Modern history

Notes

Book One

1 “Niggers down here don’t need to vote”: Eric Burner, And Gently He Shall Lead Them: Robert Parris Moses and Civil Rights in Mississippi (New York: New York University Press, 1994), p. 118.

2 “I’m not going to talk to you”: Charles Payne, I’ve Got the Light of Freedom: The Organizing Tradition and the Mississippi Freedom Struggle (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1995), p. 122.

2 “I’m not playing with you this morning!”: Taylor Branch, Parting the Waters: America in the King Years, 1954-1963 (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1988), p. 511.

Prologue

6 “Paul Stood Tall Last Fall”: New York Times, July 5, 1964.

6 “Niggers, Alligators, Apes, Coons, and Possums”: “Mississippi: Battle of the Kennedys,” Newsweek, August 19, 1963, p. 24.

6 “white folks’ business”: John Dittmer, Local People: The Struggle for Civil Rights in Mississippi (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1994), p. 205.

7 “goddamned NAACP Communist trouble makers”: Ivanhoe Donaldson, “Southern Diaries,” in Mississippi Freedom Summer, ed. John F. McClymer (Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, 2004), p. 90.

7 “not only have a right but a duty”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, June 12, 2005.

7 “too beautiful to burn”: Port Gibson Heritage Trust Web site, http://www.portgibsonheritagetrust.org/port_gibson.

8 “the War for Southern Independence”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 112.

8 “It’s a rotten, miserable life” and “We don’t hate niggers”: “How Whites Feel About a Painful America,” Newsweek, October 21, 1963, pp. 44-51.

9 “Negroes are oversexed,” and “I don’t like to touch them”: Ibid., p. 50.

9 “There is no state with a record”: Henry Hampton, dir., “Mississippi—Is This America?” episode 5 of Eyes on the Prize: America’s Civil Rights Movement (Boston: Blackside, 1987).

9 “During the past ten years”: Walker Percy, Signposts in a Strange Land (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1991), p. 42.

9 “Everybody knows about Mississippi, goddamn”: “Mississippi Goddam,” The Nina Simone Webhttp://boscarol.com/nina/html/where/mississipigoddamn.html.

10 “Foreign Mail”: “Mississippi Airlift,” Newsweek, March 11, 1963, p. 30.

10 “as common as a snake”: Roy Torkington Papers, Civil Rights Collection, McCain Library and Archives, University of Southern Mississippi (hereafter, USM).

10 “the long staple cotton capital of the world”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 129.

10 “America’s Most Beautiful Street”:Cardcow.com, Vintage Postcards and Collectibles, http://www.cardcow.com/48738/grand-boulevard-greenwood-us-state-town-views-mississippi-greenwood/.

10 “neckid, buck-barefoot, and starvin’”: Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee Papers, Harvard University (hereafter, SNCC Papers), reel 40.

11 “makes it clear that the Negroes of Mississippi”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 206.

11 “Before the Negro people get the right to vote”: “Mississippi: Allen’s Army,” Newsweek, February 24, 1964, p. 30.

11 “invasion,” “invaders,” and “dastardly scheme”: Richard Woodley, “A Recollection of Michael Schwerner,” Reporter, July 16, 1964, p. 23.

12 “We are going to see that law and order is maintained”: Marilyn Mulford and Connie Field, dirs., Freedom on My Mind (Berkeley, Calif.: Clarity Film Productions, 1994).

12 “This is it”: “Mississippi: Allen’s Army.”

12 “We give them everything”: Seth Cagin and Philip Dray, We Are Not Afraid: The Story of Goodman, Schwerner, and Chaney, and the Civil Rights Campaign for Mississippi (New York: Nation Books, 2006), p. 193.

12 “our way of life”: Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), WATS line report (hereafter, WATS line), August 12, 1964, COFO documents, Hillegas Collection, Jackson, Miss.

12 “nigger-communist invasion of Mississippi”: Howard Ball, Murder in Mississippi: United States v. Price and the Struggle for Civil Rights (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2004), p. 55.

12 “dedicated agents of Satan”: Famous Trials: U.S. vs. Cecil Price et al. (“Mississippi Burning Trial”) Web site, http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/price&bowers/Klan.html.

12 “Get your Bible out and PRAY!”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 265.

13 “Nobody never come out into the country”: Howell Raines, My Soul Is Rested: Movement Days in the Deep South Remembered (New York: Penguin, 1977), p. 233.

13 “Mississippi changed everything”: Gloria Clark, personal interview, October 3, 2007.

CHAPTER ONE: “There Is a Moral Wave Building”

16 “At Oxford, my mental picture of Mississippi”: Elizabeth Martinez, ed., Letters from Mississippi (Brookline, Mass.: Zephyr Press, 2006), p. 186.

17 “I may be killed and you may be killed”: New York Times, June 17, 1964.

17 “They—the white folk”: John Lewis, Walking with the Wind: A Memoir of the Movement (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998), p. 249.

17 “They take you to jail”: New York Times, June 21, 1964.

18 “A great change is at hand”: John F. Kennedy, “Radio and Television Report to the American People on Civil Rights,” June 11, 1963, http://www.jfklibrary.org/Historical+Resources/Archives/Reference+Desk/Speeches/JFK/003POF03CivilRights06111963.htm.

18 “cannon fodder for the Movement”: Bob Cohen, “Sorrow Songs, Faith Songs, Freedom Songs: The Mississippi Caravan of Music in the Summer of 1964,” in Freedom Is a Constant Struggle: An Anthology of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement, ed. Susie Erenrich (Montgomery, Ala.: Black Belt Press, 1999), p. 178.

18 “honor the memory” and “carry out the legacy”: Doug McAdam, Freedom Summer (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988), p. 48.

18 “Through nonviolence, courage displaces fear”: Ibid., p. 30.

18 “possess a learning attitude”: SNCC Papers, reel 39.

18 “John Brown complex”: John Fischer, “A Small Band of Practical Heroes,” Harper’s, October 1963, p. 28.

18 “A student who seems determined”: SNCC Papers, reel 39.

19 “an unmistakable middle-class stamp”: New York Times, June 17, 1964, p. 18.

19 “I don’t see how I have any right”: New York Times, July 11, 1964, p. 22.

19 “You’ve deserted us for the niggers”: Alice Lake, “Last Summer in Mississippi,” Redbook, November 1964; reprinted in Library of America, Reporting Civil Rights: American Journalism, 1963-1973 (New York: Library of America, 2003), p. 234.

19 “Absolutely mesmerized”: McAdam, Freedom Summer, p. 56.

19 “Surely, no challenge looms larger”: Ibid., p. 46.

20 “You didn’t run into many situations”: Chris Williams, personal interview, October 9, 2007.

20 “to actually do something worthwhile”: Ibid.

20 “The Birmingham church bombing had occurred”: Williams, interview, November 23, 2007.

20 “do-nothings”: Greenfield Recorder-Gazette, June 26, 1964.

21 “like I was the nation’s most wanted criminal”: Chris Williams, journal, Summer 1964, p. 7.

21 “That government which governs best”: Ibid.

21 “a homosexual,” “a car full of hoods”: Ibid.

21 “and the whole Mississippi adventure began”: Williams, interview, October 9, 2007.

21 “I realized Mississippi was more educational”: Ibid.

22 “the hairy stories”: Williams, journal, pp. 8-9.

22 “When you go down those cold stairs”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 22.

23 “That man beat me till he give out”: Ibid., pp. 24-25.

23 “It just scared the crap out of us”: Williams, journal, pp. 8-9.

23 “I turned down a chance to work”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 11.

23 “I just ran until I was really tired”: Williams, journal, p. 9.

23 “We don’t know what it is to be a Negro”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 5.

24 “They would argue with a signpost”: Cheryl Lynn Greenburg, ed., A Circle of Trust: Remembering SNCC (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1998), p. 143.

24 “beautiful community,” and “a circle of trust”: Ibid.

24 “cracking Mississippi,” “beachheads,” and “behind enemy lines”: James Atwater, “If We Can Crack Mississippi . . . ,” Saturday Evening Post, July 25, 1964, p. 16; Calvin Trillin, “Letter from Jackson,” New Yorker, August 29, 1964, p. 105; Dittmer, Local People, p. 198.

24 “To be with them, walking a picket line”: Howard Zinn, SNCC: The New Abolitionists (Boston: Beacon Press, 1964), pp. 1-2.

24 “because I met those SNCC people”: Sara Evans, Personal Politics (New York: Vintage, 1980), p. 70.

24 “group-centered leadership”: Daniel Perlstein, “Teaching Freedom: SNCC and the Creation of the Mississippi Freedom Schools,” History of Education Quarterly 30, no. 3 (Fall 1990): 298.

25 “He is more or less the Jesus”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 19.

25 “the Masters’ degree from Harvard”: Atwater, “If We Can Crack,” p. 16.

26 “Before, the Negro in the South had always looked”: Burner, And Gently He Shall Lead Them, p. 17.

26 “words are more powerful than munitions”: Albert Camus, “Neither Victims nor Executioners,” in The Power of Nonviolence: Writings by Advocates of Peace, ed. Howard Zinn (Boston: Beacon Press, 2002), p. 73.

26 “We were immensely suspicious of him”: Payne, I’ve Got the Light, p. 105.

27 “uncover what is covered”: Raines, My Soul Is Rested, p. 235.

27 “a tree beside the water”: Burner, And Gently He Shall Lead Them, p. 28.

27 “There’s something coming”: Ibid., p. 41.

27 “rural, impoverished, brutal”: Robert P. Moses and Charles E. Cobb Jr., Radical Equations: Math Literacy and Civil Rights (Boston: Beacon Press, 2001), p. 24.

28 “You the nigger that came down from New York”: Ibid., p. 48.

28 “Boy, are you sure you know”: Burner, And Gently He Shall Lead Them, p. 49.

28 “Dr. King and some other big people”: Hollis Watkins, personal interview, June 14, 2008.

29 “No administration in this country”: New York Times, June 21, 1964; Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 30.

29 “It’s not working”: Tracy Sugarman, Stranger at the Gates: A Summer in Mississippi (New York: Hill and Wang, 1966), p. 8.

29 “No one should go anywhere alone”: SNCC Papers, reel 39.

29 “We have talked about interracial dating”: “The Invaders,” Newsweek, June 29, 1964, p. 25.

30 “You should be ashamed!”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 243.

30 “The flash point”: Mulford and Field, Freedom on My Mind.

30 “Ask Jimmie over there what he thinks”: “Mississippi—Summer of 1964: Troubled State, Troubled Time,” Newsweek, July 13, 1964, p. 20.

31 “The crisis is past, I think”: William Hodes Papers, State Historical Society of Wisconsin (hereafter, SHSW).

31 “When you turn the other cheek”: Nicholas Von Hoffman, Mississippi Notebook (New York: David White, 1964), p. 31.

31 “You must understand that nonviolence”: Sugarman, Stranger at the Gates, p. 28.

31 “Your legs, your thighs”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 33.

31 “I got me a twen’y foot pit out bay-ack”: Muriel Tillinghast, personal interview, November 28, 2007.

32 “morally rotten outcasts of the White race”: SNCC Papers, reel 38.

32 “We were renegades”: Tillinghast, interview, November 28, 2007.

32 “NAG’s local Mississippi”: Stokely Carmichael, Ready for Revolution: The Life and Struggles of Stokely Carmichael (Kwame Ture), with Ekwueme Michael Thelwell (New York: Scribner, 2003), pp. 337-48.

32 “I did not come out of a family”: Tillinghast, interview, November 28, 2007.

32 “no bigger than a match stick”: Ibid.

33 “a distant well of human woe”: Ibid.

33 “He would tell me about”: Ibid.

33 “At NAG meetings, I was informed”: Ibid.

34 “a sponge”: Ibid.

34 “brought us to the stark reality”: Tillinghast, interview, October 31, 2007.

34 “It was esprit de corps”: Ibid.

34 “As we depart for that troubled state”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 239.

34 “Part of it is the American dream”: Atwater, “If We Can Crack,” p. 18.

34 “The injustices to the Negro in Mississippi”: Los Angeles Times, June 20, 1964.

35 “a long, hot summer,” and “racial explosion”: “Mississippi Girds for Its Summer of Discontent,” U.S. News & World Report, June 15, 1964, p. 46.

35 “guerilla war”: Joseph Alsop, “The Gathering Storm,” Hartford Courant, June 17, 1964.

35 “The guy from Life was a real jerk”: Williams, journal, pp. 10-11.

35 Look magazine is searching”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 22.

35 “Now get this in your heads”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 31.

36 “real heroes”: New York Times, June 20, 1964.

36 “What are you going to do”: Len Holt, The Summer That Didn’t End (New York: William Morrow, 1965), p. 50.

36 “We can protect the Vietnamese”: National Observer, n.d., Hillegas Collection.

36 “We don’t do that”: Carmichael, Ready for Revolution, p. 370.

36 “Dear People at home”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 10.

37 “Before You Leave Oxford”: New York Times, June 21, 1964.

37 “We hit the Mississippi state line”: Tillinghast, interview, November 28, 2007.

CHAPTER TWO: “Not Even Past”

38 “more or less bunk”: Justin Kaplan, ed., Familiar Quotations, 16th ed. (Boston: Little, Brown, 1992), p. 499n.

38 “The past is never dead”: William Faulkner, Requiem for a Nun (New York: Penguin Books, 1953), p. 81.

39 “Mississippians don’t know”: Geoffrey C. Ward, Ric Burns, and Ken Burns, The Civil War: An Illustrated History (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1990), p. 212.

39 “Meridian, with its depots”: Shelby Foote, The Civil War: A Narrative—Fredericksburg to Meridian (New York: Random House, 1963), p. 926.

39 “Chimneyville”: John Ray Skates, Mississippi: A Bicentennial History (New York: W. W. Norton, 1979), p. 108.

40 “Things was hurt”: Eric Foner, A Short History of Reconstruction, 1863- 1877 (New York: Harper & Row, 1990), p. 86.

41 “The whole public are tired out”: William C. Harris, The Day of the Carpetbagger: Republican Reconstruction in Mississippi (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1979), p. 668.

41 “Democrats Standing Manfully by Their Guns!”: Atlanta Constitution, November 3, 1875.

41 “A revolution has taken place”: Foner, Short History, pp. 235-36.

42 “we could study the earth through the floor”: Aaron Henry, Aaron Henry: The Fire Ever Burning, with Constance Curry (Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 2000), p. 91.

42 “Naught’s a naught”: Richard Wright, Uncle Tom’s Children (New York: HarperCollins, 1993), p. 157.

42 “jus’ as different here from other places”: Sally Belfrage, Freedom Summer (New York: Viking, 1965), p. 46.

42 “the necessity of it”: C. Vann Woodward, The Strange Career of Jim Crow, 3d ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1974), p. 73.

42 “one of the most grotesque bodies”: Claude G. Bowers, The Tragic Era: The Revolution after Lincoln (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1929), pp. 414, 448.

42 “Rape is the foul daughter”: Ibid., p. 308.

42 “was organized for the protection”: Ibid., p. 309.

43 “The South needs to believe”: Gunnar Myrdal, An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy (New York: Harper & Row, 1962), p. 448.

43 “The problem of the twentieth century”: W. E. B. DuBois, The Souls of Black Folk (New York: Vintage, 1990), p. 16.

43 “What are the three largest cities in Mississippi?”: John Beecher, “McComb, Mississippi: May 1965,” Ramparts, May 1965; reprinted in Library of America, Reporting Civil Rights, p. 398.

43 “worse than slavery”: David M. Oshinsky, “Worse Than Slavery”: Parchman Farm and the Ordeal of Jim Crow Justice (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1997), flyleaf epigram.

44 “Never was there happier dependence”: David W. Blight, Beyond the Battlefield: Race, Memory, and the American Civil War (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2002), p. 260.

44 “the loveliest and purest of God’s creatures”: Hodding Carter III, The South Strikes Back (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1959), p. 30.

44 “reckless eyeballing”: Kim Lacy Rogers, Life and Death in the Delta: African American Narratives of Violence, Resilience, and Social Change (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006), p. 37.

44 “Nigger, Don’t Let the Sun”: Adam Gussow, Seems Like Murder Here: Southern Violence and the Blues Tradition (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002), p. 70.

44 “making such criticism so dangerous”: W. J. Cash, The Mind of the South (New York: Random House, 1941), p. 93.

45 “When civil rights came along”: Jason Sokol, There Goes My Everything: White Southerners in the Age of Civil Rights, 1945-1975 (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2006), p. 63.

45 “The Negro is a lazy”: Curtis Wilkie, Dixie: A Personal Odyssey Through Events That Shaped the Modern South (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2003), p. 57.

45 “I am calling upon every red-blooded American”: Skates, Mississippi, p. 155.

45 “Segregation will never end in my lifetime”: Carter, South Strikes Back, p. 13.

46 “shocked and stunned”: Neil R. McMillen, The Citizens’ Council: Organized Resistance to the Second Reconstruction, 1954-1964 (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1971), p. 15.

46 “We are about to embark”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 37.

46 “to separate them from others”: Diane Ravitch, ed., The American Reader: Words That Moved a Nation (New York: Harper Perennial, 1991), p. 306.

46 “The Citizens’ Council is the South’s answer”: Carter, South Strikes Back, p. 43.

46 “the uptown Klan”: Hodding Carter quoted in James W. Silver, Mississippi: The Closed Society, rev. ed. (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1966), p. 36.

46 “Why Separate Schools Should be Maintained”: McMillen, Citizens’ Council, p. 242.

47 “right thinking”: Carter, South Strikes Back, p. 34.

47 “God was the original segregationist”: New York Times, November 7, 1987.

47 “dat Brown mess”: Endesha Ida Mae Holland, From the Mississippi Delta: A Memoir (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997), p. 65.

47 “And then there were the redneck boys”: Willie Morris, North Toward Home (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1967), pp. 21-22.

48 “odd accident”: Dittmer, Local People, pp. 53-54.

48 “the world see what they did to my boy”: Juan Williams, Eyes on the Prize: America’s Civil Rights Years, 1954-1965 (New York: Penguin, 2002), p. 44.

48 “Good morning, niggers” and “every last Anglo Saxon one of you”: Paul Hendrickson, Sons of Mississippi: A Story of Race and Its Legacy (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2003), pp. 9-10.

48 “If we in America”: Dittmer, Local People, 57.

48 “There’s open season on Negroes now”: Ibid., p. 58.

48 “From that point on”: Raines, My Soul Is Rested, p. 235.

48 “It was the so-called dumb people”: Youth of the Rural Organizing and Cultural Center, Minds Stayed on Freedom: The Civil Rights Struggle in the Rural South, an Oral History (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1991), p. 59.

49 “that damn few white men”: Winson Hudson and Constance Curry, Mississippi Harmony: Memoirs of a Freedom Fighter (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2002), p. 37.

49 “invalid, unconstitutional, and not of lawful effect”: Dittmer, Local People, pp. 59-60.

49 “working hand-in-glove with Communist sympathizers”: Sokol, There Goes My Everything, p. 88.

50 “Sorry, Cable Trouble”: Dittmer, Local People, pp. 65-66.

50 “The following program”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, 109.

50 “Negro cow-girl”: Dan Classen, Watching Jim Crow: The Struggles over Mississippi TV, 1955-1969 (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2004), pp. 101-3.

50 “a veiled argument for racial intermarriage”: Mark Harris, Pictures at a Revolution: Five Movies and the Birth of the New Hollywood (New York: Penguin Press, 2008), p. 57.

51 “intellectual straight-jacketing”: New York Times, June 18, 1964.

51 “who will lynch you from a low tree”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 56.

51 “private Gestapo”: Lynne Olson, Freedom’s Daughters: The Unsung Heroines of the Civil Rights Movement from 1830 to 1970 (New York: Scribner, 2001), p. 327.

51 “Today we live in fear”: Silver, Mississippi, p. 39.

51 “assdom”: John Howard Griffin, Black Like Me, 2nd ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1961), p. 82.

51 “Join the Glorious Citizens Clan”: McMillen, Citizens’ Council, p. 257.

51 “goons” and “Hateists”: Ira B. Harkey Jr., The Smell of Burning Crosses: An Autobiography of a Mississippi Newspaperman (Jacksonville, Fla.: Delphi Press, 1967), p. 126.

52 “We hate violence”: Silver, Mississippi, p. 46.

52 “The project is concerned with construction”: COFO letter to Mississippi sheriffs, May 21, 1964, Hillegas Collection.

52 “communists, sex perverts”: Yasuhiro Katagiri, The Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission: Civil Rights and States’ Rights (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2001), p. 159.

52 “It will be a long hot summer”: Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission Files, Mississippi Department of Archives and History, Jackson, Miss. (hereafter, MDAH) SCR ID# 9-31-1-43-1-1-1.

52 “The white girls have been going around”: James L. Dickerson, Dixie’s Dirty Secret (Armonk, N.Y.: M. E. Sharpe, 1998), p. 91.

53 “where black and white will walk together”: MDAH SCR ID# 9-32-0-1-2-1-1.

53 “carpetbagger” and “scalawag”: Carter, South Strikes Back, pp. 143, 191.

53 “I know we’ve had a hundred years”: Von Hoffman, Mississippi Notebook, p. 3.

53 “In my life span”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, June 16, 1964.

53 thirty thousand “invaders”: Los Angeles Times, June 18, 1964.

53 Negro gangs were “ forming to rape white women”: Tupelo Journal, June 19, 1964.

54 “This is just a taste”: Chicago Tribune, June 9, 1964.

54 “Don’t do no violence”: Atwater, “If We Can Crack,” p. 18.

54 “Guidelines for Self-protection and Preservation”: Hodding Carter, So the Heffners Left McComb (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1965), pp. 69-71.

54 “This summer, within a very few days”: Don Whitehead, Attack on Terror: The FBI Against the Ku Klux Klan in Mississippi (New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1970), pp. 6-8.

54 “I hear that this summer”: Suzanne Marrs, Eudora Welty: A Biography (Orlando, Fla.: Harcourt, 2005), p. 309.

54 “increased activity in weapon shipments”: Simon Wendt, The Spirit and the Shotgun: Armed Resistance and the Struggle for Civil Rights (Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2007), p. 116.

CHAPTER THREE: Freedom Street

56 “unpleasant, to say the least”: Chris Williams, correspondence, June 21, 1964.

56 “Impeach Earl Warren”: Frederick M. Wirt, Politics of Southern Equality: Law and Social Change in a Mississippi County (Chicago: Aldine, 1970), p. 136.

57 “so big they could stand flatfooted”: Karl Fleming, Son of the Rough South: An Uncivil Memoir (New York: Public Affairs, 2005, p. 361).

57 “We’re gonna give you a hard time”: Williams, correspondence, June 21, 1964.

58 “that you did not come down”: New York Times, June 21, 1964, p. 64.

58 “Their demeanor, how they treated us”: Mulford and Field, Freedom on My Mind.

58 “He thinks out his moves carefully”: Williams, correspondence, June 21, 1964.

58 “something I had to live with”: Robert Miles memorial service, program.

59 “on account of your father”: Congressional Record 111, pt. 10 (June 22, 1965): H 13929.

59 “I don’t see why they don’t let us swim”: Williams, correspondence, June 30, 1964.

59 “Y’all gonna hear”: Williams, personal interview, February 1, 2008.

60 “Have you seen my girls yet?”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 51.

60 “skinny” or “pretty”: Ibid.

60 “We’re mighty glad” and “It’s a right fine Christian thing”: Sugarman, Stranger at the Gates, p. 53.

60 “There they is!”: Ibid., p. 50.

60 “I’ve waited eighty years”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 51.

61 “There are people here”: Ibid., p. 61.

61 “I could kick down”: Ibid., p. 64.

61 “the most appalling example”: McAdam, Freedom Summer, p. 87.

61 “a fiery and fast moving old woman”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, pp. 47-48.

62 “I was really surprised”: Mulford and Field, Freedom on My Mind.

62 “Greetings from Batesville, Miss.”: Williams, correspondence, June 21, 1964.

63 “some good old southern bourbon”: Ibid.

63 “Had Moses not wanted it to happen”: Raines, My Soul Is Rested, p. 287.

63 “either an act of madness”: Carmichael, Ready for Revolution, p. 350.

63 “We had worked so hard”: Watkins, interview, June 16, 2008.

63 “This was Bob Moses talking”: Carmichael, Ready for Revolution, p. 350.

63 “taken over the Jackson office”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 208.

63 “a bunch of Yalies”: Ibid., p. 209.

63 “If we’re trying to break down”: Zinn, SNCC, p. 188.

63 “We don’t have much to gain”: Nicolaus Mills, Like a Holy Crusade: Mississippi 1964—The Turning of the Civil Rights Movement in America (New York: Knopf, 1992), p. 58.

64 “get rid of the whites”: Burner, And Gently He Shall Lead Them, p. 129.

64 “all black”: Raines, My Soul Is Rested, p. 287.

64 “a question of rational people”: Burner, And Gently He Shall Lead Them, p. 129.

64 “How large a force”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 208.

64 “Too difficult,” “huge influx” and “sociological research”: SNCC Papers, reel 38.

64 “You killed my husband!”: Branch, Parting the Waters, p. 510.

64 “when you’re dead”: Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), Mississippi Black Paper: Fifty-seven Negro and White Citizens’ Testimony of Police Brutality (New York: Random House, 1965), p. 37.

65 “For me, it was as if everything”: Moses and Cobb, Radical Equations, p. 76.

65 “other than to dedicate”: Bob Moses, personal interview, December 10, 2008.

65 “The staff had been deadlocked”: Moses and Cobb, Radical Equations, p. 76.

65 “Notes on Teaching,” “Techniques for Field Work,” and “The General Condition”: SNCC Papers, reels 39, 40, 64.

67 “Niggers . . . Beatnicks”: SNCC Papers, reel 38.

67 “Would you please give”: SNCC Papers, reel 64.

67 “ for the good work”: Ibid.

67 “Robert Moses, 708 Avenue N”: Fischer, “Small Band,” p. 26.

67 “I’m sorry it isn’t more”: SNCC Papers, reel 64.

68 “hooking people up”: Constance Curry, Joan C. Browning, Dorothy Dawson Burlage, Penny Patch, Theresa Del Pozzo, Sue Thrasher, Elaine DeLott Baker, Emmie Schrader Adams, and Casey Hayden, Deep in Our Hearts: Nine White Women in the Freedom Movement (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2000), p. 346.

68 “The mass media are”: SNCC Papers, reel 38.

68 “ for we think it is important”: Ibid.

68 “a clear and present danger”: Ibid., reel 40.

69 “I can say there will be a hot summer”: Congressional Record 111, pt. 10 (June 22, 1965): H 14002.

69 “They don’t arrest white people in Mississippi”: Ibid., H 14003.

69 “I was”: Ibid., H 14008.

69 “incidents of brutality and terror”: SNCC Papers, reel 38.

69 “nearly incredible that those people”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 239.

69 “Sojourner Motor Fleet”: Lewis, Walking with the Wind, p. 259.

69 “We’re sitting this one out”: Ibid., p. 249.

70 “danger to local Negroes”: SNCC Papers, reel 38.

70 “more convinced than ever”: Mary King, Freedom Song: A Personal Story of the 1960s Civil Rights Movement (New York: Quill/William Morrow & Co., 1987), pp. 226, 312.

70 “lead people into the fire”: Ibid., p. 313.

70 “No one can be rational about death”: SNCC Papers, reel 38.

70 “is so deeply ingrained”: King, Freedom Song, p. 318.

70 “When whites come into a project”: SNCC Papers, reel 38.

71 “to take the revolution one step further”: Ibid.

71 “We have a responsibility”: King, Freedom Song, p. 319.

72 “It was so quick”: Tillinghast, interview, November 28, 2007.

73 “I was petrified”: Ibid.

73 “rather get arrested in Greenville”: Sugarman, Stranger at the Gates, p. 167.

73 “Many Mississippi towns were predatory”: Tillinghast, interview, November 28, 2007.

74 “Mississippi has a black and inky night”: Ibid.

75 “said they knew nothing at all about the case”: SNCC Papers, reel 39.

76 “Keep me informed of what happens”: Ibid.

CHAPTER FOUR: “The Decisive Battlefield for America”

77 “handle the niggers and the outsiders”: William Bradford Huie, Three Lives for Mississippi (New York: WCC Books, 1964, 1965), p. 132.

77 “one of the wettest dry counties”: Florence Mars, Witness in Philadelphia (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1977), p. 18.

78 “ folks yah met on the street”: Huie, Three Lives, p. 130.

78 “We don’t bother no white folks”: Ibid., p. 140.

78 “reddish to vote”: Raines, My Soul Is Rested, p. 260.

78 “You don’t know me”: William M. Kunstler, My Life as a Radical Lawyer, with Sheila Isenberg (New York: Birch Lane Press, 1994), p. 140.

79 “ for investigation”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 18.

79 “lay low”: Williams, journal.

79 “Mississippi is closed, locked”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 10.

79 “There is an analogy”: Ibid., p. 11.

79 “Yesterday morning, three of our people”: Ibid.

80 “You are not responsible”: Taylor Branch, Pillar of Fire: America in the King Years, 1963-65 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998), p. 363.

80 “that Communist Jew Nigger lover”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 274.

80 “ full of life and ideas”: Huie, Three Lives, pp. 46, 54.

80 “More than any white person”: Ibid., p. 114.

81 “I am now so thoroughly identified”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 259.

81 “I would feel guilty”: New York Times, June 25, 1964, p. 18.

81 “Mississippi’s best hope”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 261.

81 “We’re actually pretty lucky here”: Woodley, “Recollection of Michael Schwerner,” p. 23.

81 “I just want you to know”: “Interview with Civil Rights Activist Rita Bender,” in Microsoft Encarta Premium 2007 (Redmond, Wash.: Microsoft, 2006).

82 “You must be that Communist-Jew”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 274.

82 “That Jewboy is dead!”: Ball, Murder in Mississippi, p. 32.

82 “a marked man”: Huie, Three Lives, p. 81.

82 “I belong right here in Mississippi”: Ibid., p. 117.

82 “Mickey could count on Jim”: Ibid., p. 95.

82 “Mama,” he said, “I believe I done found”: “Mississippi—‘Everybody’s Scared,’ ” Newsweek, July 6, 1964, p. 15.

83 “a born activist”: Carolyn Goodman, “Andrew Goodman—1943-1964,” in Erenrich, Freedom Is a Constant Struggle, p. 321.

83 “Because this is the most important thing”: New York Times, June 25, 1964.

83 “I want to go off to war” and “a great idea”: Carolyn Goodman, “My Son Didn’t Die in Vain!” with Bernard Asbell, Good Housekeeping, May 1965, p. 158.

83 “We couldn’t turn our backs”: New York Times, June 25, 1964.

83 “I’m scared”: Carolyn Goodman Papers, SHSW.

84 “Don’t worry,” he told them: Mills, Like a Holy Crusade, p. 103.

84 Dear Mom and Dad: Federal Bureau of Investigation, Mississippi Burning Case, File 44-25706 (hereafter, MIBURN), part 3, p. 53.

84 “issuing dictatorial orders”: Association of Tenth Amendment Conservatives brochure, MDAH SCR ID# 2-61-1-95-2-1-1.

85 “What’re you doing here?”: COFO, Mississippi Black Paper, pp. 67-68.

85 “sons of bitches”: Branch, Pillar of Fire, p. 143.

85 “niggers on a voter drive”: Zinn, SNCC, p. 204.

85 “arrest any Mississippi law enforcement officer”:http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/meiklejohn/meik-8_2/meik-8_2-4.html.

85 “cooling off period”: Payne, I’ve Got the Light, p. 108.

86 “a true Marxist-Leninist”: Nick Kotz, Judgment Days: Lyndon Baines Johnson, Martin Luther King Jr., and the Laws That Changed America (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2005), p. 103.

86 “We do not wet nurse”: Ball, Murder in Mississippi, p. 57.

86 “Which side is the federal government on?”: Zinn, SNCC, p. 215.

86 “There is a street in Itta Bena”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 192.

86 “Good evening. Three young civil rights workers”: Walter Cronkite, “History Lessons: Mississippi 1964—Civil Rights and Unrest,” June 16, 2005, http://www.npr.org/templates/player/mediaPlayer.html?action=1&t=1&islist=false&id=4706688&m=4706689.

87 “the other Philadelphia”: New York Times, June 29, 1964.

88 “ fair-minded, Christian people”: Ibid.

89 “They’re sending them in by buses”: Michael R. Beschloss, ed., Taking Charge: The Johnson White House Tapes, 1963-1964 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997), p. 313.

89 “I asked Hoover two weeks ago”: Ibid., pp. 425-26.

89 “I’m afraid that if I start”: Ibid., p. 431.

89 “I think they got picked up”: Ibid., pp. 431-32.

90 “I don’t believe there’s three missing”: Ibid., p. 434.

90 “Are they all right?”: Goodman, “My Son Didn’t Die,” p. 164.

90 “changed from a public figure”: Ibid.

91 “Burned Car Clue”: Washington Post, June 24, 1964.

91 “Dulles Will Direct Rights Trio Hunt”: Los Angeles Times, June 24, 1964.

91 “Wreckage Raises New Fears”: New York Times, June 24, 1964.

91 “They had no business down here”: Mars, Witness in Philadelphia, pp. 87-88.

91 “Farmer, don’t go over there”: James Farmer, Lay Bare the Heart: An Autobiography of the Civil Rights Movement (New York: New American Library, 1985), p. 273.

92 “Where do you think you’re goin’?”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 343.

92 “hid somewhere trying to get”: New York Times, June 23, 1964.

92 “destroy evidence”: Lewis, Walking with the Wind, p. 257.

92 If there has been a crime”: Ibid.

92 “We don’t want anything to happen”: Farmer, Lay Bare the Heart, p. 276.

93 “It’s a shame that national concern”: Lewis, Walking with the Wind, p. 258.

93 “I imagine they’re in that lake”: Beschloss, Taking Charge, p. 440.

93 “We are basically a law abiding nation”: New York Times, June 24, 1964.

93 “We need the FBI before the fact”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 15.

94 “knowed for mean”: Carmichael, Ready for Revolution, p. 377.

94 “praying for sunrise”: Ibid.

94 “those same peckerwoods”: Ibid., p. 378.

94 “Ain’t no telling”: Cleveland Sellers and Robert Terrell, The River of No Return: The Autobiography of a Black Militant and the Life and Death of SNCC (New York: William Morrow, 1973), p. 88.

94 “So and so said”: Charles Cobb Jr., personal interview, July 16, 2008.

95 “would have an irretrievable effect”: “Mississippi—Summer of 1964: Troubled State, Troubled Time,” Newsweek, July 13, 1964, p. 20.

95 “a local matter for local law enforcement”: New York Times, June 25, 1964, p. 20.

95 “a thousand of these youngsters”: Kotz, Judgment Days, p. 171.

95 “the chiefs of police”: Ibid.

95 “this breathtakingly admirable group”: Washington Post, June 25, 1964.

95 “a second Reconstruction”: New York Times, June 26, 1964.

95 “firm, positive statement” and “will be on the hands”: Tupelo Journal, June 25, 1964; and Washington Post, June 25, 1964.

95 “I’m not going to send troops”: Randall B. Woods, LBJ: Architect of American Ambition (New York: Free Press, 2006), p. 479.

96 “We throw two or three”: “The Limpid Shambles of Violence,” Life, July 3, 1964, p. 35.

96 “Why don’t you just float”: Huie, Three Lives, p. 39.

96 “You know damn well our law”: Mars, Witness in Philadelphia, p. 98.

96 “The idea of these people”: Ibid.

96 “if it was boiled down to gravy”: Huie, Three Lives, p. 195.

96 “Bloody Neshoba”: Ball, Murder in Mississippi, p. 64.

96 “I believe them jokers”: Mulford and Field, Freedom on My Mind.

96 “to all parents everywhere”: New York Times, June 26, 1964.

97 “a Negro, a friend”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 366.

97 “I’m just hoping”: New York Times, June 25, 1964.

97 “For God’s sake”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 366.

97 “We’re now looking for bodies”: New York Times, June 25, 1964.

97 “I am going to find my husband”: Marco Williams, dir., Ten Days That Unexpectedly Changed America—Freedom Summer (New York: History Channel, 2006).

97 “that scores of federal marshals”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 354.

97 “I’m sure Wallace is much more important”: Huie, Three Lives, p. 203.

97 “Governor Wallace and I”: Robert Zellner, “Notes on Meeting Gov. Johnson,” June 25, 1964, COFO documents, Hillegas Collection.

97 “that you and Governor Wallace here”: Robert Zellner, The Wrong Side of Murder Creek: A White Southerner in the Freedom Movement, with Constance Curry (Montgomery, Ala.: NewSouth Books, 2008), p. 250.

98 “I don’t want your sympathy!”: Los Angeles Times, June 26, 1964.

98 “What in the goddamn hell”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 360.

98 “Well, at least he still has a wife”: Ibid.

98 “as near to approximating a police state”: Silver, Mississippi, p. 151.

99 “A wave of untrained”: SNCC Papers, reel 38.

99 “This is for the three in Philadelphia”: Chicago Tribune, June 27, 1964.

99 “swarm[ing] upon our land”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, July 7, 1964.

99 “Where, oh where”: Turner Catledge, “My Life and ‘The Times,’ ” in Mississippi Writers—Reflections of Childhood and Youth, vol. 2, Non-fiction, ed. Dorothy Abbott (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1986), p. 85.

99 “Be frank with you, Sitton”: Gene Roberts and Hank Klibanoff, The Race Beat: The Press, the Civil Rights Struggle, and the Awakening of a Nation (New York: Random House, 2007), p. 360.

99 “Beware, good Negro citizens”: Mississippi Summer Project, running summary of incidents, transcript, USM (hereafter, COFO incidents).

99 “Want us to do to you”: New York Times, June 27, 1964.

100 “You dig it?”: Hodes Papers, SHSW.

100 “like a funeral parlor”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 33.

100 “near psychosis,” or just “character disorders”: Robert Coles, Farewell to the South (Boston: Little, Brown, 1972), pp. 246-47.

100 “Suddenly hundreds of young Americans”: Ibid., p. 269.

100 “You know what we’re all doing”: McAdam, Freedom Summer, p. 71.

100 Dear Mom and Dad: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 26.

101 Dear Folks: Ibid., p. 27.

101 “The kids are dead”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, pp. 25-27.

101 “In our country we have some real evil”: Ibid.

102 “I would have gone anywhere”: Mulford and Field, Freedom on My Mind.

102 “If someone in Nazi Germany”: Paul Cowan, The Making of an Un-American: A Dialogue with Experience (New York: Viking, 1970), p. 29.

102 “You’re killing your mother!”: Heather Tobis Booth, personal interview, October 8, 2007.

103 “Be strong and of good courage”: New York Times, June 29, 1964.

103 “racial holocaust”: New York Times, June 28, 1964.

104 “I don’t know what all the fuss is about”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 29.

CHAPTER FIVE: “It Is Sure Enough Changing”

106 “History,” “Reference,” “Language,” “Crud”: Sugarman, Stranger at the Gates, p. 108.

106 the Ruleville Freedom School was ready for classes: Ibid., pp. 107-12.

106 looked “exactly” like Schwerner: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, July 1, 1964.

106 “dirty looks”: Meridian Star, June 30, 1964.

106 “running down all leads on the cranks”: Beschloss, Taking Charge, p. 438.

107 “let off it”: MIBURN 3-96.

107 “Negro boy”: MIBURN 3-93.

107 “got what was coming to them”: MIBURN, 8-75.

107 “You a damn liar”: New York Times, June 28, 1964.

108 “You dig into yourself ”: Moses and Cobb, Radical Equations, p. 59.

108 “While professing to believe in ‘equality’ ”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, June 23, 1964.

108 “I find more resentment”: Christian Science Monitor, June 30, 1964.

108 “It’s the best thing that’s happened”: John Hersey, “A Life for a Vote,” Saturday Evening Post, September 26, 1964; reprinted in Library of America, Reporting Civil Rights, p. 223.

109 “as if I was some strange god”: Coles, Farewell to the South, pp. 250-51.

109 “Now it wasn’t just these ‘Negroes’ ”: Fred Bright Winn, personal interview, November 13, 2007.

109 “We Shall Overcome”: Fred Bright Winn, correspondence, June 15, 1964.

110 “My spirit lives on”: Ibid.

110 “a young twenty-year-old”: Winn, interview, November 13, 2007.

110 “broke the ice”: Ibid.

110 “There were people in Mississippi”: Ibid.

110 “If the Klan gets a hold of you”: Ibid.

111 “scarier than shit”: Ibid.

111 “It’s like eating sandpaper slugs”: Ibid.

111 “Dad, I hope you realize”: Winn, correspondence, June 1964.

111 “I’m sorry, Mr. President”: Greenburg, Circle of Trust, p. 191.

112 “June 30—Page 7 Holly Springs”: WATS Line, June 30, 1964.

113 “You Are in Occupied Mississippi”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 52.

113 “Violence hangs overhead like dead air”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 168.

113 “to walk along the street”: Rims Barber, Oral History, USM.

113 “You’re both purty gals”: Lake, “Last Summer in Mississippi,” p. 243; and Ellen Lake Papers, SHSW.

113 “Which one of them coons”: Wesley C. Hogan, Many Minds, One Heart: SNCC’s Dream for a New America (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007), p. 164.

113 “broke bread with”: Hodding Carter III, e-mail interview, September 26, 2008.

114 “I was adamantly against”: Ibid.

114 “race mixing invaders”: Greenwood Commonwealth, June 30, 1964.

114 “leftist hep cat students”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, June 29, 1964.

114 “nutniks”: Carthage Carthaginian, July 2, 1964.

114 “unshaven and unwashed trash”: David R. Davies, ed., The Press and Race: Mississippi Journalists Confront the Movement (Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 2001), p. 45; and Katagiri, Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission, p. 163. 114 “thirty college students”: Lexington Advertiser, July 2, 1964.

114 “doing irreparable damage”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, July 1, 1964.

114 “reckless walking”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 147.

115 “Nobody Would Dare Bomb”: New York Times Sunday Magazine, July 5, 1964, p. 6.

116 “Know all roads”: SNCC Papers, reel 40.

116 “surviving and just walking around”: Raines, My Soul Is Rested, pp. 239-40.

116 “The whole scene”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 55.

116 “I just can’t get my mind on all that”: “Mississippi—Summer of 1964: Troubled State, Troubled Time,” Newsweek, July 13, 1964, p. 18.

116 “I don’t want to mess with that mess”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 50.

116 “I can’t sign no paper”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 69.

117 “Did that nigger invite you in here?”: Jay Shetterly and Geoff Cowan, personal interview, January 15, 2008; and “Mississippi—Summer of 1964,” 19.

117 “a somewhat neurotic redhead”: Williams, journal.

117 “Goddamn motherfucker, pissed me right off!”: Claire O’Connor, personal interview, January 5, 2008.

117 “kind of goofy”: Ibid.

118 “our great leader”: Williams, journal.

119 “agitators . . . come to Mississippi”: Ibid.

119 “He said they ought to send me home”: Williams, correspondence.

119 “I have developed a real taste”: Ibid.

119 “hard on the Negroes”: Mars, Witness in Philadelphia, p. 76.

119 “Nigger, do you know”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 255.

120 “I have no proof”: Ibid., p. 340.

120 “Now come on sheriff”: MDAH SCR ID# 1-8-0-18-2-1-1.

120 “number one suspect”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, December 3, 2007, p. 4A.

121 “Now if I were a teacher”: James Baldwin, “A Talk to Teachers,” in Critical Issues in Education, ed. Eugene F. Provenzo (Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 2006), p. 203.

121 “nigger food”: SNCC Papers, reel 39.

121 “leaders of tomorrow”: New York Times, July 3, 1964.

121 “close the springs of racial poison”: Los Angeles Times, July 5, 1964.

121 “time of testing”: Beschloss, Taking Charge, p. 450.

122 “tear gas pen guns”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, July 2, 1964, SNCC Papers, reel 39.

122 “civil strife and chaotic conditions”: New York Times, June 22, 1964.

122 “People here in Clarksdale”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 70.

122 “Ah’m going swimmin’ ”: Ibid., pp. 71-72.

122 “Judas niggers”: Huie, Three Lives, p. 69.

123 “What have I done in my life?”: Winn, interview, November 13, 2007.

123 “troublemakers” and “uppity niggers”: Holland, From the Mississippi Delta, p. 203.

123 “I kinda figured”: Raines, My Soul Is Rested, p. 234.

124 “in case of emergency”: Sugarman, Stranger at the Gates, p. 75.

124 “When I raised my hand”: Sandra E. Adickes, Legacy of a Freedom School (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005), p. 15.

125 “scrapping” cotton shreds: New York Times, August 24, 1964.

125 “a knot on my stomach”: Kay Mills, This Little Light of Mine: The Life of Fannie Lou Hamer (New York: Penguin Books, 1993), p. 21.

125 “Had it up as high”: Fannie Lou Hamer, “To Praise Our Bridges,” in Abbott, Mississippi Writers, p. 324.

125 “I knowed as much about a facto law”: Mills, This Little Light, p. 37.

125 “boss man” was “raisin’ Cain”: Charles Marsh, God’s Long Summer: Stories of Faith and Civil Rights (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1997), p. 15.

125 “we’re not ready for that in Mississippi” and “I didn’t try to register for you”: Raines, My Soul Is Rested, p. 251.

125 “a Snicker”: Unita Blackwell, Barefootin’: Life Lessons from the Road to Freedom, with JoAnne Prichard Moore (New York: Crown, 2006), p. 83.

125 “She was SNCC itself”: James Forman, The Making of Black Revolutionaries (Washington, D.C.: Open Hand, 1985), p. 385.

125 “The only thing they could do”: Hamer, “To Praise Our Bridges,” p. 324.

126 “The white man’s afraid”: Silver, Mississippi, pp. 341-42.

126 “I feel like a man”: Sugarman, Stranger at the Gates, p. 116.

126 “and more and more and more”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 72.

126 “These young white folks”: Ibid.

126 “Can I speak to Andy Goodman?”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 64.

127 “Just wanted to know”: WATS Line, July 5, 1964.

127 “Today would be a good day for prayer”: Delta Democrat-Times, June 24, 1964.

127 “It may well be a lesson”: Ibid.

127 “a lotta weight”: Tillinghast, interview, November 28, 2007.

127 “an epiphany”: Ibid.

128 “The food was good”: New York Times, July 6, 1964.

128 “We are just going to abide”: Ibid.

CHAPTER SIX: “The Scars of the System”

129 “Tonight the sickness struck”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 137.

129 “What will it take”: Ibid., p. 138.

129 “lying on the ground”: Ibid., p. 137.

130 “Closed in Despair”: “Civil Rights: And the Walls Came Tumbling Down,” Time, July 17, 1974, p. 25.

130 “I’m free!”: Los Angeles Times, July 16, 1964.

130 “unless these people get out”: New York Times, July 5, 1964.

131 she had to say, “Nothing”: Fran O’Brien, personal interview, November 12, 2007.

131 “I hope you’re not too upset”: Fran O’Brien, correspondence, May 27, 1964.

131 “Are you sure”: Ibid.

131 “clearly understood”: O’Brien, correspondence, May 27, 1964.

132 “it occurred to me”: O’Brien, interview, November 12, 2007.

132 “It was just the way she’d grown up”: Ibid.

132 “He’s signing!”: Ibid.

133 “Please try not to worry”: O’Brien, correspondence, July 6, 1964.

133 “which will help you discover”: Goodman Papers, SHSW.

133 “I think Andrew Goodman is a heroe”: Ibid.

133 “Who are these fiends”: Goodman, “My Son Didn’t Die,” p. 158.

134 “no evidence of human remains”: MIBURN 6-78.

135 “share the terror”: New York Times, July 6, 1964.

135 “Morale is building”: WATS Line, July 7, 1964.

136 “See that”: Curtis (Hayes) Muhammad, personal interview, August 29, 2008.

136 “Bomb was placed”: WATS Line, July 8, 1964.

136 “Non-Violent High”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 113.

137 “This is the situation”: Charlie Cobb, “Organizing Freedom Schools,” in Erenrich, Freedom Is a Constant Struggle, p. 136.

138 “be creative”: “A Note to the Teacher, undated,” Michael J. Miller Civil Rights Collection, Historical Manuscripts and Photographs, USM.

138 do “The Monkey”: Adickes, Legacy of a Freedom School, p. 112.

139 “What do white people have”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 111.

139 “If reading levels”: Ibid., p. 113.

139 “the link between a rotting shack”: SNCC Papers, reel 39.

139 Dear Mom and Dad: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 108.

140 “Eighty-two”: Ibid., p. 106.

140 “Where do roads come from?”: Branch, Pillar of Fire, p. 393.

140 “Ummm . . . Jackson?”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 106.

140 “I think I am rapid”: Ibid., p. 119.

141 “I kept thinking”: Mulford and Field, Freedom on My Mind.

141 “Our school was by any definition”: Adickes, Legacy of a Freedom School, p. 4.

141 “Looks like termites to me”: Von Hoffman, Mississippi Notebook, p. 35.

141 “Razorback Klan” and “like wildfire”: Los Angeles Times, July 5, 1964.

142 “Sovereign Realm of Mississippi”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 246.

142 “We are now in the midst”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, pp. 104-5.

142 “the goon squad”: Mars, Witness in Philadelphia, p. 101.

143 “burning and dynamiting”: Huie, Three Lives, pp. 105-6.

143 “extermination”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 217.

143 “The typical Mississippi redneck”: Wyn Craig Wade, The Fiery Cross: The Ku Klux Klan in America (New York: Oxford University Press USA, 1998), p. 334.

143 “Sovereign Realm”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 246.

143 “The purpose and function”: Mars, Witness in Philadelphia, p. xvii.

144 “our Satanic enemies”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 104.

144 “Some forty instances”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 238.

144 “I think you ought to put fifty”: Beschloss, Taking Charge, p. 450.

144 “to identify and interview”: Whitehead, Attack on Terror, p. 91.

144 “Neshoba Arrests Believed Imminent”: Meridian Star, July 10, 1964.

144 “whose neighbors were friendly with who”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, June 12, 2005.

145 “just going through the motions”: New York Times, July 11, 1964.

145 “We haven’t even started leaning”: “Mississippi—Summer of 1964: Troubled State, Troubled Time,” Newsweek, July 13, 1964, p. 20.

145 “This is truly a great day!” Branch, Pillar of Fire, p. 398.

145 “Teeny Weeny”: Ibid., p. 393.

145 “This Mississippi thing”: Beschloss, Taking Charge, p. 444.

145 “I don’t close it”: Whitehead, Attack on Terror, p. 96.

145 “We most certainly do not”: New York Times, July 11, 1964.

145 “calculated insult”: Los Angeles Times, July 11, 1964.

146 “whup” the first “white niggers”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, pp. 140-42.

146 “Eat this shit”: WATS Line, July 10, 1964.

146 “deep sorrow for Mississippi”: Los Angeles Times, July 12, 1964.

146 “mutilated and scattered”: WATS Line, July 12, 1964.

147 “Mississippi is the only state”: McAdam, Freedom Summer, p. 97.

147 “We did not flee Hitler”: New York Times, July 11, 1964.

147 “tanks, guns, and troop carriers”: SNCC Papers, reel 39.

147 “before a tragic incident”: Hodes Papers, SHSW.

148 “Sometimes when I lie awake”: Boston Globe, July 4, 1964.

148 “except protect them somehow”: Los Angeles Times, July 19, 1964.

148 “Trussed Body Discovered”: Los Angeles Times, July 13, 1964.

149 “I’m hot, I’m miserable”: Los Angeles Times, July 19, 1964.

149 “Where is the USA?”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 165.

149 “decent middle-class”: Ibid., p. 288-89.

149 “running my rear end off”: Winn, correspondence, mid-July 1964.

150 “Dad,” Fred wrote home: Winn, correspondence, July 14, 1964.

150 “dirty” and “unclean”: New York Times, July 17, 1964.

150 “What happened in Neshoba”: Charlie Capps Jr., personal interview, September 11, 2008.

150 “We were a small town”: Ibid.

150 “to keep a lid on things”: Fred Bright Winn, e-mail, May 26, 2008.

151 “I was and am furious”: Winn, correspondence, July 14, 1964.

INTERLUDE: “Another So-Called ‘Freedom Day’ ”

152 “I’m going to wash the black off of you”: New York Times, July 17, 1964.

152 “Come on, shoot another nigger!”: “Worse Than Mississippi?” Time, July 24, 1964.

153 “Everybody stopped worrying”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 103.

153 “another so-called ‘Freedom Day’ ”: Greenwood Commonwealth, July 15, 1964.

154 “our Gettysburg”: Holland, From the Mississippi Delta, p. 243.

154 “Get up and look out the window”: Ibid., p. 218.

154 “We will not let it stop us”: SNCC Papers, reel 39.

154 “Everyone?”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 136.

155 “I want to go to jail”: Ibid.

155 “You are free to go and register”: Greenwood Commonwealth, July 17, 1964.

156 “Jim Crow . . . Must GO!”: Sugarman, Stranger at the Gates, p. 160.

156 “I think it would look very spontaneous”: Rick Perlstein, Before the Storm: Barry Goldwater and the Unmaking of the American Consensus (New York: Hill and Wang, 2001), p. 385.

157 “You mean that’s President and Mrs. Johnson?”: New York Times, July 17, 1964.

157 “They’re always doing something”: New York Times, August 3, 1964.

157 “the deep feeling of regret”: New York Times, July 16, 1964.

157 Back Door to Hell: Internet Movie Data Base, http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0057864/.

158 “Caution: Weird Load”: Tom Wolfe, The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test (New York: Bantam, 1968), p. 63.

158 “A Vote for Barry”: Kevin Kerrane and Ben Yagoda, The Art of the Fact: A Historical Anthology of Literary Journalism (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1998), p. 176.

158 “Furthur”: Wolfe, Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, p. 63.

158 “It’s too much like”: Louis Harris, “The Backlash Issue,” Newsweek, July 13, 1964, p. 24.

159 “The denial of voting rights”: Chicago Tribune, June 25, 1964.

159 “The President should now use”: Huie, Three Lives, p. 150.

159 “Without condoning racist attitudes”: Wall Street Journal, June 30, 1964.

159 “It is a dreadful thing to say”: Washington Post, June 29, 1964.

159 “Unlike the democratic absolutists”: Boston Globe, July 4, 1964.

159 “outraged and disgusted”: Letters, Newsweek, July 17, 1964.

159 “By what stretch of the imagination”: New York Times, July 10, 1964.

159 “Lincoln did this country”: Letters, Life, July 24, 1964.

160 “Could you possibly bring yourselves”: Letters, Newsweek, July 27, 1964, p. 2.

160 “I would say”: Hartford Courant, July 7, 1964.

160 “clear that the whole scheme”: Greenwood Commonwealth, July 17, 1964.

160 “I turned around”: Linda Wetmore, personal interview, March 27, 2008.

161 “Sounds like rubbing”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 126.

161 “nigger huggers”: Ibid., p. 139.

161 “I am proud”: Delta Democrat-Times, July 17, 1964.

163 “that son-of-a-bitch”:New York Times, July 16, 1964.

163 “extremists . . . who have nothing in common”: Christian Science Monitor, July 17, 1964.

163 “The nigger issue”: Perlstein, Before the Storm, p. 374.

164 “I was always complaining”: Richard Beymer, personal interview, July 6, 2008.

164 “Beymer drove”: Congressman Barney Frank, personal interview, June 18, 2008.

164 “off the map”: WATS Line, July 16, 1964.

165 “We are not going to eat”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 144.

165 “We won’t eat tomorrow”: Ibid., p. 145.

Book Two

CHAPTER SEVEN: “Walk Together, Children”

169 “Three are missing, Lord”: Ira Landess, personal interview, November 28, 2007.

170 “Hello, Freedom!”: Ibid.

170 “When you’re not in Mississippi”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 18.

170 McComb: Mount Zion Hill Baptist Church: COFO Incidents.

171 “The mosquitoes down here”: Jinny Glass Diary, USM.

171 “You will all be glad to hear”: Len Edwards, correspondence, August 5, 1964.

171 “Ho hum. This violent life rolls on”: Hodes Papers, SHSW.

171 “nothing serious”: WATS line, July 20, 1964.

171 “engaged in widespread terroristic acts”: COFO v. Rainey, et al., Meikeljohn Civil Liberties Institute Archives, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/meiklejohn/meik-10_1/meik-10_1-6.html#580.7.

172 “the happiest project”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 257.

172 “a real movie star”: Carmichael, Ready for Revolution, p. 399.

172 “plain cute”: Hudson and Curry, Mississippi Harmony, p. 82.

173 “If you want to start a meeting”: James Kates Papers, SHSW.

173 “out under the trees”: Sugarman, Stranger at the Gates, p. 114.

173 “laughing his ass off” and “Someone shot at you”: Williams, interview, November 24, 2007.

173 “I don’t believe in this sort of thing”: Fred R. Winn, correspondence, July 29, 1964.

173 “Canton—Number of those”: SNCC Papers, Reel 38.

174 “high degree of probability”: SNCC Papers, reel 40.

174 everyone who is not working”: Ibid.

174 “canvassing, which you all know about”: Ibid.

175 “The Democratic National Convention is a very big meeting”: Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party brochure, Chris Williams private papers.

176 “I got to think about it”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 187.

176 “battle royal”: Washington Post, July 23, 1964.

176 “potentially explosive dilemma”: Los Angeles Times, July 26, 1964.

176 “Papa Doc”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 262.

177 “He has trouble relating to white women”: Chude Pamela Allen, “Watching the Iris,” in Erenrich, Freedom Is a Constant Struggle, p. 418.

177 “will have to pack his bag”: Sellers and Terrell, River of No Return, p. 96.

177 “We can’t let them think”: Ibid., p. 98.

177 “the one thing where the Negro”: Barbara Ransby, Ella Baker and the Black Freedom Movement: A Radical Democratic Vision (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003), p. 314.

178 “Young man”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 207.

178 “I felt personally responsible”: Watkins, interview, June 16, 2008.

179 “They both left together”: Charlie Cobb, personal interview, July 16, 2008.

179 “Muriel was tough”: Ibid.

179 “We had never seen anybody”: Blackwell, Barefootin’, p. 70.

179 “Oh Lord, Lord”: Ibid., p. 78.

179 “For someone so young”: Ibid., p. 79.

180 “Muriel taught things”: Ibid., p. 80.

180 “What Muriel Tillinghast really taught”: Ibid.

180 “Okay, I’ll do that”: Ibid., p. 81.

180 “Things getting pretty tight”: WATS Line, July 13, 1964.

180 “They recognized we were”: Tillinghast, interview, December 16, 2008.

180 “Go back to Greenville”: COFO, Mississippi Black Paper, pp. 88-89.

180 “If he gets killed”: Beschloss, Taking Charge, p. 460.

181 “There are threats”: Ibid., p. 461.

181 “Talk to your man in Jackson”: Ibid.

181 “We tried to warn SNCC”: Payne, I’ve Got the Light, p. 103.

181 “Martin Luther Coon”: Hampton, “Mississippi—Is This America?”

181 “Martin Luther King at Communist”: Blackwell, Barefootin’, p. 68.

181 “the unspeakable Martin Luther King”: Davies, Press and Race, p. 41.

181 “I want to live a normal life”: Kotz, Judgment Days, p. 176.

181 “just suicidal”: Ibid., p. 177.

181 “the most creative thing”: King, Freedom Song, pp. 307-8.

182 “to demonstrate the absolute support”: Branch, Pillar of Fire, p. 410.

182 “You must not allow anybody”: New York Times, July 22, 1964.

182 “Gentlemen, I will be brief ”: Ibid.

183 “mobilize the power”: Washington Post, July 23, 1964.

183 “murdered by the silence”: Ibid.

183 “that these same efficient FBI men”: Delta Democrat-Times, July 22, 1964.

183 Seat the Freedom Democratic Party!” Forman, Making of Black Revolutionaries, p. 384.

183 “the Right Rev. Riot Inciter”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 164.

183 “Small Crowd Greets King”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, July 22, 1964.

183 “It is a known fact”: Hattiesburg American, July 21, 1964.

183 “It is a sad commentary”: Shirley Tucker, Mississippi from Within (New York: Arco, 1965), p. 130.

184 “Latest Wave of Invaders”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, July 22, 1964.

184 “Happily, the inclination toward violence”: Panolian, July 30, 1964.

184 “We do know that Communist influence”: New York Times, April 22, 1964.

184 “Hey, you don’t worry”: Carmichael, Ready for Revolution, p. 304.

184 “all communists speak Russian”: Panolian, July 4, 1964.

184 “mass invasion of Mississippi”: Congressional Record 110 (July 22, 1964): S 16036-37.

184 “stooges and pawns”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, July 23, 1964.

185 “a long-time Communist legal eagle”: Congressional Record 110 (July 22, 1964): S 16040.

185 “beatnik looking crowd”: MDAH SCR ID# 2-20-2-2-2-1-1.

185 “If they ain’t calling you a Communist”: Blackwell, Barefootin’, p. 118.

185 “The history of America”: O’Brien, interview, November 12, 2007.

185 “Do you know what the Gettysburg Address means?”: O’Brien, correspondence, July 18, 1964.

186 “We can’t understand y’all”: Ibid.

186 “You haven’t a thing to worry about”: O’Brien, correspondence, July 10, 1964.

186 “the little darlings”: Ibid., July 13, 1964.

186 “Jekyll-Hyde transformations”: Ibid., July 28, 1964.

186 “my babies can’t be sold away”: O’Brien, interview, November 12, 2007.

186 “Well, you just read the book”: Ibid.

187 “Now,” she said: Ibid.

187 “Sometimes I feel I’m not doing much”: O’Brien, correspondence, July 18, 1964.

187 “the worst state in the Union”: Los Angeles Times, July 24, 1964, p. 21.

188 “And what about you, young lady?”: O’Brien, interview, November 12, 2007.

189 “Three young men came here”: New York Times, July 25, 1964.

189 “I just want to touch you”: Ibid.

189 “that there are churches”: Ibid.

189 “I know what fear is”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 169.

189 “We’ve been waiting for you”: SNCC Papers, reel 39.

189 “RE: Arguing with the Red Queen”: Ibid.

190 “Mrs. Hamer is back”: WATS Line, July 20, 1964.

190 “Listen,” the man said: O’Brien, correspondence, July 28, 1964.

Chapter 8. “The Summer of Our Discontent”

191 “How the ghosts of those three”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 216.

191 “I believe with all my heart”: Mars, Witness in Philadelphia, p. 105.

191 “I just hope”: Ibid.

191 “If they were murdered”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, August 4, 1964.

192 the grinding “hog”: Tucker, Mississippi from Within, p. 43.

192 “real rednecks”: Delta Democrat-Times, August 6, 1964.

192 “everyone who had been”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 374.

192 “Nigger,” Rainey shouted: Whitehead, Attack on Terror, p. 114.

193 “the tipoff boys were waiting”: Meridian Star, August 6, 1964.

193 “a prolific letter writer”: New York Times, August 7, 1964.

193 “have the money ready”: Cartha “Deke” DeLoach, Hoover’s FBI: The Inside Story by Hoover’s Trusted Lieutenant (Washington, D.C.: Regnery, 1995), p. 185.

194 “I realize it may sound foolish”: New York Times, August 9, 1964.

194 “Only a fool would be happy”: Ibid.

195 “mother wit”: Blackwell, Barefootin’, p. 19.

195 “Get the white man out”: Dr. Stacy White, e-mail correspondence, May 20, 2008.

195 “Where have you people been?”: Sugarman, Stranger at the Gates, p. 173.

195 “Hello, Item Base”: Winn, interview, November 13, 2007.

195 “To be quite frank with you”: Winn, correspondence, n.d.

195 “Be very careful”: Winn, correspondence, August 18, 1964.

196 “counting them like a jail sentence”: Winn, correspondence, August 13, 1964.

196 “wasn’t going to turn the government over”: Williams, correspondence, July 13, 1964.

196 “very violent town”: Ibid.

196 “I been deputy”: Ibid.

196 “Communist!” and “Nigger lover!”: Ibid., July 28, 1964.

197 “The whole state is beginning to tighten up”: Ibid.

197 “operating a Freedom Outpost”: Ibid.

197 “in droves”: Ibid.

197 “trashy motherfucker”: Ibid., July 20, 1964.

197 “enough money to last him”: Branch, Pillar of Fire, p. 430.

198 “come with subpoenas”: Meridian Star, August 3, 1964.

198 “take care of him”: MDAH SCR ID# 2-112-1-49-1-1-1.

198 “pay a million more”: Ibid.

198 “buy a cattle ranch”: Ibid.

198 Dutch “seer”: Meridian Star, August 9, 1964.

198 “What happened to the three kids?”: Ball, Murder in Mississippi, p. 75.

198 “We’d have paid a lot more”: Kenneth O’Reilly, “Racial Matters”: The FBI’s Secret File on Black America, 1960-1972 (New York: Free Press, 1989), p. 174.

199 “We’ve spotted the dam”: Whitehead, Attack on Terror, p. 128.

199 “This is no pick and shovel job”: Ibid., p. 129.

199 “the summer of our discontent”: New York Times, July 29, 1964.

199 “Maybe the best course”: Huie, Three Lives, p. 214.

199 “see that their enemy”: COFO brochure, White Folks Project Collection, USM.

199 “there was no dialogue”: Ed Hamlett Papers, White Folks Project Collection, USM.

199 “Why Mississippi?”: Ibid.

200 “get the feel”: William and Kathleen Henderson Papers, SHSW.

200 “It looks like the pilot phase”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 181.

200 “You Northerners all think”: Ibid., p. 186.

200 “How can these kids presume”: Sugarman, Stranger at the Gates, pp. 138-39.

200 “What’s so hard to explain”: Ibid., p. 145.

200 “Would you marry a Negro?”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 179.

201 “Communist! . . . Queer!”: Ibid.

201 “guilty, agonized”: Adam Hochschild, Finding the Trapdoor: Essay, Portraits, Travels (Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 1997), p. 147.

201 “a splendid job”: Virginia Center for Digital History, “Wednesdays in Mississippi: Civil Rights as Women’s Work,” The Effects: Southern Women, p. 20, http://www.vcdh.virginia.edu/WIMS/.

201 “Girls,” she said: Ibid.

201 “If you print my name”: Washington Post, August 16, 1964.

202 “I am not an integrationist”: MDAH SCR ID# 99-38-0-493-2-1-1.

202 “a breach of etiquette”: Carter, So the Heffners Left McComb, p. 125.

202 “to let the Civil Rights workers”: Ibid., p. 80.

202 “Whose car is that”: Ibid., p. 49.

202 “If you want to live”: Ibid., p. 79.

203 “chickened out”: Ira Landess, personal interview, November 28, 2007.

204 “You folks better get down”: Sellers and Terrell, River of No Return, p. 103.

204 “His head went through the windshield”: Ibid., p. 104.

205 “I’ d say start digging here”: Whitehead, Attack on Terror, p. 133.

205 “We’ll start here”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 397.

205 “the faint odor”: Ibid., p. 398.

205 “Reporting one WB”: Whitehead, Attack on Terror, p. 134.

205 “We’ve uncapped one oil well”: Ibid.

206 “Mickey could count on Jim”: Huie, Three Lives, p. 95.

206 “the first interracial lynching”: Umoja Kwanguvu Papers, USM.

206 “O healing river”: David King Dunaway, How Can I Keep from Singing (New York: McGraw Hill, 1981), p. 235.

207 “Many reported contacts”: Branch, Pillar of Fire, p. 434.

207 “Mr. Hoover wanted me to call you”: Beschloss, Taking Charge, pp. 501-2.

208 “It is for us the living”: New York Times, August 6, 1964.

208 “Did you love your husband?”: Washington Post, August 6, 1964.

208 “My boy died a martyr”: McComb Enterprise-Journal, August 6, 1964.

208 “The closed society that is Mississippi”: Hartford Courant, August 6, 1964.

209 “The murders of Michael Henry Schwerner”: New York Times, August 6, 1964.

209 “None of those who have died”: Washington Post, August 6, 1964.

209 “We must track down the murderers”: Vicksburg Post, August 6, 1964.

209 “Many of us in Mississippi”: Delta Democrat-Times, August 9, 1964.

209 “a new hate campaign”: Meridian Star, August 6, 1964.

209 “It was those integration groups”: Delta Democrat-Times, August 6, 1964.

209 “If they had stayed home”: Hattiesburg American, August 5, 1964, cited in Tucker, Mississippi from Within, p. 136.

210 “reduced to a pulp”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 407.

210 “In my extensive experience”: Ibid.

210 “substantive results”: New York Times, August 9, 1964.

210 “hate to be in his shoes”: MDAH SCR ID# 2-112-1-49-1-1-1.

210 “I want people to know”: New York Times, August 6, 1964.

211 “Y’all can be non-violent”: Blackwell, Barefootin’, p. 98.

211 “have some race pride”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 182.

211 “loudmouth everyone”: Ibid., pp. 182-83.

211 “to get the mandate from Bob”: Ibid., p. 183.

212 “I’m gonna kill ’em!”: Hank Klibanoff, “Moment of Reckoning,” Smithsonian , December 2008, p. 12.

212 “I want my brother!”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 409.

212 “a mistake”: Wendt, Spirit and the Shotgun, p. 118.

212 “Sorry, but I’m not here to do”: Bradley G. Bond, Mississippi: A Documentary History (Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 2003), pp. 254-59.

214 “The tragedy of Andy Goodman”: New York Times, August 10, 1964.

CHAPTER NINE: “Lay by Time”

215 “Success?” Moses told the press: Newsweek, August 24, 1964, p. 30.

215 “ from the unjust laws of Mississippi”: SNCC Papers, reel 39.

215 “It was the single time in my life”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 260.

216 “lay by time”: Blackwell, Barefootin’, p. 17.

216 “I am tired”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 225.

216 “sailing and swimming”: Ibid., p. 221.

217 “I have been here nearly two months”: Ellen Lake Papers, USM.

217 “depression session”: Wilkie, Dixie, p. 144.

217 “If I stay here much longer”: Coles, Farewell to the South, pp. 252-53.

217 “She’s always in the same rut”: Margaret Hazelton Papers, USM.

218 “They keep killin’ our people”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 225.

218 “They might think twice”: Branch, Pillar of Fire, p. 450.

218 “by someone important”: WATS Line, August 10, 1964.

219 “a ballet”: Sidney Poitier, Life Beyond Measure: Letters to My Great-Granddaughter (New York: HarperCollins, 2008), p. 174.

219 “I have been a lonely man”: Adam Goudsouzian, Sidney Poitier: Man, Actor, Icon (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004), p. 224.

220 “Are you coming down here”: Dunaway, How Can I Keep, p. 234.

220 “Each morning I wake”: Julius Lester, All Is Well (New York: William Morrow, 1976), p. 112.

220 “If God had intended”: Martin Duberman, In White America (London: Faber and Faber, 1964), p. 4.

221 “That’s right!”: Elizabeth Martinez, “Theater of the Meaningful,” Nation, October 19, 1964, p. 255.

221 “a beacon of hope and love”: “Dream in a Bean Field,” Nation, December 28, 1964, p. 514.

222 “nasty little town”: Tillinghast, interview, December 16, 2008.

222 “Dear Doug”: SNCC Papers, reel 40.

222 “let me drive”: Tillinghast, interview, December 16, 2008.

223 “get the hell out of Issaquena County”: Ibid.

223 “You niggers get away”: United States Commission on Civil Rights, Hearings Before the United States Commission on Civil Rights, vol. 1, Voting: Hearings Held in Jackson, Miss. February 16-20, 1965 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1965), p. 132.

223 “courage overcame fear”: Tillinghast, interview, November 28, 2007.

224 “Look, close your mouth”: “Freedom Summer Journal of Sandra Adickes,” USM, http://anna.lib.usm.edu/~spcol/crda/adickes/ad001.htm.

224 “Mr. Clean”: Huie, Three Lives, p. 226.

224 “The white people of Mississippi”: Ibid.

225 “Communist Revolutionaries”: Mars, Witness in Philadelphia, p. 108.

225 “They’ve shot Silas!”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 222.

225 “colored doctor”: Zellner, The Wrong Side, p. 261.

226 “I got me one”: WATS Line, August 17, 1964.

226 “ticking time bomb”: Kotz, Judgment Days, p. 190.

226 “There’s no compromise”: Beschloss, Taking Charge, p. 515.

226 “If we mess with the group”: Ibid., p. 516.

226 “We’re going to lose the election”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 291.

226 “Help make Mississippi”: Herbert Randall and Bob Tusa, Faces of Freedom Summer (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2001), n.p.

226 “If we can get enough people”: Charles Miller Papers, SHSW.

227 “I just stood there”: SNCC Papers, reel 67.

227 “Why did Harriet Tubman”: Liz Fusco, “Deeper Than Politics,” Liberation 9 (November 1964): 18.

228 “I am Mississippi fed”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 279.

228 “We’re not black slaves!”: Washington Post, July 20, 1964.

228 “I think you’re lying”: Adickes, Legacy of a Freedom School, p. 68.

228 “Some of them are beginning to realize”: Ibid., p. 264.

228 “We’re giving these kids a start”: Washington Post, July 20, 1964.

229 “I saw the rug pulled out”: Watkins, interview, June 16, 2008.

229 “about time something happened”: Chude Pamela Allen, “Watching the Iris,” in Erenrich, pp. 419-420.

229 “the project was polarized”: Ibid.

229 “to give abortions”: Carmichael, Ready for Revolution, p. 389.

229 “And get raped?”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 185.

230 “My Summer Negro”: Rothschild, Case of Black and White, p. 56.

230 “Every black SNCC worker”: Evans, Personal Politics, p. 80.

230 “I didn’t see any white women”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 263.

230 “Now, Dad”: Winn, correspondence, mid-July 1964.

230 “jus’ one boy touch”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 45.

230 “fluttered like butterflies”: King, Freedom Song, p. 44.

230 “All these black guys”: McAdam, Freedom Summer, p. 106.

231 “I’m sure I wasn’t the only white woman”: Chude Pamela Allen, “Thank You,” in Erenrich, Freedom Is a Constant Struggle, p. 502.

231 “There’s a very good chance”: Chude Pamela Allen, personal interview, November 12, 2007.

232 “we’re all dreamers”: O’Brien, correspondence, July 28, 1964.

232 “I could stay longer”: Ibid.

232 “Don’t worry,” she was told: Fran O’Brien, “Journey into Light,” in Erenrich, Freedom Is a Constant Struggle, p. 285.

233 “Now you just be a good little girl”: Ibid., p. 286.

233 “No you don’t, little lady!” Ibid.

233 “That’s a good little girl”: Ibid.

234 “Oh hi, Fran”: Ibid.

234 “It’s okay”: Ibid., p. 287.

235 “After recent developments”: O’Brien, correspondence, August 4, 1964.

235 “The whole pattern”: “The Evangelists,” Newsweek, August 24, 1964, p. 30.

236 “begin action”: WATS line, August 19, 1964.

CHAPTER TEN: “The Stuff Democracy Is Made Of”

238 “They start anything”: Blackwell, Barefootin’, p. 108.

238 “You better put your feet on the gas”: Ibid.

238 “Negroes carefully picked”: MDAH SCR ID # 9-32-0-6-2-1-1.

238 “We can’t open the door!” Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party Papers (hereafter MFDP Papers), SHSW.

239 “assemblage of people”: Mulford and Field, Freedom on My Mind.

239 “Until the killing of black mothers’ sons”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 391.

239 “the stuff democracy is made of”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, pp. 250-51.

240 “coronation”: New York Times, August 25, 1964.

241 “alien philosophy”: New York Times, August 22, 1964.

241 “If you seat those black buggers”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 290.

241 “If our case is fully heard”: SNCC Papers, Reel 41.

241 “go fishing on Election Day”: Washington Post, August 22, 1964.

241 “definite supporter”: MFDP Papers, SHSW.

241 “Who is YOUR sheriff?”: Ibid.

242 “eleven and eight”: Lewis, Walking with the Wind, p. 279.

242 “And who are we?”: MFDP Papers, SHSW.

243 “I was just talking to Joe Rauh”: Carmichael, Ready for Revolution, p. 403.

243 “move heaven and earth”: Los Angeles Times, August 7, 1964.

243 “They’ve screwed you, Joe!”: Branch, Pillar of Fire, p. 457.

243 “only an hour”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 389.

243 “white power structure”: Washington Post, August 23, 1964.

243 “I have been imprisoned”: Ibid.; and Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 415.

244 “Girl, you reckon I ought to tell it?”: Blackwell, Barefootin’, p. 111.

244 “Mister Chairman”: Fannie Lou Hamer, testimony before the Democratic National Convention, American Radio Works Web site, http://americanradioworks.publicradio.org/features/sayitplain/flhamer.html.

244 “There’s Fannie Lou!”: Len Edwards, personal interview, October 29, 2008.

244 “We’re gonna get the job done tonight”: WATS Line, August 20, 1964.

245 “Your time is short!”: Ibid.

245 “every nigger in town”: Whitehead, Attack on Terror, p. 163.

245 “comedy of terrors”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 383.

245 “If you people leave us”: WATS Line, August 20, 1964.

245 “I can simply no longer justify”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 265.

245 “I wasn’t going to stay”: Winn, correspondence, September 1, 1964.

246 “Standard Operating Procedure”: Ibid., August 14, 1964.

246 “COME ONE, COME ALL”: Jerry Tecklin Papers, SHSW.

247 “What’s this all about?”: Winn, interview, November 13, 2007.

247 “We all knew”: Ibid.

247 “I didn’t try to register for you”: Hamer, testimony.

247 “On the tenth of September 1962”: Ibid.

247 “We will return to this scene”: Hampton, “Mississippi—Is This America?”

247 “On this day nine months ago”: Branch, Pillar of Fire, p. 460.

248 “ for it is in these saints”: Ibid.

248 “power-hungry soreheads,” their “rump group”: Murray Kempton, “Conscience of a Convention,” New Republic, September 5, 1964, p. 6.

248 “vote for the power structure”: Erenrich, Freedom Is a Constant Struggle, p. 312.

248 “I was carried to the county jail”: Hamer, testimony.

248 “And he said, ‘We’re going to make you wish’ ”: Ibid.

249 “And I was beat by the first Negro”: Ibid.

249 “All of this is on account of”: Ibid.

249 “I don’t think that if this issue”: Mulford and Field, Freedom on My Mind.

250 “honored guests”: Kotz, Judgment Days, p. 201.

250 “back of the bus”: Los Angeles Times, August 24, 1964.

250 “because he was on our side”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 289.

250 “Tell Rauh if he plans”: Kotz, Judgment Days, p. 208.

251 “way out of line”: Branch, Pillar of Fire, p. 461.

251 “SUPPORT THE FREEDOM DEMOCRATS”: Christian Science Monitor, August 26, 1964.

251 “1964, NOT 1864” and “STOP HYPOCRISY, START DEMOCRACY”: Los Angeles Times, August 26, 1964.

252 “Mississippi Terror Truck”: Mulford and Field, Freedom on My Mind.

252 “Don’t you understand?”: Los Angeles Times, August 26, 1964.

252 “Alabama’s done gone”: Beschloss, Taking Charge, p. 523.

252 “Atlantic City’s White House”: Washington Post, August 25, 1964.

252 “You better talk to Hubert Humphrey”: Kotz, Judgment Days, p. 200.

253 “ for Negroes to speak for Negroes”: Ibid., p. 211.

253 “Then democracy is not real”: Kotz, Judgment Days, p. 211.

253 “The time has arrived”: Joshua Zeitz, “Democratic Debacle,” American Heritage , June/July 2004, online edition.

253 “Senator Humphrey,” she began: Chana Kai Lee, For Freedom’s Sake: The Life of Fannie Lou Hamer (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1999), p. 93; and Olson, Freedom’s Daughters, p. 320.

253 “We can win on the floor”: New York Times, August 25, p. 23.

253 “listened patiently . . . argued fervently”: Kotz, Judgment Days, p. 211.

253 “that the Negroes have taken over”: Beschloss, Taking Charge, p. 527.

254 “The Freedom Party,” Johnson told a friend: Kotz, Judgment Days, p. 213.

254 “an excuse to say I turned”: Beschloss, Taking Charge, p. 525.

254 “Bobby’s trap”: Ibid., p. 525.

254 “The times require leadership”: Branch, Pillar of Fire, p. 468n.

254 “This would throw the nation”: Ibid., p. 468.

254 “These people went in and begged”: Ibid., p. 471.

254 “But we’re going to ignore that”: Robert David Johnson, All the Way with LBJ: The 1964 Presidential Election (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009), p. 186.

254 “take a tranquilizer”: Kotz, Judgment Days, pp. 212-13.

254 “a wholesale walkout”: Branch, Pillar of Fire, p. 471.

254 “It looks like we’re turning the Democratic party”: Ibid.

255 “By God, I’m going to go up there”: Branch, Pillar of Fire, p. 473.

254 “Beloved,” she began: Lady Bird Johnson, A White House Diary (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1970), p. 192.

255 “Is the Credentials Committee meeting”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 239.

255 “a tremendous victory”: Kotz, Judgment Days, p. 215.

255 “Your funding is on the line”: Ibid.

256 “The President has said”: Ibid., p. 216.

256 “wrung out the blood”: Jack Newfield, A Prophetic Minority (New York: New American Library, 1966), p. 76.

256 “if they really understand”: Mulford and Field, Freedom on My Mind.

256 “You cheated!”: Kotz, Judgment Days, p. 216.

256 “Atlantic City was a powerful lesson”: Forman, Making of Black Revolutionaries , pp. 395-96.

256 “The kids tried the established methods”: Olson, Freedom’s Daughters, p. 325.

257 “Stokely,” Hartman Turnbow asked: Carmichael, Ready for Revolution, p. 408.

257 “they can use the info”: WATS Line, August 25, 1964.

257 “cowhided and horsewhipped”: New York Times, August 27, 1964.

257 “cheap, degrading insults”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, August 27, 1964.

257 “that debt is paid in full”: Chicago Tribune, August 26, 1964.

258 “like Mata Hari and the French Resistance”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi , p. 256.

258 “All we want”: Mulford and Field, Freedom on My Mind.

258 “We’ve shed too much blood”: Lewis, Walking with the Wind, p. 281.

258 “We didn’t come all this way”: Blackwell, Barefootin’, p. 115.

258 “You have made your point”: Kotz, Judgment Days, p. 221.

258 “Being a Negro leader”: Ibid.

258 “Socrates or Aristotle”: Burner, And Gently He Shall Lead Them, p. 187.

258 “We’re not here to bring politics into our morality”: Ibid.

259 “When they got through talking”: Dittmer, Local People, p. 301.

259 “a significant moral and political victory”: Los Angeles Times, August 27, 1964.

259 “a triumph of Moral force”: New York Times, August 27, 1964.

259 “nothing short of heroic”: Washington Post, August 26, 1964.

259 “You don’t know how they goin’ to do us!”: Belfrage, Freedom Summer, p. 197.

260 “I just want you to know”: Zoya Zeman, Oral History Collection, USM.

260 “Fine,” the registrar answered: MDAH SCR ID# 2-61-1-101-5-1-1.

261 “snowballed” and “completely out of control”: Ibid.

CHAPTER ELEVEN: “Give unto Them Beauty for Ashes”

262 “My God,” he said: Anthony Walton, Mississippi: An American Journey (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996), p. 254.

263 “The longest nightmare”: Sellers and Terrell, River of No Return, p. 94.

263 “At the end of summer”: Watkins, interview, June 16, 2008.

263 “If the present increase in violence”: SNCC Papers, reel 38.

263 “are very fine people”: Mendy Samstein Papers, SHSW.

264 “I didn’t realize yet”: O’Brien, interview, November 12, 2007.

264 “Well, what was happening”: McAdam, Freedom Summer, p. 134.

264 “everything was awful”: Linda Wetmore, personal interview, March 27, 2008.

264 “You’re telling me”: Ibid.

264 “I could never kiss anybody” and “Then I guess”: Ibid.

265 “battle fatigue”: Lewis, Walking with the Wind, p. 273.

265 “Our very normal”: McAdam, Freedom Summer, p. 136.

265 “the best people I ever met”: Martinez, Letters from Mississippi, p. 259.

265 “I went from being a liberal”: McAdam, Freedom Summer, p. 127.

265 “not a very creative guy”: Ibid., p. 165.

266 “Can I now forget Mississippi?”: “The Reminiscences of Mario Savio,” Oral History Research Office Collection, Columbia University, p. 40.

266 “I’m definitely not ready”: Mills, This Little Light, p. 135.

267 “the proudest moment of my life”: Abbott, Mississippi Writers, p. 329.

267 “welling out like poison”: Ibid.

267 “The Negro girls feel neglected”: Olson, Freedom’s Daughters, p. 309.

267 “just seemed to hate me”: McAdam, Freedom Summer, p. 124.

267 “do what the spirit say do”: Lewis, Walking with the Wind, p. 294.

267 “We must decide”: Clayborne Carson, In Struggle: SNCC and the Black Awakening of the 1960s (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1981), p. 146.

267 “too many people high on freedom”: Casey Hayden, in Curry et al., Deep in Our Hearts, p. 364.

268 “the average white person doesn’t realize”: Casey Hayden and Mary King, “Women in the Movement,” Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee position paper, The Sixties Project Web site, http://www2.iath.virginia.edu/sixties/HTML_docs/Resources /Primary/Manifestos /SNCC_women.html .

268 “hardly caused a ripple”: Hayden, in Curry et al., Deep in Our Hearts, p. 365.

268 “brutally aggressive hostility”: King, Freedom Song, p. 450.

268 impending “coup”: Lewis, Walking with the Wind, p. 300.

268 “bullshitting Negroes”: Adickes, Legacy of a Freedom School, p. 135.

268 “take orders from white folks!”: Ibid.

268 “Typical day”: Samuel Walker Papers, SHSW.

268 “morphing into a different kind”: Tillinghast, interview, December 16, 2008.

269 “cold”: Andrew Kopkind, “The Future of ‘Black Power’: A Movement in Search of a Program,” New Republic, January 7, 1967, p. 17.

269 “Mrs. Hamer is no longer relevant”: Payne, I’ve Got the Light, pp. 365, 372.

269 “an unfortunate choice of words”: Carson, In Struggle, p. 210.

269 “a growing litany”: Ibid., p. 238.

269 “I got the feeling”: Whitehead, Attack on Terror, p. 161.

269 “We’ve got to get Goatee”: Ibid.

270 “King was calling the shots”: Branch, Pillar of Fire, p. 535.

270 “Now is the time”“: Whitehead, Attack on Terror, p. 172.

270 “our investigation has been curtailed”: Mars, Witness in Philadelphia, p. 130.

270 “put the fear of God”: Branch, Pillar of Fire, p. 535.

270 a “floater,” a “hustler”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 432.

270 “I’m going to see your ass in jail”: Branch, Pillar of Fire, p. 498.

270 “Killen said they had three civil rights”: MIBURN, 4-81.

271 “the nigger-communist invasion”: Ball, Murder in Mississippi, p. 55.

271 “a volley of shots”: MIBURN, 4-77.

271 “Everyone follow me”: MIBURN, 4-75, and Jackson Clarion-Ledger, December 2, 1967, p. 1A.

272 “They will be under twenty feet of dirt”: MIBURN, 4-73.

272 “Someone go and get the operator”: Ibid., 4-74.

272 “We have a place to bury them”: Ibid., 4-46, and Erenrich, Freedom Is a Constant Struggle, p. 348.

272 “Are you that nigger lover?” and “Sir, I know just how you feel”: MIBURN, 4-47.

272 “Save one for me!” and “You didn’t leave me anything but”: Ibid., 4-45-48.

273 “I’ll kill anyone who talks”: Ibid., 4-50; Jackson Clarion-Ledger, July 12, 2005.

273 “Ol’ Rainey could be elected”: Los Angeles Times, December 11, 1964.

273 “a feeling that we hit”: Jack Bales, ed., Conversations with Willie Morris (Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2000), p. 103.

273 “I favor dropping an atom bomb”: Letters, Time, December 25, 1964, p. 10.

274 “Here’s to the state of Mississippi”: Phil Ochs, “Here’s to the State of Mississippi,” I Ain’t Marching Anymore, Elektra Records, 1965.

274 “that wall of Never”: Trillin, “Letter from Jackson,” p. 85.

274 “equal treatment under the law”: McComb Enterprise-Journal, November 17, 1964.

274 “The waitress smiled”: Paul Good, “A Bowl of Gumbo for Curtis Bryant,” Reporter, December 31, 1964, p. 19.

275 “Okay, who’s first?”: Newfield, Prophetic Minority, p. 95.

275 “a lawyer’s dream case”: Kunstler, in Curry et al., Deep in My Heart, p. 345.

276 “every Congressman from the Potomac”: Ibid., p. 349.

276 “I’m not crying for myself ”: New York Times, September 18, 1965.

Epilogue

277 “these vicious and morally bankrupt criminals”: Ibid., p. 237.

278 “niggers on a voting drive”: Zinn, SNCC, p. 204.

278 “the burning of draft cards”: Testimony of Charles Johnson, U.S. v. Price et al. (“Mississippi Burning” trial), http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/price&bowers/Johnson.html.

278 “to get young Negro males”: Whitehead, Attack on Terror, p. 237.

279 “Who is the author”: Los Angeles Times, October 9, 1967, p. 7.

279 “I’m not going to allow”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 446.

279 “a white, Christian, militant organization”: Whitehead, Attack on Terror, p. 187.

279 “You ain’t joined no Boy Scout group”: Washington Post, October 10, 1967.

279 “It was the first time”: Testimony of Delmar Dennis, Famous Trials Web site, http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/price&bowers/Dennis.html.

279 “What did he mean by elimination?” Ibid.

279 “a Judas witness”: Los Angeles Times, October 19, 1967; Ball, Murder in Mississippi, p. 127.

279 “salt of the earth kind of people”: Ibid., pp. 128, 130.

279 “in church every time”: Ibid., p. 128.

279 “low-class riffraff”: Whitehead, Attack on Terror, p. 280.

279 “It may well be: Ibid.

279 “The federal government is not invading”: John Doar, Summary for the Prosecution, on Famous Trials Web site, http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/price&bowers/doarclose.htm.

280 “The strong arm”: H. C. Watkins, Summary for the Defense, on Famous Trials Web site, http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/price&bowers/watkinsclos.html.

280 “could never convict a preacher”: Ball, Murder in Mississippi, p. 133.

280 “They killed one nigger”: O’Reilly, “Racial Matters,” pp. 175-76.

280 “the best thing that’s ever happened”: Washington Post, October 21, 1967.

280 “landmark decision”: New York Times, October 21, 1967.

280 “They did better than I thought”: Ibid.

280 “I want you to write me”: Woods, LBJ, p. 480.

280 “to insure that they did not die in vain”: Congressional Record 111, pt. 10 (June 22, 1965): S 13931.

281 “the broadest possible scope”: Chandler Davidson and Bernard Grofman, eds., Quiet Revolution in the South: The Impact of the Voting Rights Act, 1965-1990 (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994), p. 138.

281 “After Freedom Summer, we met black people”: John Howell, personal interview, March 11, 2008.

282 “I never dreamed I’d live to see”: Wirt, Politics of Southern Equality, p. 160.

282 “Hands that picked cotton”: Cambridge Encyclopedia, vol. 1, s.v. “Charles (James) Evers,” http://encyclopedia.stateuniversity.com/pages/185/-James-Charles-Evers.html.

282 “I count Mayor Evers as a friend”: Skates, Mississippi, pp. 168-69.

282 “Seg academies”: Wilkie, Dixie, p. 35.

282 “I can’t make people integrate”: Woods, LBJ, pp. 479-80.

283 “The Promised Land is still far off”: Hodding Carter III, e-mail interview, September 26, 2008.

283 “I believe that despite the terrible racist image”: Margaret Walker, “Mississippi and the Nation in the 1980s,” in Abbott, Mississippi Writers, p. 612.

283 “Not in Mississippi!”: Erenrich, Freedom Is a Constant Struggle, p. 409.

284 “There has not been meaningful change”: Adickes, Legacy of a Freedom School, p. 163.

284 “rosier and rosier”: O’Brien, interview, November 12, 2007.

284 “stepped into a hornet’s nest”: Ibid.

284 “It’s a good thing they got that Communist”: Ibid.

284 “It had been a rather quiet summer”: O’Brien, “Journey into Light,” p. 285.

285 “One might as well hold a skunk”: Ibid., p. 288.

285 “I never really had the time”: Fran O’Brien, e-mail correspondence, October 17, 2008.

285 “Yes, I know it sounds a bit wild”: Winn, correspondence, no date.

285 “I was so glad”: Winn, correspondence, September 15, 1964.

286 “They got Giles!”: Winn, interview, November 13, 2007.

286 “Janell and I are coming home”: Winn, correspondence, no date.

286 “We don’t need you”: Winn, interview, November 13, 2007.

286 “ fell in with another crowd”: Ibid.

286 “The fact that I”: Ibid.

286 “took some time to fuck off”: Ibid.

287 “Someone asked me”: Ibid.

287 “too containing”: Tillinghast, interview, December 16, 2008.

287 “I was born with a fighting nature”: Ibid.

287 “It was like going to war”: Ibid.

288 “Chrisnpenny”: Chris Williams, e-mail correspondence, October 17, 2008.

288 “I felt I’d given it a good shot”: Ibid.

289 “ragged and lost”: Penny Patch, in Curry et al., Deep in Our Hearts, p. 165.

289 “Mississippi without fear”: Williams, interview, September 21, 2008.

289 “Other people went to Vietnam”: Ibid.

290 “the ultimate Mississippi”: McAdam, Freedom Summer, p. 229.

290 “I am prouder of being there”: Adickes, Legacy of a Freedom School, p. 159.

290 “almost Jesus like aura”: Burner, And Gently He Shall Lead Them, p. 200.

291 “Like working with sharecroppers”: Bob Moses, personal interview, December 10, 2008.

292 “To me, it was sort of like a plane crash”: Cagin and Dray, We Are Not Afraid, p. 454.

292 “I was quite delighted”: Ibid., p. xv.

293 “Had I done it”: Chicago Tribune, November 13, 1978.

293 “I’m not going to say they were wrong”: New York Times, January 7, 2005.

293 “It was what I’d been wanting”: New York Times, June 12, 2005.

293 “The media has profited”: Ibid.

293 “Communists invaded”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, June 18, 2005.

293 “as strong for segregation”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, June 12, 2005.

294 “If you want my forgiveness”: New York Times, August 21, 2007.

294 “Mighty long time”: New York Times, January 7, 1905.

295 “it really hit me”: Williams, dir., Ten Days.

295 “She just wrapped her arms”: Ibid.

295 “if he had anything to do with those boys”: New York Times, June 18, 2005.

295 “J. E. never come back”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, June 19, 2005.

295 “I thought it was unusual”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, June 20, 2005.

295 “nothing but stirring”: Ibid.

295 “Do your duty”: Ibid.

295 “She believes the life of her son”: New York Times, June 22, 2005.

296 “day of great importance”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, June 22, 2005.

296 “in a calculated”: Arkansas Delta Truth and Justice Center, “Neshoba Murders Case—A Chronology,” Civil Rights Movement Veterans Web site, http://www.crmvet.org.

296 “Other cold cases”: Jerry Mitchell, personal interview, October 9, 2008.

296 “That was the time of the hippies”: Hampton, “Mississippi—Is This America? ”

296 “changed Mississippi forever”: Charlie Cobb, Oral History Collection, USM.

297 “the greatest sociological experiment”: Burner, And Gently He Shall Lead Them, p. 166.

297 “Christ-like”: Marsh, God’s Long Summer, p. 45.

297 “They were the best friends we ever met”: Ibid.

297 “Freedom Summer injected a new spirit”: John Lewis, personal interview, September 12, 2008.

297 “Why can’t it be”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, November 6, 2008, p. 1.

298 “This is history, woman”: “Students Asked Not to Say Obama’s Name,” WAPT, Channel 16, Jackson, Miss., http://www.wapt.com/video/17928161/index.html.

298 “I voted for Obama”: Wayne Drash, “Crossing the Railroad Tracks amid a New Time in History,” CNN, January 16, 2009, http://www.cnn.com/2009/US/01/12/crossing.railroad.tracks/.

298 “Oh, if he’d just been able”: Jackson Clarion-Ledger, January 21, 2009.

298 “It’s the most wonderful day”: Delta Democrat-Times, January 21, 2009.

298 “where the stage was set”: “Pulitzer Prize-Winning Writer Alice Walker and Civil Rights Leader Bob Moses Reflect on an Obama Presidency and the Struggle for African Americans to Vote,” Democracy Now! January 20, 2009, http://www.democracynow.org/2009/1/20/pulitzer_prize_winning_writer_alice_walker.

298 “My fellow citizens”: New York Times, January 21, 2009.

299 “They saw America as bigger”: Ibid.

299 “the closest thing to a perfect day”: Fran O’Brien, e-mail correspondence, January 21, 2009.

299 “What the cynics fail to understand”: New York Times, January 21, 2009.

299 “and why a man whose father”: Ibid.

299 “It took forty-five years”: Linda Wetmore Halpern, e-mail correspondence, January 21, 2009.

300 “At the end of it all”: Williams, e-mail correspondence, January 21, 2009.

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!