-95-2-1-1.

85 “What’re you doing here?”: COFO, Mississippi Black Paper, pp. 67-68.

85 “sons of bitches”: Branch, Pillar of Fire, p. 143.

85 “niggers on a voter drive”: Zinn, SNCC, p. 204.

85 “arrest any Mississippi law enforcement officer”:

85 “cooling off period”: Payne, I’ve Got the Light, p. 108.

86 “a true Marxist-Leninist”: Nick Kotz, Judgment Days: Lyndon Baines Johnson, Martin Luther King Jr., and the Laws That Changed America (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2005), p. 103.

86 “We do not wet nurse”: Ball, Murder in Mississippi, p. 57.

86 “Which side is the federal government on?”: Zinn, SNCC, p. 215.

86 “There is a street in Itta Bena”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 192.

86 “Good evening. Three young civil rights workers”: Walter Cronkite, “History Lessons: Mississippi 1964—Civil Rights and Unrest,” June 16, 2005,

87 “the other Philadelphia”: New York Times, June 29, 1964.

88 “ fair-minded, Christian people”: Ibid.

89 “They’re sending them in by buses”: Michael R. Beschloss, ed., Taking Charge: The Johnson White House Tapes, 1963-1964 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997), p. 313.

89 “I asked Hoover two weeks ago”: Ibid., pp. 425-26.

89 “I’m afraid that if I start”: Ibid., p. 431.

89 “I think they got picked up”: Ibid., pp. 431-32.

90 “I don’t believe there’s three missing”: Ibid., p. 434.

90 “Are they all right?”: Goodman, “My Son Didn’t Die,” p. 164.

90 “changed from a public figure”: Ibid.

91 “Burned Car Clue”: Washington Post, June 24, 1964.

91 “Dulles Will Direct Rights Trio Hunt”: Los Angeles Times, June 24, 1964.

91 “Wreckage Raises New Fears”: New York Times, June 24, 1964.

91 “They had no business down here”: Mars, Witness in Philadelphia, pp. 87-88.

91 “Farmer, don’t go over there”: James Farmer, Lay Bare the Heart: An Autobiography of the Civil Rights Movement (New York: New American Library, 1985), p. 273.

92 “Where do you think you’re goin’?”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 343.

92 “hid somewhere trying to get”: New York Times, June 23, 1964.

92 “destroy evidence”: Lewis, Walking with the Wind, p. 257.

92 If there has been a crime”: Ibid.

92 “We don’t want anything to happen”: Farmer, Lay Bare the Heart, p. 276.

93 “It’s a shame that national concern”: Lewis, Walking with the Wind, p. 258.

93 “I imagine they’re in that lake”: Beschloss, Taking Charge, p. 440.

93 “We are basically a law abiding nation”: New York Times, June 24, 1964.

93 “We need the FBI before the fact”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 15.

94 “knowed for mean”: Carmichael, Ready for Revolution, p. 377.

94 “praying for sunrise”: Ibid.

94 “those same peckerwoods”: Ibid., p. 378.

94 “Ain’t no telling”: Cleveland Sellers and Robert Terrell, The River of No Return: The Autobiography of a Black Militant and the Life and Death of SNCC (New York: William Morrow, 1973), p. 88.

94 “So and so said”: Charles Cobb Jr., personal interview, July 16, 2008.

95 “would have an irretrievable effect”: “Mississippi—Summer of 1964: Troubled State, Troubled Time,” Newsweek, July 13, 1964, p. 20.

95 “a local matter for local law enforcement”: New York Times, June 25, 1964, p. 20.

95 “a thousand of these youngsters”: Kotz, Judgment Days, p. 171.

95 “the chiefs of police”: Ibid.

95 “this breathtakingly admirable group”: Washington Post, June 25, 1964.

95 “a second Reconstruction”: New York Times, June 26, 1964.

95 “firm, positive statement” and “will be on the hands”: Tupelo Journal, June 25, 1964; and Washington Post, June 25, 1964.

95 “I’m not going to send troops”: Randall B. Woods, LBJ: Architect of American Ambition (New York: Free Press, 2006), p. 479.

96 “We throw two or three”: “The Limpid Shambles of Violence,” Life, July 3, 1964, p. 35.

96 “Why don’t you just float”: Huie, Three Lives, p. 39.

96 “You know damn well our law”: Mars, Witness in Philadelphia, p. 98.

96 “The idea of these people”: Ibid.

96 “if it was boiled down to gravy”: Huie, Three Lives, p. 195.

96 “Bloody Neshoba”: Ball, Murder in Mississippi, p. 64.

96 “I believe them jokers”: Mulford and Field, Freedom on My Mind.

96 “to all parents everywhere”: New York Times, June 26, 1964.

97 “a Negro, a friend”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 366.

97 “I’m just hoping”: New York Times, June 25, 1964.

97 “For God’s sake”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 366.

97 “We’re now looking for bodies”: New York Times, June 25, 1964.

97 “I am going to find my husband”: Marco Williams, dir., Ten Days That Unexpectedly Changed America—Freedom Summer (New York: History Channel, 2006).

97 “that scores of federal marshals”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 354.

97 “I’m sure Wallace is much more important”: Huie, Three Lives, p. 203.

97 “Governor Wallace and I”: Robert Zellner, “Notes on Meeting Gov. Johnson,” June 25, 1964, COFO documents, Hillegas Collection.

97 “that you and Governor Wallace here”: Robert Zellner, The Wrong Side of Murder Creek: A White Southerner in the Freedom Movement, with Constance Curry (Montgomery, Ala.: NewSouth Books, 2008), p. 250.

98 “I don’t want your sympathy!”: Los Angeles Times, June 26, 1964.

98 “What in the goddamn hell”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 360.

98 “Well, at least he still has a wife”: Ibid.

98 “as near to approximating a police state”: Silver, Mississippi, p. 151.

99 “A wave of untrained”: SNCC Papers, reel 38.

99 “This is for the three in Philadelphia”: Chicago Tribune, June 27, 1964.

99 “swarm[ing] upon our land”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, July 7, 1964.

99 “Where, oh where”: Turner Catledge, “My Life and ‘The Times,’ ” in Mississippi Writers—Reflections of Childhood and Youth, vol. 2, Non-fiction, ed. Dorothy Abbott (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1986), p. 85.

99 “Be frank with you, Sitton”: Gene Roberts and Hank Klibanoff, The Race Beat: The Press, the Civil Rights Struggle, and the Awakening of a Nation (New York: Random House, 2007), p. 360.

99 “Beware, good Negro citizens”: Mississippi Summer Project, running summary of incidents, transcript, USM (hereafter, COFO incidents).

99 “Want us to do to you”: New York Times, June 27, 1964.

100 “You dig it?”: Hodes Papers, SHSW.

100 “like a funeral parlor”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 33.

100 “near psychosis,” or just “character disorders”: Robert Coles, Farewell to the South (Boston: Little, Brown, 1972), pp. 246-47.

100 “Suddenly hundreds of young Americans”: Ibid., p. 269.

100 “You know what we’re all doing”: McAdam, Freedom Summer, p. 71.

100 Dear Mom and Dad: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 26.

101 Dear Folks: Ibid., p. 27.

101 “The kids are dead”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, pp. 25-27.

101 “In our country we have some real evil”: Ibid.

102 “I would have gone anywhere”: Mulford and Field, Freedom on My Mind.

102 “If someone in Nazi Germany”: Paul Cowan, The Making of an Un-American: A Dialogue with Experience (New York: Viking, 1970), p. 29.

102 “You’re killing your mother!”: Heather Tobis Booth, personal interview, October 8, 2007.

103 “Be strong and of good courage”: New York Times, June 29, 1964.

103 “racial holocaust”: New York Times, June 28, 1964.

104 “I don’t know what all the fuss is about”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 29.

CHAPTER FIVE: “It Is Sure Enough Changing”

106 “History,” “Reference,” “Language,” “Crud”: Sugarman, Stranger at the Gates, p. 108.

106 the Ruleville Freedom School was ready for classes: Ibid., pp. 107-12.

106 looked “exactly” like Schwerner: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, July 1, 1964.

106 “dirty looks”: Meridian Star, June 30, 1964.

106 “running down all leads on the cranks”: Beschloss, Taking Charge, p. 438.

107 “let off it”: MIBURN 3-96.

107 “Negro boy”: MIBURN 3-93.

107 “got what was coming to them”: MIBURN, 8-75.

107 “You a damn liar”: New York Times, June 28, 1964.

108 “You dig into yourself ”: Moses and Cobb, Radical Equations, p. 59.

108 “While professing to believe in ‘equality’ ”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, June 23, 1964.

108 “I find more resentment”: Christian Science Monitor, June 30, 1964.

108 “It’s the best thing that’s happened”: John Hersey, “A Life for a Vote,” Saturday Evening Post, September 26, 1964; reprinted in Library of America, Reporting Civil Rights, p. 223.

109 “as if I was some strange god”: Coles, Farewell to the South, pp. 250-51.

109 “Now it wasn’t just these ‘Negroes’ ”: Fred Bright Winn, personal interview, November 13, 2007.

109 “We Shall Overcome”: Fred Bright Winn, correspondence, June 15, 1964.

110 “My spirit lives on”: Ibid.

110 “a young twenty-year-old”: Winn, interview, November 13, 2007.

110 “broke the ice”: Ibid.

110 “There were people in Mississippi”: Ibid.

110 “If the Klan gets a hold of you”: Ibid.

111 “scarier than shit”: Ibid.

111 “It’s like eating sandpaper slugs”: Ibid.

111 “Dad, I hope you realize”: Winn, correspondence, June 1964.

111 “I’m sorry, Mr. President”: Greenburg, Circle of Trust, p. 191.

112 “June 30—Page 7 Holly Springs”: WATS Line, June 30, 1964.

113 “You Are in Occupied Mississippi”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 52.

113 “Violence hangs overhead like dead air”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 168.

113 “to walk along the street”: Rims Barber, Oral History, USM.

113 “You’re both purty gals”: Lake, “Last Summer in Mississippi,” p. 243; and Ellen Lake Papers, SHSW.

113 “Which one of them coons”: Wesley C. Hogan, Many Minds, One Heart: SNCC’s Dream for a New America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007), p. 164.

113 “broke bread with”: Hodding Carter III, e-mail interview, September 26, 2008.

114 “I was adamantly against”: Ibid.

114 “race mixing invaders”: Greenwood Commonwealth, June 30, 1964.

114 “leftist hep cat students”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, June 29, 1964.

114 “nutniks”: Carthage Carthaginian, July 2, 1964.

114 “unshaven and unwashed trash”: David R. Davies, ed., The Press and Race: Mississippi Journalists Confront the Movement (Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 2001), p. 45; and Katagiri, Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission, p. 163. 114 “thirty college students”: Lexington Advertiser, July 2, 1964.

114 “doing irreparable damage”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, July 1, 1964.

114 “reckless walking”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 147.

115 “Nobody Would Dare Bomb”: New York Times Sunday Magazine, July 5, 1964, p. 6.

116 “Know all roads”: SNCC Papers, reel 40.

116 “surviving and just walking around”: Raines, My Soul Is Rested, pp. 239-40.

116 “The whole scene”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 55.

116 “I just can’t get my mind on all that”: “Mississippi—Summer of 1964: Troubled State, Troubled Time,” Newsweek, July 13, 1964, p. 18.

116 “I don’t want to mess with that mess”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 50.

116 “I can’t sign no paper”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 69.

117 “Did that nigger invite you in here?”: Jay Shetterly and Geoff Cowan, personal interview, January 15, 2008; and “Mississippi—Summer of 1964,” 19.

117 “a somewhat neurotic redhead”: Williams, journal.

117 “Goddamn motherfucker, pissed me right off!”: Claire O’Connor, personal interview, January 5, 2008.

117 “kind of goofy”: Ibid.

118 “our great leader”: Williams, journal.

119 “agitators . . . come to Mississippi”: Ibid.

119 “He said they ought to send me home”: Williams, correspondence.

119 “I have developed a real taste”: Ibid.

119 “hard on the Negroes”: Mars, Witness in Philadelphia, p. 76.

119 “Nigger, do you know”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 255.

120 “I have no proof”: Ibid., p. 340.

120 “Now come on sheriff”: MDAH SCR ID# 1-8-0-18-2-1-1.

120 “number one suspect”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, December 3, 2007, p. 4A.

121 “Now if I were a teacher”: James Baldwin, “A Talk to Teachers,” in Critical Issues in Education, ed. Eugene F. Provenzo (Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 2006), p. 203.

121 “nigger food”: SNCC Papers, reel 39.

121 “leaders of tomorrow”: New York Times, July 3, 1964.

121 “close the springs of racial poison”: Los Angeles Times, July 5, 1964.

121 “time of testing”: Beschloss, Taking Charge, p. 450.

122 “tear gas pen guns”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, July 2, 1964, SNCC Papers, reel 39.

122 “civil strife and chaotic conditions”: New York Times, June 22, 1964.

122 “People here in Clarksdale”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 70.

122 “Ah’m going swimmin’ ”: Ibid., pp. 71-72.

122 “Judas niggers”: Huie, Three Lives, p. 69.

123 “What have I done in my life?”: Winn, interview, November 13, 2007.

123 “troublemakers” and “uppity niggers”: Holland, From the Mississippi Delta, p. 203.

123 “I kinda figured”: Raines, My Soul Is Rested, p. 234.

124 “in case of emergency”: Sugarman, Stranger at the Gates, p. 75.

124 “When I raised my hand”: Sandra E. Adickes, Legacy of a Freedom School (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005), p. 15.

125 “scrapping” cotton shreds: New York Times, August 24, 1964.

125 “a knot on my stomach”: Kay Mills, This Little Light of Mine: The Life of Fannie Lou Hamer (New York: Penguin Books, 1993), p. 21.

125 “Had it up as high”: Fannie Lou Hamer, “To Praise Our Bridges,” in Abbott, Mississippi Writers, p. 324.

125 “I knowed as much about a facto law”: Mills, This Little Light, p. 37.

125 “boss man” was “raisin’ Cain”: Charles Marsh, God’s Long Summer: Stories of Faith and Civil Rights (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1997), p. 15.

125 “we’re not ready for that in Mississippi” and “I didn’t try to register for you”: Raines, My Soul Is Rested, p. 251.

125 “a Snicker”: Unita Blackwell, Barefootin’: Life Lessons from the Road to Freedom, with JoAnne Prichard Moore (New York: Crown, 2006), p. 83.

125 “She was SNCC itself”: James Forman, The Making of Black Revolutionaries (Washington, D.C.: Open Hand, 1985), p. 385.

125 “The only thing they could do”: Hamer, “To Praise Our Bridges,” p. 324.

126 “The white man’s afraid”: Silver, Mississippi, pp. 341-42.

126 “I feel like a man”: Sugarman, Stranger at the Gates, p. 116.

126 “and more and more and more”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 72.

126 “These young white folks”: Ibid.

126 “Can I speak to Andy Goodman?”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 64.

127 “Just wanted to know”: WATS Line, July 5, 1964.

127 “Today would be a good day for prayer”: Delta Democrat-Times, June 24, 1964.

127 “It may well be a lesson”: Ibid.

127 “a lotta weight”: Tillinghast, interview, November 28, 2007.

127 “an epiphany”: Ibid.

128 “The food was good”: New York Times, July 6, 1964.

128 “We are just going to abide”: Ibid.

CHAPTER SIX: “The Scars of the System”

129 “Tonight the sickness struck”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 137.

129 “What will it take”: Ibid., p. 138.

129 “lying on the ground”: Ibid., p. 137.

130 “Closed in Despair”: “Civil Rights: And the Walls Came Tumbling Down,” Time, July 17, 1974, p. 25.

130 “I’m free!”: Los Angeles Times, July 16, 1964.

130 “unless these people get out”: New York Times, July 5, 1964.

131 she had to say, “Nothing”: Fran O’Brien, personal interview, November 12, 2007.

131 “I hope you’re not too upset”: Fran O’Brien, correspondence, May 27, 1964.

131 “Are you sure”: Ibid.

131 “clearly understood”: O’Brien, correspondence, May 27, 1964.

132 “it occurred to me”: O’Brien, interview, November 12, 2007.

132 “It was just the way she’d grown up”: Ibid.

132 “He’s signing!”: Ibid.

133 “Please try not to worry”: O’Brien, correspondence, July 6, 1964.

133 “which will help you discover”: Goodman Papers, SHSW.

133 “I think Andrew Goodman is a heroe”: Ibid.

133 “Who are these fiends”: Goodman, “My Son Didn’t Die,” p. 158.

134 “no evidence of human remains”: MIBURN 6-78.

135 “share the terror”: New York Times, July 6, 1964.

135 “Morale is building”: WATS Line, July 7, 1964.

136 “See that”: Curtis (Hayes) Muhammad, personal interview, August 29, 2008.

136 “Bomb was placed”: WATS Line, July 8, 1964.

136 “Non-Violent High”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 113.

137 “This is the situation”: Charlie Cobb, “Organizing Freedom Schools,” in Erenrich, Freedom Is a Constant Struggle, p. 136.

138 “be creative”: “A Note to the Teacher, undated,” Michael J. Miller Civil Rights Collection, Historical Manuscripts and Photographs, USM.

138 do “The Monkey”: Adickes, Legacy of a Freedom School, p. 112.

139 “What do white people have”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 111.

139 “If reading levels”: Ibid., p. 113.

139 “the link between a rotting shack”: SNCC Papers, reel 39.

139 Dear Mom and Dad: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 108.

140 “Eighty-two”: Ibid., p. 106.

140 “Where do roads come from?”: Branch, Pillar of Fire, p. 393.

140 “Ummm . . . Jackson?”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 106.

140 “I think I am rapid”: Ibid., p. 119.

141 “I kept thinking”: Mulford and Field, Freedom on My Mind.

141 “Our school was by any definition”: Adickes, Legacy of a Freedom School, p. 4.

141 “Looks like termites to me”: Von Hoffman, Mississippi Notebook, p. 35.

141 “Razorback Klan” and “like wildfire”: Los Angeles Times, July 5, 1964.

142 “Sovereign Realm of Mississippi”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 246.

142 “We are now in the midst”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, pp. 104-5.

142 “the goon squad”: Mars, Witness in Philadelphia, p. 101.

143 “burning and dynamiting”: Huie, Three Lives, pp. 105-6.

143 “extermination”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 217.

143 “The typical Mississippi redneck”: Wyn Craig Wade, The Fiery Cross: The Ku Klux Klan in America (New York: Oxford University Press USA, 1998), p. 334.

143 “Sovereign Realm”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 246.

143 “The purpose and function”: Mars, Witness in Philadelphia, p. xvii.

144 “our Satanic enemies”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 104.

144 “Some forty instances”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 238.

144 “I think you ought to put fifty”: Beschloss, Taking Charge, p. 450.

144 “to identify and interview”: Whitehead, Attack on Terror, p. 91.

144 “Neshoba Arrests Believed Imminent”: Meridian Star, July 10, 1964.

144 “whose neighbors were friendly with who”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, June 12, 2005.

145 “just going through the motions”: New York Times, July 11, 1964.

145 “We haven’t even started leaning”: “Mississippi—Summer of 1964: Troubled State, Troubled Time,” Newsweek, July 13, 1964, p. 20.

145 “This is truly a great day!” Branch, Pillar of Fire, p. 398.

145 “Teeny Weeny”: Ibid., p. 393.

145 “This Mississippi thing”: Beschloss, Taking Charge, p. 444.

145 “I don’t close it”: Whitehead, Attack on Terror, p. 96.

145 “We most certainly do not”: New York Times, July 11, 1964.

145 “calculated insult”: Los Angeles Times, July 11, 1964.

146 “whup” the first “white niggers”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, pp. 140-42.

146 “Eat this shit”: WATS Line, July 10, 1964.

146 “deep sorrow for Mississippi”: Los Angeles Times, July 12, 1964.

146 “mutilated and scattered”: WATS Line, July 12, 1964.

147 “Mississippi is the only state”: McAdam, Freedom Summer, p. 97.

147 “We did not flee Hitler”: New York Times, July 11, 1964.

147 “tanks, guns, and troop carriers”: SNCC Papers, reel 39.

147 “before a tragic incident”: Hodes Papers, SHSW.

148 “Sometimes when I lie awake”: Boston Globe, July 4, 1964.

148 “except protect them somehow”: Los Angeles Times, July 19, 1964.

148 “Trussed Body Discovered”: Los Angeles Times, July 13, 1964.

149 “I’m hot, I’m miserable”: Los Angeles Times, July 19, 1964.

149 “Where is the USA?”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 165.

149 “decent middle-class”: Ibid., p. 288-89.

149 “running my rear end off”: Winn, correspondence, mid-July 1964.

150 “Dad,” Fred wrote home: Winn, correspondence, July 14, 1964.

150 “dirty” and “unclean”: New York Times, July 17, 1964.

150 “What happened in Neshoba”: Charlie Capps Jr., personal interview, September 11, 2008.

150 “We were a small town”: Ibid.

150 “to keep a lid on things”: Fred Bright Winn, e-mail, May 26, 2008.

151 “I was and am furious”: Winn, correspondence, July 14, 1964.

INTERLUDE: “Another So-Called ‘Freedom Day’ ”

152 “I’m going to wash the black off of you”: New York Times, July 17, 1964.

152 “Come on, shoot another nigger!”: “Worse Than Mississippi?” Time, July 24, 1964.

153 “Everybody stopped worrying”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 103.

153 “another so-called ‘Freedom Day’ ”: Greenwood Commonwealth, July 15, 1964.

154 “our Gettysburg”: Holland, From the Mississippi Delta, p. 243.

154 “Get up and look out the window”: Ibid., p. 218.

154 “We will not let it stop us”: SNCC Papers, reel 39.

154 “Everyone?”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 136.

155 “I want to go to jail”: Ibid.

155 “You are free to go and register”: Greenwood Commonwealth, July 17, 1964.

156 “Jim Crow . . . Must GO!”: Sugarman, Stranger at the Gates, p. 160.

156 “I think it would look very spontaneous”: Rick Perlstein, Before the Storm: Barry Goldwater and the Unmaking of the American Consensus (New York: Hill and Wang, 2001), p. 385.

157 “You mean that’s President and Mrs. Johnson?”: New York Times, July 17, 1964.

157 “They’re always doing something”: New York Times, August 3, 1964.

157 “the deep feeling of regret”: New York Times, July 16, 1964.

157 Back Door to Hell: Internet Movie Data Base,

158 “Caution: Weird Load”: Tom Wolfe, The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test (New York: Bantam, 1968), p. 63.

158 “A Vote for Barry”: Kevin Kerrane and Ben Yagoda, The Art of the Fact: A Historical Anthology of Literary Journalism (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1998), p. 176.

158 “Furthur”: Wolfe, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, p. 63.

158 “It’s too much like”: Louis Harris, “The Backlash Issue,” Newsweek, July 13, 1964, p. 24.

159 “The denial of voting rights”: Chicago Tribune, June 25, 1964.

159 “The President should now use”: Huie, Three Lives, p. 150.

159 “Without condoning racist attitudes”: Wall Street Journal, June 30, 1964.

159 “It is a dreadful thing to say”: Washington Post, June 29, 1964.

159 “Unlike the democratic absolutists”: Boston Globe, July 4, 1964.

159 “outraged and disgusted”: Letters, Newsweek, July 17, 1964.

159 “By what stretch of the imagination”: New York Times, July 10, 1964.

159 “Lincoln did this country”: Letters, Life, July 24, 1964.

160 “Could you possibly bring yourselves”: Letters, Newsweek, July 27, 1964, p. 2.

160 “I would say”: Hartford Courant, July 7, 1964.

160 “clear that the whole scheme”: Greenwood Commonwealth, July 17, 1964.

160 “I turned around”: Linda Wetmore, personal interview, March 27, 2008.

161 “Sounds like rubbing”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 126.

161 “nigger huggers”: Ibid., p. 139.

161 “I am proud”: Delta Democrat-Times, July 17, 1964.

163 “that son-of-a-bitch”:New York Times, July 16, 1964.

163 “extremists . . . who have nothing in common”: Christian Science Monitor, July 17, 1964.

163 “The nigger issue”: Perlstein, Before the Storm, p. 374.

164 “I was always complaining”: Richard Beymer, personal interview, July 6, 2008.

164 “Beymer drove”: Congressman Barney Frank, personal interview, June 18, 2008.

164 “off the map”: WATS Line, July 16, 1964.

165 “We are not going to eat”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 144.

165 “We won’t eat tomorrow”: Ibid., p. 145.

Book Two

CHAPTER SEVEN: “Walk Together, Children”

169 “Three are missing, Lord”: Ira Landess, personal interview, November 28, 2007.

170 “Hello, Freedom!”: Ibid.

170 “When you’re not in Mississippi”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 18.

170 McComb: Mount Zion Hill Baptist Church: COFO Incidents.

171 “The mosquitoes down here”: Jinny Glass Diary, USM.

171 “You will all be glad to hear”: Len Edwards, correspondence, August 5, 1964.

171 “Ho hum. This violent life rolls on”: Hodes Papers, SHSW.

171 “nothing serious”: WATS line, July 20, 1964.

171 “engaged in widespread terroristic acts”: COFO v. Rainey, et al., Meikeljohn Civil Liberties Institute Archives, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley,

172 “the happiest project”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 257.

172 “a real movie star”: Carmichael, Ready for Revolution, p. 399.

172 “plain cute”: Hudson and Curry, Mississippi Harmony, p. 82.

173 “If you want to start a meeting”: James Kates Papers, SHSW.

173 “out under the trees”: Sugarman, Stranger at the Gates, p. 114.

173 “laughing his ass off” and “Someone shot at you”: Williams, interview, November 24, 2007.

173 “I don’t believe in this sort of thing”: Fred R. Winn, correspondence, July 29, 1964.

173 “Canton—Number of those”: SNCC Papers, Reel 38.

174 “high degree of probability”: SNCC Papers, reel 40.

174 everyone who is not working”: Ibid.

174 “canvassing, which you all know about”: Ibid.

175 “The Democratic National Convention is a very big meeting”: Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party brochure, Chris Williams private papers.

176 “I got to think about it”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 187.

176 “battle royal”: Washington Post, July 23, 1964.

176 “potentially explosive dilemma”: Los Angeles Times, July 26, 1964.

176 “Papa Doc”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 262.

177 “He has trouble relating to white women”: Chude Pamela Allen, “Watching the Iris,” in Erenrich, Freedom Is a Constant Struggle, p. 418.

177 “will have to pack his bag”: Sellers and Terrell, River of No Return, p. 96.

177 “We can’t let them think”: Ibid., p. 98.

177 “the one thing where the Negro”: Barbara Ransby, Ella Baker and the Black Freedom Movement: A Radical Democratic Vision (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003), p. 314.

178 “Young man”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 207.

178 “I felt personally responsible”: Watkins, interview, June 16, 2008.

179 “They both left together”: Charlie Cobb, personal interview, July 16, 2008.

179 “Muriel was tough”: Ibid.

179 “We had never seen anybody”: Blackwell, Barefootin’, p. 70.

179 “Oh Lord, Lord”: Ibid., p. 78.

179 “For someone so young”: Ibid., p. 79.

180 “Muriel taught things”: Ibid., p. 80.

180 “What Muriel Tillinghast really taught”: Ibid.

180 “Okay, I’ll do that”: Ibid., p. 81.

180 “Things getting pretty tight”: WATS Line, July 13, 1964.

180 “They recognized we were”: Tillinghast, interview, December 16, 2008.

180 “Go back to Greenville”: COFO, Mississippi Black Paper, pp. 88-89.

180 “If he gets killed”: Beschloss, Taking Charge, p. 460.

181 “There are threats”: Ibid., p. 461.

181 “Talk to your man in Jackson”: Ibid.

181 “We tried to warn SNCC”: Payne, I’ve Got the Light, p. 103.

181 “Martin Luther Coon”: Hampton, “Mississippi—Is This America?”

181 “Martin Luther King at Communist”: Blackwell, Barefootin’, p. 68.

181 “the unspeakable Martin Luther King”: Davies, Press and Race, p. 41.

181 “I want to live a normal life”: Kotz, Judgment Days, p. 176.

181 “just suicidal”: Ibid., p. 177.

181 “the most creative thing”: King, Freedom Song, pp. 307-8.

182 “to demonstrate the absolute support”: Branch, Pillar of Fire, p. 410.

182 “You must not allow anybody”: New York Times, July 22, 1964.

182 “Gentlemen, I will be brief ”: Ibid.

183 “mobilize the power”: Washington Post, July 23, 1964.

183 “murdered by the silence”: Ibid.

183 “that these same efficient FBI men”: Delta Democrat-Times, July 22, 1964.

183 Seat the Freedom Democratic Party!” Forman, Making of Black Revolutionaries, p. 384.

183 “the Right Rev. Riot Inciter”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 164.

183 “Small Crowd Greets King”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, July 22, 1964.

183 “It is a known fact”: Hattiesburg American, July 21, 1964.

183 “It is a sad commentary”: Shirley Tucker, Mississippi from Within (New York: Arco, 1965), p. 130.

184 “Latest Wave of Invaders”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, July 22, 1964.

184 “Happily, the inclination toward violence”: Panolian, July 30, 1964.

184 “We do know that Communist influence”: New York Times, April 22, 1964.

184 “Hey, you don’t worry”: Carmichael, Ready for Revolution, p. 304.

184 “all communists speak Russian”: Panolian, July 4, 1964.

184 “mass invasion of Mississippi”: Congressional Record 110 (July 22, 1964): S 16036-37.

184 “stooges and pawns”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, July 23, 1964.

185 “a long-time Communist legal eagle”: Congressional Record 110 (July 22, 1964): S 16040.

185 “beatnik looking crowd”: MDAH SCR ID# 2-20-2-2-2-1-1.

185 “If they ain’t calling you a Communist”: Blackwell, Barefootin’, p. 118.

185 “The history of America”: O’Brien, interview, November 12, 2007.

185 “Do you know what the Gettysburg Address means?”: O’Brien, correspondence, July 18, 1964.

186 “We can’t understand y’all”: Ibid.

186 “You haven’t a thing to worry about”: O’Brien, correspondence, July 10, 1964.

186 “the little darlings”: Ibid., July 13, 1964.

186 “Jekyll-Hyde transformations”: Ibid., July 28, 1964.

186 “my babies can’t be sold away”: O’Brien, interview, November 12, 2007.

186 “Well, you just read the book”: Ibid.

187 “Now,” she said: Ibid.

187 “Sometimes I feel I’m not doing much”: O’Brien, correspondence, July 18, 1964.

187 “the worst state in the Union”: Los Angeles Times, July 24, 1964, p. 21.

188 “And what about you, young lady?”: O’Brien, interview, November 12, 2007.

189 “Three young men came here”: New York Times, July 25, 1964.

189 “I just want to touch you”: Ibid.

189 “that there are churches”: Ibid.

189 “I know what fear is”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 169.

189 “We’ve been waiting for you”: SNCC Papers, reel 39.

189 “RE: Arguing with the Red Queen”: Ibid.

190 “Mrs. Hamer is back”: WATS Line, July 20, 1964.

190 “Listen,” the man said: O’Brien, correspondence, July 28, 1964.

Chapter 8. “The Summer of Our Discontent”

191 “How the ghosts of those three”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 216.

191 “I believe with all my heart”: Mars, Witness in Philadelphia, p. 105.

191 “I just hope”: Ibid.

191 “If they were murdered”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, August 4, 1964.

192 the grinding “hog”: Tucker, Mississippi from Within, p. 43.

192 “real rednecks”: Delta Democrat-Times, August 6, 1964.

192 “everyone who had been”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 374.

192 “Nigger,” Rainey shouted: Whitehead, Attack on Terror, p. 114.

193 “the tipoff boys were waiting”: Meridian Star, August 6, 1964.

193 “a prolific letter writer”: New York Times, August 7, 1964.

193 “have the money ready”: Cartha “Deke” DeLoach, Hoover’s FBI: The Inside Story by Hoover’s Trusted Lieutenant (Washington, D.C.: Regnery, 1995), p. 185.

194 “I realize it may sound foolish”: New York Times, August 9, 1964.

194 “Only a fool would be happy”: Ibid.

195 “mother wit”: Blackwell, Barefootin’, p. 19.

195 “Get the white man out”: Dr. Stacy White, e-mail correspondence, May 20, 2008.

195 “Where have you people been?”: Sugarman, Stranger at the Gates, p. 173.

195 “Hello, Item Base”: Winn, interview, November 13, 2007.

195 “To be quite frank with you”: Winn, correspondence, n.d.

195 “Be very careful”: Winn, correspondence, August 18, 1964.

196 “counting them like a jail sentence”: Winn, correspondence, August 13, 1964.

196 “wasn’t going to turn the government over”: Williams, correspondence, July 13, 1964.

196 “very violent town”: Ibid.

196 “I been deputy”: Ibid.

196 “Communist!” and “Nigger lover!”: Ibid., July 28, 1964.

197 “The whole state is beginning to tighten up”: Ibid.

197 “operating a Freedom Outpost”: Ibid.

197 “in droves”: Ibid.

197 “trashy motherfucker”: Ibid., July 20, 1964.

197 “enough money to last him”: Branch, Pillar of Fire, p. 430.

198 “come with subpoenas”: Meridian Star, August 3, 1964.

198 “take care of him”: MDAH SCR ID# 2-112-1-49-1-1-1.

198 “pay a million more”: Ibid.

198 “buy a cattle ranch”: Ibid.

198 Dutch “seer”: Meridian Star, August 9, 1964.

198 “What happened to the three kids?”: Ball, Murder in Mississippi, p. 75.

198 “We’d have paid a lot more”: Kenneth O’Reilly, “Racial Matters”: The FBI’s Secret File on Black America, 1960-1972 (New York: Free Press, 1989), p. 174.

199 “We’ve spotted the dam”: Whitehead, Attack on Terror, p. 128.

199 “This is no pick and shovel job”: Ibid., p. 129.

199 “the summer of our discontent”: New York Times, July 29, 1964.

199 “Maybe the best course”: Huie, Three Lives, p. 214.

199 “see that their enemy”: COFO brochure, White Folks Project Collection, USM.

199 “there was no dialogue”: Ed Hamlett Papers, White Folks Project Collection, USM.

199 “Why Mississippi?”: Ibid.

200 “get the feel”: William and Kathleen Henderson Papers, SHSW.

200 “It looks like the pilot phase”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 181.

200 “You Northerners all think”: Ibid., p. 186.

200 “How can these kids presume”: Sugarman, Stranger at the Gates, pp. 138-39.

200 “What’s so hard to explain”: Ibid., p. 145.

200 “Would you marry a Negro?”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 179.

201 “Communist! . . . Queer!”: Ibid.

201 “guilty, agonized”: Adam Hochschild, Finding the Trapdoor: Essay, Portraits, Travels (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1997), p. 147.

201 “a splendid job”: Virginia Center for Digital History, “Wednesdays in Mississippi: Civil Rights as Women’s Work,” The Effects: Southern Women, p. 20,

201 “Girls,” she said: Ibid.

201 “If you print my name”: Washington Post, August 16, 1964.

202 “I am not an integrationist”: MDAH SCR ID# 99-38-0-493-2-1-1.

202 “a breach of etiquette”: Carter, So the Heffners Left McComb, p. 125.

202 “to let the Civil Rights workers”: Ibid., p. 80.

202 “Whose car is that”: Ibid., p. 49.

202 “If you want to live”: Ibid., p. 79.

203 “chickened out”: Ira Landess, personal interview, November 28, 2007.

204 “You folks better get down”: Sellers and Terrell, River of No Return, p. 103.

204 “His head went through the windshield”: Ibid., p. 104.

205 “I’ d say start digging here”: Whitehead, Attack on Terror, p. 133.

205 “We’ll start here”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 397.

205 “the faint odor”: Ibid., p. 398.

205 “Reporting one WB”: Whitehead, Attack on Terror, p. 134.

205 “We’ve uncapped one oil well”: Ibid.

206 “Mickey could count on Jim”: Huie, Three Lives, p. 95.

206 “the first interracial lynching”: Umoja Kwanguvu Papers, USM.

206 “O healing river”: David King Dunaway, How Can I Keep from Singing (New York: McGraw Hill, 1981), p. 235.

207 “Many reported contacts”: Branch, Pillar of Fire, p. 434.

207 “Mr. Hoover wanted me to call you”: Beschloss, Taking Charge, pp. 501-2.

208 “It is for us the living”: New York Times, August 6, 1964.

208 “Did you love your husband?”: Washington Post, August 6, 1964.

208 “My boy died a martyr”: McComb Enterprise-Journal, August 6, 1964.

208 “The closed society that is Mississippi”: Hartford Courant, August 6, 1964.

209 “The murders of Michael Henry Schwerner”: New York Times, August 6, 1964.

209 “None of those who have died”: Washington Post, August 6, 1964.

209 “We must track down the murderers”: Vicksburg Post, August 6, 1964.

209 “Many of us in Mississippi”: Delta Democrat-Times, August 9, 1964.

209 “a new hate campaign”: Meridian Star, August 6, 1964.

209 “It was those integration groups”: Delta Democrat-Times, August 6, 1964.

209 “If they had stayed home”: Hattiesburg American, August 5, 1964, cited in Tucker, Mississippi from Within, p. 136.

210 “reduced to a pulp”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 407.

210 “In my extensive experience”: Ibid.

210 “substantive results”: New York Times, August 9, 1964.

210 “hate to be in his shoes”: MDAH SCR ID# 2-112-1-49-1-1-1.

210 “I want people to know”: New York Times, August 6, 1964.

211 “Y’all can be non-violent”: Blackwell, Barefootin’, p. 98.

211 “have some race pride”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 182.

211 “loudmouth everyone”: Ibid., pp. 182-83.

211 “to get the mandate from Bob”: Ibid., p. 183.

212 “I’m gonna kill ’em!”: Hank Klibanoff, “Moment of Reckoning,” Smithsonian , December 2008, p. 12.

212 “I want my brother!”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 409.

212 “a mistake”: Wendt, Spirit and the Shotgun, p. 118.

212 “Sorry, but I’m not here to do”: Bradley G. Bond, Mississippi: A Documentary History (Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 2003), pp. 254-59.

214 “The tragedy of Andy Goodman”: New York Times, August 10, 1964.

CHAPTER NINE: “Lay by Time”

215 “Success?” Moses told the press: Newsweek, August 24, 1964, p. 30.

215 “ from the unjust laws of Mississippi”: SNCC Papers, reel 39.

215 “It was the single time in my life”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 260.

216 “lay by time”: Blackwell, Barefootin’, p. 17.

216 “I am tired”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 225.

216 “sailing and swimming”: Ibid., p. 221.

217 “I have been here nearly two months”: Ellen Lake Papers, USM.

217 “depression session”: Wilkie, Dixie, p. 144.

217 “If I stay here much longer”: Coles, Farewell to the South, pp. 252-53.

217 “She’s always in the same rut”: Margaret Hazelton Papers, USM.

218 “They keep killin’ our people”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 225.

218 “They might think twice”: Branch, Pillar of Fire, p. 450.

218 “by someone important”: WATS Line, August 10, 1964.

219 “a ballet”: Sidney Poitier, Life Beyond Measure: Letters to My Great-Granddaughter (New York: HarperCollins, 2008), p. 174.

219 “I have been a lonely man”: Adam Goudsouzian, Sidney Poitier: Man, Actor, Icon (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004), p. 224.

220 “Are you coming down here”: Dunaway, How Can I Keep, p. 234.

220 “Each morning I wake”: Julius Lester, All Is Well (New York: William Morrow, 1976), p. 112.

220 “If God had intended”: Martin Duberman, In White America (London: Faber and Faber, 1964), p. 4.

221 “That’s right!”: Elizabeth Martinez, “Theater of the Meaningful,” Nation, October 19, 1964, p. 255.

221 “a beacon of hope and love”: “Dream in a Bean Field,” Nation, December 28, 1964, p. 514.

222 “nasty little town”: Tillinghast, interview, December 16, 2008.

222 “Dear Doug”: SNCC Papers, reel 40.

222 “let me drive”: Tillinghast, interview, December 16, 2008.

223 “get the hell out of Issaquena County”: Ibid.

223 “You niggers get away”: United States Commission on Civil Rights, Hearings Before the United States Commission on Civil Rights, vol. 1, Voting: Hearings Held in Jackson, Miss. February 16-20, 1965 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1965), p. 132.

223 “courage overcame fear”: Tillinghast, interview, November 28, 2007.

224 “Look, close your mouth”: “Freedom Summer Journal of Sandra Adickes,” USM,

224 “Mr. Clean”: Huie, Three Lives, p. 226.

224 “The white people of Mississippi”: Ibid.

225 “Communist Revolutionaries”: Mars, Witness in Philadelphia, p. 108.

225 “They’ve shot Silas!”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 222.

225 “colored doctor”: Zellner, The Wrong Side, p. 261.

226 “I got me one”: WATS Line, August 17, 1964.

226 “ticking time bomb”: Kotz, Judgment Days, p. 190.

226 “There’s no compromise”: Beschloss, Taking Charge, p. 515.

226 “If we mess with the group”: Ibid., p. 516.

226 “We’re going to lose the election”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 291.

226 “Help make Mississippi”: Herbert Randall and Bob Tusa, Faces of Freedom Summer (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2001), n.p.

226 “If we can get enough people”: Charles Miller Papers, SHSW.

227 “I just stood there”: SNCC Papers, reel 67.

227 “Why did Harriet Tubman”: Liz Fusco, “Deeper Than Politics,” Liberation 9 (November 1964): 18.

228 “I am Mississippi fed”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 279.

228 “We’re not black slaves!”: Washington Post, July 20, 1964.

228 “I think you’re lying”: Adickes, Legacy of a Freedom School, p. 68.

228 “Some of them are beginning to realize”: Ibid., p. 264.

228 “We’re giving these kids a start”: Washington Post, July 20, 1964.

229 “I saw the rug pulled out”: Watkins, interview, June 16, 2008.

229 “about time something happened”: Chude Pamela Allen, “Watching the Iris,” in Erenrich, pp. 419-420.

229 “the project was polarized”: Ibid.

229 “to give abortions”: Carmichael, Ready for Revolution, p. 389.

229 “And get raped?”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 185.

230 “My Summer Negro”: Rothschild, Case of Black and White, p. 56.

230 “Every black SNCC worker”: Evans, Personal Politics, p. 80.

230 “I didn’t see any white women”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 263.

230 “Now, Dad”: Winn, correspondence, mid-July 1964.

230 “jus’ one boy touch”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 45.

230 “fluttered like butterflies”: King, Freedom Song, p. 44.

230 “All these black guys”: McAdam, Freedom Summer, p. 106.

231 “I’m sure I wasn’t the only white woman”: Chude Pamela Allen, “Thank You,” in Erenrich, Freedom Is a Constant Struggle, p. 502.

231 “There’s a very good chance”: Chude Pamela Allen, personal interview, November 12, 2007.

232 “we’re all dreamers”: O’Brien, correspondence, July 28, 1964.

232 “I could stay longer”: Ibid.

232 “Don’t worry,” she was told: Fran O’Brien, “Journey into Light,” in Erenrich, Freedom Is a Constant Struggle, p. 285.

233 “Now you just be a good little girl”: Ibid., p. 286.

233 “No you don’t, little lady!” Ibid.

233 “That’s a good little girl”: Ibid.

234 “Oh hi, Fran”: Ibid.

234 “It’s okay”: Ibid., p. 287.

235 “After recent developments”: O’Brien, correspondence, August 4, 1964.

235 “The whole pattern”: “The Evangelists,” Newsweek, August 24, 1964, p. 30.

236 “begin action”: WATS line, August 19, 1964.

CHAPTER TEN: “The Stuff Democracy Is Made Of”

238 “They start anything”: Blackwell, Barefootin’, p. 108.

238 “You better put your feet on the gas”: Ibid.

238 “Negroes carefully picked”: MDAH SCR ID # 9-32-0-6-2-1-1.

238 “We can’t open the door!” Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party Papers (hereafter MFDP Papers), SHSW.

239 “assemblage of people”: Mulford and Field, Freedom on My Mind.

239 “Until the killing of black mothers’ sons”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 391.

239 “the stuff democracy is made of”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, pp. 250-51.

240 “coronation”: New York Times, August 25, 1964.

241 “alien philosophy”: New York Times, August 22, 1964.

241 “If you seat those black buggers”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 290.

241 “If our case is fully heard”: SNCC Papers, Reel 41.

241 “go fishing on Election Day”: Washington Post, August 22, 1964.

241 “definite supporter”: MFDP Papers, SHSW.

241 “Who is YOUR sheriff?”: Ibid.

242 “eleven and eight”: Lewis, Walking with the Wind, p. 279.

242 “And who are we?”: MFDP Papers, SHSW.

243 “I was just talking to Joe Rauh”: Carmichael, Ready for Revolution, p. 403.

243 “move heaven and earth”: Los Angeles Times, August 7, 1964.

243 “They’ve screwed you, Joe!”: Branch, Pillar of Fire, p. 457.

243 “only an hour”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 389.

243 “white power structure”: Washington Post, August 23, 1964.

243 “I have been imprisoned”: Ibid.; and Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 415.

244 “Girl, you reckon I ought to tell it?”: Blackwell, Barefootin’, p. 111.

244 “Mister Chairman”: Fannie Lou Hamer, testimony before the Democratic National Convention, American Radio Works Web site,

244 “There’s Fannie Lou!”: Len Edwards, personal interview, October 29, 2008.

244 “We’re gonna get the job done tonight”: WATS Line, August 20, 1964.

245 “Your time is short!”: Ibid.

245 “every nigger in town”: Whitehead, Attack on Terror, p. 163.

245 “comedy of terrors”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 383.

245 “If you people leave us”: WATS Line, August 20, 1964.

245 “I can simply no longer justify”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 265.

245 “I wasn’t going to stay”: Winn, correspondence, September 1, 1964.

246 “Standard Operating Procedure”: Ibid., August 14, 1964.

246 “COME ONE, COME ALL”: Jerry Tecklin Papers, SHSW.

247 “What’s this all about?”: Winn, interview, November 13, 2007.

247 “We all knew”: Ibid.

247 “I didn’t try to register for you”: Hamer, testimony.

247 “On the tenth of September 1962”: Ibid.

247 “We will return to this scene”: Hampton, “Mississippi—Is This America?”

247 “On this day nine months ago”: Branch, Pillar of Fire, p. 460.

248 “ for it is in these saints”: Ibid.

248 “power-hungry soreheads,” their “rump group”: Murray Kempton, “Conscience of a Convention,” New Republic, September 5, 1964, p. 6.

248 “vote for the power structure”: Erenrich, Freedom Is a Constant Struggle, p. 312.

248 “I was carried to the county jail”: Hamer, testimony.

248 “And he said, ‘We’re going to make you wish’ ”: Ibid.

249 “And I was beat by the first Negro”: Ibid.

249 “All of this is on account of”: Ibid.

249 “I don’t think that if this issue”: Mulford and Field, Freedom on My Mind.

250 “honored guests”: Kotz, Judgment Days, p. 201.

250 “back of the bus”: Los Angeles Times, August 24, 1964.

250 “because he was on our side”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 289.

250 “Tell Rauh if he plans”: Kotz, Judgment Days, p. 208.

251 “way out of line”: Branch, Pillar of Fire, p. 461.

251 “SUPPORT THE FREEDOM DEMOCRATS”: Christian Science Monitor, August 26, 1964.

251 “1964, NOT 1864” and “STOP HYPOCRISY, START DEMOCRACY”: Los Angeles Times, August 26, 1964.

252 “Mississippi Terror Truck”: Mulford and Field, Freedom on My Mind.

252 “Don’t you understand?”: Los Angeles Times, August 26, 1964.

252 “Alabama’s done gone”: Beschloss, Taking Charge, p. 523.

252 “Atlantic City’s White House”: Washington Post, August 25, 1964.

252 “You better talk to Hubert Humphrey”: Kotz, Judgment Days, p. 200.

253 “ for Negroes to speak for Negroes”: Ibid., p. 211.

253 “Then democracy is not real”: Kotz, Judgment Days, p. 211.

253 “The time has arrived”: Joshua Zeitz, “Democratic Debacle,” American Heritage , June/July 2004, online edition.

253 “Senator Humphrey,” she began: Chana Kai Lee, For Freedom’s Sake: The Life of Fannie Lou Hamer (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1999), p. 93; and Olson, Freedom’s Daughters, p. 320.

253 “We can win on the floor”: New York Times, August 25, p. 23.

253 “listened patiently . . . argued fervently”: Kotz, Judgment Days, p. 211.

253 “that the Negroes have taken over”: Beschloss, Taking Charge, p. 527.

254 “The Freedom Party,” Johnson told a friend: Kotz, Judgment Days, p. 213.

254 “an excuse to say I turned”: Beschloss, Taking Charge, p. 525.

254 “Bobby’s trap”: Ibid., p. 525.

254 “The times require leadership”: Branch, Pillar of Fire, p. 468n.

254 “This would throw the nation”: Ibid., p. 468.

254 “These people went in and begged”: Ibid., p. 471.

254 “But we’re going to ignore that”: Robert David Johnson, All the Way with LBJ: The 1964 Presidential Election (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009), p. 186.

254 “take a tranquilizer”: Kotz, Judgment Days, pp. 212-13.

254 “a wholesale walkout”: Branch, Pillar of Fire, p. 471.

254 “It looks like we’re turning the Democratic party”: Ibid.

255 “By God, I’m going to go up there”: Branch, Pillar of Fire, p. 473.

254 “Beloved,” she began: Lady Bird Johnson, A White House Diary (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1970), p. 192.

255 “Is the Credentials Committee meeting”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 239.

255 “a tremendous victory”: Kotz, Judgment Days, p. 215.

255 “Your funding is on the line”: Ibid.

256 “The President has said”: Ibid., p. 216.

256 “wrung out the blood”: Jack Newfield, A Prophetic Minority (New York: New American Library, 1966), p. 76.

256 “if they really understand”: Mulford and Field, Freedom on My Mind.

256 “You cheated!”: Kotz, Judgment Days, p. 216.

256 “Atlantic City was a powerful lesson”: Forman, Making of Black Revolutionaries , pp. 395-96.

256 “The kids tried the established methods”: Olson, Freedom’s Daughters, p. 325.

257 “Stokely,” Hartman Turnbow asked: Carmichael, Ready for Revolution, p. 408.

257 “they can use the info”: WATS Line, August 25, 1964.

257 “cowhided and horsewhipped”: New York Times, August 27, 1964.

257 “cheap, degrading insults”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, August 27, 1964.

257 “that debt is paid in full”: Chicago Tribune, August 26, 1964.

258 “like Mata Hari and the French Resistance”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi , p. 256.

258 “All we want”: Mulford and Field, Freedom on My Mind.

258 “We’ve shed too much blood”: Lewis, Walking with the Wind, p. 281.

258 “We didn’t come all this way”: Blackwell, Barefootin’, p. 115.

258 “You have made your point”: Kotz, Judgment Days, p. 221.

258 “Being a Negro leader”: Ibid.

258 “Socrates or Aristotle”: Burner, And Gently He Shall Lead Them, p. 187.

258 “We’re not here to bring politics into our morality”: Ibid.

259 “When they got through talking”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 301.

259 “a significant moral and political victory”: Los Angeles Times, August 27, 1964.

259 “a triumph of Moral force”: New York Times, August 27, 1964.

259 “nothing short of heroic”: Washington Post, August 26, 1964.

259 “You don’t know how they goin’ to do us!”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 197.

260 “I just want you to know”: Zoya Zeman, Oral History Collection, USM.

260 “Fine,” the registrar answered: MDAH SCR ID# 2-61-1-101-5-1-1.

261 “snowballed” and “completely out of control”: Ibid.

CHAPTER ELEVEN: “Give unto Them Beauty for Ashes”

262 “My God,” he said: Anthony Walton, Mississippi: An American Journey (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996), p. 254.

263 “The longest nightmare”: Sellers and Terrell, River of No Return, p. 94.

263 “At the end of summer”: Watkins, interview, June 16, 2008.

263 “If the present increase in violence”: SNCC Papers, reel 38.

263 “are very fine people”: Mendy Samstein Papers, SHSW.

264 “I didn’t realize yet”: O’Brien, interview, November 12, 2007.

264 “Well, what was happening”: McAdam, Freedom Summer, p. 134.

264 “everything was awful”: Linda Wetmore, personal interview, March 27, 2008.

264 “You’re telling me”: Ibid.

264 “I could never kiss anybody” and “Then I guess”: Ibid.

265 “battle fatigue”: Lewis, Walking with the Wind, p. 273.

265 “Our very normal”: McAdam, Freedom Summer, p. 136.

265 “the best people I ever met”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 259.

265 “I went from being a liberal”: McAdam, Freedom Summer, p. 127.

265 “not a very creative guy”: Ibid., p. 165.

266 “Can I now forget Mississippi?”: “The Reminiscences of Mario Savio,” Oral History Research Office Collection, Columbia University, p. 40.

266 “I’m definitely not ready”: Mills, This Little Light, p. 135.

267 “the proudest moment of my life”: Abbott, Mississippi Writers, p. 329.

267 “welling out like poison”: Ibid.

267 “The Negro girls feel neglected”: Olson, Freedom’s Daughters, p. 309.

267 “just seemed to hate me”: McAdam, Freedom Summer, p. 124.

267 “do what the spirit say do”: Lewis, Walking with the Wind, p. 294.

267 “We must decide”: Clayborne Carson, In Struggle: SNCC and the Black Awakening of the 1960s (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981), p. 146.

267 “too many people high on freedom”: Casey Hayden, in Curry et al., Deep in Our Hearts, p. 364.

268 “the average white person doesn’t realize”: Casey Hayden and Mary King, “Women in the Movement,” Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee position paper, The Sixties Project Web site, /Primary/Manifestos /SNCC_women.html .

268 “hardly caused a ripple”: Hayden, in Curry et al., Deep in Our Hearts, p. 365.

268 “brutally aggressive hostility”: King, Freedom Song, p. 450.

268 impending “coup”: Lewis, Walking with the Wind, p. 300.

268 “bullshitting Negroes”: Adickes, Legacy of a Freedom School, p. 135.

268 “take orders from white folks!”: Ibid.

268 “Typical day”: Samuel Walker Papers, SHSW.

268 “morphing into a different kind”: Tillinghast, interview, December 16, 2008.

269 “cold”: Andrew Kopkind, “The Future of ‘Black Power’: A Movement in Search of a Program,” New Republic, January 7, 1967, p. 17.

269 “Mrs. Hamer is no longer relevant”: Payne, I’ve Got the Light, pp. 365, 372.

269 “an unfortunate choice of words”: Carson, In Struggle, p. 210.

269 “a growing litany”: Ibid., p. 238.

269 “I got the feeling”: Whitehead, Attack on Terror, p. 161.

269 “We’ve got to get Goatee”: Ibid.

270 “King was calling the shots”: Branch, Pillar of Fire, p. 535.

270 “Now is the time”“: Whitehead, Attack on Terror, p. 172.

270 “our investigation has been curtailed”: Mars, Witness in Philadelphia, p. 130.

270 “put the fear of God”: Branch, Pillar of Fire, p. 535.

270 a “floater,” a “hustler”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 432.

270 “I’m going to see your ass in jail”: Branch, Pillar of Fire, p. 498.

270 “Killen said they had three civil rights”: MIBURN, 4-81.

271 “the nigger-communist invasion”: Ball, Murder in Mississippi, p. 55.

271 “a volley of shots”: MIBURN, 4-77.

271 “Everyone follow me”: MIBURN, 4-75, and Jackson Clarion-Ledger, December 2, 1967, p. 1A.

272 “They will be under twenty feet of dirt”: MIBURN, 4-73.

272 “Someone go and get the operator”: Ibid., 4-74.

272 “We have a place to bury them”: Ibid., 4-46, and Erenrich, Freedom Is a Constant Struggle, p. 348.

272 “Are you that nigger lover?” and “Sir, I know just how you feel”: MIBURN, 4-47.

272 “Save one for me!” and “You didn’t leave me anything but”: Ibid., 4-45-48.

273 “I’ll kill anyone who talks”: Ibid., 4-50; Jackson Clarion-Ledger, July 12, 2005.

273 “Ol’ Rainey could be elected”: Los Angeles Times, December 11, 1964.

273 “a feeling that we hit”: Jack Bales, ed., Conversations with Willie Morris (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2000), p. 103.

273 “I favor dropping an atom bomb”: Letters, Time, December 25, 1964, p. 10.

274 “Here’s to the state of Mississippi”: Phil Ochs, “Here’s to the State of Mississippi,” I Ain’t Marching Anymore, Elektra Records, 1965.

274 “that wall of Never”: Trillin, “Letter from Jackson,” p. 85.

274 “equal treatment under the law”: McComb Enterprise-Journal, November 17, 1964.

274 “The waitress smiled”: Paul Good, “A Bowl of Gumbo for Curtis Bryant,” Reporter, December 31, 1964, p. 19.

275 “Okay, who’s first?”: Newfield, Prophetic Minority, p. 95.

275 “a lawyer’s dream case”: Kunstler, in Curry et al., Deep in My Heart, p. 345.

276 “every Congressman from the Potomac”: Ibid., p. 349.

276 “I’m not crying for myself ”: New York Times, September 18, 1965.


277 “these vicious and morally bankrupt criminals”: Ibid., p. 237.

278 “niggers on a voting drive”: Zinn, SNCC, p. 204.

278 “the burning of draft cards”: Testimony of Charles Johnson, U.S. v. Price et al. (“Mississippi Burning” trial),

278 “to get young Negro males”: Whitehead, Attack on Terror, p. 237.

279 “Who is the author”: Los Angeles Times, October 9, 1967, p. 7.

279 “I’m not going to allow”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 446.

279 “a white, Christian, militant organization”: Whitehead, Attack on Terror, p. 187.

279 “You ain’t joined no Boy Scout group”: Washington Post, October 10, 1967.

279 “It was the first time”: Testimony of Delmar Dennis, Famous Trials Web site,

279 “What did he mean by elimination?” Ibid.

279 “a Judas witness”: Los Angeles Times, October 19, 1967; Ball, Murder in Mississippi, p. 127.

279 “salt of the earth kind of people”: Ibid., pp. 128, 130.

279 “in church every time”: Ibid., p. 128.

279 “low-class riffraff”: Whitehead, Attack on Terror, p. 280.

279 “It may well be: Ibid.

279 “The federal government is not invading”: John Doar, Summary for the Prosecution, on Famous Trials Web site,

280 “The strong arm”: H. C. Watkins, Summary for the Defense, on Famous Trials Web site,

280 “could never convict a preacher”: Ball, Murder in Mississippi, p. 133.

280 “They killed one nigger”: O’Reilly, “Racial Matters,” pp. 175-76.

280 “the best thing that’s ever happened”: Washington Post, October 21, 1967.

280 “landmark decision”: New York Times, October 21, 1967.

280 “They did better than I thought”: Ibid.

280 “I want you to write me”: Woods, LBJ, p. 480.

280 “to insure that they did not die in vain”: Congressional Record 111, pt. 10 (June 22, 1965): S 13931.

281 “the broadest possible scope”: Chandler Davidson and Bernard Grofman, eds., Quiet Revolution in the South: The Impact of the Voting Rights Act, 1965-1990 (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994), p. 138.

281 “After Freedom Summer, we met black people”: John Howell, personal interview, March 11, 2008.

282 “I never dreamed I’d live to see”: Wirt, Politics of Southern Equality, p. 160.

282 “Hands that picked cotton”: Cambridge Encyclopedia, vol. 1, s.v. “Charles (James) Evers,”

282 “I count Mayor Evers as a friend”: Skates, Mississippi, pp. 168-69.

282 “Seg academies”: Wilkie, Dixie, p. 35.

282 “I can’t make people integrate”: Woods, LBJ, pp. 479-80.

283 “The Promised Land is still far off”: Hodding Carter III, e-mail interview, September 26, 2008.

283 “I believe that despite the terrible racist image”: Margaret Walker, “Mississippi and the Nation in the 1980s,” in Abbott, Mississippi Writers, p. 612.

283 “Not in Mississippi!”: Erenrich, Freedom Is a Constant Struggle, p. 409.

284 “There has not been meaningful change”: Adickes, Legacy of a Freedom School, p. 163.

284 “rosier and rosier”: O’Brien, interview, November 12, 2007.

284 “stepped into a hornet’s nest”: Ibid.

284 “It’s a good thing they got that Communist”: Ibid.

284 “It had been a rather quiet summer”: O’Brien, “Journey into Light,” p. 285.

285 “One might as well hold a skunk”: Ibid., p. 288.

285 “I never really had the time”: Fran O’Brien, e-mail correspondence, October 17, 2008.

285 “Yes, I know it sounds a bit wild”: Winn, correspondence, no date.

285 “I was so glad”: Winn, correspondence, September 15, 1964.

286 “They got Giles!”: Winn, interview, November 13, 2007.

286 “Janell and I are coming home”: Winn, correspondence, no date.

286 “We don’t need you”: Winn, interview, November 13, 2007.

286 “ fell in with another crowd”: Ibid.

286 “The fact that I”: Ibid.

286 “took some time to fuck off”: Ibid.

287 “Someone asked me”: Ibid.

287 “too containing”: Tillinghast, interview, December 16, 2008.

287 “I was born with a fighting nature”: Ibid.

287 “It was like going to war”: Ibid.

288 “Chrisnpenny”: Chris Williams, e-mail correspondence, October 17, 2008.

288 “I felt I’d given it a good shot”: Ibid.

289 “ragged and lost”: Penny Patch, in Curry et al., Deep in Our Hearts, p. 165.

289 “Mississippi without fear”: Williams, interview, September 21, 2008.

289 “Other people went to Vietnam”: Ibid.

290 “the ultimate Mississippi”: McAdam, Freedom Summer, p. 229.

290 “I am prouder of being there”: Adickes, Legacy of a Freedom School, p. 159.

290 “almost Jesus like aura”: Burner, And Gently He Shall Lead Them, p. 200.

291 “Like working with sharecroppers”: Bob Moses, personal interview, December 10, 2008.

292 “To me, it was sort of like a plane crash”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 454.

292 “I was quite delighted”: Ibid., p. xv.

293 “Had I done it”: Chicago Tribune, November 13, 1978.

293 “I’m not going to say they were wrong”: New York Times, January 7, 2005.

293 “It was what I’d been wanting”: New York Times, June 12, 2005.

293 “The media has profited”: Ibid.

293 “Communists invaded”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, June 18, 2005.

293 “as strong for segregation”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, June 12, 2005.

294 “If you want my forgiveness”: New York Times, August 21, 2007.

294 “Mighty long time”: New York Times, January 7, 1905.

295 “it really hit me”: Williams, dir., Ten Days.

295 “She just wrapped her arms”: Ibid.

295 “if he had anything to do with those boys”: New York Times, June 18, 2005.

295 “J. E. never come back”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, June 19, 2005.

295 “I thought it was unusual”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, June 20, 2005.

295 “nothing but stirring”: Ibid.

295 “Do your duty”: Ibid.

295 “She believes the life of her son”: New York Times, June 22, 2005.

296 “day of great importance”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, June 22, 2005.

296 “in a calculated”: Arkansas Delta Truth and Justice Center, “Neshoba Murders Case—A Chronology,” Civil Rights Movement Veterans Web site,

296 “Other cold cases”: Jerry Mitchell, personal interview, October 9, 2008.

296 “That was the time of the hippies”: Hampton, “Mississippi—Is This America? ”

296 “changed Mississippi forever”: Charlie Cobb, Oral History Collection, USM.

297 “the greatest sociological experiment”: Burner, And Gently He Shall Lead Them, p. 166.

297 “Christ-like”: Marsh, God’s Long Summer, p. 45.

297 “They were the best friends we ever met”: Ibid.

297 “Freedom Summer injected a new spirit”: John Lewis, personal interview, September 12, 2008.

297 “Why can’t it be”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, November 6, 2008, p. 1.

298 “This is history, woman”: “Students Asked Not to Say Obama’s Name,” WAPT, Channel 16, Jackson, Miss.,

298 “I voted for Obama”: Wayne Drash, “Crossing the Railroad Tracks amid a New Time in History,” CNN, January 16, 2009,

298 “Oh, if he’d just been able”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, January 21, 2009.

298 “It’s the most wonderful day”: Delta Democrat-Times, January 21, 2009.

298 “where the stage was set”: “Pulitzer Prize-Winning Writer Alice Walker and Civil Rights Leader Bob Moses Reflect on an Obama Presidency and the Struggle for African Americans to Vote,” Democracy Now! January 20, 2009,

298 “My fellow citizens”: New York Times, January 21, 2009.

299 “They saw America as bigger”: Ibid.

299 “the closest thing to a perfect day”: Fran O’Brien, e-mail correspondence, January 21, 2009.

299 “What the cynics fail to understand”: New York Times, January 21, 2009.

299 “and why a man whose father”: Ibid.

299 “It took forty-five years”: Linda Wetmore Halpern, e-mail correspondence, January 21, 2009.

300 “At the end of it all”: Williams, e-mail correspondence, January 21, 2009.

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