Modern history

Preface

About the cover

View of Boston and the South Boston Bridge, 1829

The cover image presents a portion of the larger print that appears below. When they explore American histories, scholars consider many different aspects of America’s past and connect them for a rich, fresh synthesis. While American images of Boston are plentiful, this one was originally drawn by the French naturalist Jacques Milbert, who toured the northern United States from 1815 to 1823, and later it was reproduced as a lithograph by an unknown French artist. The larger picture thus captures the early fascination of naturalists and of the French with the young American nation.

 

Why This Book This Way

Our extensive experience teaching American history in a wide variety of classrooms led us to conclude that students learn history most effectively when they read historical narrative in conjunction with primary sources. Our conviction inspired us to pioneer a new kind of textbook that integrated a historical narrative with documents in a single book. With this Value Edition of Exploring American Histories, we’ve broken new ground again with LaunchPad, an interactive e-book and course space all-in-one that makes customizing and assigning the book and its resources easy and efficient. LaunchPad can be used on its own or in conjunction with this printed text, giving instructors and students the best of both worlds—the narrative text in an inexpensive, easy-to-read printed format as well as our highly acclaimed Document Projects and other resources and supplements delivered electronically, where their use and combination are limited only by the imagination of the instructor. LaunchPad is loaded with the full-color e-book plus LearningCurve, an adaptive learning tool; two Document Projects per chapter; additional primary sources; videos; chapter summative quizzes; and more. To learn more about the benefits of LearningCurve and LaunchPad, see the “Versions and Supplements” section on page xiii.

Many Histories in a Single Resource

For Exploring American Histories, we sought to reconceive the relationship of the textbook and the reader to create a mutually supportive set of course materials designed to help our students appreciate the diversity of America’s history, to help instructors teach that primary sources are the building blocks of historical interpretation, and to encourage students to see that every past event can and should be considered from multiple perspectives.

The most innovative aspect of Exploring American Histories, and what makes it a true alternative, is that its format introduces a unique textbook structure organized around the broad theme of diversity. Diversity supports our presentation of an inclusive historical narrative, one that recognizes the American past as a series of interwoven stories made by a multiplicity of historical actors. We do this within a strong national framework that allows our readers to see how the various stories fit together and to understand why they matter. Our narrative is complemented by a wide variety of documents (discussed more fully below) that engage students with the diverse historical actors. In one of the chapter 1 Document Projects, we explore the first encounters between Spaniards and Native Americans in the sixteenth century, including Hernan Cortes’s attempt to convert the Aztecs to Catholicism and the Aztec leaders’ defense of their own religion and customs. In chapter 23, after reading reports and petitions from government officials and scientists and an eyewitness account of the aftermath of the atomic bombing, students can consider whether the United States should have detonated bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

The theme of diversity also allows us to foreground the role of individual agency as we push readers to consider the reasons behind historical change. Each chapter opens with a pair of American Histories, biographies that showcase individuals who experienced and influenced events in a particular period, and then returns to them throughout the chapter to strengthen the connections and highlight their place in the bigger picture. These biographies cover both well-known Americans—such as Daniel Shays, Frederick Douglass, Andrew Carnegie, and Eleanor Roosevelt—and those who never gained fame or fortune—such as the activist Amy Kirby Post, organizer Luisa Moreno, and World War II internee Fred Korematsu. Introducing such a broad range of biographical subjects illuminates the many ways that individuals shaped and were shaped by historical events. This strategy also works to make visible throughout the chapter the intersections where history from the top down meets history from the bottom up and to connect social and political histories with economic, cultural, and diplomatic developments. We work to show that events at the national level, shaped by elite political and economic leaders, have a direct impact on the lives of ordinary people; at the same time, we demonstrate that actions at the local level often have a significant influence on decisions made at the centers of national government and commerce. The discussions of the interrelationship among international, national, and local theaters and actors incorporate the pathbreaking scholarship of the last three decades, which has focused on gender, race, class, and ethnicity in North America and the United States, and on colonization, empire, and globalization in the larger world.

There is no one story about the past; there are many stories, and so we wanted to emphasize these plural Histories in the book’s title. Indeed, on the last day of our own survey classes, we measure our success by how well our students can demonstrate that they understand this rich complexity that is central to the discipline, and whether they can put the multiple stories they have come to understand into the context of the larger whole. Instructors at all types of schools share our goal, and we hope that Exploring American Histories will help them enrich their students’ understanding of events of the past.

Online Document Projects

To further demonstrate our theme of diversity and plural histories, we have selected a wide array of primary-source materials for the two Online Document Projects in each chapter. For each project, we supply distinctive pedagogy designed to help students make connections between the documents and the text’s big themes. Each project is clearly cross-referenced within the narrative and is easily accessible in LaunchPad so that students can delve into certain topics after having read the broader historical context. Many of these projects incorporate multimedia sources such as audio and video files that until recently were unavailable to work with in class. With LaunchPad, teachers can choose which Document Projects they want to assign, add their own documents and questions, and rearrange the chapters to fit the way they teach the U.S. survey course.

Each Document Project includes five or six documents focused on a theme or topic central to that chapter. It is introduced by a brief overview and ends with interpretive questions that ask students to draw conclusions based on what they have learned in the chapter and read in the sources. The interpret the Evidence and Put it in Context questions prompt students to analyze the documents, compare them to each other, and place them in a larger historical framework. Multiple-choice questions quiz students on the main ideas and themes of the documents and provide instant feedback.

Our choices of documents were influenced by the kinds of primary sources that exist. For some periods of American history and some topics, the available primary sources are limited and fragmentary. For other eras and issues, the sources are varied and abundant, indeed sometimes overwhelming, especially as we move into the twentieth century. In all time periods, some groups of Americans are far better represented in primary sources than are others. People who were wealthy, well educated, and politically powerful produced and preserved many sources about their lives. And their voices are well represented in this textbook. But we have also provided documents by American Indians, enslaved Africans, colonial women, rural residents, immigrants, working people, and young people. Moreover, the lives of those who left few sources of their own can often be illuminated by reading documents written by elites to see what information these documents yield, intentionally or unintentionally, about less well-documented groups.

We understand that the instructor’s role is crucial in teaching students how to analyze primary-source materials and develop interpretations. Teachers can use the documents to encourage critical thinking and also to measure students’ understanding and assess their progress. The integration of the documents with the narrative should prompt students to read more closely than they usually do, as they will see more clearly the direct connection between the two. We have organized the documents to give instructors the flexibility to use them in many different ways—as in-class discussion prompts, for take-home writing assignments, and even as the basis for exam ques- tions—and also in different combinations, as the documents can be compared and contrasted with one another. The instructor’s manual for Exploring American Histories provides a wealth of creative suggestions for using the documents program effectively (see the “Versions and Supplements” section on pages xiv—xv for more information on all the available instructor resources).

More Help for Students

We know that students often need help making sense of their reading. As instructors, all of us have had students complain that they cannot figure out what’s important in the textbooks we assign. For many of our students, especially those just out of high school, their college history survey textbook is likely the most difficult book they have ever encountered. We understand the challenges that our students face, so in addition to the extensive document program, we have included the following pedagogical features designed to aid student learning:

♦ Review and Relate questions help students focus on main themes and concepts presented in each major section of the chapter.

♦ Key terms in boldface highlight important content. All terms are defined in a glossary at the end of the book.

♦ Clear conclusions help students summarize what they’ve read.

♦ A two-page Chapter Review lets students review key terms, important concepts, and notable events.

In addition, the book includes access to LearningCurve, an online adaptive learning tool that promotes engaged reading and focused review. Cross-references at the end of every chapter in the text prompt students to log in and rehearse their understanding of the material they have just read. Students move at their own pace and accumulate points as they go, giving the interaction a gamelike feel. Feedback for incorrect responses explains why the answer is incorrect and directs students back to the text to review before they attempt to answer the question again. The end result is that students understand the key elements of the text better and come to class better prepared. See the inside front cover for more details.

We imagine Exploring American Histories as a new kind of American history textbook, one that not only offers a strong, concise narrative but also challenges students to construct their own interpretations through primary-source analysis. We are thrilled that our hopes have come to fruition, and we believe that our textbook will provide a thought-provoking and highly useful foundation for every U.S. history survey course and will benefit students and faculty alike. The numerous opportunities provided for active learning will allow teachers to engage students in stimulating ways and help them experience the past in closer connection to the present. After all, active learning is the basis for active citizenship, and teaching the survey course is our chance as historians, whose work is highly specialized, to reach the greatest number of undergraduates. We hope not only to inspire the historical imaginations of those who will create the next generation of American histories but also to spur them to consider the issues of today in light of the stories of yesterday.

Acknowledgments

We wish to thank the talented scholars and teachers who were kind enough to give their time and knowledge to review the manuscript:

Benjamin Allen, South Texas College

Christine Anderson, Xavier University

Uzoamaka Melissa C. Anyiwo, Curry College

Anthony A. Ball, Housatonic Community College

Terry A. Barnhart, Eastern Illinois University

Edwin Benson, North Harford High School

Paul Berk, Christian Brothers University

Deborah L. Blackwell, Texas A&M International University

Thomas Born, Blinn College Margaret Bramlett, St. Andrews Episcopal High School

Lauren K. Bristow, Collin College

Tsekani Browne, Duquesne University

Jon L. Brudvig, Dickinson State University

Dave Bush, Shasta College Barbara Calluori, Montclair State University

Julia Schiavone Camacho, The University of Texas at El Paso

Jacqueline Glass Campbell, Francis Marion University

Amy E. Canfield, Lewis-Clark State College

Dominic Carrillo, Grossmont College

Mark R. Cheathem, Cumberland University

Laurel A. Clark, University of Hartford

Myles L. Clowers, San Diego City College

Hamilton Cravens, Iowa State University

Audrey Crawford, Houston Community College

John Crum, University of Delaware

Alex G. Cummins, St. Johns River State College

Susanne Deberry-Cole, Morgan State University

Julian J. DelGaudio, Long Beach City College

Patricia Norred Derr, Kutztown University

John Donoghue, Loyola University Chicago

Timothy Draper, Waubonsee Community College

David Dzurec, University of Scranton

Keith Edgerton, Montana State University

 Billings Blake Ellis, Lone Star College

Christine Erickson, Indiana University—Purdue University

 Fort Wayne Todd Estes, Oakland University

Gabrielle Everett, Jefferson College

Julie Fairchild, Sinclair Community College

Randy Finley, Georgia Perimeter College

Kirsten Fischer, University of Minnesota

Michelle Fishman-Cross, College of Staten Island

Jeffrey Forret, Lamar University

Kristen Foster, Marquette University

Susan Freeman, Western Michigan University

Nancy Gabin, Purdue University

Kevin Gannon, Grand View University

Benton Gates, Indiana University—Purdue University Fort Wayne

Bruce Geelhoed, Ball State University

Mark Gelfand, Boston College Jason George, The Bryn Mawr School

Judith A. Giesberg, Villanova University

Sherry Ann Gray, Mid-South Community College

Patrick Griffin, University of Notre Dame

Aaron Gulyas, Mott Community College

Scott Gurman, Northern Illinois University

Melanie Gustafson, University of Vermont

Brian Hart, Del Mar College

Paul Hart, Texas State University

Paul Harvey, University of Colorado Colorado Springs

Woody Holton, University of Richmond

Vilja Hulden, University of Arizona

Colette A. Hyman, Winona State University

Brenda Jackson-Abernathy, Belmont University

Troy R. Johnson, California State University Long Beach

Shelli Jordan-Zirkle, Shoreline Community College

Jennifer Kelly, The University of Texas at Austin

Kelly Kennington, Auburn University

Andrew E. Kersten, University of Wisconsin— Green Bay

Janilyn M. Kocher, Richland Community College

Max Krochmal, Duke University

Peggy Lambert, Lone Star College

Jennifer R. Lang, Delgado Community College

John S. Leiby, Paradise Valley Community College

Mitchell Lerner, The Ohio State University

Matthew Loayza, Minnesota State University, Mankato

Gabriel J. Loiacono, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh

John F. Lyons, Joliet Junior College

Lorie Maltby, Henderson Community College

Christopher Manning, Loyola University Chicago

Marty D. Matthews, North Carolina State University

Eric Mayer, Victor Valley College

Suzanne K. McCormack, Community College of Rhode Island

David McDaniel, Marquette University

J. Kent McGaughy, Houston Community College, Northwest

Alan McPherson, Howard University

Sarah Hand Meacham, Virginia Commonwealth University

Brian Craig Miller, Emporia State University

Brett Mizelle, California State University Long Beach

Mark Moser, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro

Jennifer Murray, Coastal Carolina University

Peter C. Murray, Methodist University

Steven E. Nash, East Tennessee State University

Chris Newman, Elgin Community College

David Noon, University of Alaska Southeast

Richard H. Owens, West Liberty University

David J. Peavler, Towson University

Laura A. Perry, University of Memphis

Wesley Phelps, University of St. Thomas

Merline Pitre, Texas Southern University

Eunice G. Pollack, University of North Texas

Kimberly Porter, University of North Dakota

Cynthia Prescott, University of North Dakota

Gene Preuss, University of Houston

Sandra Pryor, Old Dominion University

Rhonda Ragsdale, Lone Star College

Michaela Reaves, California Lutheran University

Peggy Renner, Glendale Community College

Steven D. Reschly, Truman State University

Barney J. Rickman, Valdosta State University

Pamela Riney-Kehrberg, Iowa State University

Paul Ringel, High Point University

Timothy Roberts, Western Illinois University

Glenn Robins, Georgia Southwestern State University

Alicia E. Rodriquez, California State University Bakersfield

Mark Roehrs, Lincoln Land Community College

Patricia Roessner, Marple Newtown High School

John G. Roush, St. Petersburg College

James Russell, St. Thomas Aquinas College

Eric Schlereth, The University of Texas at Dallas

Ronald Schultz, University of Wyoming

Stanley K. Schultz, University of Wisconsin— Madison

Sharon Shackelford, Erie Community College

Donald R. Shaffer, American Public University System

David J. Silverman, The George Washington University

Andrea Smalley, Northern Illinois University

Molly Smith, Friends School of Baltimore

David L. Snead, Liberty University

David Snyder, Delaware Valley College

Jodie Steeley, Merced College

Bryan E. Stone, Del Mar College

Emily Straus, SUNY Fredonia

Jean Stuntz, West Texas A&M University

Nikki M. Taylor, University of Cincinnati

Heather Ann Thompson, Temple University

Timothy Thurber, Virginia Commonwealth University

T. J. Tomlin, University of Northern Colorado

Laura Trauth, Community College of Baltimore County—Essex

Russell M. Tremayne, College of Southern Idaho

Laura Tuennerman-Kaplan, California University of Pennsylvania

Vincent Vinikas, The University of Arkansas at Little Rock

David Voelker, University of Wisconsin-Green Bay

Ed Wehrle, Eastern Illinois University

Gregory Wilson, University of Akron

Maria Cristina Zaccarini, Adelphi University

Nancy Zens, Central Oregon Community College

Jean Hansen Zuckweiler, University of Northern Colorado

We also appreciate the help the following scholars and students gave us in providing the information we needed at critical points in the writing of this text: Leslie Brown, Andrew Buchanan, Gillian Carroll, Susan J. Carroll, Paul Clemens, Dorothy Sue Cobble, Jane Coleman-Harbison, Alison Cronk, Elisabeth Eittreim, Phyllis Hunter, Tera Hunter, William Link, James Livingston, Julia Livingston, Gilda Morales, Vicki L. Ruiz, Susan Schrepfer, Bonnie Smith, Melissa Stein, Margaret Sumner, Jessica Unger, and Anne Valk. Jacqueline Castledine, Julia Sandy-Bailey, and Rob Heinrich worked closely with us in finding documents and creating the Document Projects.

We would particularly like to applaud the many hardworking and creative people at Bedford/St. Martin’s who guided us through the labyrinthine process of writing a textbook from scratch. No one was more important to us than the indefatigable and unflappable Sara Wise, our developmental editor for the parent text. We are also deeply grateful to Patricia Rossi, who first persuaded us to undertake this project. Joan Feinberg had the vision that guided us through every page of this book. We could not have had a better team than Denise Wydra, Mary Dougherty, William Lombardo, Jane Knetzger, Christina Horn, Jennifer Jovin, Katherine Bates, Sandra McGuire, and Arrin Kaplan. They also enlisted Naomi Kornhauser, Charlotte Miller, Angela Morrison, Linda McLatchie, Heidi Hood, Shannon Hunt, John Reisbord, and Michelle McSweeney to provide invaluable service. Finally, we would like to thank our friends and family who supported and encouraged us while we were writing the parent textbook and who will undoubtedly continue to cheer us on through this and future editions.

Versions and Supplements

Adopters of the Value Edition of Exploring American Histories and their students have access to abundant resources, including documents, presentation and testing materials, volumes in the acclaimed Bedford Series in History and Culture, and much more. For more information on the offerings described below, visit the book’s catalog site at bedfordstmartins.com/hewittlawsonvalue/catalog, or contact your local Bedford/ St. Martin’s sales representative.

Get the Right Version for Your Class

To accommodate different course lengths and course budgets, the Value Edition of Exploring American Histories is available in different formats, including e-books, which are available at a substantial discount.

♦ Combined edition (chapters 1—29): available in paperback and e-book formats

♦ Volume 1: To 1877 (chapters 1—14): available in paperback and e-book formats

♦ Volume 2: Since 1865 (chapters 14—29): available in paperback and e-book formats

Any of these volumes can be packaged with additional books for a discount. To get ISBNs for discount packages, see the online catalog at bedfordstmartins.com/hewitt lawsonvalue/catalog or contact your Bedford/St. Martin’s representative.

new Assign LaunchPad—the online, interactive e-Book in a Course Space Enriched with integrated Assets The

new standard in digital history, LaunchPad course tools are so intuitive to use that online, hybrid, and face-to-face courses can be set up in minutes. Even novices will find it easy to create assignments, track students’ work, and access a wealth of relevant learning and teaching resources. It is the ideal learning environment for students to work with the text, maps, documents, and assessments. LaunchPad is loaded with the full interactive e-book plus LearningCurve, the Online Document Projects, additional primary sources, videos, chapter summative quizzes, and more. LaunchPad can be used as is or customized, and it easily integrates with course management systems. And with fast ways to build assignments, rearrange chapters, and add new pages, sections, or links, it lets teachers build the course materials they need and hold students accountable.

Let Students Choose Their e-Book Format. In addition to the LaunchPad e-book, students can purchase the downloadable Bedford e-Book to Go for Exploring American Histories from our Web site or find other PDF versions of the e-book at our publishing partners’ sites: CourseSmart, Barnes & Noble NookStudy, Kno, CafeScribe, or Chegg.

new Go Beyond the Printed Page with Bedford integrated

Media As described in the preface and on the inside front cover, students purchasing new books receive access to LearningCurve and Online Document Projects for Exploring American Histories.

 Assign LearningCurve so You Know What Your Students Know and They Come to Class Prepared. Assigning LearningCurve in place of reading quizzes is easy for instructors, and the reporting features help instructors track overall class trends and spot topics that are giving students trouble so they can adjust their lectures and class activities. This online learning tool is popular with students because it was designed to help them rehearse content at their own pace in a nonthreatening, gamelike environment. The feedback for wrong answers provides instructional coaching and sends students back to the book for review. Students answer as many questions as necessary to reach a target score, with repeated chances to revisit material they haven’t mastered. When LearningCurve is assigned, students come to class better prepared.

 Assign the online Document Projects so Students Put Interpretation into Practice. This text comes with ready-made assignable document sets that highlight some of the major topics and themes discussed in the chapter narrative. Callouts to these assignments appear in each chapter and prompt students to go online to read and analyze the document set. Each project comes with an introduction that sets the specific context for the document set, and individual documents are accompanied by a brief headnote. In addition, multiple-choice questions help students analyze the sources by providing instant feedback, and each project culminates with interpret the Evidence and Put it in Context questions that help students connect the sources to the broader historical narrative. With Online Document Projects, students draw their own conclusions about the past while practicing critical-thinking and synthesis skills.

Take Advantage of instructor Resources

Bedford/St. Martin’s has developed a rich array of teaching resources for this book and for this course. They range from lecture and presentation materials and assessment tools to course management options. Most can be downloaded or ordered atbedfordstmartins.com/hewittlawsonvalue/catalog.

Bedford Coursepack for Blackboard, Canvas, Desire2Learn, Angel, Sakai, or Moodle. We have free content to help you integrate our rich content into your course management system. Registered instructors can download coursepacks with no hassle and no strings attached. Content includes our most popular free resources and book- specific content for Exploring American Histories, Value Edition. Visit bedfordstmartins.com/coursepacks to see a demo, find your version, or download your coursepack.

Instructor’s Resource Manual. The instructor’s manual offers tools to both experienced and first-time instructors for preparing lectures and running discussions. It includes chapter-review material, teaching strategies, and a guide to chapter-specific supplements available for the text, plus suggestions on how to get the most out of LearningCurve.

Computerized Test Bank. The test bank includes a mix of carefully crafted multiple- choice, short-answer, and essay questions for each chapter. All questions appear in Microsoft Word format and in easy-to-use test bank software that allows instructors to add, edit, re-sequence, and print questions and answers. Instructors can also export questions into a variety of formats, including Blackboard, Desire2Learn, and Moodle.

The Bedford Lecture Kit: PowerPoint Maps, Images, Lecture Outlines, and i>clicker Content. Look good and save time with The Bedford Lecture Kit. These presentation materials are downloadable individually from the Instructor Resources tab atbedfordstmartins.com/hewittlawsonvalue/catalog and are available on The Bedford Lecture Kit Instructor’s Resource CD-ROM. They provide ready-made and fully customizable PowerPoint multimedia presentations that include lecture outlines with embedded maps, figures, and selected images from the parent textbook and extra background for instructors. Also available are maps and selected images in JPEG and PowerPoint formats; content for i>clicker, a classroom response system, in Microsoft Word and PowerPoint formats; the Instructor’s Resource Manual in Microsoft Word format; and outline maps in PDF format for quizzing or handing out. All files are suitable for copying onto transparency acetates.

America in Motion: Video Clips for U.S. History. Set history in motion with America in Motion, an instructor DVD containing dozens of short digital movie files of events in twentieth-century American history. From the wreckage of the battleship Maine, to FDR’s fireside chats, to Ronald Reagan speaking at the Brandenburg Gate, America in Motion engages students with dynamic scenes from key events and challenges them to think critically. All files are classroom-ready, edited for brevity, and easily integrated with PowerPoint or other presentation software for electronic lectures or assignments. An accompanying guide provides each clip’s historical context, ideas for use, and suggested questions.

Videos and Multimedia. A wide assortment of videos and multimedia CD-ROMs on various topics in U.S. history is available to qualified adopters through your Bedford/St. Martin’s sales representative.

Package and Save Your Students Money

For information on free packages and discounts up to 50%, visit bedfordstmartins.com/hewittlawsonvalue/catalog or contact your local Bedford/St. Martin’s sales representative. The products that follow all qualify for discount packaging.

Bedford Digital Collections @ bedfordstmartins.com/bdc/catalog. This source collection provides a flexible and affordable online repository of discovery-oriented primary source projects and single primary sources that you can easily customize and link to from your course management system or Web site. Package discounts are available.

The Bedford Series in History and Culture. More than 150 titles in this highly praised series combine first-rate scholarship, historical narrative, and important primary documents for undergraduate courses. Each book is brief, inexpensive, and focused on a specific topic or period. For a complete list of titles, visit bedfordstmartins.com /history/series. Package discounts are available.

Rand McNally Historical Atlas of American History. This collection of more than 84 full-color maps illustrates key events and eras, from early exploration, settlement, expansion, and immigration to U.S. involvement in wars abroad and on U.S. soil. Introductory pages for each section include a brief overview, timelines, graphs, and photographs to quickly establish a historical context. Available for $5.00 when packaged with the print text.

Maps in Context: A Workbook for American History. Written by historical cartography expert Gerald A. Danzer (University of Illinois at Chicago), this skill-building workbook helps students comprehend essential connections between geographic literacy and historical understanding. Organized to correspond to the typical U.S. survey course, Maps in Context presents a wealth of map-centered projects and convenient pop quizzes that give students hands-on experience working with maps. Available free when packaged with the print text.

The Bedford Glossary for U.S. History. This handy supplement for the survey course gives students historically contextualized definitions for hundreds of terms—from abolitionism to zoot suit—that they will encounter in lectures, reading, and exams. Available free when packaged with the print text.

U.S. History Matters: A Student Guide to U.S. History Online. This resource, written by Kelly Schrum, Alan Gevinson, and the late Roy Rosenzweig (all of George Mason University), provides an illustrated and annotated guide to 250 of the most useful Web sites for student research in U.S. history as well as advice on evaluating and using Internet sources. This essential guide is based on the acclaimed “History Matters” Web site developed by the American Social History Project and the Center for History and New Media. Available free when packaged with the print text.

trade Books. Titles published by sister companies Hill and Wang; Farrar, Straus and Giroux; Henry Holt and Company; St. Martin’s Press; Picador; and Palgrave Macmillan are available at a 50% discount when packaged with Bedford/St. Martin’s textbooks. For more information, visitbedfordstmartins.com/tradeup.

A Pocket Guide to Writing in History. This portable and affordable reference tool by Mary Lynn Rampolla, now also available as a searchable e-book, provides reading, writing, and research advice useful to students in all history courses. Concise yet comprehensive advice on approaching typical history assignments, developing critical- reading skills, writing effective history papers, conducting research, using and documenting sources, and avoiding plagiarism—enhanced with practical tips and examples throughout— has made this slim reference a best seller. Package discounts are available.

A Student’s Guide to History. This complete guide to success in any history course provides the practical help students need to be effective. In addition to introducing students to the nature of the discipline, author Jules Benjamin teaches a wide range of skills from preparing for exams to approaching common writing assignments, and he explains the research and documentation process with plentiful examples. Package discounts are available.

Going to the Source: The Bedford Reader in American History. Developed by Victoria Bissell Brown and Timothy J. Shannon, this reader’s strong pedagogical framework helps students learn how to ask fruitful questions in order to evaluate documents effectively and develop critical-reading skills. The reader’s wide variety of chapter topics that complement the survey course and its rich diversity of sources—from personal letters to political cartoons—provoke students’ interest as it teaches them the skills they need to successfully interrogate historical sources. Package discounts are available.

America Firsthand. With its distinctive focus on ordinary people, this primary documents reader, by Anthony Marcus, John M. Giggie, and David Burner, offers a remarkable range of perspectives on American history from those who lived it. Popular Points of View sections expose students to different perspectives on a specific event or topic, and Visual Portfolios invite analysis of the visual record. Package discounts are available.

Maps, Figures, and Tables

Chapter 1

MAP 1.1 The Mediterranean World, c. 1150-1300 8

MAP 1.2 European Explorations in the Americas, 1492-1536 15

MAP 1.3 The Columbian Exchange, 16th Century 18

MAP 1.4 Spanish Explorations in North America, 1528-1542 21

Chapter 2

MAP 2.1 The Growth of English Settlement in the Chesapeake, c. 1650 40

Chapter 3

MAP 3.1 European Empires in North America, 1715-1750 61

MAP 3.2 North Atlantic Trade in the 18th Century 66

MAP 3.3 Ethnic and Racial Diversity in British North America, 1750 75

FIGURE 3.1 The Slave Trade in Numbers, 1501-1866 68

FIGURE 3.2 African Populations in the British West Indies, Northern Colonies, and Southern Colonies, 1650-1750 73

TABLE 3.1 English Colonies Established in North America, 1607-1750 57

Chapter 4

MAP 4.1 Frontier Settlements and Indian Towns in Pennsylvania, 1700-1740 95

FIGURE 4.1 Wealth Inequality in Northern Cities, 1690-1775 94

TABLE 4.1 Sex Ratios in the White Population for Selected Colonies, 1624-1755 87

TABLE 4.2 Sexual Coercion Cases Downgraded in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1731-1739 92

Chapter 5

MAP 5.1 The French and Indian War, 1754-1763 114

MAP 5.2 British Conflicts with Indians, 1758-1763, and the Proclamation Line 117

Chapter 6

MAP 6.1 The War in the North, 1775-1778 147

MAP 6.2 The War in the West and the South, 1777-1782 156

Chapter 7

MAP 7.1 Cessions of Western Land, 1782-1802 167

MAP 7.2 American Indians in the Ohio River Valley, c. 1785-1795 183

TABLE 7.1 Votes of State Ratifying Conventions 177

Chapter 8

MAP 8.1 Lewis and Clark and Zebulon Pike Expeditions, 1804-1807 202

MAP 8.2 Indian Land Cessions, 1790-1820 206

TABLE 8.1 Prices at George Davenport's Trading Post, Rock Island, Illinois, c. 1820 207

TABLE 8.2 Growth of Cotton Production in the United States, 1790-1830 211

Chapter 9

MAP 9.1 The War of 1812 221 MAP 9.2 Roads and Canals to 1837 225

MAP 9.3 The Missouri Compromise and Westward Expansion, 1820s 230

FIGURE 9.1 The Elections of 1824 and 1828 236

Chapter 10

MAP 10.1 The Spread of Slavery and Cotton, 1820-1860 251

MAP 10.2 Indian Removals and Relocations, 1820s-1850s 260

MAP 10.3 The Mexican-American War, 1846-1848 267

Chapter 11

FiGURE 11.1 Immigration to the United States, 1820-1860 275

Chapter 12

MAP 12.1 Western Trails and Indian Nations, c. 1850 304

MAP 12.2 Kansas-Nebraska Territory 312

MAP 12.3 The Election of 1860 318

MAP 12.4 The Original Confederacy 319

Chapter 13

MAP 13.1 Early Civil War Battles, 1861-1862 330

MAP 13.2 Battles of Gettysburg and Vicksburg, 1863 341

FiGURE 13.1 Economies of the North and South, 1860 327

Chapter 14

MAP 14.1 Reconstruction in the South 361

MAP 14.2 The Election of 1876 371

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!
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