Abbreviations

Notes

Introduction. Worlds Overseas

1. Cited by Carla Rahn Phillips, Life at Sea in the Sixteenth Century. The Landlubber's Lament of Eugenio de Salazar (The James Ford Bell Lectures, no. 24, University of Minnesota, 1987), p. 21.

2. For numbers of emigrants, see Ida Altman and James Horn (eds.), `To Make America'. European Emigration in the Early Modern Period (Berkeley, Los Angeles, Oxford, 1991), p. 3.

3. Enrique Otte, Cartas privadas de emigrantes a Indias, 1540-1616 (Seville, 1988), letter 73. For life at sea on the Spanish Atlantic see Pablo E. Perez-Mallaina, Spain's Men of the Sea. Daily Life on the Indies Fleets in the Sixteenth Century (Baltimore and London, 1998).

4. Cited in David Cressy, Coming Over. Migration and Communication between England and New England in the Seventeenth Century (Cambridge, 1987), p. 157.

5. See Daniel Vickers, `Competency and Competition: Economic Culture in Early America', WMQ, 3rd set., 47 (1990), pp. 3-29.

6. For the cognitive problems facing Early Modern Europeans in America, see Anthony Pagden, The Fall of Natural Man (revised edn, Cambridge, 1986), especially the Introduction and ch. 1.

7. David Hume, Essays. Moral, Political and Literary (Oxford, 1963), p. 210.

8. See Antonello Gerbi, The Dispute of the New World. The History of a Polemic, 1750-1900, trans. Jeremy Moyle (Pittsburgh, 1973).

9. Louis Hartz, The Founding of New Societies (New York, 1964), p. 3.

10. Turner first advanced his hypothesis in his 1893 lecture to the American Historical Association on `The Significance of the Frontier in American History' (reprinted in Frontier and Section. Selected Essays of Frederick Jackson Turner (Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1961)).

11. For a summary of the criticisms, see Ray Allen Billington, `The American Frontier', in Paul Bohannen and Fred Plog (eds), Beyond the Frontier. Social Process and Cultural Change (Garden City, NY11967), pp. 3-24.

12. See, for Latin America, Alistair Hennessy, The Frontier in Latin American History (Albuquerque, NM, 1978), and Francisco de Solano and Salvador Bernabeu (eds), Estudios (nuevos y viejos) sobre la frontera (Madrid, 1991).

13. Herbert E. Bolton, `The Epic of Greater America', reprinted in his Wider Horizons of American History (New York, 1939; repr. Notre Dame, IL, 1967). See also Lewis Hanke (ed.), Do the Americas Have a Common History? (New York, 1964), and J. H. Elliott, Do the Americas Have a Common History? An Address (The John Carter Brown Library, Providence, RI, 1998).

14. Although, for a recent bold attempt to grapple with the question in short compass, see Felipe Fernandez-Armesto, The Americas. A Hemispheric History (New York, 2003).

15. Beginning with Frank Tannenbaum's seminal and provocative book, Slave and Citizen. The Negro in the Americas (New York, 1964).

16. See in particular Altman and Horn (eds), `To Make America', and Nicholas Canny (ed.), Europeans on the Move. Studies on European Migration, 1500-1800 (Oxford, 1994). For the now fashionable concept of 'Atlantic History', in which slavery and emigration are important players, see Bernard Bailyn, Atlantic History. Concept and Contours (Cambridge, MA and London, 2005), David Armitage and Michael J. Braddick (eds), The British Atlantic World, 1500-1800 (New York, 2002), and Horst Pietschmann (ed.), Atlantic History and the Atlantic System (Gottingen, 2002).

17. Ronald Syme, Colonial Elites. Rome, Spain and the Americas (Oxford, 1958), p. 42.

18. James Lang, Conquest and Commerce. Spain and England in the Americas (New York, San Francisco, London, 1975).

19. Claudio Veliz, The New World of the Gothic Fox. Culture and Economy in British and Spanish America (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, 1994). See my review, `Going Baroque', New York Review of Books, 20 October 1994.

20. For discussions of the problems of comparative history see George M. Frederickson, `Comparative History', in Michael Kammen (ed.), The Past Before Us (New York, 1980), ch. 19, and John H. Elliott, `Comparative History', in Carlos Barra (ed.), Historia a debate (3 vols, Santiago de Compostela, 1995), 3, pp. 9-19, and the references there given.

Chapter 1. Intrusion and Empire

1. England and its overseas possessions finally switched to the Gregorian calendar in 1752. The transition in the American colonies went smoothly, partly because the presence of so many immigrants from continental Europe meant that many colonial Americans had become used to operating the Julian and Gregorian calendars simultaneously. See Mark M. Smith, `Culture, Commerce and Calendar Reform in Colonial America', WMQ, 3rd set., 55 (1998), pp. 557-84.

2. For the total figure of about 530 Europeans on Cortes's expedition see Hugh Thomas, The Conquest of Mexico (London, 1993), p. 151, n. 36.

3. Francisco Lopez de Gemara, Cortes. The Life of the Conqueror by his Secretary, trans. and ed. Lesley Byrd Simpson (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1964), p. 66. For the events of the conquest, see Thomas, The Conquest, and Hernan Cortes, Letters from Mexico, trans. and ed. Anthony Pagden (New Haven and London, 1986).

4. Jose Luis Martinez (ed.), Documentos cortesianos (4 vols, Mexico City, 1990-2), 1, p. 55 (Doc. 1, `Instrucciones de Diego Velazquez a Hernan Cortes', clause 55). See also Francisco Morales Padron, `Descubrimiento y toma de posesion', Anuario de Estudios Americanos, 12 (1955), pp. 321-80 for the ceremonial acts by which Spaniards took possession.

5. See Martinez (ed.), Documentos, 1, and Jose Luis Martinez, Hernan Cortes (Mexico City, 1990), pp. 141-3.

6. See John H. Elliott, `Cortes, Velazquez and Charles V, in Cortes, Letters from Mexico, pp. xi-xxxvii, for this and Cortes's further manoeuvres.

7. Gemara, Cortes, pp. 138-9.

8. Cortes, Letters from Mexico, pp. 85-6 and 98-9.

9. Anthony Pagden, Lords of All the World. Ideologies of Empire in Spain, Britain and France c.1500-c.1800 (New Haven and London, 1995), p. 64.

10. John Parker, Books to Build an Empire (Amsterdam, 1965), pp. 45, 94.

11. Francisco Lopez de Gemara, The Pleasant Historie of the Conquest of the Weast India, now called New Spayne (London, 1578). The book was republished in 1596. See the introduction by L. B. Simpson to his translation of Gemara, Cortes, p. xvii, and Parker, Books to Build an Empire, pp. 87-8.

12. Gemara, Cortes, p. 184; The Pleasant Historie, pp. 230 and 232.

13. Richard Hakluyt, The Principall Navigations Voiages and Discoveries of the English Nation, facsimile edn (2 vols, Hakluyt Society, Cambridge, 1965), 2, p. 715 (here, as elsewhere in the book, I have modernized the spelling).

14. Parker, Books to Build, p. 105.

15. E. G. R. Taylor, The Original Writings and Correspondence of the Two Richard Hakluyts (2 vols, Hakluyt Society, 2nd set., 76-7, London, 1935), 2, p. 275.

16. D. B. Quinn (ed.), The Roanoke Voyages (2 vols, Hakluyt Society, 2nd set., 104-5, London, 1955), 1, p. 6, and see for the Roanoke enterprise David Beers Quinn, Set Fair for Roanoke. Voyages and Colonies, 1584-1606 (Chapel Hill, NC and London, 1985).

17. Henry R. Wagner, The Rise of Fernando Cortes (Los Angeles, 1944), pp. 27-8; Martinez, Hernan Cortes, pp. 128-9.

18. Charles M. Andrews, The Colonial Period of American History (4 vols, New Haven, 1934-8; repr. 1964), 1, ch. 4; David Beers Quinn, England and the Discovery of America, 1481-1620 (London, 1974), ch. 18; and see Theodore K. Rabb, Enterprise and Empire (Cambridge, MA, 1967), for merchant and gentry investment.

19. Hugh Thomas, in his Conquest of Mexico, pp. 129-30, seems to have established that he sailed in 1506 and not, as is normally stated, in 1504.

20. The story is recounted by the sixteenth-century chronicler, Cervantes de Salazar. See J. H. Elliott, Spain and its World, 1500-1700 (New Haven and London, 1989), ch. 2 ('The Mental World of Hernan Cortes'), pp. 33-4.

21. For Newport's life, about which relatively little is known, see Kenneth R. Andrews, `Christopher Newport of Limehouse, Mariner', WMQ, 3rd set., 11 (1954), pp. 28-41, and his Elizabethan Privateering (Cambridge, 1964), pp. 84-6.

22. No complete list is available, but a partial list is provided by Captain John Smith in The Complete Works of Captain John Smith, ed. Philip L. Barbour (3 vols, Chapel Hill, NC and London, 1986), 1, pp. 207-9.

23. Edmund S. Morgan, American Slavery, American Freedom (New York, 1975), p. 84.

24. Robert Himmerich y Valencia, The Encomenderos of New Spain, 1521-1555 (Austin, TX, 1991), p. 29.

25. Bernal Diaz del Castillo, Historia verdadera de la conquista de la Nueva Espana, ed. Joaquin Ramirez Cabanas (3 vols, Mexico City, 1944), 3, p. 239.

26. Himmerich, Encomenderos, p. 10.

27. Alden Vaughan, American Genesis. Captain John Smith and the Founding of Virginia (Boston and Toronto, 1975), p. 31.

28. M. I. Finley, `Colonies - an Attempt at a Typology', TRHS, 5th set., 26 (1976), pp. 167-88.

29. Nicholas Canny, Kingdom and Colony. Ireland in the Atlantic World, 1560-1800 (Baltimore, 1988), p. 13.

30. A possible distinction between a plantation and a colony, meaning the people who settled and worked the land, appears in a letter written by Emmanuel Downing in 1633, when he writes that Sir Ferdinando Gorges and his co-partners `have these many years laboured to make a plantation in New England', and `have of late made claim to the very ground where Mr. Winthrop, with a colony, hath built and planted . . .' (cited by Francis J. Bremer, John Winthrop. America's Forgotten Founding Father (Oxford, 2003), p. 233).

31. From The Planter's Plea (Anon., 1630), in Myra Jehlen and Michael Warner (eds), The English Literatures of America, 1500-1800 (New York and London, 1997), p. 100. `Settler', as a word interchangeable with `planter', first appeared at the end of the seventeenth century.

32. Jaime Eyzaguirre, Ideario y ruta de la emancipacidn chilena (Santiago de Chile, 1957), p. 27.

33. Philip L. Barbour (ed.), The Jamestown Voyages under the First Charter, 1606-1609 (2 vols, Hakluyt Society, 2nd set., 136-7, Cambridge, 1969), 1, doc. 1, p. 24 (Letters Patent to Sir Thomas Gates and Others, 10 April 1606).

34. Milagros del Vas Mingo, Las capitulaciones de Indias en el siglo XVI (Madrid, 1986), doc. 10.

35. Taylor, Writings of the Two Hakluyts, 2, doc. 47, p. 330.

36. Smith, Works, 1, p. 205; Vaughan, American Genesis, p. 27.

37. For the early Spanish interest in this region, see Paul E. Hoffman, A New Andalucia and a Way to the Orient. The American Southeast During the Sixteenth Century (Baton Rouge, LA and London, 1990).

38. For Ajacan see Clifford M. Lewis and Albert J. Loomie (eds), The Spanish Jesuit Mission in Virginia, 1570-1572 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1953), and Charlotte M. Gradie, `Spanish Jesuits in Virginia. The Mission that Failed', The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 96 (1988), pp. 131-56. Also David J. Weber, The Spanish Frontier in North America (New Haven and London, 1992), pp. 71-3. For `Don Luis de Velasco' and his identification with Opechancanough, Carl Bridenbaugh, Jamestown, 1544-1699 (New York and Oxford, 1989), pp. 14-20. The identification is much contested. See Helen C. Rountree, Pocahontas 's People. The Powhatan Indians of Virginia through Four Centuries (Norman, OK and London, 1990), pp. 18-19.

39. Smith, Works, 1, p. 206. For relations between the settlers and the Powhatan in the first years of Jamestown, see Martin H. Quitt, `Trade and Acculturation at Jamestown, 1607-1609: the Limits of Understanding', WMQ, 3rd set., 52 (1995), pp. 227-58.

40. Barbour, Jamestown Voyages, 1, doc. 13, p. 88 (A Relation ... 21 May-21 June 1607').

41. Alexander Brown, The Genesis of the United States (2 vols, London, 1890), 1, doc. lxxxix, p. 299; Wesley Frank Craven, `Indian Policy in Early Virginia', WMQ, 3rd set., 1 (1944), pp. 65-82, at p. 65.

42. Charles Verlinden, The Beginnings of Modern Colonization (Ithaca, NY and London, 1970), pp. 230-1. For a recent brief survey of interpretations of the Alexandrine bulls, see Guy Bedouelle, `La Donation alexandrine et le traite de Tordesillas', in 1492. Le choc des deux mondes (Acres du Colloque international organise par la Commission Nationale Suisse pour l'UNESCO, Geneva, 1992), pp. 193-209.

43. See Juan Lopez de Palacios Rubins, De las Islas del mar oceano, ed. S. Zavala and A. Millares Carlo (Mexico and Buenos Aires, 1954), pp. cxxiv-cxxvi; James Muldoon, The Americas in the Spanish World Order. The Justification for Conquest in the Seventeenth Century (Philadelphia, 1994), pp. 136-9; Patricia Seed, Ceremonies of Possession in Europe's Conquest of the New World, 1492-1640 (Cambridge, 1995), ch. 3.

44. Richard Hakluyt, `Discourse of Western Planting' (1584) in Taylor, Writings of the Two Hakluyts, 2, p. 215.

45. D. B. Quinn (ed.), The Voyages and Colonizing Enterprises of Sir Humphrey Gilbert (Hakluyt Society, 2nd set., vols 83-4, London, 1940), 2, p. 361.

46. William Strachey, The Historie of Travell into Virginia Britania (1612), ed. Louis B. Wright and Virginia Freund (Hakluyt Society, 2nd set., vol. 103, London, 1953), pp. 9-10.

47. Pagden, Lords of All the World, pp. 76-7.

48. Francisco de Vitoria, Political Writings, ed. Anthony Pagden and Jeremy Lawrance (Cambridge, 1991), pp. 278-80 ('On the American Indians', 3.1).

49. William Crashaw's Sermon of 21 February 1609 (i.e. 1610 New Style) in Brown, Genesis of the United States, 1, doc. cxx, p. 363.

50. Barbour, Jamestown Voyages, 1, doc. 4, p. 51.

51. Ibid., p. 52.

52. Ian K. Steele, Warpaths. Invasions of North America (Oxford, 1994), p. 41.

53. James Axtell, After Columbus. Essays in the Ethnohistory of Colonial North America (Oxford, 1988), ch. 10 ('The Rise and Fall of the Powhatan Empire').

54. Francis Jennings, The Invasion of America (Chapel Hill, NC, 1975), pp. 23-4; Axtell, After Columbus, p. 186.

55. For a review of the debate on the population of pre-conquest Mexico see Thomas, The Conquest of Mexico, appendix 1; Frederic W. Gleach, Powhatan's World and Colonial Virginia. A Conflict of Cultures (Lincoln, NE and London, 1997), p. 26, for Powhatan.

56. Smith, Works, 1, p. 173.

57. For early relations between Powhatan and the English, in addition to Rountree, Pocahontas 's People, Gleach, Powhatan's World, and Axtell, After Columbus, ch. 10, see April Lee Hatfield, Atlantic Virginia. Intercolonial Relations in the Seventeenth Century (Philadelphia, 2004), ch. 1.

58. Strachey, Travell into Virginia, p. 106.

59. See the interpretation in Gleach, Powhatan's World, pp. 109-22.

60. Smith, Works, 1, p. 55.

61. Axtell, After Columbus, p. 129.

62. Elliott, Spain and its World, pp. 36-8; James Lockhart (ed.), We People Here. Nahuatl Accounts of the Conquest of Mexico (Repertorium Columbianum, 1, Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London, 1993), p. 17; Susan D. Gillespie, The Aztec Kings (Tucson, AZ, 1989), pp. 226-30.

63. Smith, Works, 1, pp. 236-7.

64. Barbour, Jamestown Voyages, 1, doc. 1, p. 28.

65. Ibid., 1, doc. 17, p. 107 (letter from William Brewster, 1607).

66. Ibid., 1, doc. 21, p. 113.

67. Ibid., 1, doc. 14, p. 101.

68. Morgan, American Slavery, American Freedom, pp. 76-7.

69. Smith, Works, 1, p. 327.

70. For a recent account of `the Great Massacre of 1622' in the context of Powhatan culture, see Gleach, Powhatan's World, ch. 6. Gleach prefers the word coup to massacre. Other historians speak of an uprising (see his Introduction, pp. 4-5). No single word can be found to cover all interpretations.

71. As in James Lang's Conquest and Commerce.

72. See R. R. Davies, The First English Empire. Power and Identities in the British Isles, 1093-1343 (Oxford, 2000), for an acute analysis of English expansion into medieval Wales and Ireland as a colonizing and annexing process.

73. Nicholas Canny, The Elizabethan Conquest of Ireland. A Pattern Established, 1565-1576 (New York, 1976), p. 118.

74. For a brief account in English of the Reconquista, see D. W. Lomax, The Reconquest of Spain (London and New York, 1978).

75. For European voyages of exploration before Columbus, see the surveys by J. R. S. Phillips, The Medieval Expansion of Europe (Oxford, 1988), and Felipe Fernandez-Armesto, Before Columbus. Exploration and Colonisation from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic, 1229-1492 (London, 1987).

76. See in particular Vitorino De Maghalaes Godinho, A economia dos descobrimentos henriquinos (Lisbon, 1962), ch. 5, and Peter Russell, Prince Henry `the Navigator'. A Life (New Haven and London, 2000).

77. For the Canary Islands, see Felipe Fern andez-Armesto, The Canary Islands after the Conquest (Oxford, 1982).

78. See Verlinden, Beginnings of Modern Colonization, ch. 1.

79. Christopher Columbus, Journal of the First Voyage, ed. and trans. B. W. Ife (Warminster, 1990), pp. 133-5.

80. Juan Perez de Tudela, Las armadas de Indias y los origenes de la politica de colonizacion, 1492-1505 (Madrid, 1956), pp. 82-5.

81. Carl Ortwin Sauer, The Early Spanish Main (Cambridge, 1966), remains fundamental for Hispaniola and its fate. For a more recent survey, based on the results of archaeological investigation, see Kathleen Deagan and Jose Maria Cruxent, Columbus's Outpost among the Tainos. Spain and America at La Isabela, 1492-1498 (New Haven and London, 2002). Hugh Thomas, Rivers of Gold. The Rise of the Spanish Empire (London, 2003), provides a comprehensive survey of early Spanish activities in the Caribbean and on the central American mainland.

82. See Mario Gongora, Studies in the Colonial History of Spanish America (Cambridge, 1975), ch. 1.

83. For example, when describing the city of Cholula in his second letter: `I counted from a mosque more than 430 towers in this city, and they were all of mosques' (Hernan Cortes, Cartas y documentos (ed. Mario Sanchez-Barba (Mexico City, 1963), p. 51).

84. Gongora, Studies, p. 2; Cortes, Letters from Mexico, p. 40.

85. Ursula Lamb, Frey Nicolas de Ovando. Gobernador de las Indias, 1501-1509 (Madrid, 1956).

86. Francisco Lopez de Gemara, Primera parte de la historia general de las Indias (BAE, vol. 22, Madrid, 1852), p. 181. For Cortes and his philosophy of settlement, see Richard Konetzke, `Hernan Cortes como poblador de la Nueva Espana', Estudios Cortesianos (Madrid, 1948), pp. 341-81.

87. For Cortes's entrepreneurial activities, see France V. Scholes, `The Spanish Conqueror as a Business Man: a Chapter in the History of Fernando Cortes', New Mexico Quarterly, 28 (1958), pp. 5-29.

88. Murdo J. MacLeod, Spanish Central America. A Socioeconomic History, 1520-1720 (Berkeley, 1973), ch. 6.

89. Cited by J. H. Elliott, The Old World and the New, 1492-1650 (Cambridge, 1970; repr. 1992), p. 78, from Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo, Historia general y natural de las Indies (5 vols, BAE, vols 117-21, Madrid, 1959), 1, p. 110.

90. Gemara, Historia general, BAE, vol. 22, pp. 177 and 184. Gemara uses the word mejorar for improve. For the language of improvement in British America, see Nicholas Canny and Anthony Pagden (eds), Colonial Identity in the Atlantic World, 1500-1800 (Princeton, 1987), pp. 10-11, 228-9, and David Hancock, Citizens of the World. London Merchants and the Integration of the British Atlantic Community, 1735-1785 (Cambridge, 1995), pp. 281-2.

91. The Pedrarias Davila expedition of 1513 is another. See Maria del Carmen Mena Garcia, Pedrarias Davila o `la Ira de Dios'. Una historia olvidada (Seville, 1992), p. 32, for Ferdinand's close personal interest in the details of the expedition.

92. Cortes, Letters from Mexico, p. 48.

93. Roy Strong, Gloriana. The Portraits of Queen Elizabeth I (London, 1987), pp. 131-3. I am grateful to Professor David Armitage for drawing my attention to this reference.

94. e.g. by Edmund Spenser in his dedication of The Faerie Queene to Elizabeth as the `Magnificent Empresse Elizabeth by the Grace of God Queen of England Fraunce and Ireland and of Virginia'. David Armitage, The Ideological Origins of the British Empire (Cambridge, 2000), pp. 52-3, and see pp. 45-7 for the sixteenth-century emergence of an `Empire of Great Britain'.

95. Strachey, Travell into Virginia, p. 9.

96. David Quinn's pioneering work in finding connections between the colonization of Ireland NY11966), (Ithaca, has been followed up by Nicholas Canny, especially in his Kingdom and Colony. Irish the and Elizabethans The in instance for America, North and

97. Voyages of Gilbert, 1, p. 9.

98. Fora convenient summary of the arguments, see Kenneth R. Andrews, Trade, Plunder and Settlement. Maritime Enterprise and the Genesis of the British Empire, 1480-1630 (Cambridge, 1984), pp. 187-90.

99. For Norumbega, see Emerson W. Baker et al. (eds), American Beginnings. Exploration, Culture and Cartography in the Land of Norumbega (Lincoln, NE and London, 1994).

100. For Extremadura, see Ida Altman, Emigrants and Society. Extremadura and Spanish America in the Sixteenth Century (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, 1989), ch. 6. For the West Country connection, Joyce Youings, `Raleigh's Country and the Sea', Proceedings of the British Academy, 75 (1989), pp. 267-90.

101. Morgan, American Slavery, American Freedom, pp. 83-4.

102. Voyages of Gilbert, 1, p. 71.

103. See Juan Friede, Los Welser en la conquista de Venezuela (Caracas, 1961), for the failure of the Welsers, and Wesley Frank Craven, Dissolution of the Virginia Company. The Failure of a Colonial Experiment (New York, 1932), for that of the Virginia Company.

104. See John H. Elliott, Illusion and Disillusionment. Spain and the Indies (The Creighton Lecture for 1991, University of London, 1992).

105. Richard Helgerson, Forms of Nationhood. The Elizabethan Writing of England (Chicago and London, 1992), p. 168.

106. Taylor, Writings of the Two Hakluyts, 1, p. 143.

107. Ibid., 2, pp. 233-4.

108. Cited by Elliott, Illusion and Disillusionment, p. 14.

109. For an introduction to this debate, see Elliott, Spain and its World, ch. 11 ('Self-Perception and Decline in Early Seventeenth-Century Spain').

110. Cited from his Memorial de la politica necesaria y util restauracion a la republica de Espana (Valladolid, 1600), fo. 15v, in Elliott, Illusion and Disillusionment, pp. 12-13.

111. See Michel Cavillac, Gueux et marchands dans le `Guzman de Alfarache', 1599-1604 (Bordeaux, 1993), especially ch. 5, for insights into this struggle in Castile at the turn of the century.

112. See Carole Shammas, `English Commercial Development and American Colonization 1560-1620', in K. R. Andrews et al., The Westward Enterprise (Liverpool, 1978), ch. 8. Also Charles Wilson, Profit and Power (London, 1957), and Barry Supple, Commercial Crisis and Change in England, 1600-1642 (Cambridge, 1959).

113. Andrews, Trade, Plunder and Settlement, pp. 312-13.

114. Cited by Richard S. Dunn, Puritan and Yankee. The Winthrop Dynasty of New England, 1630-1717 (Princeton, 1962), p. 36.

Chapter 2. Occupying American Space

1. William Burke, An Account of the European Settlements in America (6th edn., London, 1777), pp. 203-4. I am grateful to Dr Ian Harris of the University of Leicester for making available to me a copy of this book.

2. For a brilliant account by a modern geographer of the varieties of settlement of 'Atlantic America', see vol. 1 (Atlantic America, 1492-1800') of D. W. Meinig, The Shaping of America (New Haven and London, 1986).

3. Everett Emerson (ed.), Letters from New England. The Massachusetts Bay Colony, 1629-1638 (Amherst, MA, 1976), p. 21.

4. Smith, Works, 1, p. 143 (A Map of Virginia').

5. Jose de Acosta, Historia natural y moral de las Indias, ed. Edmundo O'Gorman (2nd edn, Mexico City and Buenos Aires, 1962), p. 127.

6. Thomas Gomez, L'Envers de l'Eldorado. Economie coloniale et travail indigene dans la Colombie du XVIeme siecle (Toulouse, 1984), p. 143.

7. The suggestive work of Patricia Seed, Ceremonies of Possession, and `Taking Possession and Reading Texts: Establishing the Authority of Overseas Empires', WMQ, 3rd set., 49 (1992), pp. 183-209, seems too keen to emphasize differences based on national stereotypes.

8. Above, p. 12; Pagden, Lords of All the World, p. 76.

9. Cited from Partida III, tit. 28, ley 29, by Morales Padron, `Descubrimiento y toma de posesion', p. 332.

10. Introduction by Eduardo Arcila Farias to Joseph del Campillo y Cosio, Nuevo sistema de gobierno economico Para la America (2nd edn, Merida, Venezuela, 1971), p. 50.

11. Pagden, Lords of All the World, pp. 91-2.

12. Cited by Morales Padron, `Descubrimiento y toma de posesion', p. 334.

13. Journal of the First Voyage, pp. 29 and 36.

14. Cristobal Colon, Textos y documentos completos, ed. Consuelo Varela (2nd edn, Madrid, 1992), p. 272.

15. Morales Padron, `Descubrimiento y toma de posesion', pp. 331 and 342. For Cortes, see above, p. 4.

16. Hakluyt, Navigations, 2, pp. 687 and 702; Seed, `Taking Possession', pp. 183-4.

17. Hakluyt, Navigations, 2, p. 677.

18. Gradie, `Spanish Jesuits in Virginia', p. 133.

19. Pagden, Lords of All the World, pp. 76-9; and above p. 12.

20. Hakluyt, Navigations, 2, p. 687.

21. D. B. Quinn and Alison M. Quinn (eds.), The New England Voyages 1602-1608 (Hakluyt Society 2nd set., vol. 161, London, 1983), p. 267.

22. Seed, `Taking Possession', pp. 190-1.

23. Carmen Val Julian, `Entre la realidad y el deseo. La toponomia del descubrimiento en Colon y Cortes', in Oscar Mazin Gomez (ed.), Mexico y el mundo hispanico (2 vols, Zamora, Michoacan, 2000), 1, pp. 265-79; Stephen Greenblatt, Marvelous Possessions. The Wonder of the New World (Chicago, 1991), pp. 82-3; and, for the wider context of Columbus's choice of names, Valerie I. J. Flint, The Imaginative Landscape of Christopher Columbus (Princeton, 1992).

24. Helen Nader (trans. and ed.), The Book of Privileges Issued to Christopher Columbus by King Fernando and Queen Isabel 1492-1502 (Repertorium Columbianum, 3, Berkeley, Los Angeles, Oxford, 1996), p. 99 (Letter of 16 August 1494).

25. Greenblatt, Marvelous Possessions, p. 82.

26. Barbara E. Mundy, The Mapping of New Spain (Chicago and London, 1996), p. 144.

27. Cortes, Letters from Mexico, p. 158. For naming practices by Cortes and other conquistadores, see Carmen Val Julian, `La toponomia conquistadora', Relaciones (El Colegio de Michoacan), 70 (1997), pp. 41-61.

28. Baker, American Beginnings, ch. 3.

29. Smith, Works, 1, p. 324; Quinn, New England Voyages, p. 3.

30. Smith, Works, 3, p. 278.

31. Smith, Works, 1, pp. 309 and 319.

32. George R. Stewart, Names on the Land. A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States (New York, 1945; repr. 1954), p. 64.

33. Ibid., p. 59.

34. Fernandez de Oviedo, Historia general y natural, 2, p. 334. See also Seed, Ceremonies of Possession, p. 175.

35. Iconoclastes, p. 1, cited by Alicia Mayer, Dos americanos, dos pensamientos. Carlos de Sigiienza y Gongora y Cotton Mather (Mexico City, 1998), p. 161.

36. Cited by Stewart, Names on the Land, p. 53.

37. See Geoffrey Parker, Empire, War and Faith in Early Modern Europe (London, 2002), ch. 4 ('Philip II, Maps and Power'), and, more generally, for Iberian cartography in this period, Ricardo Padr6n, The Spacious World. Cartography, Literature, and Empire (Chicago, 2004).

38. Mundy, The Mapping of New Spain; Richard L. Kagan, Urban Images of the Hispanic World, 1493-1793 (New Haven and London, 2000), ch. 3; Francisco de Solano (ed.), Cuestionarios Para la formation de las Relaciones Geogrdficas de Indias, siglos XVI/XIX (Madrid, 1988); Howard F. Cline, `The Relaciones Geogrdficas of the Spanish Indies, 1577-1586', HAHR, 44 (1964), pp. 341-74.

39. Quoted by I. K. Steele, Politics of Colonial Policy. The Board of Trade in Colonial Administration, 1696-1720 (Oxford, 1968), p. 154.

40. Benjamin Schmidt, `Mapping an Empire: Cartographic and Colonial Rivalry in Seventeenth-Century Dutch and English North America', WMQ, 3rd ser., 54 (1997), pp. 549-78.

41. Baker, American Beginnings, p. 304.

42. Vas Mingo, Las capitulaciones de Indias, pp. 81 and 196.

43. Hakluyt, Navigations, 2, p. 687.

44. Fricdc, Los Welser, pp. 135-46; and see above, p. 25.

45. Andrews, The Colonial Period, 2, p. 282.

46. William Cronon, Changes in the Land. Indians, Colonists, and the Ecology of New England (New York, 1983), p. 69.

47. Gbmara, Cortes, p. 67.

48. William Bradford, Of Plymouth Plantation, 1620-1647, ed. Samuel Eliot Morison (New York, 1952), p. 76; George D. Langdon Jr., `The Franchise and Political Democracy in Plymouth Colony', WMQ, 3rd ser., 20 (1963), pp. 513-26.

49. Bradford, Plymouth Plantation, p. 62.

50. Patricia U. Bonomi, A Factious People. Politics and Society in Colonial New York (New York and London, 1971), p. 22.

51. Kenneth A. Lockridge, A New England Town. The First Hundred Years. Dedham, Massachusetts, 1636-1736 (New York, 1970), p. 12.

52. Smith, Works, 3, p. 277.

53. William Wood, New England's Prospect, ed. Alden T. Vaughan (Amherst, MA, 1977), p. 68; and see Vickers, `Competency and Competition'.

54. Otte, Cartas privadas, pp. 169 (pasar mejor) and 113 (Francisco Palacio to Antonio de Robles, 10 June 1586). Translations of some of this correspondence can be found in James Lockhart and Enrique Otte (eds), Letters and People of the Spanish Indies. The Sixteenth Century (Cambridge, 1976).

55. See Pedro Corominas, El sentimiento de la riqueza en Castilla (Madrid, 1917).

56. Charles Gibson, The Aztecs under Spanish Rule (Stanford, CA, 1964), p. 406.

57. Richard Konetzke, America Latina. II. La epoca colonial (Madrid, 1971), p. 38.

58. Francisco de Solano, Ciudades hispanoamericanas y pueblos de indios (Madrid, 1990), p. 18.

59. Cortes, Letters from Mexico, pp. 102-3.

60. For Spanish urban traditions and their transfer to the New World, see in particular Richard M. Morse, 'A Prologomenon to Latin American Urban History', HAHR, 52 (1972), pp. 359-94, and `The Urban Development of Colonial Spanish America', CHLA, 2, ch. 3. Also Kagan, Urban Images of the Hispanic World, ch. 2, and Solano, Ciudades hispanoamericanas.

61. Martinez, Documentos cortesianos, 1, doc. 34, especially p. 281.

62. Gomara, Cortes, p. 10.

63. Konetzke, La epoca colonial, p. 41.

64. Above, p. 21.

65. Himmerich y Valencia, The Encomenderos of New Spain, p. 12.

66. Jose de la Puente Brunke, Encomienda y encomenderos en el Peru (Seville, 1992), p. 18.

67. Silvio Zavala, Ensayos sobre la colonization espanola en America (Buenos Aires, 1944), pp. 153-4; James Lockhart, Spanish Peru, 1532-1560 (Madison, WI, Milwaukee, WI, London, 1968), p. 12.

68. For the encomienda, the fundamental works remain Silvio Zavala, La encomienda mexicana (1935; 2nd edn, Mexico City, 1973), and Lesley Byrd Simpson, The Encomienda in New Spain (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1950).

69. Silvio Zavala, Estudios indianos (Mexico City, 1948), p. 298.

70. In England, on the other hand, the crown's rights to ownership of mineral deposits were transferable. For the different approaches in Castile and England to possession of the subsoil, see Patricia Seed, American Pentimento. The Invention of Indians and the Pursuit of Riches (Minneapolis and London, 2001), ch. 4. The failure of the British to discover precious metals in the territories under their control reduces the importance in the American context of any difference between English and Spanish practice in regard to mineral rights. For the development of mining in Spanish America through private enterprise, see below, p. 93.

71. Cronon, Changes in the Land, p. 130.

72. Campillo, Nuevo sistema, introduction, pp. 50-2.

73. Guillermo Cespedes del Castillo, America hispanica, 1492-1898 (Manuel Tunon de Lara (ed.), Historia de Espana, 6 (Barcelona, 1983), pp. 217-18); James Lockhart and Stuart B. Schwartz, Early Latin America. A History of Colonial Spanish America and Brazil (Cambridge, 1983), p. 137.

74. Himmerich y Valencia, The Encomenderos of New Spain, pp. 41, 50-1.

75. Nicolas Sanchez-Albornoz, `The Population of Colonial Spanish America', CHLA, 2, p. 18.

76. Cespedes del Castillo, America hispanica, p. 149.

77. See Solano, Ciudades hispanoamericanas, ch. 3.

78. See Erwin Walter Palm, Los monumentos arquitectonicos de la Espanola (2 vols, Ciudad Trujillo, 1955), 1, ch. 2; Valerie Fraser, The Architecture of Conquest. Building in the Viceroyalty of Peru 1535-1635 (Cambridge, 1990); Kagan, Urban Images, pp. 31-4.

79. Richard Kagan, `A World Without Walls: City and Town in Colonial Spanish America', in James D. Tracy (ed.), City Walls. The Urban Enceinte in Global Perspective (Cambridge, 2000), ch. 5.

80. Quinn, New England Voyages, pp. 236-41; Fraser, Architecture of Conquest, p. 176, n. 31.

81. Susan Myra Kingsbury (ed.), The Records of the Virginia Company of London (4 vols, Washington, 1906-35), 3, pp. 669-70; and see John W. Reps, Tidewater Towns. City Planning in Colonial Virginia and Maryland (Williamsburg, VA, 1972), p. 46.

82. Craven, `Indian Policy', p. 70.

83. Ibid., pp. 74-5.

84. Kevin P. Kelly, "`In dispers'd Country Plantations": Settlement Patterns in SeventeenthCentury Surry County, Virginia', in Thad W. Tate and David L. Ammerman (eds), The Chesapeake in the Seventeenth Century (New York and London, 1979), essay 6.

85. Meinig, The Shaping of America, 1, p. 148; T. H. Breen, `The Culture of Agriculture: the Symbolic World of the Tidewater Planter, 1760-1790', in David D. Hall, John M. Murrin, Thad W. Tate (eds), Saints and Revolutionaries. Essays on Early American History (New York and London, 1984), pp. 247-84; Rhys Isaac, The Transformation of Virginia, 1740-1790 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1982), pp. 15-17, and chs 1-3 for the Virginia landscape in general.

86. Reps, Tidewater Towns, p. 197; Richard R. Beeman and Rhys Isaac, `Cultural Conflict and Social Change in the Revolutionary South: Lunenburg County, Virginia', The Journal of Southern History, 46 (1980), pp. 525-50, at p. 528.

87. W. W. Abbot, The Colonial Origins of the United States, 1607-1763 (New York, London, Sydney, Toronto, 1975), p. 44.

88. John Frederick Martin, Profits in the Wilderness (Chapel Hill, NC and London, 1991), p. 319.

89. Meinig, Shaping of America, 1, p. 104; Martin, Profits in the Wilderness, pp. 37-8.

90. See Carl Bridenbaugh, Cities in the Wilderness. The First Century of Urban Life in America, 1625-1742 (1939; repr. Oxford, London, New York, 1971).

91. Richard Bushman, The Refinement of America (New York, 1992), p. 142.

92. James D. Kornwolf, Architecture and Town Planning in Colonial North America (3 vols, Baltimore and London, 2002), 2, p. 1174; John Nicholas Brown, Urbanism in the American Colonies (Providence, RI, 1976), p. 5.

93. Cited by Bushman, Refinement of America, p. 142.

94. Reps, Tidewater Towns, p. 296; Kornwolf, Architecture and Town Planning, 2, pp. 1175-6.

95. John J. McCusker and Russell R. Menard, The Economy of British America, 1607-1789 (Chapel Hill, NC and London, 1985), p. 254.

96. Abbot, Colonial Origins, p. 45. For the headright system, see below, p. 55.

97. Alison Games, Migration and the Origins of the English Atlantic World (Cambridge, MA and London, 1999), pp. 52-3, and Virginia DeJohn Anderson, New England's Generation (Cambridge, 1991), p. 21, for the preponderance of family groups.

98. John Demos, A Little Commonwealth. Family Life in Plymouth Colony (London, Oxford, New York, 1970), p. 6.

99. The Journal of John Winthrop 1630-1649, ed. Richard S. Dunn, James Savage and Laetitia Yeandle (Cambridge, MA and London, 1996), p. 433.

100. See Karen Ordahl Kupperman, Providence Island, 1630-1641 (Cambridge, 1993).

101. Ibid., pp. 110-16.

102. Cited Anderson, New England's Generation, p. 38.

103. See Martin, Profits in the Wilderness.

104. Ibid., pp. 235 and 217-18. For the status and rights of vecinos in the Hispanic world, see Tamar Herzog, Defining Nations. Immigrants and Citizens in Early Modern Spain and Spanish America (New Haven and London, 2003), ch. 2. Also Maria Ines Carzolio, `En los origenes de la ciudadania en Castilla. La identidad politica del vecino durante los siglos XVI y XVII', Hispania, 62 (2002), pp. 637-91.

105. Martin, Profits in the Wilderness p. 79.

106. Cited ibid., p. 118.

107. Oliver A. Rink, Holland on the Hudson. An Economic and Social History of Dutch New York (Ithaca, NY and London, 1986); Meinig, Shaping of America, pp. 122-3.

108. See Douglas Greenberg, `The Middle Colonies in Recent American Historiography', WMQ, 3rd set., 36 (1979), pp. 396-427.

109. James T. Lemon, The Best Poor Man's Country. A Geographical Study of Early Southeastern Pennsylvania (Baltimore and London, 1972), ch. 2; Gary B. Nash, Race, Class and Politics. Essays on American Colonial and Revolutionary Society (Urbana, IL and Chicago, 1986), pp. 8-11.

110. Cited by Gordon S. Wood, The Radicalism of the American Revolution (New York, 1992; repr. 1993), p. 128.

111. Magnus Morner, La corona espanola y los foraneos en los pueblos de indios de America (Stockholm, 1979), pp. 75-80.

112. For initial attitudes to the Indians, and English policy to the Indians in the first stages of colonization, see especially Karen Ordahl Kupperman, Settling with the Indians. The Meeting of English and Indian Cultures in America, 1580-1640 (Totowa, NJ, 1980), and Indians and English. Facing Off in Early America (Ithaca, NY, and London, 2000); Alden T. Vaughan, New England Frontier. Puritans and Indians 1620-1675 (1965; 3rd edn, Norman, OK and London, 1995); James Axtell, The Invasion Within. The Contest of Cultures in Colonial North America (New York and Oxford, 1985); Wesley Frank Craven, `Indian Policy in Early Virginia', and White, Red and Black. The Seventeenth-Century Virginian (Charlottesville, VA, 1971).

113. Craven, `Indian Policy'.

114. Vaughan, New England Frontier, pp. 107-9.

115. Bradford, Plymouth Plantation, p.-62._

116. Winthrop, journal, p. 416 (22 September 1642).

117. James Horn, Adapting to a New World (Chapel Hill, NC and London, 1994), p. 128.

118. See Perry Miller, Errand into the Wilderness (Cambridge, MA, 1956); Peter N. Carroll, Puritanism and the Wilderness (New York and London, 1969); John Canup, Out of the Wilderness. The Emergence of an American Identity in Colonial New England (Middletown, CT, 1990).

119. See under despoblado in Peter Boyd-Bowman, Lexico hispanoamericano del siglo XVI (London, 1971).

120. Fernando R. de la Flor, La peninsula metafisica. Arte, literatura y pensamiento en la Espana de la Contrarreforma (Madrid, 1999), pp. 130-54; D. A. Brading, Church and State in Bourbon Mexico. The Diocese of Michoacan (Cambridge, 1994), p. 29.

121. Canup, Out of the Wilderness, p. 50.

122. For a general survey of Spanish American frontiers, see Hennessy, The Frontier in Latin American History.

123. Noble David Cook, Born to Die. Disease and New World Conquest, 1492-1650 (Cambridge, 1998), p. 44.

124. OHBE, 1, p. 197.

125. For overseas European migration, especially to the Americas, in the Early Modern period, see in particular the essays assembled in Altman and Horn (eds), `To Make America', and Nicholas Canny (ed.), Europeans on the Move. For Spanish New World emigration, in addition to Altman, Emigrants and Society, previously cited, see Peter Boyd-Bowman, Indite geobiografico de cuarenta mil pobladores espanoles de America en el siglo XVI (2 vols, Bogota, 1964; Mexico City, 1968); Antonio Eiras Reel (ed.), La emigration espanola a Ultramar, 1492-1914 (Madrid, 1991); Auke P. Jacobs, Los movimientos entre Castilla e Hispanoamerica durante el reinado de Felipe III, 1598-1621 (Amsterdam, 1995). For British emigration, in addition to Anderson, New England's Generation, and Games, Migration and the Origins, previously cited, see Cressy, Coming Over, and Bernard Bailyn, The Peopling of British America. An Introduction (New York, 1986) and Voyagers to the West (New York, 1986).

126. Fredi Chiappelli (ed.), First Images of America (2 vols, Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, 1976), 2, p. 753; Altman, Emigrants and Society; and, for seigneurial arrangements in the lands owned by the Order of Santiago in Extremadura, the pioneering article by Mario Gongora, `Regimen senorial y rural en la Extremadura de la Orden de Santiago en el momento de la emigration a Indias', jahrbuch fur Geschichte von Staat, Wirtschaft and Gesellschaft Lateinamerikas, 2 (1965), pp. 1-29.

127. Richard Konetzke, `La legislation sobre mmigracion de extranjeros en America durante el reinado de Carlos V', in Charles-Quint et son Temps (Colloques Internationaux du Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 1959), pp. 93-108.

128. Jacobs, Los movimientos, p. 33.

129. Games, Migration and the Origins, pp. 18-20; Cressy, Coming Over, ch. 5.

130. Jacobs, Los movimientos, pp. 111-20.

131. Konetzke, La epoca colonial, pp. 37 and 54.

132. Ibid., p. 56.

133. Annie Molinie-Bertrand, An siecle d'or. L'Espagne et ses hommes (Paris, 1985), p. 307.

134. Altman, Emigrants and Society, pp. 189-91; Altman and Horn, To Make America', pp. 65-9. Of the emigrants from Andalusia in the seventeenth century, 36.8 per cent registered as `servants' (criados), but the figure needs to be treated with caution since registration as a servant was an easy way of obtaining a licence, and family members and friends may often have used this device. See Lourdes Diaz-Trechuelo, `La emigration familiar andaluza a America en el siglo XVII', in Eiras Reel (ed.), La emigration espanola, pp. 189-97.

135. Nicolas Sanchez-Albornoz, `The Population of Colonial Spanish America', CHLA, 1, pp. 15-16. But Jacobs, Los movimientos migratorios, pp. 5-9, argues that the figure should be reduced to 105,000, giving an annual average of 1,000 emigrants.

136. Cespedes del Castillo, America hispanica, p. 182.

137. Diaz-Trechuelo, `La emigracion familiar', p. 192.

138. Canny, Europeans on the Move, pp. 29-30.

139. of. Otte, Cartas privadas, and Lockhart and Otte (eds), Letters and People.

140. Jacobs, Los movimientos, p. 170.

141. Altman, Emigrants and Society, p. 248.

142. E. A. Wrigley People, Cities and Wealth (Oxford, 1987), pp. 215 and 179.

143. J. H. Elliott, Imperial Spain, 1469-1716 (1963; repr., London, 2002), p. 25, for land area (378,000 sq. kilometres); Bartolome Bennassar, Recherches sur les grandes epidemies dans le nord de I'Espagne a la fin du XVIe siecle (Paris, 1969), p. 62.

144. Canny, Europeans on the Move, p. 62.

145. New England's Plantation, in Peter Force, Tracts and other Papers Relating Principally to the Origin, Settlement and Progress of the Colonies in North America (4 vols, Washington, 1836-46), 1, no. 12, pp. 12-13.

146. Loren E. Pennington, `The Amerindian in English Promotional Literature 1575-1625', in Andrews et al., The Westward Enterprise, ch. 9.

147. Emerson (ed.), Letters from New England, p. 96.

148. Horn, Adapting to a New World, pp. 55-6.

149. See Cressy Coming Over, ch. 3, for Puritan foundation myths and their relation to reality.

150. Ibid., p. 68. Games, Migration and the Origins, p. 243, n. 5, estimates an appreciably higher figure, of 80,000 to 90,000, for the total number of migrants in the Great Migration.

151. Cressy, Coming Over, p. 109.

152. Abbot, Colonial Origins, p. 28.

153. For indentured service, see especially David Galenson, White Servitude in Colonial America (Cambridge, 1981).

154. Horn, Adapting to -a New World, p. 66.

155. Altman and Horn, `To Make America', p. 7.

156. Christine Daniels, "`Liberty to Complaine": Servant Petitions in Maryland, 1652-1797', in Christopher L. Tomlins and Bruce M. Mann (eds), The Many Legalities of Early America (Chapel Hill, NC and London, 2001), pp. 219-49.

157. Altman and Horn, `To Make America', pp. 7-8.

158. Galenson, White Servitude, p. 24.

159. Richard Archer, 'A New England Mosaic: a Demographic Analysis for the Seventeenth Century', WMQ, 3rd set., 47 (1990), pp. 477-502. See Table III for gender and family status.

160. For these figures and their social consequences, see Lorena S. Walsh, "`Till Death Us Do Part": Marriage and Family in Seventeenth-Century Maryland', and Lois Green Carr and Russell R. Menard, `Immigration and Opportunity: The Freedman in Early Colonial Maryland', in Tate and Ammerman (eds), The Chesapeake, essays 4 and 7.

161. Horn, Adapting to a New World, pp. 137-8.

162. Carr and Menard `Immigration and Opportunity', in Tate and Ammerman (eds), The Chesapeake, p. 209.

163. CHLA, 2, p. 17; Cressy, Coming Over, p. 70.

Chapter 3. Confronting American Peoples

1. Samuel M. Wilson, `The Cultural Mosaic of the Indigenous Caribbean', in Warwick Bray (ed.), The Meeting of Two Worlds. Europe and the Americas 1492-1650 (Proceedings of the British Academy, 81, Oxford, 1993), pp. 37-66.

2. Columbus, journal, p. 135 (17 December 1492).

3. Fernandez de Oviedo, Historia general y natural, 1, p. 111.

4. Cortes, Letters from Mexico, p. 36.

5. Thomas, Conquest of Mexico, p. 172.

6. Smith, Works, 1, p. 150.

7. Smith, Works, 1, p. 216; James Axtell, Natives and Newcomers. The Cultural Origins of North America (Oxford, 2001), p. 71.

8. Diaz del Castillo, Historia verdadera, 2, p. 27 (chapter cxv).

9. For European reactions to human diversity, see especially Margaret T. Hodgen, Early Anthropology in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries (Philadelphia, 1964; repr., 1971), chs 6 and 7.

10. Cortes, Letters from Mexico, p. 108.

11. Agustin de Zarate, The Discovery and Conquest of Peru, trans. and ed. J. M. Cohen (Harmondsworth, 1968), p. 54.

12. Elliott, The Old World and the New, pp. 41-50; Pagden, Fall of Natural Man, ch. 2.

13. Ralph Roys, The Indian Background of Colonial Yucatan (1943; repr. Norman, OK, 1972); Robert S. Chamberlain, The Conquest and Colonization of Yucatan, 1517-1550 (Washington, 1948); Nancy M. Farriss, Maya Society under Colonial Rule (Princeton, 1984).

14. Gomez, L'Envers de 1'Eldorado, pp. 56-61.

15. Juan de Cardenas, Problemas y secretos maravillosos de las Indias (facsimile of 1591 edition, Madrid, 1945), fo. 188.

16. Steele, Warpaths, p. 3.

17. Wilcomb E. Washburn, The Indian in America (New York, 1975), p. 46.

18. Smith, Works, 2, pp. 315-16.

19. For the superiority of European weaponry, see Alberto Mario Salas, Las armas de la conquista (Buenos Aires, 1950); John F. Guilmartin, `The Cutting Edge: an Analysis of the Spanish Invasion and Overthrow of the Inca Empire, 1532-1539', in Kenneth J. Andrien and Rolena Adorno (eds), Transatlantic Encounters. Europeans and Andeans in the Sixteenth Century (Berkeley, Los Angeles, Oxford, 1991), ch. 2; Geoffrey Parker, The Military Revolution (Cambridge, 1988), ch. 4. For a historiographical survey, Wayne E. Lee, `Early American Warfare: a New Reconnaissance, 1600-1815', Historical Journal, 44 (2001), pp. 269-89.

20. Lockhart, We People Here, p. 80.

21. Weber, The Spanish Frontier, ch. 1.

22. See Philip Wayne Powell, Soldiers, Indians and Silver. The Northwest Advance of New Spain, 1550-1600 (Berkeley, 1952).

23. Craven, `Indian Policy', p. 75.

24. Powell, Soldiers, p. 5.

25. Ibid., p. 134.

26. Ibid., pp. 186-7; Alvaro Jara, Guerre et societe an Chili. Essai de sociologic coloniale (Paris, 1961), p. 138; Sergio Villalobos R., `Tres siglos y medio de vida fronteriza chilena', in Solano and Bernabeu (eds.), Estudios sobre la frontera, pp. 289-359.

27. John Shy, A People Numerous and Armed (revised edn., Ann Arbor, 1990), ch. 2 (A New Look at the Colonial Militia'); T. H. Breen, `English Origins and New World Development: the Case of the Covenanted Militia in Seventeenth-Century Massachusetts', Past and Present, 57 (1972), pp. 74-96.

28. Shy, A People Numerous, p. 33.

29. Craven, White, Red and Black, pp. 55-8, 66-7; Gleach, Powhatan's World, pp. 176-83; Warren M. Billings, Sir William Berkeley and the Forging of Colonial Virginia (Baton Rouge, LA, 2004), pp. 96-9; Hatfield, Atlantic Virginia, pp. 24 and 34.

30. See Jill Lepore, The Name of War. King Philip's War and the Origins of American Identity (New York, 1998), for `King Philip's War' and its character.

31. Bradford, Plymouth Plantation, pp. 206-7.

32. Richard Konetzke, Coleccion de documentos Para la historia de la formation social de Hispanoamerica 1493-1810 (vol. 1, Madrid, 1953), dot. 7 (16 September 1501); Magnus MOrner, Race Mixture in the History of Latin America (Boston, 1967), p. 41.

33. Vaughan, New England Frontier, pp. 100-1; Axtell, Invasion Within, p. 148.

34. Jara, Guerre et societe, p. 63; Edward H. Spicer, Cycles of Conquest (Tucson, AZ, 1962), p. 243.

35. Adam J. Hirsch, `The Collision of Military Cultures in Seventeenth-Century New England', The Journal of American History, 74 (1988), pp. 1187-212; Vaughan, New England Frontier, pp. 153-4.

36. Powell, Soldiers, pp. 170-1; Shy, A People Numerous, p. 33; Vaughan, New England Frontier, p. 314.

37. For valuable guidance to a vast and polemical literature, see J. N. Biraben, `La Population de l'Amerique precolombienne. Essai sur les methodes', Conferencia Internationale. El poblamiento de las Americas, Vera Cruz, 18-23 May 1992 (Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, 1992); John D. Daniels, `The Indian Population of North America in 1492', WMQ, 3rd set., 49 (1992), pp. 298-320; Linda A. Newson, `The Demographic Collapse of Native Peoples of the Americas, 1492-1650', in Bray (ed.), The Meeting of Two Worlds, pp. 247-88; Cook, Born to Die.

38. Cook, Born to Die, p. 206.

39. Alonso de Zorita, The Lords of New Spain, trans. and ed. Benjamin Keen (London, 1963), p. 202.

40. Bernardo Vargas Machuca, Refutation de Las Casas (edn, Paris, 1913), p. 173.

41. Zorita, Lords of New Spain, p. 212.

42. Gibson, The Aztecs Under Spanish Rule, p. 150; Inga Clendinnen, `Ways to the Sacred: Reconstructing "Religion" in Sixteenth-Century Mexico', History and Anthropology, S (1990), pp. 105-41; Washburn, The Indian in America, pp. 107-10.

43. See Table 3.2 (p. 132) of Cook, Born to Die.

44. Newson, `Demographic Collapse', pp. 254-62.

45. Steele, Warpaths, p. 37. For Velasco, see above, p. 10.

46. Jennings, The Invasion of America, p. 24; Cook, Born to Die, pp. 170-1; James H. Merrell, "`The Customs of Our Country". Indians and Colonists in Early America', in Bernard Bailyn and Philip D. Morgan (eds), Strangers Within the Realm. Cultural Margins of the First British Empire (Chapel Hill, NC and London, 1991), pp. 117-56, at p. 123; Daniel K. Richter, Facing East from Indian Country. A Native History of Early America (Cambridge, MA, and London, 2001), pp. 60-7.

47. Smith, Works, 3, pp. 293-4.

48. Emerson, Letters from New England, p. 116.

49. See above, p. 11.

50. cf. Axtell, The Invasion Within, p. 135.

51. Sebastian de Covarrubias, Tesoro de la lengua castellana o espanola (facsimile edn., ed. Martin de Riquer, Barcelona, 1987).

52. Luke 14: 23. Juan Gines de Sepulveda, Democrates segundo o de las juntas causas de la guerra contra los indios, ed. Angel Losada (Madrid, 1951), p. 70.

53. See above, p. 60.

54. See Lewis Hanke, Aristotle and the American Indians (London, 1959); Elliott, Spain and its World, ch. 3; Pagden, The Fall of Natural Man.

55. Alain Milhou, Colon y su mentalidad mesianica en el ambiente franciscanista espanol (Valladolid, 1983), especially pp. 350-7, and part 2, ch. 4.

56. Fray Ramon Pane, `Relation acerca de las Antiguedades de los Indios'. El primer tratado escrito en America, ed. Jose Juan Arrom (Mexico City, 1974); English translation by Susan C. Griswold, An Account of the Antiquities of the Indians (Durham, NC, 1999).

57. Lewis Hanke, The Spanish Struggle for Justice in the Conquest of America (Philadelphia, 1949). For the Laws of Burgos, Konetzke, Coleccion de documentos, 1, doc. 25, and Lesley Byrd Simpson (trans. and ed.), The Laws of Burgos of 1512-1513 (San Francisco, 1960). See also Simpson, The Encomienda in New Spain, ch. 3.

58. Angel Losada, Fray Bartolome de las Casas a la luz de la modern critica histdrica (Madrid, 1970), ch. 4.

59. Pedro de Leturia S.I., Relations entre la Santa Sede e Hispanoamerica. 1. Epoca del Real Patronato, 1493-1800 (Caracas, 1959), ch. 1; Ismael Sanchez Bella, Iglesia y estado en la America espanola (Pamplona, 1990), pp. 22-3.

60. Cortes, Letters from Mexico, pp. 332-3.

61. Robert Ricard, La `Conquete spirituelle' du Mexique (Paris, 1933), p. 35; Fernando de Armas Medina, Cristianizacion del Peru, 1532-1600 (Seville, 1953), pp. 21-36.

62. See below, p. 185.

63. Jacobs, Los movimientos, pp. 92-5.

64. Lockhart and Schwartz, Early Latin America, p. 109.

65. Ricard, La `Conquete spirituelle', pp. 320-2.

66. Pierre Duviols, La Lutte contre les religions autochtones dans le Peron colonial (Lima, 1971), pp. 82-3.

67. Inga Clendinnen, Ambivalent Conquests. Maya and Spaniard in Yucatan, 1517-1570 (Cambridge, 1987), p. 70.

68. Cited by Elliott, The Old World and the New, p. 33.

69. Jose Luis Suarez Roca, Lingiiistica misionera espanola (Oviedo, 1992), p. 42.

70. For the mendicant chroniclers of New Spain, see Georges Bauder, Utopia e historia en Mexico. Los primeros cronistas de la civilization mexicana (1520-1569) (Madrid, 1983). For Sahagun, see J. Jorge Klor de Alva, H. B. Nicholson and Elise Quinones Keber (eds), The Work of Bernardino de Sahagun. Pioneer Ethnographer of Sixteenth-Century Mexico (Institute for Mesoamerican Studies, Albany, NY11988).

71. Fernando Cervantes, The Devil in the New World. The Impact of Diabolism in New Spain (New Haven and London, 1994), ch. 1.

72. See Clendinnen, `Ways to the Sacred'.

73. Gibson, The Aztecs under Spanish Rule, p. 151.

74. Ibid., pp. 336-7; James Lockhart, The Nahuas After the Conquest (Stanford, CA, 1992), pp. 198-200.

75. Elliott, Spain and its World, pp. 61 and 52.

76. For problems of religious change and `syncretism', see William B. Taylor, Magistrates of the Sacred. Priests and Parishioners in Eighteenth-Century Mexico (Stanford, CA, 1996), pp. 51-62. For the general problem of acculturation in a conquest culture, George M. Foster, Culture and Conquest. America's Spanish Heritage (Chicago, 1960), although this is more concerned with the culture of the conquerors than the conquered. See also James Lockhart, Of Things of the Indies. Essays Old and New in Early Latin American History (Stanford, CA, 1999), ch. 11 ('Receptivity and Resistance').

77. Ricard, La `Conquete spirituelle', pp. 275-6.

78. Fray Bartolome de Las Casas, Apologetica historia sumaria, ed. Edmundo O'Gorman (2 vols, Mexico City, 1967), 2, p. 262.

79. See Pagden, The Fall of Natural Man, chs 3 and 5.

80. Cited Elliott, Spain and its World, p. 51.

81. Strachey, Travell into Virginia Britania, pp. 20 and 18.

82. William H. Seiler, `The Anglican Parish in Virginia', in James Morton Smith (ed.), Seventeenth-Century America. Essays in Colonial History (Chapel Hill, NC, 1959), p. 122.

83. Patricia U. Bonomi, Under the Cope of Heaven. Religion, Society and Politics in Colonial America (New York, 1986), p. 16.

84. Jon Butler, Awash in a Sea of Faith (Cambridge, MA and London, 1990), pp. 127-8.

85. Axtell, The Invasion Within, p. 180.

86. Bonomi, Cope of Heaven, pp. 21-2; Horn, Adapting to a New World, pp. 386-8.

87. See Edmund S. Morgan, Visible Saints. The History of a Puritan Idea (1963; repr. Ithaca, NY11971).

88. Lepore, The Name of War, p. xv; Axtell, The Invasion Within, pp. 133-4; Vaughan, New England Frontier, p. 240.

89. Edmund S. Morgan, Roger Williams. The Church and the State (1967; repr. New York, 1987), pp. 43-4.

90. Winthrop, ,Journal, p. 682.

91. See Vaughan, New England Frontier, chs 9-11.

92. Ibid., pp. 254-5; Joyce E. Chaplin, Subject Matter. Technology, the Body, and Science on the Anglo-American Frontier, 1500-1676 (Cambridge, MA, and London, 2001), pp. 289-90.

93. See the list of publications in Eliot's `Indian Library', as given in Lepore, The Name of War, p. 35.

94. Axtell, The Invasion Within, ch. 8.

95. See, most recently, Richard W. Cogley, John Eliot's Mission to the Indians before King Philip's War (Cambridge, MA and London, 1999).

96. See, for instance, for Peru, Duviols, La Lutte, pp. 248-63.

97. Ibid., pp. 257-8; Merrell, `Indians and Colonists', in Bailyn and Morgan, Strangers Within the Realm, p. 150.

98. Axtell, The Invasion Within, pp. 225-7.

99. Vaughan, New England Frontier, p. 303.

100. Ricard, La `Conquete spirituelle', pp. 266-9; Vaughan, New England Frontier, pp. 281-4.

101. Cited by Cogley John Eliot's Mission, p. 18.

102. Vaughan, New England Frontier, pp. 303-8; Axtell, The Invasion Within, p. 278. See also, for an examination in a comparative context of the challenges facing the New England colonists in converting Indians, Axtell, After Columbus, chs 3-7.

103. Cited by Vaughan, New England Frontier, p. 260.

104. Axtell, The Invasion Within, p. 141.

105. Cited in Roger Williams, The Complete Writings of Roger Williams (Providence, RI, 1866), 1, p. 136, n. 97, from John Wilson (?), The Day-Breaking of the Gospell with the Indians (1647). See also Axtell, The Invasion Within, pp. 175-8.

106. Juan de Matienzo, Gobierno del Peru (1567), ed. Guillermo Lehmann Villena (Paris and Lima, 1967), p. 80.

107. Axtell, The Invasion Within, pp. 285-6. For an example of the ways in which Puritan teaching could successfully be blended with Indian beliefs and traditions, see David J. Silverman, `Indians, Missionaries, and Religious Translation: Creating Wampanoag Christianity in Seventeenth-Century Martha's Vineyard', WMQ, 3rd set., 62 (2005), pp. 141-74.

108. Cited by Canup, Out of the Wilderness, p. 167.

109. Thomas Morton, New English Canaan (1632), in Force, Tracts, 2, no. 11, p. 77.

110. Vaughan, New England Frontier, p. 245.

111. For the Valladolid debate, see Lewis Hanke, All Mankind is One (DeKalb, IL, 1974), and his Spanish Struggle for Justice, ch. 8. Also Losada, Fray Bartolome' de Las Casas, ch. 13. The literature on Las Casas is now vast, but see in particular Pagden, Fall of Natural Man, for his views and those of Sepulveda in the general context of the sixteenth-century Spanish debate on the nature of the Indian.

112. Woodrow Borah, Justice by Insurance. The General Indian Court of Colonial Mexico and the Legal Aides of the Half-Real (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, 1983), pp. 80-2.

113. Stafford Poole, Juan de Ovando. Governing the Spanish Empire in the Reign of Philip II (Norman, OK, 2004), pp. 154-6.

114. Bartolome de Las Casas, Tears of the Indians (repr. Williamstown, MA, 1970). For a modern translation, see Bartolome de Las Casas, A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies, trans. and ed. Nigel Griffin (Harmondsworth, 1992).

115. Borah, Justice by Insurance, p. 64.

116. Vaughan, New England Frontier, pp. 190-5; Katherine Hermes, "`Justice Will be Done Us." Algonquian Demands for Reciprocity in the Courts of European Settlers', in Tomlins and Mann (eds), The Many Legalities of Early America, pp. 123-49.

117. Merrell, `Indians and Colonists', pp. 144-6.

118. William B. Taylor, Drinking, Homicide and Rebellion in Colonial Mexican Villages (Stanford, CA, 1979), pp. 105-6.

119. See Lepore, The Name of War, pp. 158-67.

120. Cited from William Hubbard, General History of New England (1680), by Canup, Out of the Wilderness, p. 74.

121. Columbus, journal, p. 31(3 October 1492).

122. Winthrop D. Jordan, White Over Black (1968; repr. Baltimore, 1969), pp. 6-9.

123. Juan Lopez de Velasco, Geografia y description universal de las Indias, ed. Justo Zaragoza (Madrid, 1894) p. 27; Strachey, The Historie of Travell into Virginia, p. 70.

124. Gomara, Historic general, BAE, 22, p. 289.

125. See Karen Ordahl Kupperman, `The Puzzle of the American Climate in the Early Colonial Period', AHR, 87 (1982), pp. 1262-89. For climatic determinism in Spanish America see Jorge Canizares-Esguerra, `New World, New Stars: Patriotic Astrology and the Invention of Indian and Creole Bodies in Colonial Spanish America, 1600-1650', AHR, 104 (1999), pp. 33-68.

126. Richard NY11962), (Ithaca, p. 56. Wright B. Louis ed. (1624), Plantations to Pathway Plain A Eburne,

127. Joseph Perez, Histoire de l'Espagne (Paris, 1996), p. 79.

128. Miguel Angel de Buries Ibarra, La imagen de los musulmanes y del norte de Africa en la Espana de los siglos XVI y XVII (Madrid, 1989), p. 113.

129. Quoted from Sir John Davies, Discovery of the True Causes why Ireland was never Entirely Subdued (1612), by James Muldoon, `The Indian as Irishman', Essex Institute Historical Collections, 111 (1975), pp. 267-89, at p. 269 (spelling modernized).

130. For the Statutes of Kilkenny and Anglo-Irish intermarriage, Muldoon, `The Indian as Irishman', p. 284; A. Cosgrove, `Marriage in Medieval Ireland', in A. Cosgrove (ed.), Marriage in Ireland (Dublin, 1985), p. 35; John Darwin, `Civility and Empire', in Peter Burke, Brian Harrison and Paul Slack (eds), Civil Histories. Essays Presented to Sir Keith Thomas (Oxford, 2000), p. 322.

131. For the degree of `gaelicization' of English settlers in Ireland, see James Lydon, `The Middle Nation', in James Lydon (ed.), The English in Medieval Ireland (Dublin, 1984), pp. 1-26.

132. For the general question of the fear of degeneration among English settlers in America, see Canup, Out of the Wilderness, especially ch. 1, and his `Cotton Mather and "Creolian Degeneracy"', Early American Literature, 24 (1989), pp. 20-34.

133. Morton, New English Canaan (Force, Tracts, 2, no. 11, p. 19).

134. Cited by H. C. Porter, The Inconstant Savage (London, 1979), p. 203. I am grateful to Alden Vaughan for pointing out to me in a private communication that Hugh Peter, who had lived through the Pequot War in New England, made the transposition in the context of his recommendations for the conquest of Ireland. The interchangeability between Irish and Indians clearly worked both ways.

135. Spenser, Works, 9, p. 96, cited by Muldoon, `The Indian as Irishman', pp. 275-6 (spelling modernized).

136. William Symonds, Virginia Britannia, in Brown, Genesis of the United States, 1, pp. 287 and 290.

137. Cited by David D. Smits, "`We are not to Grow Wild": Seventeenth-Century New England's Repudiation of Anglo-Indian Intermarriage', American Indian Culture and Research journal, 11 (1987), pp. 1-32, at p. 6 (spelling modernized).

138. For the distinction between the Genesis and Exodus types of emigration, see Avihu Zakai, Exile and Kingdom. History and Apocalypse in the Puritan Migration to America (Cambridge, 1992), pp. 9-10.

139. Canup, Out of the Wilderness, pp. 79-80. As Conrad Russell kindly pointed out to me, colonists would also have been well aware of the dreadful warning against marriage between the Israelites and the Midianites in the story of Phinehas (Numbers: 25).

140. David D. Smits, "`We are not to Grow Wild"', pp. 3 and 6, and "Abominable Mixture": Toward the Repudiation of Anglo-Indian Intermarriage in Seventeenth-Century Virginia', The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 95 (1987), pp. 157-92.

141. Robert Beverley, The History and Present State of Virginia, ed. Louis B. Wright (Chapel Hill, NC, 1947), p. 38.

142. Konetzke, Coleccion de documentos, 1, pp. 12-13.

143. Magnus Morner, Race Mixture in the History of Latin America (Boston, 1967), p. 26.

144. Konetzke, Coleccion de documentos, 1, doc. 28 (15 October 1514). See also Alberto M. Salas, Cronica florida del mestizaje de las Indias (Buenos Aires, 1960), pp. 54-5.

145. `Carta colectiva de los franciscanos de Mexico al Emperador', 1 Sept. 1526, in Fray Toribio de Benavente o Motolinia, Memoriales o libro de las cosas de la Nueva Espana y de los naturales de ella, ed. Edmundo O'Gorman (Mexico City, 1971), p. 429.

146. Cited by Salas, Cronica florida, p. 56.

147. See Donald Chipman, `Isabel Moctezuma: Pioneer of Mestizaje', in David G. Sweet and Gary B. Nash (eds), Struggle and Survival in Colonial America (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, 1981), ch. 11.

148. Angel Rosenblat, La poblacion indigena y el mestizaje en America (2 vols, Buenos Aires, 1954), 2, pp. 60-2.

149. Otte, Cartas privadas, p. 61.

150. MOrner, Race Mixture, p. 55.

151. Ann Marie Plane, Colonial Intimacies. Indian Marriage in Early New England (Ithaca, NY and London, 2000), p. 36.

152. Gary B. Nash, `The Hidden History of Mestizo America', The Journal of American History, 82 (1995), pp. 941-62.

153. Canny and Pagden (eds), Colonial Identity, pp. 145-6.

154. Elman R. Service, Spanish-Guarani Relations in Early Colonial Paraguay (1954; repr. Westport, CT, 1971), pp. 19-20; and see a Jesuit's report of 1620, cited in CHLA, 2, p. 76.

155. See Solange Alberto, Les Espagnols dans le Mexique colonial. Histoire d'une acculturation (Paris, 1992) for Spanish-Indian interaction.

156. For segregation policies, Konetzke, La epoca colonial, pp. 196-7. For an excellent general survey of cultural mestizaje, see Carmen Bernand and Serge Gruzinski, Histoire du nouveau monde (2 vols, Paris, 1991-3), vol. 2 (Les Metissages).

157. Konetzke, Coleccion de documentos, 1, dot. 183.

158. Lockhart, The Nahuas, ch. 7.

159. Farriss, Maya Society, pp. 111-12.

160. Konetzke, La epoca colonial, pp. 200-4; Emma Martinell Gifre, La comunicacion entre espanoles e indios. Palabras y gestos (Madrid, 1992), pp. 188-93.

161. Bailyn and Morgan (eds.), Strangers within the Realm, pp. 128-30.

162. See Richard Morse, `Towards a Theory of Spanish American Government', Journal of the History of Ideas, 15 (1954), pp. 71-93.

163. `Letter of Sir Francis Wyatt, Governor of Virginia, 1621-1626', WMQ, 2nd set., 6 (1926), pp. 114-21.

164. See Kupperman, Settling with the Indians, pp. 175-80.

165. Thomas, Conquest of Mexico, pp. 163-4.

166. Nicholas Canny, `The Permissive Frontier: the Problem of Social Control in English Settlements in Ireland and Virginia 1550-1650', in Andrews, et al. (eds), The Westward Enterprise, pp. 30-5.

167. Powell, Soldiers, Indians, ch. 11.

168. Weber, Spanish Frontier, p. 107.

169. Ramon A. Gutierrez, When Jesus Came, the Corn Mothers Went Away. Marriage, Sexuality and Power in New Mexico, 1500-1800 (Stanford, CA, 1991), p. 103; Spicer, Cycles of Conquest, p. 301.

Chapter 4. Exploiting American Resources

1. See Columbus's description of Cuba on his first voyage, in Columbus, Journal, p. 59; and, for a general overview, Hugh Honour, The New Golden Land. European Images of America from the Discoveries to the Present Time (New York, 1975).

2. For Columbus's `rivers of gold' see Thomas, Rivers of Gold, p. 122.

3. Antonello Gerbi, 11 mito del Peru (Milan, 1988), p. 29.

4. Cited Honour, The New Golden Land, p. 18.

5. The Cambridge Economic History of the United States, ed. Stanley L. Engerman and Robert E. Gallman, 1, The Colonial Era (Cambridge, 1996), p. 95; and, for Indian land-use in general, Cronon, Changes in the Land.

6. For initial English expectations of the new American environment and gradual adaptation to its realities, see Kupperman, `The Puzzle of the American Climate'.

7. For the `archipelago' pattern of Andean settlement and the system of vertical control, see especially John V. Murra, Formaciones economicas y politicas del mundo andino (Lima, 1975), and his 'Andean Societies Before 1532', CHLA, 1, ch. 3.

8. For the `plunder economy' of the 1530s-1560s in Peru, see Karen Spalding, Huarochiri. An Andean Society under Inca and Spanish Rule (Stanford, CA, 1984), p. 109.

9. Cited in Jose Durand, La transformation social del conquistador (2 vols, Mexico City, 1953), 1, pp. 41-2.

10. Arturo Warman, La historia de un bastardo. Maiz y capitalismo (Mexico City, 1988), p. 27; MacLeod, Spanish Central America, p. 18.

11. Alberro, Les Espagnols dans le Mexique colonial, pp. 46-9.

12. John C. Super, Food, Conquest, and Colonization in Sixteenth-Century Spanish America (Albuquerque, NM, 1988), pp. 32-7; Arnold J. Bauer, Goods, Power, History. Latin America's Material Culture (Cambridge, 2001), pp. 86-90.

13. Cronon, Changes in the Land, pp. 154-5; Jack P. Greene, Pursuits of Happiness. The Social Development of Early Modern British Colonies and the Formation of American Culture (Chapel Hill, NC and London, 1988), p. 86; Horn, Adapting to a New World, p. 144 and, for `chiefest Diett', 278.

14. Super, Food, Conquest, and Colonization, p. 19.

15. Francois Chevalier, La Formation des grands domains an Mexique (Paris, 1952), p. 66.

16. William H. Dusenberry, The Mexican Mesta (Urbana, IL, 1963).

17. Charles Julian Bishko, `The Peninsular Background of Latin American Cattle Ranching', HAHR, 32 (1952), pp. 491-515; Chevalier, La Formation, part 1, ch. 3; Robert G. Keith, Conquest and Agrarian Change. The Emergence of the Hacienda System on the Peruvian Coast (Cambridge, MA and London, 1976), p. 60.

18. Keith, Conquest and Agrarian Change, pp. 92-105.

19. Pierre Chaunu, L'Amerique et les Ameriques (Paris, 1964), p. 92.

20. Wood, New England's Prospect, pp. 35, 37, 38.

21. Enrique Otte, Las perlas del Caribe. Nueva Cadiz de Cubagua (Caracas, 1977).

22. Richard L. Lee, 'American Cochineal in European Commerce, 1526-1635', Journal of Modern History, 23 (1951), pp. 205-24. For the history of cochineal see Amy Butler Greenfield, A Perfect Red. Empire, Espionage, and the Quest for the Color of Desire (New York, 2005).

23. MacLeod, Spanish Central America, ch. 10; Chevalier, La Formation, pp. 87-9.

24. MacLeod, Spanish Central America, ch. 5.

25. Antonio de Leon Pinelo, Question moral si el chocolate quebranta el ayuno eclesiastico (Madrid, 1636; facsimile edn, Mexico City, 1994).

26. David Watts, The West Indies. Patterns of Development, Culture and Environmental Change since 1492 (Cambridge, 1987), pp. 125-6; Frank Moya Pons, La Espanola en el siglo XVI, 1493-1520 (Santiago, Dominican Republic, 1978), pp. 256-68; Sauer, The Spanish Main, pp. 209-12; Robin Blackburn, The Making of New World Slavery. From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492-1800 (London, 1997), p. 137.

27. Ward Barrett, The Sugar Hacienda of the Marqueses del Valle (Minneapolis, 1970).

28. Wood, New England's Prospect, p. 68, and see above, p. 37.

29. Stephen Innes, Labor in a New Land. Economy and Society in Seventeenth-Century Springfield (Princeton, 1983).

30. See Richard J. Salvucci, Textiles and Capitalism in Mexico. An Economic History of the Obrajes, 1539-1840 (Princeton, 1987).

31. P. J. Bakewell, Silver Mining and Society in Colonial Mexico, Zacatecas 1546-1700 (Cambridge, 1971).

32. Peter Bakewell, A History of Latin America (Oxford, 1997), p. 180; and see Richard L. Garner, `Long-Term Silver Mining Trends in Spanish America. A Comparative Analysis of Peru and Mexico', AHR, 93 (1988), pp. 898-935.

33. See above, pp. 40 and 421 n. 70.

34. Bakewell, Silver Mining, pp. 181-2.

35. Peter Bakewell, Miners of the Red Mountain. Indian Labor in Potosi 1545-1650 (Albuquerque, NM, 1984), p. 18.

36. G. Lohmann Villena, Las minas de Huancavelica en los siglos XVI y XVII (Seville, 1949); Bakewell, Silver Mining, ch. 7.

37. Peter Bakewell, Silver and Entrepreneurship in Seventeenth-Century Potosi. The Life and Times of Antonio Lopez de Quiroga (Albuquerque, NM, 1988), p. 23.

38. Gwendolin B. Cobb, `Supply and Transportation for the Potosi Mines, 1545-1640', HAHR, 29 (1949), pp. 25-45. Zacarias Moutoukias, Contrabando y control colonial en el siglo XVIL Buenos Aires, el Atlantico y el espacio peruano (Buenos Aires, 1988), provides a detailed and valuable account of how the system worked.

39. Wilbur T. Meek, The Exchange Media of Colonial Mexico (New York, 1948), pp. 42 and 69-79; John Porteous, Coins in History (London, 1969), p. 170.

40. Bakewell, History of Latin America, p. 203.

41. Lockhart, The Nahuas After the Conquest, pp. 177-80.

42. Matienzo, Gobierno del Peru, p. 20.

43. Darrett B. and Anita H. Rutman, A Place in Time. Middlesex County, Virginia 1650-1750 (New York and London, 1984), p. 42.

44. Richard L. Bushman, King and People in Provincial Massachusetts (Chapel Hill, NC and London, 1965), pp. 143-4.

45. John J. McCusker and Russell R. Menard, The Economy of British America, 1607-1789 (Chapel Hill, NC and London, 1985), p. 339.

46. Richard B. Sheridan, `The Domestic Economy', in Jack P. Greene and J. R. Pole (eds), Colonial British America. Essays in the New History of the Early Modern Era (Baltimore and London, 1984), pp. 72-3; John J. McCusker, Money and Exchange in Europe and America, 1600-1771. A Handbook (London, 1978), ch. 3; and for late seventeenth-century New England, Bernard Bailyn, The New England Merchants in the Seventeenth Century (1955; New York, 1964), pp. 182-9.

47. Meek, Exchange Media, p. 57.

48. Daviken Studnicki-Gizbert, `From Agents to Consulado: Commercial Networks in Colonial Mexico, 1520-1590 and Beyond', Anuario de Estudios Americanos, 57 (2000), pp. 41-68; Bakewell, History of Latin America, pp. 203-4.

49. Cespedes del Castillo, America hispanica, p. 128; Garner, `Long-Term Silver Mining Trends', p. 902.

50. For a succinct survey, summarizing much recent work, see Ward Barrett, `World Bullion Flows, 1450-1800', in James D. Tracy (ed.), The Rise of Merchant Empires. Long-Distance Trade in the Early Modern World, 1350-1750 (Cambridge, 1990), ch. 7.

51. Chaunu, L'Amerique et les Ameriques, p. 92; John R. Fisher, The Economic Aspects of Spanish Imperialism in America, 1492-1810 (Liverpool, 1997), p. 38.

52. Robert J. Ferry, The Colonial Elite of Early Caracas. Formation and Crisis, 1567-1767 (Berkeley Los Angeles, London, 1989), chs 1 and 2.

53. Gloria L. Main, Tobacco Colony. Life in Early Maryland 1650-1720 (Princeton, 1982), pp. 18-19.

54. Richard S. Dunn, Sugar and Slaves. The Rise of the Planter Class in the English West Indies, 1624-1713 (New York, 1972), p. 49; Andrews, The Colonial Period, vol. 2, ch. 7.

55. Watts, The West Indies, pp. 182-3; Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, pp. 59-67.

56. Watts, The West Indies, p. 230; Blackburn, Making of New World Slavery, p. 267.

57. Main, Tobacco Colony, pp. 239 and 254.

58. Cited from Bartolome de Las Casas by Hugh Thomas, Rivers of Gold, pp. 157-8. For a summary of the development of the crown's policy on Indian enslavement, see Konetzke, La epoca colonial, pp. 153-9. For a close study of policy and practice on Hispaniola, Carlos Esteban Deive, La Espanola en la esclavitud del indio (Santo Domingo, 1995).

59. Konetzke, Coleccion de documentos, 1, doc. 10.

60. For the requerimiento see above, p. 11.

61. Hanke, The Spanish Struggle for Justice, pp. 33-5.

62. O. Nigel Bolland, `Colonization and Slavery in Central America', in Paul E. Lovejoy and Nicholas Rogers (eds), Unfree Labour in the Development of the Atlantic World (Ilford, 1994), pp. 11-25.

63. Konetzke, Coleccion de documentos, 1, does 143 and 144.

64. Gutierrez, When Jesus Came, the Corn Mothers Went Away, pp. 150-1; and see below, p. 275.

65. Juan A. and Judith E. Villamarin, Indian Labor in Mainland Colonial Spanish America (Newark, DE, 1975), pp. 16-18.

66. The Conde de Nieva (1563), quoted in Bakewell, Miners of the Red Mountain, p. 56, n. 51.

67. For the mingas see Bakewell, Miners of the Red Mountain, especially ch. 4.

68. The literature on black slavery in the Americas is now enormous. Frank Tannenbaum's Slave and Citizen (1946) retains its importance as a pioneering comparative study of slavery in British and Spanish America. A comparative approach is also adopted by Herbert S. Klein, Slavery in the Americas. A Comparative Study of Virginia and Cuba (Chicago, 1967). Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade. The History of the Atlantic Slave Trade 1440-1870 (New York and London, 1997) is a comprehensive synthesis, which pays due attention to the Iberian contribution, for which see also Enriqueta Vila Vilar, Hispano-America y el comercio de esclavos (Seville, 1977). For Mexico, see Colin A. Palmer, Slaves of the White God. Blacks in Mexico, 1570-1650 (Cambridge, MA and London, 1976), Herman L. Bennett, Africans in Colonial Mexico. Absolutism, Christianity, and Afro-Creole Consciousness, 1570-1640 (Bloomington, IN and Indianapolis, 2003). For Peru, Lockhart, Spanish Peru, ch. 10; Federick P. Bowser, The African Slave in Colonial Peru, 1524-1650 (Stanford, CA, 1974). For British America, most recently, Ira Berlin, Many Thousands Gone. The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America (Cambridge, MA, 1998). Valuable general studies covering the Atlantic world as a whole include, in addition to Robin Blackburn, The Making of New World Slavery (previously cited), Barbara L. Solow (ed.), Slavery and the Rise of the Atlantic System (Cambridge, 1991), and David Eltis, The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas (Cambridge, 2000).

69. Hayward Keniston, Francisco de Los Cobos. Secretary of the Emperor Charles V (Pittsburgh, PA, 1960), p. 64; Thomas, Rivers of Gold, pp. 361-3.

70. Lockhart, Spanish Peru, p. 171.

71. Bowser, The African Slave, p. 28.

72. Blackburn, The Making of New World Slavery, pp. 135 and 140.

73. For the figures, see David Eltis, `The Volume and Structure of the Transatlantic Slave Trade: a Reassessment', WMQ, 3rd set., 58 (2001), pp. 17-46, modifying the statistics given in Philip D. Curtin's standard work, The Atlantic Slave Trade. A Census (Madison, WI, 1969). For the Gomes Reinel contract, Vila Vilar, Hispano-America y el comercio de esclavos, pp. 23-8; Thomas, The Slave Trade, pp. 141-3.

74. Luiz Felipe de Alencastro, 0 trato dos viventes. Formacdo de Brasil no Atldntico Sul. Seculos XVI e XVII (Sao Paulo, 2000), ch. 3.

75. Vila Vilar, El comercio de esclavos, p. 209.

76. Carmen Bernand, Negros esclavos y libres en las ciudades hispanoamericanas (2nd edn, Madrid, 2001), p. 60.

77. William Alexander, An Encouragement to Colonies (London, 1624), p. 7.

78. For the importance of the African population in Spanish American cities, for long a neglected subject, Bernand, Negros esclavos y libres, and, for New Spain, Bennett, Africans in Colonial Mexico. For slaves as a percentage of city populations, Bernand, p. 11.

79. Bowser, The African Slave, ch. 6; Lockhart, Spanish Peru, pp. 182-4.

80. Bowser, The African Slave, pp. 272-3.

81. Thomas Gage's Travels in the New World, ed. J. Eric S. Thompson (Norman, OK, 1958), p. 73. This is a modernized edition of Thomas Gage, The English-American his Travail by Sea and Land (London, 1648).

82. Palmer, Slaves of the White God, p. 67.

83. Blackburn, Making of New World Slavery, p. 147; Lockhart and Schwartz, Early Latin America, p. 179.

84. Bakewell, Silver Mining and Society, p. 122.

85. Bowser, The African Slave, p. 13.

86. Ibid., chs. 3 and 6.

87. Vila Vilar, El comercio de esclavos, p. 228.

88. Bennett, Africans in Colonial Mexico, p. 19; Bowser, The African Slave, p. 75.

89. Main, Tobacco Colony, p. 100.

90. Craven, White, Red and Black, p. 73.

91. For South Carolina and its slave trade, see Alan Gallay, The Indian Slave Trade. The Rise of the English Empire in the American South, 1670-1717 (New Haven and London, 2002). Statistics on pp. 298-9 and 346.

92. Ibid., pp. 302-3; Margaret Ellen Newell, `The Changing Nature of Indian Slavery in New England, 1670-1720', in Colin G. Calloway and Neal Salisbury (eds), Reinterpreting New England Indians and the Colonial Experience (Boston, 2003), pp. 106-36; and, for a good general survey, Joyce E. Chaplin, `Enslavement of Indians in Early America. Captivity Without the Narrative', in Mancke and Shammas (eds), Creation of the British Atlantic World, pp. 45-70.

93. Oscar and Mary Handlin, `Origins of the Southern Labor System', WMQ, 3rd ser., 7 (1950), pp. 199-222, at p. 103. For the Vagrancy Act, C. S. L. Davies, `Slavery and Protector Somerset: the Vagrancy Act of 1547', Economic History Review, 2nd ser., 19 (1966), pp. 533-49.

94. See above, p. 55.

95. Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p. 120.

96. Philip D. Morgan, 'British Encounters with Africans and African-Americans circa 1600-1780', in Bailyn and Morgan (eds.), Strangers within the Realm, pp. 169-70.

97. Kuppcrman, Providence Island, pp. 165-75.

98. Ibid., p. 177.

99. Alden T. Vaughan, `Blacks in Virginia: a Note on the First Decade', WMQ, 3rd ser., 29 (1972), pp. 469-78.

100. Philip D. Morgan, Slave Counterpoint. Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Low Country (Chapel Hill, NC and London, 1998), p. 58; Morgan, 'British Encounters with Africans', p. 171; Kupperman, Providence Island, p. 176; Galenson, White Servitude, p. 153.

101. Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, pp. 71-3.

102. Ibid., pp. 75-6 and 224.

103. Blackburn, The Making of New World Slavery, p. 258.

104. See Richard R. Beeman, `Labor Forces and Race Relations: a Comparative View of the Colonization of Brazil and Virginia', Political Science Quarterly, 86 (1971), pp. 609-36.

105. Watts, The West Indies, pp. 123-6; Blackburn, The Making of New World Slavery, pp. 138-9; Kenneth R. Andrews, The Spanish Caribbean. Trade and Plunder 1530-1630 (New Haven and London, 1978), pp. 76-9.

106. Stuart B. Schwartz, Sugar Plantations in the Formation of Brazilian Society. Bahia, 1550-1835 (Cambridge, 1985), chs 2 and 3.

107. Watts, The West Indies, p. 183.

108. Blackburn, The Making of New World Slavery, p. 309; and above, p. 9.

109. Canup, Out of the Wilderness, p. 9.

110. Blair Worden, The Sound of Virtue (New Haven and London, 1996), p. 55.

111. Thomas, The Slave Trade, pp. 433-4.

112. Alonso de Sandoval, Un tratado sobre la esclavitud, ed. Enriqueta Vila Vilar (Madrid, 1987), pp. 236-7.

113. Lockhart and Schwartz, Early Latin America, p. 91.

114. Blackburn, The Making of New World Slavery, p. 139; Bowser, The African Slave, ch. 8.

115. Las Siete Partidas del Sabio Rey Don Alonso el nono (Salamanca, 1555), partida 3, tit. 5, ley iv. See also Palmer, Slaves of the White God, p. 86.

116. For laws and ordinances relating to slavery in Spanish America, see Manuel Lucena Salmoral, La esclavitud en la America espabola (Centro de Estudios Latinoamericanos, University of Warsaw, Estudios y materiales, 22, Warsaw, 2002).

117. See the numerous examples provided by Bennett in Africans in Colonial Mexico.

118. Palmer, Slaves of the White God, pp. 62-3.

119. David Brion Davis, The Problem of Slavery in Western Culture (London, 1970), pp. 290-1.

120. Magnus M6rner, Race Mixture in the History of Latin America (Boston, 1967), p. 117.

121. Davis, The Problem of Slavery, p. 297; Morgan, `British Encounters with Africans', pp. 167-8.

122. MBrner, Race Mixture, pp. 116-17; Palmer, Slaves of the White God, pp. 172-8.

123. Bennett, Africans in Colonial Mexico, p. 19.

124. Bernand, Negros esclavos y libres, p. 46.

125. Berlin, Many Thousands Gone, p. 96; Blackburn, The Making of New World Slavery, p. 258.

126. Pierre Chaunu, Conquete et exploitation des nouveaux mondes (Paris, 1969), p. 286.

127. Eastward Ho (1605), Act III, Scene 3, in The Plays and Poems of George Chapman. The Comedies, ed. Thomas Marc Parrott (London, 1914), p. 499; Chaunu, L'Amerique et Les Ameriques, p. 88, and map 6.

128. Antonio Garcia-Baquero Gonzalez, Andalucia y la carrera de Indias, 1492-1824 (Seville, 1986), p. 28.

129. Jose Maria Oliva Melgar, `Puerto y puerta de las Indias', in Carlos Martinez Shaw (ed.), Sevilla siglo XVI. El corazon de las riquezas del mundo (Madrid, 1993), p. 99.

130. For the Consulado, R. S. Smith, The Spanish Guild Merchant (Durham, NC, 1940), ch. 6; Guillermo Cespedes del Castillo, La averla en el comercio de Indias (Seville, 1945); Antonio-Miguel Bernal, La financiacion de la Carrera de Indias, 1492-1824 (Seville and Madrid, 1992), especially pp. 209-22; Enriqueta Vila Vilar, `El poder del Consulado y los hombres del comercio en el siglo XVII', in Enriqueta Vila Vilar and Allan J. Kuethe (eds), Relaciones del poder y comercio colonial. Nuevas perspectivas (Seville, 1999), pp. 3-34.

131. For the Portuguese, see above, p. 100; for the Genoese, Ruth Pike, Enterprise and Adventure. The Genoese in Seville and the Opening of the New World (Ithaca, NY11966); for Corsicans, Enriqueta Vila Vilar, Los Corzo y los Manara. Tipos y arquetipos del mercader con America (Seville, 1991); for the community of foreign merchants in Seville, Michele Moret, Aspects de la societe marchande de Seville an debut du XVIIe siecle (Paris, 1967), pp. 34-58; and for foreign participation in Spanish commercial life in general, Antonio Dominguez Ortiz, Los extranjeros en la vida espanola durante el siglo XVII y otros articulos (Seville, 1996).

132. Enriqueta Vila Vilar and Guillermo Lehmann Villena, Familia, linajes y negocios entre Sevilla y las Indias. Los Almonte (Madrid, 2003).

133. Studnicki-Gizbert, `From Agents to Consulado'; Margarita Suarez, Comercio y fraude en el Peru colonial. Las estrategias mercantiles de un banquero (Lima, 1995), and Desafios transatlanticos. Mercaderes, banqueros y el estado en el Peru virreinal, 1600-1700 (Lima, 2001).

134. Eduardo Arcila Farias, Comercio entre Venezuela y Mexico en los siglos XVII y XVIII (Mexico City, 1950), pp. 52-3.

135. Woodrow Borah, Early Colonial Trade and Navigation between Mexico and Peru (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1954). Inter-colonial trade in Spanish America needs further investigation. See Fisher, Economic Aspects of Spanish Imperialism, ch. 5.

136. Ian K. Steele, The English Atlantic, 1675-1740 (Oxford, 1986), pp. 78-9.

137. Cressy Coming Over, p. 156; Steele, English Atlantic, pp. 90-1 and 45.

138. Steele, English Atlantic, pp. 42-3.

139. Below, pp. 117-18.

140. Robert M. Bliss, Revolution and Empire. English Politics and the American Colonies in the Seventeenth Century (Manchester and New York, 1990), p. 20.

141. OHBE, 1, pp. 20-1.

142. R. W. Hinton, The Eastland Trade and the Common Weal in the Seventeenth Century (Cambridge, 1959), p. 95.

143. OHBE, 1, p. 423.

144. George Gardyner, A Description of the New World (London, 1651), pp. 7-8.

Chapter 5. Crown and Colonists

1. Cited in Bliss, Revolution and Empire, pp. 19-20, from Clarence S. Brigham (ed.), British Royal Proclamations Relating to America, 1603-1763 (American Antiquarian Society, Transactions and Collections, XII, Worcester, MA, 1911), pp. 52-5. See also Craven, Dissolution of the Virginia Company, p. 330, for the move to royal rule.

2. John Robertson, `Empire and Union', in David Armitage (ed.), Theories of Empire, 1450-1800 (Aldershot, 1998), pp. 18-20.

3. David Armitage, `Literature and Empire', OHBE, 1, pp. 114-15.

4. See John H. Elliott, 'A Europe of Composite Monarchies', Past and Present, 137 (1992), pp. 48-71.

5. Andrews, The Colonial Period, 2, p. 250.

6. Ibid., 2, pp. 197 and 282.

7. Kupperman, Providence Island, p. 327.

8. OHBE, 1, pp. 22-3, 25-6, and 113. Nathaniel Crouch published in 1685, under the pseudonym `R. B.', a tract entitled The English Empire in America. The figures for publications containing the term 'British Empire' are given in John E. Crowley, 'A Visual Empire. Seeing the Atlantic World from a Global British Perspective', in Mancke and Shammas (eds), Creation of the Atlantic World, pp. 283-303. Against the 124 references to `British Empire' in titles published before 1800, he finds over 4,000 containing the words `colony' or `plantation', or their cognates.

9. John M. Headley, `The Habsburg World Empire and the Revival of Ghibellinism', in Armitage (ed.), Theories of Empire, p. 51.

10. Maria Jose Rodriguez Salgado, `Patriotismo y politica exterior en la Espana de Carlos V y Felipe IF, in Felipe Ruiz Martin (ed.), La proyeccion europea de la monarquia espanola (Madrid, 1996), p. 88.

11. Above, p. 23.

12. Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo, Sumario de la natural historia de las Indias, ed. Jose Miranda (Mexico City and Buenos Aires, 1950), p. 272; Gongora, Studies, pp. 45-6.

13. Pagden, Lords of All the World, p. 32, and n. 12 for examples, to which others could be added.

14. Elliott, A Europe of Composite Monarchies', pp. 52-3, citing Solorzano Pereira.

15. Juan de Solorzano Pereira, Obras varias posthumas (Madrid, 1776), pp. 186-7. For Solorzano and his views on Alexander VI and the papal bulls, see Muldoon, The Americas in the Spanish World Order, ch. 7.

16. Jose Manuel Perez Prendes, La monarquia indiana y el estado de derecho (Valencia, 1989), pp. 85-6.

17. Recopilacion de leyes de los reynos de las Indias (facsimile of 1791 edition, 3 vols, Madrid, 1998), lib. III, tit. 1, ley 1.

18. See Manuel Serrano y Sanz, Orlgenes de la domination espanola en America (Madrid, 1918).

19. For this much debated question, see R. Konetzke, `La legislacion sobre inmigracion de extranjeros en America durante el reinado de Carlos V', in Charles-Quintet son temps, pp. 93-111, and, more recently, Roma Pinya i Hems, La debatuda exclusio catalano-aragonesa de la conquesta d'America (Barcelona, 1992), for a close discussion of the relevant legislation.

20. See Alfonso Garcia-Gallo, Los origenes espanoles de las instituciones americanas (Madrid, 1987), pp. 715-41 ('El pactismo en el reino de Castilla y su proyeccion en America').

21. Luis Sanchez-Agesta, `El "poderio real absolute" en el testamento de 1554', in Carlos V.• Homenaje de la Universidad de Granada (Granada, 1958), pp. 439-60.

22. Guillermo Lehmann Villena, `Las Cortes en Indias', Anuario de Historia del Derecho Espanol, 17 (1947), pp. 655-62; Woodrow Borah, `Representative Institutions in the Spanish Empire in the Sixteenth Century', The Americas, 12 (1956), pp. 246-57.

23. Gongora, Studies, p. 79.

24. For a hostile account of Fonseca and his activities, see Manuel Gimenez Fernandez, Bartolome de Las Casas (2 vols, Seville, 1953-60). A more sympathetic treatment can be found in Thomas, Rivers of Gold.

25. Gimenez Fernandez, Las Casas, 2, p. 369.

26. Demetrio Ramos, `El problema de la fundacion del Real Consejo de las Indias y la fecha de su creation', in El Consejo de las Indias en el siglo XVI (Valladolid, 1970), p. 37, supplementing the information given in the standard work on the Council, Ernesto Schafer, El Consejo real y supremo de las Indias (2 vols, Seville, 1935-47), 1, p. 44, who considered 1524 as the date of its foundation.

27. Martinez, Hernan Cortes, chs 18-20; Rafael Varon Gabai, Francisco Pizarro and his Brothers (Norman, OK and London, 1997), pp. 47-51.

28. Bakewell, History of Latin America, pp. 113-16; Perez Prendes, La monarquia indiana, pp. 206-19; J. M. Ots Capdequi, El estado espanol en las Indias (3rd edn, Mexico City, 1957), pp. 64-5.

29. CHLA, 1, p. 293.

30. Jose Ignacio Rubio Mane, Introduction al estudio de los virreyes de la Nueva Espana, 1535-1746 (3 vols, Mexico City, 1955), 1, p. 13.

31. Recopilacion, lib. III, tit. 3, ley 1.

32. Octavio Paz, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz (3rd edn, Mexico City, 1985), pp. 195-201. A vivid contemporary account of a viceregal progress through New Spain in 1640 is to be found in Cristobal Gutierrez de Medina, Viaje del Virrey Marques de Villena, ed. Manuel Romero de Terreros (Mexico City, 1947). For comparable, if smaller-scale, ceremonies, on the arrival of a new governor of Chile, see Jaime Valenzuela Marquez, `La reception publica de una autoridad colonial: modelo peninsular, referente virreinal y reproduction periferica (Santiago de Chile, siglo XVII)', in Oscar Mazin Gomez (ed.), Mexico en el mundo hispanico (2 vols, Zamora, Michoacan, 2000), pp. 495-516.

33. Konetzke, La epoca colonial, p. 121.

34. For royal symbolism and viceregal rituals, see Victor Minguez Cornelles, Los reyes dis- tantes. Imagenes del poder en el Mexico virreinal (Castello de la Plana, 1995); Inmaculada Rodriguez Moya, La mirada del virrey. Iconografia del poder en la Nueva Espana (Castello de la Plana, 2003); Alejandro Caneque, The King's Living Image. The Culture and Politics of Viceregal Power in Colonial Mexico (New York and London, 2004).

35. Perez Prendes, La monarquia indiana, pp. 232-7.

36. Peter Marzahl, Town in the Empire. Government, Politics and Society in Seventeenth Century Popayan (Austin, TX, 1978), pp. 123 and 165.

37. Gongora, Studies, pp. 68-9.

38. Borah, Justice by Insurance, pp. 253-5.

39. Cited by Juan Manzano, `La visita de Ovando al Real Consejo de las Indias y el codigo ovandino', in El Consejo de las Indias, p. 116. For Ovando's career see Poole, Juan de Ovando.

40. Javier Malagon and Jose M. Ots Capdequi, Solorzano y la politica indiana (2nd edn, Mexico City, 1983), ch. 1; Antonio de Leon Pinelo, El Gran Canciller de Indias, ed. Guillermo Lehmann Villena (Seville, 1953), introduction.

41. Ruggiero Romano, Conjonctures opposees. La `Crise' du XVIIe siecle en Europe et en Amerique iberique (Geneva, 1992), p. 187.

42. Above, p. 68.

43. CHLA, 1, p. 518; Konetzke, La epoca colonial, p. 207.

44. Bakewell, History of Latin America, p. 138; Konetzke, La epoca colonial, p. 217; and see below, pp. 198-9.

45. Sanchez Bella, Iglesia y estado, pp. 71-4.

46. Konetzke, La epoca colonial, p. 223.

47. Cited in Gongora, Studies, p. 71, from Juan de Ovando's Gobernacion espiritual.

48. The Works of Francis Bacon, ed. J. Spedding (14 vols, London 1857-74), 7, pp. 130-1. Antonio de Mendoza moved in 1551 from the viceroyalty of New Spain to that of Peru, where he died in the following year. I have not found the source for Bacon's story.

49. Cortes, Letters from Mexico, p. 146 (second letter, 30 October 1520).

50. For the coincidence, see Manuel Gimenez Fernandez, Hernan Cortes y la revolution comunera en la Nueva Espana (Seville, 1948).

51. Victor Frankl, `Hernan Cortes y la tradition de las Siete Partidas', Revista de Historia de America, 53-4 (1962), pp. 9-74 (reprinted in Armitage (ed.), Theories of Empire, ch. 5).

52. Luciano Perena Vicente, La Universidad de Salamanca, forja del pensamiento politico espanol en el siglo XVI (Salamanca, 1954). For a general survey of Spanish political thinking in this period, see J. A. Fernandez-Santamaria, The State, War and Peace. Spanish Political Thought in the Renaissance, 1516-1559 (Cambridge, 1977), and for an exposition of ideas and practice in Spain's American possessions, Colin M. MacLachlan, Spain's Empire in the New World. The Role of Ideas in Institutional and Social Change (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, 1988).

53. See Gongora, Studies, pp. 68-79. Also Richard M. Morse, `Towards a Theory of Spanish American Government', Journal of the History of Ideas, 15 (1954), pp. 71-93; `The Heritage of Latin America' in Hartz, The Founding of New Societies, pp. 123-77; and his ideas as reformulated in the context of the development of western civilization, in Richard M. Morse, El espejo de Prospero. Un estudio de la dialectica del Nuevo Mundo (Mexico City, 1982), pp. 66ff.

54. For the formula as part of Basque law, Bartolome Clavero, Derecho de los reinos (Seville, 1977), pp. 125-30. See also Perez Prendes, La monarquia indiana, pp. 167-8, and Recopilacion de Indias, lib. II, tit. 1, ley 22.

55. Above, p. 4.

56. Simpson, The Encomienda in New Spain, pp. 132-3.

57. For the rebellion and its justification, Guillermo Lehmann Villena, Las ideas juridicas- politicas en la rebelidn de Gonzalo Pizarro (Valladolid, 1977); Gongora, Studies, pp. 27-30 and 75. For La Gasca, Teodoro Hampe Martinez, Don Pedro de la Gasca. Su obra politica en Espana y America (Lima, 1989)

58. Andrews, Colonial Period, 1, p. 86.

59. Craven, Dissolution of the Virginia Company, ch. 3; and see the documents in chapter 1 of Warren M. Billings, The Old Dominion in the Seventeenth Century. A Documentary History of Virginia, 1606-1689 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1975), for the beginnings of government in Virginia.

60. Michael Kammen, Deputyes and Libertyes. The Origins of Representative Government in Colonial America (New York, 1969), p. 17.

61. Langdon, `The Franchise and Political Democracy', p. 515.

62. Ibid., p. 514.

63. Kammen, Deputyes and Libertyes, p. 54; and see the table of colonies (pp. 11-2) with the date of their first assemblies.

64. Ibid., p. 19.

65. Michael Kammen, Colonial New York. A History (New York, 1975), p. 102.

66. Robert C. Ritchie, The Duke's Province. A Study of New York Politics and Society, 1664-1691 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1977), pp. 159 and 166.

67. Jack P. Greene, Peripheries and Center. Constitutional Development in the Extended Polities of the British Empire and the United States, 1607-1788 (Athens, GA, London, 1986), pp. 23-4; John Phillip Reid, In a Defiant Stance (University Park, PA, London, 1977), p. 12.

68. Leonard Woods Labaree, Royal Government in America (New Haven, 1930), pp. 32-3.

69. For the powers of governors, see ibid., especially ch. 3.

70. Ibid., p. 102.

71. Cited by Bernard Bailyn, The Origins of American Politics (New York, 1970), p. 113. Labaree's comparison of Osborn's instructions with those of Governor Clinton in 1741 in fact shows that 67 of the original 97 articles were repeated verbatim, four showed changes in phraseology, sixteen were modified in content, ten were omitted, and twelve new paragraphs were added (Royal Government, p. 64). For British royal instructions see Leonard Woods Labaree (ed.), Royal Instructions to British Colonial Governors, 1670-1776 (New York, 1935). Instructions, both standard and secret, for the viceroys of Habsburg Spanish America may be found in Lewis Hanke (ed.), Los virreyes espanoles en America durante el gobierno de la Casa de Austria (BAE, vols 233-7, Madrid, 1967-8 for Mexico, and vols 280-5 for Peru, Madrid, 1978-80).

72. Labaree, Royal Government, p. 83.

73. Ibid., pp. 85-9.

74. Patricia U. Bonomi, The Lord Cornbury Scandal. The Politics of Reputation in British America (Chapel Hill, NC and London, 1988).

75. Ibid., pp. 92-7.

76. Labaree, Royal Government, p. 43.

77. Richard R. Johnson, Adjustment to Empire. The New England Colonies 1675-1715 (Leicester, 1981), p. 332.

78. Cited in Alan Tully Forming American Politics. Ideals, Interests and Institutions in Colonial New York and Pennsylvania (Baltimore and London, 1994), p. 95.

79. Labaree, Royal Government, p. 126; Konetzke, La epoca colonial, pp. 120-1. The three-year rule was introduced in 1629.

80. Konetzke, La epoca colonial, p. 121.

81. Labaree, Royal Government, p. 38. The Jamaican-born Moore was governor of New York 1765-9.

82. Konetzke, Coleccion de documentos, 1, doc. 350; John Leddy Phelan, The Kingdom of Quito in the Seventeenth Century (Madison, WI, Milwaukee, WI, London, 1967), pp. 151-3.

83. Jonathan Israel, Race, Class and Politics in Colonial Mexico, 1610-1670 (Oxford, 1975), ch. 5.

84. C. H. Haring, The Spanish Empire in America (New York, 1947), pp. 148-57. Haring's survey remains a useful guide to governmental organization and practice in colonial America.

85. Labaree, Royal Government, ch. 5; Jack P. Greene, Negotiated Authorities. Essays in Colonial Political and Constitutional History (Charlottesville, VA and London, 1994), p. 173.

86. Ismael Sanchez-Bella, La organizacion financiera de las Indias. Siglo XVI (Seville, 1968), pp. 21-3.

87. Ibid., pp. 52-3; Robert Sidney Smith, `Sales Taxes in New Spain, 1575-1770', HAHR, 28 (1948), pp. 2-37.

88. For the working of this system, see Herbert S. Klein, The American Finances of the Spanish Empire. Royal Income and Expenditures in Colonial Mexico, Peru, and Bolivia, 1680-1809 (Albuquerque, NM, 1998).

89. Anthony McFarlane, The British in the Americas, 1480-1815 (London and New York, 1994), pp. 207-8.

90. Labaree, Royal Government, p. 271.

91. Jack P. Greene, The Quest for Power. The Lower Houses of Assembly in the Southern Royal Colonies, 1689-1776 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1963), p. 3.

92. Cited in David Hackett Fischer, Albion's Seed. Four British Folkways in America (New York and Oxford, 1989), p. 407.

93. Labaree, Royal Government, pp. 170 and 274-5; Greene, The Quest for Power, part 2.

94. Bernard Bailyn, `Politics and Social Structure in Virginia', in Stanley N. Katz and John M. Murrin (eds), Colonial America. Essays in Politics and Social Development (New York, 1983), pp. 207-30, at pp. 210-15.

95. Billings, The Old Dominion, p. 68.

96. Warren M. Billings, `The Growth of Political Institutions in Virginia, 1634-1676', WMQ, 3rd set., 31 (1974), pp. 225-42; Billings, The Old Dominion, p. 70.

97. Horn, Adapting to a New World, p. 190.

98. Ibid., pp. 195-7.

99. Billings, `The Growth of Political Institutions', p. 232.

100. For legal pluralism in colonial societies, see Lauren Benton, Law and Colonial Cultures. Legal Regimes in World History, 1400-1900 (Cambridge, 2002), and especially ch. 2, which discusses legal regimes in the Atlantic world. See also for varieties of jurisdiction in Renaissance Spain, Richard L. Kagan, Lawsuits and Litigants in Castile, 1500-1700 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1981), pp. 22-32. For the English Atlantic world, see especially William M. Offutt, `The Atlantic Rules: the Legalistic Turn in Colonial British America', in Mancke and Shammas (eds), The Creation of the Atlantic World, pp. 160-81, and Tomlins and Mann (eds), The Many Legalities of Early America, together with the review of this important collection of essays by Jack P. Greene, "By Their Laws Shall Ye Know Them": Law and Identity in Colonial British America', Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 33 (2002), pp. 247-60.

101. Offutt, `The Atlantic Rules', p. 161.

102. See Warren M. Billings, `The Transfer of English Law to Virginia, 1606-1650', in Andrews et al. (eds), The Westward Enterprise, ch. 11.

103. Offutt, `The Atlantic Rules', p. 166.

104. Ibid., p. 178.

105. See the essays by John M. Murrin and G. B. Warden in David D. Hall, John M. Murrin and Thad W. Tate (eds), Saints and Revolutionaries. Essays in Early American History (New York and London, 1984). Also Peter Charles Hoffer, Law and People in Colonial America (Baltimore and London, 1992), pp. 87-9.

106. `Shipwrecked Spaniards 1639. Grievances against Bermudans', trans. from the Spanish by L. D. Gurrin, The Bermuda Historical Quarterly, 18 (1961), pp. 13-28, at pp. 27-8.

107. Below, pp. 228-9.

108. See Peter Marzahl, Town in the Empire. Government, Politics and Society in SeventeenthCentury Popayan (Austin, TX, 1978).

109. See the description of Easthampton in John Putnam Demos, Entertaining Satan. Witchcraft and the Culture of Early New England (New York and Oxford, 1982), pp. 220-33. The history of East Hampton, as it now styles itself, is explored in T. H. Breen, Imagining the Past. East Hampton Histories (Reading, MA, 1989).

110. See Demos, A Little Commonwealth, pp. 7-8; Lockridge, A New England Town, ch. 3.

111. Gary B. Nash, The Urban Crucible. Social Change, Political Consciousness and the Origins of the American Revolution (Cambridge, MA, and London, 1979), pp. 31-2.

112. Demos, Entertaining Satan, p. 228.

113. Langdon, `The Franchise and Political Democracy', pp. 522-5.

114. Winthrop, journal, p. 145.

115. Dunn, Puritans and Yankees, p. 29; Howard Millar Chapin, Roger Williams and the King's Colors (Providence, RI, 1928).

116. Enrique Florescano, La bandera mexicana. Breve historia de sit formation y simbolismo (Mexico City, 1998).

117. Cited in Bliss, Revolution and Empire, p. 42 (spelling modernized).

118. Dunn, Puritans and Yankees, p. 37.

119. Below, p. 229.

120. Craven, The Southern Colonies, ch. 7; Bliss, Revolution and Empire, pp. 51-2 and ch. 4; and, for a general survey of the Civil War period, see Carla Gardina Pestana, The English Atlantic in an Age of Revolution, 1640-1661 (Cambridge, MA, 2004).

121. Mary Beth Norton, Founding Mothers and Fathers. Gendered Power and the Forming of American Society (New York, 1997), p. 282.

122. Dunn, Puritans and Yankees, p. 37.

123. Ibid., p. 42; Bremer, John Winthrop, pp. 325-7.

124. Bliss, Revolution and Empire, p. 46.

125. Ibid., pp. 60-i.

126. Andrews, The Colonial Period, vol. 4, pp. 54-5.

127. J. M. Sosin, English America and the Restoration Monarchy of Charles II (Lincoln, NE, and London, 1980), pp. 39-41. This unwieldy structure was replaced, after Clarendon's fall in 1667, by a Privy Council Committee for Trade and Plantations. A further reorganization occurred in 1672, with the establishment of a Council of Trade and Foreign Plantations.

128. OHBE, 1, p. 452.

129. F. R. Harris, The Life of Edward Mountague, K.G., First Earl of Sandwich, 1625-1672, 2 vols (London, 1912), Appendix K (spelling modernized).

130. See Johnson, Adjustment to Empire; Bernard Bailyn, The New England Merchants in the Seventeenth Century (1955; edn New York, 1964).

131. Stephen Saunders Webb, The Governors-General. The English Army and the Definition of the Empire, 1569-1681 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1979), p. 194.

132. Cited by Greene, Peripheries and Center, pp. 39-40.

133. For the idea of `garrison government', as expounded by Stephen Saunders Webb, see his Governors-General, and 1676. The End of American Independence (New York, 1984). For a critique, see Richard R. Johnson, `The Imperial Webb', and Webb's reply, in WMQ, 3rd ser., 43 (1986), pp. 408-59.

134. Laharec, Royal Government, p. 275.

135. W. A. Speck, `The International and Imperial Context', in Greene and Pole, Colonial British America, p. 390.

136. Michael Garibaldi Hall, Edward Randolph and the American Colonies, 1676-1703 (1960; New York, 1969), p. 22. For Randolph see also Dunn, Puritans and Yankees, pp. 212-28.

137. For the career of Andros, Mary Lou Lustig, The Imperial Executive in America. Sir Edmund Andros, 1637-1714 (Madison, NJ, 2002).

138. See Viola Florence Barnes, The Dominion of New England (New Haven, 1923).

139. Alison Gilbert Olson, Anglo-American Politics, 1660-1775 (New York and Oxford, 1973), p. 66.

140. Ritchie, The Duke's Province, pp. 168-73; Michael Kammen, Colonial New York. A History (New York, 1975), p. 102.

141. Barnes, Dominion of New England, p. 87.

142. Cited by Lustig, The Imperial Executive, p. 151.

143. For 1688 see David S. Lovejoy, The Glorious Revolution in America (New York, 1972); J. M. Sosin, English America and the Revolution of 1688 (Lincoln, NE, and London, 1982). Also Richard Dunn, `The Glorious Revolution and America', OHBE, 1, ch. 20.

144. Hall, Edward Randolph, p. 32.

Chapter 6. The Ordering of Society

1. Cited by Perry Miller, `Errand into the Wilderness', in In Search of Early America. The William and Mary Quarterly 1943-1993 (Richmond, VA, 1993), p. 3. For the date and place of the sermon's delivery, see Bremer, John Winthrop, pp. 431-2 (spelling modernized).

2. Cited by Salas, Las armas de la conquista, pp. 140-1, from the Relation del sitio de Cuzco.

3. Cited in Perry Miller, The New England Mind in the Seventeenth Century (Cambridge, MA, and London, 1939), p. 428.

4. Cited in Guillaume Boccara and Sylvia Galindo (eds), Logica mestiza en America (Temuco, Chile, 1999), p. 61.

5. See Dietrich Gerhard, Old Europe. A Study of Continuity, 1000-1800 (New York, 1981).

6. See Aldo Stella, La rivoluzione contadina del 1525 e 1'Utopia di Michael Gaismayr (Padua, 1975).

7. For a comprehensive study of these religious movements see G. H. Williams, The Radical Reformation (London, 1962).

8. Below, p. 185.

9. Durand, La trans formacion social del conquistador, vol. 1, ch. 3 ('El valer mas').

10. James Lockhart, The Men of Cajamarca. A Social and Economic History of the First Conquerors of Peru (Austin, TX and London 1972), p. 32.

11. Baltasar Dorantes de Carranza, Sumaria relacion de las cosas de la Nueva Espana (1604; ed. Ernesto de la Torre Villar, Mexico City, 1987), p. 201.

12. Thomas N. Ingersoll, `The Fear of Levelling in New England', in Carla Gardina Pestana and Sharon V Salinger (eds), Inequality in Early America (Hanover, NH, and London, 1999), pp. 46-66.

13. Norton, Founding Mothers and Fathers, ch. 8.

14. OHBE, 1, p. 203.

15. Winthrop, journal, p. 612 (spelling modernized).

16. Barry Levy, Quakers and the American Family (New York and Oxford, 1988), pp. 76-9; Gary Nash, Quakers and Politics in Pennsylvania, 1681-1726 (Princeton, 1968), p. 43.

17. Above, pp. 44 and 55.

18. Bernard Bailyn, Education in the Forming of American Society (New York and London, 1960), p. 28.

19. Above, p. 55.

20. Konetzke, Coleccion de documentos, 1, dot. 112 (royal cedula to Viceroy Mendoza, 23 August 1538).

21. The voluminous correspondence collected in Rocio Sanchez Rubio and Isabel Teston Nunez, El kilo que une: Las relaciones epistolares en el viejo y el nuevo mundo, siglos XVI-XVIII (Merida, 1999), derives from bigamy prosecutions. For an individual case in sixteenthcentury Peru, see Alexandra Parma Cook and Noble David Cook, Good Faith and Truthful Ignorance. A Case of Transatlantic Bigamy (Durham, NC, and London, 1991).

22. See in particular Demos, A Little Commonwealth, part 2, and Philip J. Greven, Four Generations. Population, Land and Family in Colonial Andover, Massachusetts (Ithaca, NY, and London, 1970), part 1.

23. Norton, Founding Mothers and Fathers, pp. 83-9; Demos, A Little Commonwealth, pp. 84-7.

24. Tate and Ammerman (eds), The Chesapeake in the Seventeenth Century, p. 127; Horn, Adapting to a New World, p. 206.

25. Horn, Adapting to a New World, p. 216.

26. Tate and Ammerman (eds), The Chesapeake in the Seventeenth Century, p. 173.

27. Morner, Race Mixture, p. 55.

28. Above, p. 82.

29. Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, pp. 252-5. I am grateful to Professor Philip Morgan for his advice on this point.

30. Foster, Culture and Conquest, pp. 122-3; CHLA, vol. 2, p. 290. It may not, however, always have worked to this effect. In Santiago de Chile in the seventeenth century, for instance, godparents seem to have been chosen from within the same social or racial milieu as that of the parents. See Jean-Paul Zuniga, Espagnols d'outre-mer. Emigration, metissage et reproduction sociale a Santiago du Chili, au 17" siecle (Paris, 2002), pp. 287-301. There is a need for a systematic study of the workings and importance of compadrazgo in Spanish-American societies.

31. Horn, Adapting to a New World, p. 218.

32. Norton, Founding Mothers and Fathers, pp. 111-12, and 145; and see Carole Shammas, 'Anglo-American Household Government in Comparative Perspective', WMQ, 3rd ser., 52 (1995), pp. 104-44, and the debate that follows it. See also the subsequent book by Carole Shammas, A History of Household Government in America (Charlottesville, VA and London, 2002).

33. Siete Partidas, partida 4, titulos 17 and 18; Shammas, 'Anglo-American Household Government', p. 137; Patricia Seed, To Love, Honor, and Obey in Colonial Mexico (Stanford, CA, 1988), p. 235.

34. James Casey, Early Modern Spain. A Social History (London and New York, 1999), pp. 28-9.

35. Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations, ed. Edwin Carman (2 vols, 6th edn, London, 1950), vol. 2, pp. 84-5 (Book 4, ch. 7, part 2).

36. Jose E de la Pelia, Oligarquia y propiedad en Nueva Espana 1550-1624 (Mexico City, 1983), p. 220.

37. Magnus Miirner, `Economic Factors and Stratification in Colonial Spanish America with Special Regard to Elites', HAHR, 63 (1983), pp. 335-69. For Leon, D. A. Brading, Haciendas and Ranchos in the Mexican Bajio. Leon 1700-1860 (Cambridge, 1978), pp. 1 18-19.

38. Louisa Schell Hoberman, Mexico's Merchant Elite, 1590-1660. Silver, State and Society (Durham, NC, and London, 1991), pp. 231-2.

39. Horn, Adapting to a New World, pp. 230-1.

40. Bertram Wyatt-Brown, Southern Honor. Ethics and Behavior in the Old South (New York, 1982), pp. 5-6; Fischer, Albion's Seed, pp. 380-1; and for important new light on the prevalence of entail in Virginia, see Holly Brewer, `Entailing Aristocracy in Colonial Virginia: "Ancient Feudal Restraints" and Revolutionary Reform', WMQ., 3rd set., 54 (1997), pp. 307-46.

41. Louis B. Wright, The First Gentlemen of Virginia. Intellectual Qualities of the Early Colonial Ruling Class (San Marino, CA, 1940), p. 57.

42. Norton, Founding Mothers and Fathers, pp. 144-7; Horn, Adapting to a New World, pp. 230-1.

43. Patricia Seed, `American Law, Hispanic Traces: Some Contemporary Entanglements of Community Property', WMQ, 3rd ser., 52 (1995), pp. 157-62. For the age of majority, Lockhart, Spanish Peru, pp. 164-5.

44. Luis Martin, Daughters of the Conquistadores. Women of the Viceroyalty of Peru (Dallas, TX, 1983), pp. 46 and 50; Lockhart, Spanish Peru, ch. 9.

45. Shammas, 'Anglo-American Household Government', p. 111.

46. Seed, To Love, Honor, and Obey, pp. 34-40; Casey, Early Modern Spain, pp. 208-9.

47. Martin Ingram, Church Courts, Sex and Marriage in England, 1570-1640 (Cambridge, 1987), p. 132.

48. Norton, Founding Mothers and Fathers, p. 64; Horn, Adapting to a New World, p. 211.

49. Horn, Adapting to a New World, p. 210.

50. Fischer, Alhion's Seed, pp. 88-91.

51. Seed, To Love, Honor, and Obey, pp. 63 and 266-7; Z6higa, Espagnols d'outre-mer, pp. 177-86. For the eighteenth century see Ann Twinam, Public Lives, Private Secrets. Gender, Honor, Sexuality, and Illegitimacy in Colonial Spanish America (Stanford, CA, 1999).

52. Ann Twinam, `Honor, Sexuality and Illegitimacy in Colonial Spanish America', in Asuncion Lavrin (ed.), Sexuality and Marriage in Colonial Latin America (Lincoln, NE, and London, 1989), pp. 136 and 125.

53. Seed, To Love, Honor, and Obey, pp. 69-74.

54. Ibid., p. 80.

55. Thomas Calvo, `The Warmth of the Hearth: Seventeenth-Century Guadalajara Families', in Lavrin, Sexuality and Marriage, p. 299.

56. Susan M. Socolow, `Acceptable Partners: Marriage Choice in Colonial Argentina, 1778-1810', in Lavrin, Sexuality and Marriage, pp. 210-13; Seed, To Love, Honor, and Obey, pp. 200-4.

57. Lavrin, Sexuality and Marriage, p. 6.

58. Seed, 'American Law, Hispanic Traces', p. 159.

59. De la Pena, Oligarquia y propiedad, pp. 191-3.

60. Jack P. Greene, Imperatives, Behaviors and Identities. Essays in Early American Cultural History (Charlottesville, VA and London, 1992), pp. 191-3.

61. Above, p. 8.

62. Otte, Cartas privadas, no. 127.

63. Description del virreinato del Peru, ed. Boleslao Lewin (Rosario, 1958), p. 39.

64. Konetzke, Coleccion de documentos, 1, doc. 145.

65. Himmerich y Valencia, Encomenderos of New Spain, p. 57.

66. Norman H. Dawes, `Titles as Symbols of Prestige in Seventeenth-Century New England', WMQ, 3rd set., 6 (1949), pp. 69-83.

67. Cotton Mather, A Christian at his Calling (Boston, 1701), p. 42.

68. Dawes, `Titles as Symbols', p. 78; Michael Craton, `Reluctant Creoles. The Planters' World in the British West Indies', in Bailyn and Morgan (eds), Strangers Within the Realm, pp. 314-62, at p. 326; Christen I. Archer, The Army in Bourbon Mexico, 1760-1810 (Albuquerque, NM, 1977), p. 165, citing Humboldt.

69. Cited in Isaac, The Transformation of Virginia, p. 161.

70. Wilcomb E. Washburn, The Governor and the Rebel. A History of Bacon's Rebellion in Virginia (Chapel Hill, NC, 1957), p. 35. For Berkeley, see Warren M. Billings, Sir William Berkeley and the Forging of Colonial Virginia (Baton Rouge, LA, 2004).

71. Bacon's rebellion has been the subject of much debate since the publication of Thomas J. Wertenbaker's Torchbearer of the Revolution. The Story of Bacon's Rebellion and its Leader (Princeton, 1940). The arguments of Wertenbaker in favour of Bacon's `democratic' credentials were contested by Wilcomb Washburn in The Governor and the Rebel, which makes the case for Governor Berkeley. More recently, Stephen Saunders Webb has retold the story in the spirit of Wertenbaker in Book 1 of his 1676. See also for the background and motivations of Bacon and his followers Wesley Frank Craven, The Southern Colonies in the Seventeenth Century (Baton Rouge, LA, 1949), ch. 10, which rightly emphasizes the complexity of the story; Bernard Bailyn, `Politics and Social Structure in Virginia', in James Morton Smith, Seventeenth-Century America. Essays in Colonial History (Chapel Hill, NC, 1959), ch. 5; Morgan, American Slavery, American Freedom, ch. 13; Kathleen M. Brown, Good Wives, Nasty Wenches, and Anxious Patriarchs (Chapel Hill, NC and London, 1996), ch. 5; Horn, Adapting to a New World, pp. 372-9.

72. Bacon's `manifesto', in Billings, The Old Dominion, p. 278. I have corrected an obvious misprint, substituting `compared' for `composed', and have inserted the word `enter' to make sense of the sentence.

73. Fischer, Albion's Seed, pp. 207-32; Bailyn, `Politics and Social Structure'.

74. Horn, Adapting to a New World, pp. 151-6.

75. Cited in T. H. Breen, Puritans and Adventurers. Change and Persistence in Early America (New York and Oxford, 1980), p. 132.

76. Horn, Adapting to a New World, p. 378.

77. Morgan, American Slavery, American Freedom, p. 283.

78. Brown, Good Wives, Nasty Wenches, p. 178.

79. Ibid., p. 179.

80. Breen, Puritans and Adventurers, p. 141.

81. Above, p. 104.

82. Hatfield, Atlantic Virginia, p. 228.

83. E. Morgan, American Slavery, American Freedom, p. 329.

84. P. Morgan, Slave Counterpoint, p. 58.

85. Ibid., pp. 422-3.

86. Ibid., pp. 15-16.

87. See Brown, Good Wives, Nasty Wenches, especially pp. 184-5.

88. Breen, Puritans and Adventurers, p. 162.

89. E. Morgan, American Slavery, American Freedom, p. 344.

90. Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, pp. 98, 131, 162-5; and, for a useful survery of planter society, see Craton, `Reluctant Creoles'.

91. Fischer, Albion's Seed, p. 385.

92. See Wyatt-Brown, Southern Honor.

93. Wright, The First Gentlemen of Virginia, p. 60.

94. For social structure in the Indies, see especially Lyle C. McAlister, `Social Structure and Social Change in New Spain', HAHR, 43 (1963), pp. 349-70, and Magnus Morner, `Economic Factors and Stratification in Colonial Spanish America with Special Regard to Elites', HAHR, 63 (1983), pp. 335-69.

95. Below, p. 234.

96. Humboldt, Ensayo politico, II, p. 141 (lib. 2. cap. 7).

97. See under casta in the Diccionario de autoridades (Madrid, 1726; facsimile edn, 3 vols, Real Academia Espanola, Madrid, 1969). Also MOrner, Race Mixture, p. 53.

98. R. Douglas Cope, The Limits of Racial Domination. Plebeian Society in Colonial Mexico City, 1660-1720 (Madison, WI, 1994), p. 24.

99. See the exhibition catalogue, Ilona Katzew (ed.), New World Orders. Casta Painting and Colonial Latin America (Americas Society Art Gallery, New York, 1996), and her comprehensive study, Casta Painting. Images of Race in Eighteenth-Century Mexico (New Haven and London, 2004). For the number of sets so far located, Katzew, Casta Painting, p. 63. The earliest known set dates from 1711 (p. 10).

100. Magnus Morner, `Labour Systems and Patterns of Social Stratification', in Wolfgang Reinhard and Peter Waldmann (eds), Nord and Siid in Amerika: Gegensdtze- Gemeinsamkeiten-Europaischer Hintergrund (Freiburg, 1992), I, pp. 347-63.

101. Twinam, `Honor, Sexuality', in Lavrin, Sexuality and Marriage, pp. 123-4.

102. Carmen Castaneda, Circulos de poder en la Nueva Espana (Mexico City, 1998), pp. 112-14; Bernand, Negros esclavos y libres, pp. 130-1; Maria Elena Martinez, `The Black Blood of New Spain: Limpieza de Sangre, Racial Violence, and Gendered Power in Early Colonial Mexico', WMQ, 3rd set., 61 (2004), pp. 479-520.

103. Castaneda, Clrculos de poder, p. 113.

104. Cited by Katzew, New World Orders, p. 11, from a 1774 treatise by Pedro Alonso O'Crouley

105. Twinam, `Honor, Sexuality and Illegitimacy', p. 125.

106. Cited by Bernard Lavalle, Las promesas ambiguas. Ensayos sobre el criollismo colonial en los Andes (Lima, 1993), p. 47.

107. Cope, Limits of Racial Domination, p. 121.

108. Lavalle, Las promesas ambiguas, p. 47; Katzew, New World Orders, p. 12.

109. Cited by Winthrop D. Jordan, White Over Black. American Attitudes toward the Negro 1550-1812 (1968; Baltimore 1969), p. 176.

110. Lockhart and Schwartz, Early Latin America, pp. 129-30; Morner, Race Mixture, pp. 60-1.

111. Solange Alberto, Del gachupin al criollo. 0 de como los espanoles de Mexico dejaron de serlo (El Colegio de Mexico, Jornadas, 122, 1992), p. 170, n. 13.

112. Humboldt, Ensayo politico, II, p. 141 (lib. 2, cap. 7).

113. See Israel, Race, Class and Politics, ch. 5.

114. Cope, Limits of Racial Domination, pp. 22-3; Wyatt-Brown, Southern Honor, ch. 4.

115. See the graph of seventeenth-century maize prices in Mexico City in Enrique Florescano, Etnia, estado y nation. Ensayo sobre las identidades colectivas en Mexico (Mexico City, 1997), p. 259.

116. Cope, Limits of Racial Domination, ch. 7; Natalia Silva Prada, `Estrategias culturales en el tumulto de 1692 en la ciudad de Mexico: aportes para la reconstruction de la historia de la cultura politica antigua', Historia Mexicana, 209 (2003), pp. 5-63. For a contemporary account, Carlos de Sigiienza y Gongora, 'Alboroto y Motin de Mexico del 8 de junio de 1692', in a selection of his Relaciones historicas (4th edn, Mexico City, 1987), pp. 97-174.

117. Juan A. and Judith E. Villamarin, `The Concept of Nobility in Colonial Santa Fe de Bogota', in Karen Spalding (ed.), Essays in the Political, Economic and Social History of Colonial Latin America (Newark, DE, 1982), pp. 125-53.

118. Marzahl, Town in the Empire, p. 40.

119. De la Pena, Oligarquia y propiedad, pp. 200-6; Ma. Justina Sarabia Viejo, Don Luis de Velasco, virrey de Nueva Espana, 1550-1564 (Seville, 1978), pp. 474-5.

120. Mark A. Burkholder and D. S. Chandler, From Impotence to Authority. The Spanish Crown and the American Audiencias, 1687-1808 (Columbia, MO, 1977), p. 2.

121. Konetzke, La epoca colonial, p. 138; De la Pena, Oligarqula y propiedad, p. 195.

122. J. H. Parry, The Sale of Public Office in the Spanish Indies under the Hapsburgs (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1953); Mark A. Burkholder, `Bureaucrats', in Louisa Schell Hoberman and Susan Migden Socolow (eds), Cities and Society in Colonial Latin America (Albuquerque, NM, 1986), ch. 4.

123. Hoberman, Mexico's Merchant Elite, p. 55 and table 8; Suarez, Comercio y fraude, p. 124.

124. Hanke, Los virreyes espanoles. Mexico, 5, p. 12.

125. Hoberman, Mexico's Merchant Elite, pp. 223-4.

126. Guillermo Lehmann Villena, Los americanos en las ordenes nobiliarias, 2 vols (Madrid, 1947). Also Romano, Conjonctures opposees, p. 188.

127. Stuart B. Schwartz, `New World Nobility: Social Aspirations and Mobility in the Conquest and Colonization of Spanish America', in Miriam Usher Chrisman (ed.), Social Groups and Religious Ideas in the Sixteenth Century (Studies in Medieval Culture, XIII, The Medieval Institute, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI, 1978), pp. 23-37.

128. Zuniga, Espagnols d'outre-mer, pp. 305-11.

129. Hatfield, Atlantic Virginia, pp. 86-9.

130. Tully, Forming American Politics, p. 4.

131. For `conquest culture', see Foster, Culture and Conquest.

132. Breen, Puritans and Adventurers, pp. 68-9 and ch. 8.

133. Innes, Labor in a New Land, pp. 17-18; and above, p. 92, for the Pynchons.

134. Sacvan Bercovitch, The American Jeremiad (Madison, WI, 1978). For the second New England generation, Robert Middlekauff, The Mathers. Three Generations of Puritan Intellectuals, 1596-1728 (London, Oxford, New York, 1971), pp. 97-9.

135. Bailyn, New England Merchants, chs 5 and 6.

136. See, for the mercantile elites of the two viceroyalties, Hoberman, Mexico's Merchant Elite, and Suarez, Desaflos transatlanticos.

137. Sosin, English America, p. 64.

138. Middlekauff, The Mathers, pp. 263-8.

139. Gary B. Nash, The Urban Crucible. Social Change, Political Consciousness and the Origins of the American Revolution (Cambridge, MA and London, 1979), p. 31.

140. Dunn, Puritans and Yankees, pp. 251-57; Sosin, English America and the Revolution of 1688, ch. 6; Nash, Urban Crucible, pp. 38-44; and see above, pp. 151-2.

141. T. H. Breen, The Character of the Good Ruler. Puritan Political Ideas in New England, 1630-1730 (New Haven, 1970), p. 177.

142. For city politics in later seventeenth-century New York, see, in addition to Ritchie, The Duke's Province, the relevant sections in Kammen, Colonial New York, Nash, The Urban Crucible, and Tully Forming American Politics. For the part played by religion and ethnicity in Leisler's rebellion, see David William Vorhees, `The "Fervent Zeale" of Jacob Leisler', WMQ, 3rd set., 51 (1994), pp. 447-72, and John M. Murrin, `English Rights as Ethnic Aggression: the English Conquest, the Charter of Liberties of 1683, and Leisler's Rebellion', in William Pencak and Conrad Edick Wright (eds), Authority and Resistance in Early New York (New York, 1988), pp. 56-94.

143. Hoberman and Socolow, Cities and Society, p. 5.

144. Nash, The Urban Crucible, p. 4.

145. Ibid., p. 21.

146. Ibid., pp. 29-30.

147. Cited by Breen, The Character of the Good Ruler, p. 178.

148. For political debate and social disruption in Boston in these decades, see Nash, The Urban Crucible, pp. 76-88.

149. Douglas Adair, `Rumbold's Dying Speech, 1685, and Jefferson's Last Words on Democracy, 1826', WMQ, 3rd set., 9 (1952), pp. 521-31.

Chapter 7. America as Sacred Space

1. Cotton Mather, Magnalia Christi Americana (1702), 2 vols (repr. Edinburgh, 1979), vol. 1, pp. 41-2.

2. Giovanni Botero, Relationi universali (Brescia, 1599), part IV, lib. 2, p. 45 (facsimile reprint of selected passages on the New World in Aldo Albonico, II mondo americano di Giovanni Botero (Rome, 1990), p. 216).

3. John Leddy Phelan, The Millennial Kingdom of the Franciscans in the New World (2nd edn, Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1970), p. 32.

4. See Sacvan Bercovitch, The Puritan Origins of the American Self (New Haven and London, 1975), pp. 140-1.

5. For the millennial and apocalyptic tradition, see Marjorie Reeves, The Influence of Prophecy in the Later Middle Ages. A Study in Joachimism (Oxford, 1969); and for its transfer to Spanish America, Phelan, The Millennial Kingdom of the Franciscans; Jose Antonio Maravall, Utopia y reformismo en la Espana de los Austrias (Madrid, 1982), ch. 2; D. A. Brading, The First America. The Spanish Monarchy and the Liberal State, 1492-1867 (Cambridge, 1991), ch. 5; Bauder, Utopia e historia en Mexico, pp. 85-98.

6. Benavente (Motolinia), Memoriales, pp. 20-1.

7. Brading, First America, p. 126.

8. Benno M. Biermann, Bartolome de las Casas and Verapaz', in Juan Friede and Benjamin Keen (ed.), Bartolome de Las Casas in History (DeKalb, IL, 1971), pp. 443-84; Marcel Bataillon, Etudes sur Bartolome de Las Casas (Paris, 1965), pp. 137-202.

9. Fintan B. Warren, Vasco de Quiroga and his Pueblo-Hospitals of Santa Fe (Washington, 1963); Silvio Zavala, Sir Thomas More in New Spain. A Utopian Adventure of the Renaissance (Diamante III, The Hispanic and Luso-Brazilian Councils, London, 1955); Phelan, Millennial Kingdom, p. 47, and p. 150, n. 10.

10. Brading, First America, p. 110.

11. For the Jesuit communities in Paraguay, see especially Alberto Armani, Ciudad de Dios y Ciudad del Sol. El `Estado' jesuita de los guaranies, 1609-1768 (Mexico City, 1982; repr. 1987); Girolamo Imbruglia, L'invenzione del Paraguay (Naples, 1983); Magnus MOrner, The Political and Economic Activities of the Jesuits in the La Plata Region. The Hapsburg Era (Stockholm, 1953).

12. Armani, Ciudad de Dios, p. 96.

13. Force, Tracts, 1, no. 6, p. 14.

14. Above, p. 74.

15. Mather, Magnalia, 2, p. 442.

16. Cited by Phelan, Millennial Kingdom, p. 50. See also Brading, First America, p. 348.

17. See David D. Hall, Worlds of Wonder, Days of Judgment. Popular Religious Beliefs in Early New England (New York, 1989), pp. 91-3.

18. Cited by Perry Miller, Errand into the Wilderness (Cambridge, MA, 1956), p. 119.

19. Richard Crakanthorpe (1608), cited by Avihu Zakai, Exile and Kingdom. History and Apocalypse in the Puritan Migration to America (Cambridge, 1992), p. 62.

20. Mather, Magnalia, 1, pp. 44 and 46.

21. Morgan, Roger Williams, pp. 99-103.

22. Mather, Magnalia, 1, p. 66.

23. Ibid., p. 50. 24. Above, p. 48.

25. Sacvan Bercovitch, `The Winthrop Variation: a Model of American Identity', Proceedings of the British Academy, 97 (1997), pp. 75-94.

26. Cited by Bercovitch, Puritan Origins of the American Self, p. 102.

27. See the introduction to Fray Diego Duran, Book of the Gods and Rites, and the Ancient Calendar, trans. and ed. by Fernando Horcasitas and Doris Heyden (Norman, OK, 1971), pp. 23-5, and Lee Eldridge Huddleston, Origins of the American Indians. European Concepts, 1492-1729 (Austin, TX, and London, 1967), ch. 1.

28. Huddleston, Origins, pp. 131-2. See also the contributions to part 1 of Paolo Bernardini and Norman Fiering (eds), The Jews and the Expansion of Europe to the West, 1450 to 1800 (New York and Oxford, 2001), and Richard H. Popkin, `The Rise and Fall of the Jewish Indian Theory', in Y. Kaplan, H. Mechoulan and R. H. Popkin (eds), Menasseh ben Israel and his World (Leiden, 1989), pp. 63-82. I am indebted to Professor David Katz for drawing my attention to this essay.

29. See Cogley John Eliot's Mission, chs 1 and 4.

30. Ibid., p. 92; and see above, p. 74.

31. Cited by Canup, Out of the Wilderness, p. 74.

32. Mather, Magnalia, 1, p. 556.

33. Stuart Clark, Thinking with Demons. The Idea of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe (Oxford, 1997), p. 80.

34. Fernando Cervantes, The Devil in the New World. The Impact of Diabolism in New Spain (New Haven and London, 1994), pp. 14-16.

35. See Kenneth Mills, Idolatry and its Enemies. Colonial Andean Religion and Extirpation, 1640-1750 (Princeton, 1997), and Nicholas Griffiths, The Cross and the Serpent. Religious Repression and Resurgence in Colonial Peru (Norman, OK, and London, 1995).

36. Mather, Magnalia, 1, p. 55.

37. Hall, Worlds of Wonder, p. 167.

38. Ibid., p. 118.

39. Richard Godber, The Devil's Dominion. Magic and Religion in Early New England (Cambridge, 1992), pp. 5-6; Hall, Worlds of Wonder, p. 100. For magic in colonial British America as a whole, see Butler, Awash in a Sea of Faith, ch. 3.

40. Bernand and Gruzinski, Les Metissages, p. 301.

41. Alberto, Inquisition et societe an Mexique, pp. 93-4.

42. Irene Silverblatt, `The Inca's Witches', in Robert Blair St George (ed.), Possible Pasts. Becoming Colonial in Early America (Ithaca, NY and London, 2000), pp. 109-30; Sabine MacCormack, Religion in the Andes. Vision and Imagination in Early Colonial Peru (Princeton, 1991), p. 415.

43. Godber, The Devil's Dominion, p. 69.

44. Ibid., pp. 73-7.

45. Cited by Demos, Entertaining Satan, p. 173, and see also Godber, The Devil's Dominion, p. 63.

46. For witchcraft in New England and the Salem trials, see especially Godber, The Devil's Dominion, Demos, Entertaining Satan, and Mary Beth Norton, In the Devil's Snare. The Salem Witchcraft Crisis of 1692 (New York, 2002), which makes the frontier war with the Indians central to the story.

47. Tituba's Indian origins are discussed in Norton, In the Devil's Snare, pp. 20-1. An alternative suggestion is that she was an Arawak from the Orinoco region, and was shipped to Barbados as a child by a slave-trader. See Elaine Breslaw, Tituba, Reluctant Witch of Salem (New York and London, 1996), pp. 12-13.

48. Norton, In the Devil's Snare, pp. 3-4.

49. Demos, Entertaining Satan, p. 373.

50. Norton, In the Devil's Snare, p. 299.

51. See Fernando Cervantes, `The Devils of Queretaro: Scepticism and Credulity in Late Seventeenth-Century Mexico', Past and Present, 130 (1991), pp. 51-69, and his The Devil in the New World, for detailed discussion and analysis of this episode.

52. Cervantes, The Devil in the New World, p. 114.

53. Alberto, Inquisition et societe, pp. 253-4.

54. Cervantes, The Devil in the New World, pp. 119-20.

55. Clark, Thinking with Demons, pp. 452-4; Cervantes, The Devil in the New World, pp. 133-6.

56. Godber, The Devil's Dominion, pp. 216-22.

57. Mayer, Dos Americanos, pp. 195-212.

58. Godber, The Devil's Dominion, pp. 27-8.

59. For confession in New England, see Hall, Worlds of Wonder, pp. 172-86, 189-90.

60. Cited by Clark, Thinking with Demons, p. 346.

61. See the brilliant account of the development of this tradition and its transmission to Peru in Ramon Mujica Pinilla, Angeles apocrifos en la America virreinal (2nd edn, Lima, 1996).

62. See William A. Christian, Jr., Local Religion in Sixteenth-Century Spain (Princeton, 1981).

63. Luis Millones, Dioses familiares (Lima, 1999), pp. 23-6.

64. D. A. Brading, Mexican Phoenix. Our Lady of Guadalupe. Image and Tradition Across Five Centuries (Cambridge, 2001), p. 4.

65. Bernand and Gruzinski, Les Metissages, pp. 319-20; Brading, First America, pp. 332-3.

66. For the Virgin of Guadalupe and her cult, see Brading, Mexican Phoenix; Francisco de la Maza, El guadalupanismo (Mexico City, 1953); Jacques Lafaye, Quetzalcoatl and Guadalupe. The Formation of Mexican National Consciousness, 1531-1813 (Chicago, 1976); Enrique Florescano, Memoria mexicana (2nd edn, Mexico City, 1995), pp. 392-411.

67. Brading, First America, pp. 337-40; Luis Millones, Una partecita del cielo (Lima, 1993). It is possible that Santa Rosa was in fact not a creole but of mixed blood, and that her racial origins were concealed. See the contribution by Ramon Mujica Pinilla, `Santa Rosa de Lima y la politica de la santidad americana', in the exhibition catalogue, Peru indigena y virreinal (Sociedad Estatal para la Accion Cultural Exterior, Madrid, 2004), pp. 96-101.

68. See Clara Bargellini, `El barroco en Latinoamerica', in John H. Elliott (ed.), Europa/America (El Pais, Madrid, 1992), pp. 101-3.

69. Luis Millones, Peru colonial. De Pizarro a Tupac Amaru II (Lima, 1995), p. 172.

70. James P. Walsh, `Holy Time and Sacred Space in Puritan New England', American Quarterly, 32 (1980), pp. 79-95.

71. Cotton Mather, Ratio Disciplinae Fratrum (Boston, 1726), p. 5.

72. Walsh, `Holy Time', pp. 85-8; Hall, Worlds of Wonder, pp. 166-7.

73. Mark A. Peterson, `Puritanism and Refinement in Early New England: Reflections on Communion Silver', WMQ, 3rd set., 58 (2001), pp. 307-46.

74. Isaac, Transformation of Virginia, pp. 58-65.

75. Above, pp. 128-9.

76. Enrique Dussel, Les Eveques hispano-americains. Defenseurs et evangelisateurs de l'Indien, 1504-1620 (Wiesbaden, 1970), p. 29 (table IV).

77. Konetzke, La epoca colonial, pp. 216-17.

78. Israel, Race, Class and Politics, p. 48.

79. Taylor, Magistrates of the Sacred, pp. 83-8; Oscar Mazin, Entre dos majestades (Zamora, Michoacan, 1987), pp. 37-45.

80. For the intricacies of this tangled affair, see Israel, Race, Class and Politics, ch. S.

81. Gage, Travels, pp. 80-1.

82. CHLA, 1, p. 523.

83. Dussel, Les Eveques hispano-americains, p. 40.

84. Above, p. 162; and see Kathryn Burns, Colonial Habits. Convents and the Spiritual Economy of Cuzco, Peru (Durham, NC, and London, 1999).

85. CHLA, 1, p. 521; Jacobs, Los movimientos migratorios, pp. 92-5.

86. Armas Medina, Cristianizacion del Peru, pp. 362-3.

87. Gage, Travels, p. 105.

88. Ibid.,-pp. 71-2.

89. Antonine Tibesar, `The Alternative: A Study in Spanish-Creole Relations in SeventeenthCentury Peru', The Americas, 11 (1955), pp. 229-83; Lavalle, Las promesas ambiguas, pp. 157-72; Cespedes del Castillo, America hispanica, pp. 299-300.

90. See Cayetana Alvarez de Toledo, Politics and Reform in Spain and Viceregal Mexico. The Life and Thought of Juan de Palafox, 1600-1659 (Oxford, 2004), and Israel, Race, Class and Politics, pp. 199-247.

91. Bartolome Escandell Bonet, `La inquisition espanola en Indias y las condiciones americanas de su funcionamiento', in La Inquisition (Ministerio de Cultura, Madrid, 1982), pp. 81-92.

92. Alvarez de Toledo, Politics and Reform, pp. 257-8; Montserrat Gali Boadella (ed.), La catedral de Puebla en el arte y en la historia (Mexico City, 1999).

93. Gage, Travels, p. 71.

94. Antonio Vazquez de Espinosa, Compendio y description de las Indias Occidentales, transcribed by Charles Upson Clark (Washington, DC, 1948), p. 403.

95. See Millones, Peru colonial, ch. 16 ('La ciudad ceremonial').

96. Above, p. 129.

97. Konetzke, La epoca colonial, p. 224.

98. Burns, Colonial Habits, p. 62.

99. The point is well made by Arnold J. Bauer, `Iglesia, economia y estado en la historia de America Latina', in Ma. del Pilar Martinez Lopez-Cano (ed.), Iglesia, estado y economia. Siglos XVI y XVII (Mexico City, 1995), pp. 30-1.

100. Ibid., p. 21.

101. Chevalier, La Formation des grands domaines, pp. 301-44.

102. Bauer, `Iglesia, economia', in Iglesia, estado, ed. Martinez Lopez-Cano, p. 18.

103. Suarez, Desafios transatlanticos, pp. 389-40. For New Spain, see John F. Schwaller, `La iglesia y el credito comercial en la Nueva Espana en el siglo XVI', in Iglesia, estado, ed. Martinez Lopez-Cano, pp. 81-93.

104. There were no monks in Spanish America, as it was the crown's policy to keep out the contemplative orders in favour of the missionary orders (Konetzke, La epoca colonial, p. 239).

105. For a lucid account of the system as operated by convents in Cuzco, see Burns, Colonial Habits, pp. 63-7.

106. Bauer, `Iglesia, economia', in Iglesia, estado, ed. Martinez Lopez-Cano, p. 30.

107. Paul Ganster, `Churchmen', in Heber man and Socolow, Cities and Society, p. 146.

108. Chevalier, La Formation des grands domaines, pp. 307-8.

109. Bauer, `Iglesia, economia', in Iglesia, estado, ed. Martinez Lopez-Cano, p. 22.

110. Chevalier, La Formation des grands domaines, pp. 323-7; MOrner, Political and Economic Activities of the Jesuits.

111. A university by university account in Agueda Ma. Rodriguez Cruz, La universidad en la America hispknica (Madrid, 1992).

112. Pilar Gonzalbo Aizpuru, Historia de la education en la epoca colonial. El mundo indlgena (Mexico City, 1990); Jose Maria Kobayashi, La education como conquista (empresa franciscana en Mexico) (Mexico City, 1974).

113. Pilar Gonzalbo Aizpuru, Historia de la education en la epoca colonial. La education de los criollos y la vida Urbana (Mexico City, 1990). For women's education, see her ch. 12.

114. Euan Cameron in Burke (ed.), Civil Histories, pp. 57-8. For the Jesuit colleges, see Gonzalbo Aizpuru, La education de los criollos, chs. 6-9.

115. Clive Griffin, The Crombergers of Seville. The History of a Printing and Merchant Dynasty (Oxford, 1988), pp. 82-97.

116. Francisco Morales Padron, Historia general de America (Manual de historia universal, vol. VI, Madrid, 1975), p. 664.

117. Bridenbaugh, Cities in the Wilderness, p. 130.

118. Irving A. Leonard, Books of the Brave (1949; repr. Berkeley, Los Angeles, Oxford, 1992), pp. 79-85; Antonio Castillo Gomez (ed.), Libro y lectura en la peninsula iberica y America (Junta de Castilla y Leon, Salamanca, 2003), pp. 85-6.

119. Carlos Alberto Gonzalez Sanchez, Los mundos del libro. Medios de di fusion de la cultura occidental en las Indias de los siglos XVI y XVII (Seville, 1999), pp. 52-6; Leonard, Books of the Brave, ch. 10; Teodoro Hampe Martinez, Bibliotecas privadas en el mundo colonial (Madrid, 1996).

120. Gonzalez Sanchez, Los mundos del libro, p. 89.

121. See letters 74-6 in Sanchez Rubio and Teston Nunez, El bilo que une. I am grateful to Dr Pedro Rueda Ramirez for information and clarification on the Vatable Bible.

122. Gonzalez Sanchez, Los mundos del libro, p. 89.

123. For a succinct account of the sixteenth-century revival of Thomism, see Quentin Skinner, The Foundations of Modern Political Thought (2 vols, Cambridge, 1978), 2, ch. 5. For neo-Thomism in the Hispanic world, see Anthony Pagden, The Uncertainties of Empire (Aldershot, 1994), ch. 3 ('The Search for Order: the "School of Salamanca"') and Morse, `Toward a Theory of Spanish American Government'. I am grateful to Professor Shmuel Eisenstadt for placing at my disposal a typescript (1990) of S. N. Eisenstadt, Adam B. Seligman and Batia Siebzehner, `The Classic Tradition in the Americas. The Reception of Natural Law Theory and the Establishment of New Societies in the New World', which contains a suggestive comparison of the approaches of British and Spanish America to the natural law tradition.

124. For trends in historical writing on religion in colonial America, see the helpful survey by David Hall in Greene and Pole, Colonial British America, ch. 11, and, more recently, Charles L. Cohen, `The Post-Puritan Paradigm of Early American Religious History', WMQ, 3rd scr., 54 (1997), pp. 695-722.

125. Above, pp. 72-3.

126. Butler, Awash in a Sea of Faith, pp. 98-116.

127. Bonomi, Under the Cope of Heaven, p. 48.

128. Isaac, Transformation of Virginia, pp. 144-5.

129. Cited by Wright, First Gentlemen of Virginia, p. 96.

130. Beverley, History and Present State of Virginia, pp. 99-100.

131. Wright, First Gentlemen of Virginia, pp. 95-6 and 111-13; Isaac, Transformation of Virginia, p. 130; Richard L. Morton, Colonial Virginia (2 vols, Chapel Hill, NC, 1960), 2, pp. 767 and 782.

132. Morgan, Roger Williams, pp. 65-79. For a general introduction to Calvinism in North America, see Menna Prestwich (ed.), International Calvinism, 1541-1715 (Oxford, 1985), ch. 9. For a subtle account of the changing interaction between ministers and laity, see Stephen Foster. The Long Argument. English Puritanism and the Shaping of New England Culture, 1570-1700 (Chapel Hill, NC, and London, 1991).

133. Paul Lucas, Valley of Discord. Church and Society along the Connecticut River, 1636-1725 (Hanover, NH, 1976), pp. 19-20.

134. David D. Hall, The Faithful Shepherd. A History of the New England Ministry in the Seventeenth Century (Chapel Hill, NC, 1972), p. 4.

135. Lucas, Valley of Discord, p. 31.

136. For Presbyterians and synods, in addition to Hall, The Faithful Shepherd, see Prestwich, International Calvinism, pp. 264-5 and 280-1.

137. Darrctt B. Rutman, Winthrop's Boston. Portrait of a Puritan Town, 1630-1649 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1965), pp. 146-7.

138. Morgan, Visible Saints, ch. 4; Hall, TheFaithful Shepherd, ch. 8; Foster, The Long Argument, ch. 5.

139. Lucas, Valley of Discord, pp. 25-6.

140. Prestwich, International Calvinism, pp. 280-1.

141. For Penn and early Pennsylvania, see especially Mary Maples Dunn, William Penn, Politics and Conscience (Princeton, 1967); Richard S. and Mary Maples Dunn (eds), The World of William Penn (Philadelphia, 1986); Nash, Quakers and Politics; Lemon, The Best Poor Man's Country; Tully, Forming American Politics. For a summary account of other holy experiments, see Bailyn, Peopling of North America, pp. 123-7, and his Atlantic History, pp. 76-81.

142. Dunn and Dunn, The World of William Penn, p. 37.

143. Nash, Quakers and Politics, pp. 13-14.

144. Richard S. and Mary Maples Dunn (eds), The Papers of William Penn (5 vols, Philadelphia, 1981-6), 2, pp. 414-15 (letter to Lord North, 24 July 1683); Lemon, The Best Poor Man's Country, p. 60.

145. For the causes of instability in early Pennsylvania, see Nash, Quakers and Politics, pp. 161-80.

146. Jon Butler, "`Gospel Order Improved": the Keithian Schism and the Exercise of Quaker Ministerial Authority in Pennsylvania', WMQ, 3rd ser., 31 (1974), pp. 431-52.

147. Marianne S. Wokeck, `Promoters and Passengers: the German Immigrant Trade, 1683-1775', in Dunn and Dunn, The World of William Penn, pp. 259-78.

148. Ronald Hoffman, Princes of Ireland, Planters of Maryland. A Carroll Saga, 1500-1782 (Chapel Hill, NC and London, 2000), pp. 81 and 94; Bonomi, Under the Cope of Heaven, p. 36.

149. Jon Butler, Becoming America. The Revolution before 1776 (Cambridge, MA and London, 2000), pp. 26-7. For the Jewish diaspora in the New World, see Bernardini and Fiering (eds), The Jews and the Expansion of Europe, and the relevant essays in Jonathan Israel, Diasporas within a Diaspora. Jews, Crypto-Jews and the World Maritime Empires, 1540-1740 (Leiden, Boston, Cologne, 2002).

150. Seymour B. Liebman, The Jews in New Spain (Coral Gables, FL, 1970), p. 46.

151. Efren de la Madre de Dios and O. Steggink, Tiempo y vida de Santa Teresa (Madrid, 1968), pp. 36-40; Valentin de Pedro, America en las letras espanolas del siglo de oro (Buenos Aires, 1954), ch. 18.

152. Vila Vilar, Hispano-america y el comercio de esclavos, pp. 94 and 99-103; and see above, p. 100.

153. James C. Boyajian, Portuguese Bankers at the Court of Spain, 1626-1650 (New Brunswick, NJ, 1983), pp. 121-8; Israel, Race, Class and Politics, pp. 124-30; Liebman, The Jews in New Spain, pp. 259-66.

154. See Fischer, Albion's Seed, pp. 199-205 and 410-18.

155. For instability in the Middle Colonies, see in particular Nash, Quakers and Politics, and Tully, Forming American Politics. The historiography of the Middle Colonies was surveyed in 1979 by Greenberg, `The Middle Colonies in Recent American Historiography', and, more recently, by Wayne Bodle, `Themes and Directions in Middle Colonies Historiography, 1980-1994', WMQ, 3rd set., 51 (1994), pp. 355-88.

156. See Lucas, Valley of Discord.

157. Fischer, AlbionSeed, p. 334; Isaac, Transformation of Virginia, p. 65; Hall, Worlds of Wonder, p. 51.

158. Hall, Worlds of Wonder, pp. 23-4.

159. Wright, First Gentlemen of Virginia, p. 117.

160. Isaac, Transformation of Virginia, pp. 124-5.

161. Bailyn, Education in the Forming of American Society, pp. 27-8; and for biblical culture, schooling, and the availability of the book in New England, see Hugh Amory and David D. Hall (eds), The Colonial Book in the Atlantic World (Cambridge, 2000), ch. 4.

162. John Eliot to Sir Simonds D'Ewes, 18 September 1633, in Emerson, Letters from New England, p. 107.

163. Hall, Worlds of Wonder, pp. 34-5.

164. Bailyn, Education in the Forming of American Society, pp. 27-9.

165. Isaac, Transformation of Virginia, p. 122.

166. Kenneth A. Lockridge, Literacy in Colonial New England (New York, 1974), pp. 13-14.

167. Butler, Becoming America, p. 111.

168. Gonzalez-Sanchez, Los mundos del libro, p. 155, where it is suggested that 20 per cent of male settlers in the sixteenth century could read and write with ease.

169. Gurrin, `Shipwrecked Spaniards', pp. 26-7. See above, p. 144.

170. Cited by Verner W. Crane, The Southern Frontier 1670-1732 (Durham, NC, 1928; repr. New York, 1978), p. 3.

171. For the development of the English image of Spain, see J. N. Hillgarth, The Mirror of Spain, 1500-1799. The Formation of a Myth (Ann Arbor, MI, 2003), chs 10-12.

172. Colin Steele, English Interpreters of the Iberian New World from Purchas to Stevens, 1603-1726 (Oxford, 1975), p. 59; and see J. Eric S. Thompson's introduction to his edition of Gage, Travels in the New World.

173. Mayer, Dos americanos, p. 298, n. 116.

174. Gage, Travels, p. 51.

175. Cotton Mather, The Diary of Cotton Mather, 2 vols (Boston, 1911-12), 1, p. 206.

176. Mather, Diary, 1, pp. 284-5.

177. Ibid., 1, p. 420; and see also for the evangelizing hopes of Bostonian ministers and early contacts with the Spanish American world, Harry Bernstein, Origins of Inter-American Interest, 1700-1812 (Philadelphia, 1945), pp. 66-71.

Chapter 8. Empire and Identity

1. Samuel Sewall, The Diary of Samuel Sewall, 1674-1729, ed. M. Halsey (2 vols, New York, 1973), 1, p. 380.

2. Slingsby Bethel, The Interest of Princes and States (London, 1680), preface (no page numbers).

3. A. P. Newton, The European Nations in the West Indies, 1493-1688 (London, 1933; repr., 1966), pp. 269-71.

4. Bethel, The Interest of Princes, p. 75.

5. Ibid., pp. 76-7.

6. Roger Coke, A Discourse of Trade (London, 1670), Part 1, p. 46. For Coke and other later seventeenth-century pamphleteers and economic theorists, see Joyce Oldham Appleby, Economic Thought and Ideology in Seventeenth-Century England (Princeton, 1978). In this, as in other accounts of British economic thought in the seventeenth century, more attention tends to be paid to the example of the Dutch than to the counter-example of Spain.

7. Sir Josiah Child, A New Discourse of Trade (London, 1693), pp. 164-5; and see Armitage, Ideological Origins of Empire, pp. 166-7. Child's ideas, first elaborated in the 1660s, found their final form in his New Discourse of 1693. See Joseph A. Schumpeter, History of Economic Analysis (1954; 6th printing, London, 1967), p. 195, n. 3.

8. For a recent summary of the growth of the colonial trade and its impact, see Nuala Zahedieh, `Overseas Expansion and Trade in the Seventeenth Century', OHBE, 1, ch. 18.

9. Above, p. 113.

10. For this eighteenth-century ideology, see especially Armitage, Ideological Origins of Empire, Linda Colley, Britons. Forging the Nation 1707-1837 (New Haven and London, 1992), and Peter N. Miller, Defining the Common Good. Empire, Religion and Philosophy in Eighteenth-Century Britain (Cambridge, 1994).

11. See especially Richard S. Dunn, `The Glorious Revolution and America', OHBE, 1, ch. 20, and J. M. Sosin, English America and the Revolution of 1688 (Lincoln, NE, and London, 1982).

12. As chronicled by Greene, The Quest for Power.

13. Dunn, `The Glorious Revolution', p. 463.

14. Johnson, Adjustment to Empire, pp. 229-30.

15. Sosin, English America and the Revolution of 1688, p. 231.

16. Thomas C. Barrow, Trade and Empire. The British Customs Service in Colonial America, 1660-1775 (Cambridge, MA, 1967), p. 74 and Appendix A. Also Alison Gilbert Olson, Making the Empire Work. London and American Interest Groups, 1690-1790 (Cambridge, Mass., 1992), p. 58, where the total number of English officials in the American colonies at the end of Queen Anne's reign is put at around 240.

17. Olson, Making the Empire Work, p. 61.

18. Ibid., p. 52; Steele, The English Atlantic, p. 92; and see also Hancock, Citizens of the World, for the accelerating integration of the British Atlantic economy in the eighteenth century.

19. For the improvement of transatlantic postal services and its impact, see Steele, The English Atlantic, chs 7-9.

20. Above, p. 193.

21. Cited by Johnson, Adjustment to Empire, p. 364.

22. Coke, A Discourse of Trade, part 1, p. 10.

23. Newton, European Nations in the West Indies, pp. 271-6.

24. Bernstein, Origins of Inter-American Interest, pp. 15-19.

25. Nuala Zahadieh, `The Merchants of Port Royal, Jamaica, and the Spanish Contraband Trade, 1655-1692', WMQ, 3rd set., 43 (1986), pp. 570-93; Curtis Putnam Nettels, The Money Supply of the American Colonies before 1720 (University of Wisconsin Studies in the Social Sciences and History, no. 20, Madison, WI, 1934), pp. 15-21; Fisher, Economic Aspects of Spanish Imperialism, pp. 81-2.

26. Lutgardo Garcia Fuentes, El comercio espanol con America, 1650-1700 (Seville, 1980), pp. 55-66; Antonio Garcia-Baquero, Cadiz y el Atlantico, 1717-1778 (2 vols, Seville, 1976), 1, p. 104.

27. For a recent account of the process, see Stanley J. Stein and Barbara H. Stein, Silver, Trade and War. Spain and America in the Making of Early Modern Europe (Baltimore and London, 2000), ch. 3.

28. William Lytle Schurz, The Manila Galleon (1939; repr. New York, 1959); El galeon de Acapulco (Exhibition catalogue, Museo National de Historia, Mexico City, 1988); Los galeones de la Plata (Exhibition catalogue, Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes, Mexico City, 1998).

29. For the participation of American merchants in the Atlantic trade, see Studnicki-Gizbert, `From Agents to Consulado', and Suarez, Comercio y fraude, and Desafios transatlanticos.

30. Above, p. 111.

31. Moutoukias, Contrabando y control colonial, p. 31.

32. For the seventeenth-century growth of inter-regional trade, see, in addition to the important study of the La Plata region by Moutoukias, Contrabando y control colonial, Fisher, Economic Aspects of Spanish Imperialism, pp. 65-71.

33. Woodrow Borah, New Spain's Century of Depression (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1951), is the classic exposition of depression in the seventeenth-century economy of New Spain. For a useful discussion of the `depression' thesis, see John J. TePaske and Herbert S. Klein, `The Seventeenth-Century Crisis in New Spain: Myth or Reality?', Past and Present, 90 (1981), pp. 116-35. The case for seeing the seventeenth century as a period of economic transition, rather than of depression, for the Spanish American economies, has been effectively argued by John Lynch, The Hispanic World in Crisis and Change, 1598-1700 (Oxford, 1992), ch. 8.

34. See Bakewell, Silver Mining and Society, especially ch. 9, for these trends, and suggested explanations for them.

35. Garner, `Long-Term Silver Mining Trends'; Kenneth J. Andrien, Crisis and Decline. The Viceroyalty of Peru in the Seventeenth Century (Albuquerque, NM, 1985), p. 200; Fisher, Economic Aspects of Spanish Imperialism, pp. 100-1.

36. TePaske and Klein, `The Seventeenth-Century Crisis', pp. 120-1.

37. On the basis of information provided by European flysheets and Dutch gazettes Morineau, Incroyables gazettes, has introduced major modifications into the figures for bullion imports into Spain given by Earl J. Hamilton in his American Treasure and the Price Revolution in Spain, 1501-1650 (Cambridge, MA, 1934) and War and Prices in Spain, 1651-1800 (Cambridge, MA, 1947). Morineau's figures have themselves subsequently been revised by Antonio Garcia-Baquero Gonzalez, `Las remesas de metales preciosos ameri- canes en el siglo XVIII: una aritmetica controvertida', Hispania, 192 (1996), pp. 203-66. See also Table 1 in Stein and Stein, Silver, Trade and War, p. 24, for the disparity between registered and unofficial receipts.

38. This argument is developed by Ruggiero Romano in his Conjonctures opposees.

39. Andrien, Crisis and Decline, ch. 5; Peter T. Bradley, Society, Economy and Defence in Seventeenth-Century Peru. The Administration of the Count Alba de Liste, 1655-61 (Liverpool, 1992), pp. 111-14.

40. Burkholder and Chandler, From Impotence to Authority, p. 23. For the general question of the sale of offices in Spanish America, see Parry, The Sale of Public Office.

41. For corruption and its impact in Spanish America, see Horst Pietschmann, El estado y su evolution al principio de la colonization espanola de America (Mexico City, 1989), pp. 163-82.

42. Carlos Martinez Shaw and Marina Alfonso Mola, Felipe V (Madrid, 2001), p. 206; John Lynch, Bourbon Spain, 1700-1808 (Oxford, 1989), pp. 52-4.

43. For the transition from a `horizontal' Habsburg Spain to a `vertical' Bourbon Spain, and a brief discussion of the character and extent of the changes introduced by Philip V, see Ricardo Garcia Carcel, Felipe V y los espanoles. Una vision periferica del problema de Espana (Barcelona, 2002), pp. 114-24.

44. Armitage, Ideological Origins, p. 149; and see, for the international context of the Union and the debate over the form it should take, John Robertson, `Union, State and Empire: the Union of 1707 in its European Setting', in Lawrence Stone (ed.), An Imperial State at War. Britain from 1689 to 1815 (London, 1994), pp. 224-57.

45. Lynch, Bourbon Spain, pp. 99-100; Stein and Stein, Silver, Trade and War, p. 160.

46. Cespedes del Castillo, America hispknica, p. 279.

47. Burkholder and Chandler, From Impotence to Authority, p. 17.

48. See Geoffrey J. Walker, Spanish Politics and Imperial Trade, 1700-1789 (London, 1979), ch. 4, and pp. 111-13.

49. Patricia R. Wickman, `The Spanish Colonial Floridas', in Robert H. Jackson (ed.), New Views of Borderland History (Albuquerque, NM, 1998), ch. 7, p. 211.

50. Stein and Stein, Silver, Trade and War, p. 148.

51. Geronimo de Uztariz, Theorica y practica de comercio y de marina (Madrid, 1724). The book was translated into English in 1751 under the title of The Theory and Practice of Maritime Affairs. For Uztariz and his ideas, see Stein and Stein, Silver, Trade and War, pp. 164-79, and Reyes Fernandez Duran, Geronimo de Uztariz (1670-1732). Una politica economica Para Felipe V (Madrid, 1999).

52. Stein and Stein, Silver, Trade and War, p. 202; Cespedes del Castillo, America hispanica, p. 162.

53. Although the authorship of the Nuevo sistema de gobierno economico de America is generally attributed to Jose del Campillo y Cosio, who died in 1743, the attribution remains a subject of debate. The book was not published until 1789, but manuscript copies circulated widely in governmental circles. Citations are taken from the edition published in Merida, Venezuela, in 1971.

54. Campillo, Nuevo sistema, pp. 67 and 76-7.

55. Kathleen Wilson, The Sense of the People. Politics, Culture and Imperialism in England, 1715-1785 (Cambridge, 1995), pp. 140-65.

56. Armitage, Ideological Origins of Empire, pp. 182-8.

57. Fisher, Economic Aspects of Spanish Imperialism, pp. 128-30.

58. See James Henretta, `Salutary Neglect'. Colonial Administration Under the Duke of Newcastle (Princeton, 1972).

59. Cited by Lavalle, Promesas ambiguas, p. 17.

60. Ibid., p. 19.

61. Strachey, Historie of Travell into Virginia Britania, p. 12.

62. Above, p. 201.

63. Carole Shammas, `English-Born and Creole Elites in Turn-of-the-Century Virginia', in Tate and Ammerman (eds), The Chesapeake in the Seventeenth Century, pp. 284-5.

64. James Otis, `The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved', in Bernard Bailyn (ed.), Pamphlets of the American Revolution, 1750-1776, vol. 1, 1750-1765 (Cambridge, Mass., 1965), pamphlet 7, p. 440.

65. Solorzano y Pereyra, Politica inthan a, 1, p. 442 (lib. II, cap. 30).

66. A. W. Plumstead (ed.), The Wall and the Garden. Selected Massachusetts Election Sermons, 1670-1775 (Minneapolis, 1968), p. 137.

67. See Kupperman, `The Puzzle of the American Climate'.

68. Letter of 23 July 1630 in Emerson (ed.), Letters from New England, p. 51.

69. For discussions of this question, see in particular John Canup, `Cotton Mather and "Criolian Degeneracy"', Early American Literature, 24 (1989), pp. 20-34, and Canizares- Esguerra, `New World, New Stars', to both of which I am indebted for the discussion that follows. Also John H. Elliott, `Mundos parecidos, mundos distintos', Melanges de la Casa de Velazquez, 34 (2004), pp. 293-311.

70. Above, p. 80.

71. Reginaldo de Lizarraga, cited by Lavalle, Promesas ambiguas, p. 48.

72. Fray Bernardino de Sahagun, Historia general de las cosas de Nueva Espana, ed. Angel Maria Garibay K. (2nd edn, 4 vols, Mexico City, 1969), 3, p. 160.

73. Marian J. Tooley, 'Bodin and the Medieval Theory of Climate', Speculum, 28 (1983), pp. 64-83.

74. Cited by Pilar Ponce Leiva, Certezas ante la incertidumbre. Elite y cabildo de Quito en el siglo XVII (Quito, 1998), p. 201. A brief account of Villarroel's life, and a selection from his published writings, some of them difficult to locate, may be found in Gonzalo Zaldumbide, Fray Gaspar de Villarroel. Siglo XVII (Puebla, 1960). The family history of Fray Gaspar, born in Quito, perhaps in 1592, of a father who was a licenciado from Guatemala and a mother from Venezuela, and then taken as a child by his parents to live in Lima, offers a vivid example of personal and family mobility across the vast distances of Spanish America.

75. Gregoria Garcia, Origen de los indios del nuevo mundo, e Yndias Occidentales (Valencia, 1607), lib. II, cap. v, pp. 149-54.

76. See Canizares-Esguerra, `New World, New Stars'.

77. Chaplin, Subject Matter, p. 174-7. For the general question of identity in British America, see especially Jack P. Greene, `Search for Identity: an Intepretation of Selected Patterns of Social Response in Eighteenth-Century America', in his Imperatives, Behaviors and Identities, ch. 6.

78. The lexical history of American in both English and Spanish deserves more systematic study. For New England, see Canup, `Cotton Mather and "Criolian Degeneracy"', pp. 25-6. The Virginian author of a tract composed in 1699 identifies himself as 'An American' (Shammas, `English-Born and Creole Elites', p. 290). In 1725, the Mexicanborn lawyer, Juan Antonio de Ahumada, wrote that `the Indies were conquered, settled and established as provinces with the sweat and toil of the ancestors of the Americans' (Brading, The First America, p. 380), but Villarroel's reference to an americano suggests that other instances of its use in Spanish America may be found, both before 1661, and between the time of Villarroel and that of Ahumada.

79. Horn, Adapting to a New World, pp. 436-7.

80. Ponce Leiva, Certezas, p. 207.

81. Giovanni Francesco Gemelli Careri, Viaje a la Nueva Espana, ed. Francisca Perujo (Mexico City, 1976), p. 22.

82. Child, A New Discourse, pp. 170-1.

83. Cited by Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p. 340.

84. Ned Ward, A Trip to New England (1699), in Jehlen and Warner (eds), The English Literatures of America, p. 401. For further examples of negative stereotypes, see Michael Zuckerman, `Identity in British America: Unease in Eden', in Canny and Pagden (eds), Colonial Identity in the Atlantic World, pp. 120-1.

85. Beverley, History of Virginia, p. 9.

86. Cited by Jack P. Greene, `Changing Identity in the British Caribbean: Barbados as a Case Study', in Canny and Pagden (eds), Colonial Identity in the Atlantic World, pp. 120-1.

87. Dorantes de Carranza, Sumaria relation, p. 203.

88. Craton, `The Planters' World', in Bailyn and Morgan (eds), Strangers Within the Realm, p. 325.

89. Wright, The First Gentlemen of Virginia, ch. 3.

90. For comparative figures of West Indians and North Americans receiving at least part of their education in Britain, see Andrew J. O'Shaughnessy, An Empire Divided. The American Revolution and the British Caribbean (Philadelphia, 2000), pp. 19-27.

91. Kenneth A. Lockridge, The Diary and Life of William Byrd II of Virginia, 1674-1744 (Chapel Hill, NC and London, 1987), pp. 12-31.

92. Cited by Wright, The First Gentlemen of Virginia, p. 294.

93. Otte, Cartas, letter 571 (Juan de Esquivel to Cristobal de Aldana, 20 January 1584).

94. Fray Bonaventura de Salinas y Cordova, Memoria de las historias del nuevo mundo Piru (1630; ed. Luis E. Valcarcel, Lima, 1957), pp. 99 and 246.

95. For the development of `creole patriotism', see especially Brading, The First America, ch. 14.

96. See Serge Gruzinski, Les Quatre Parties du monde. Histoire d'une mondialisation (Paris, 2004), ch. 5.

97. For the Saint Thomas legend, see Lafaye, Quetzalcoatl and Guadalupe, ch. 10.

98. Above, p. 196, and see Brading, The First America, pp. 343-8.

99. Anthony Pagden, `Identity Formation in Spanish America', in Canny and Pagden (eds), Colonial Identity in the Atlantic World, p. 66.

100. Above, pp. 146-7.

101. Carlos de Siguenza y Gongora, Theatro de virtudes politicas (1680; repr. in his Obras historicas, ed. Jose Rojas Garciduenas, Mexico City, 1983).

102. Garcilaso de la Vega, Comentarios reales de los Incas, ed. Angel Rosenblat (2 vols, Buenos Aires, 1943; English trans. by H. V. Livermore, 2 vols, Austin, TX, 1966); Carlos Daniel Valcarcel, `Concepto de la historia en los "Comentarios realer" y en la "Historia general del Peru"', in Nuevos estudios sobre el Inca Garcilaso de la Vega (Lima, 1955), pp. 123-36; Brading, The First America, ch. 12.

103. Karine Perissat, `Los incas representados (Lima - siglo XVIII): ~supervivencia o renacimiento?', Revista de Indias, 60 (2000), pp. 623-49; Peter T. Bradley and David Cahill, Habsburg Peru. Images, Imagination and Memory (Liverpool, 2000), Part II.

104. Beverley, History of Virginia, p. 232.

105. Richard Slotkin, Regeneration Through Violence. The Mythology of the American Frontier, 1600-1860 (Middletown, CT, 1973), pp. 56 and 116.

106. Mary Rowlandson, The Sovereignty and Goodness of God (1682), in Jehlen and Warner (eds), The English Literatures of America, p. 359.

107. See Slotkin, Regeneration Through Violence, ch. 7.

108. Beverley History of Virginia, pp. 118-19.

109. Richard Ligon, A True and Exact History of the Island of Barbadoes (2nd edn, London, 1673), p. 108.

110. Jack P. Greene in Canny and Pagden (eds), Colonial Identity, pp. 228-9, and Imperatives, Behaviors, pp. 190-3; Hancock, Citizens of the World, ch. 9, and especially pp. 282-3. For the ideology of agrarian improvement in the Anglo-American world, see Richard Drayton, Nature's Government. Science, Imperial Britain, and the 'Improvement' of the World (New Haven and London, 2000), ch. 3.

111. Sir Dalby Thomas, An Historical Account of the Rise and Growth of the West-India Collonies (London, 1690), p. 53.

112. For the consumer movement and aspirations to gentility in eighteenth-century Britain, see Neil McKendrick, John Brewer and J. H. Plumb, The Birth of a Consumer Society: the Commercialization of Eighteenth-Century England (Bloomington, IN, 1982); John Brewer and Roy Porter (eds), Consumption and the World of Goods (London, 1993); and Paul Langford, A Polite and Commercial People. England, 1727-1783 (Oxford, 1989). For British America, Richard L. Bushman, The Refinement of America. Persons, Houses, Cities (New York, 1992); T. H. Breen, "`Baubles of Britain": The American and Consumer Revolutions of the Eighteenth Century', Past and Present, 119 (1988), pp. 73-104, and The Marketplace of Revolution. How Consumer Politics Shaped American Independence (Oxford and New York, 2004); Cary Carson, Ronald Hoffman and Peter J. Albert (eds), Of Consuming Interests. The Style of Life in the Eighteenth Century (Charlottesville, VA, 1994); Maxine Berg, Luxury and Pleasure in Eighteenth-Century Britain (Oxford, 2005), ch. 8.

113. Bushman, Refinement, ch. 4.

114. Cited by Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p. 291.

115. Main, Tobacco Colony, ch. 4.

116. Bushman, Refinement, pp. 74-8.

117. Cited by Main, Tobacco Colony, p. 239; and, for ambivalence over luxuries, see Bushman, Refinement, ch. 6, and Greene, Imperatives, Behaviors, pp. 150-9.

118. Gage, Travels, p. 68. For conspicuous consumption in Spanish America see Bauer, Goods, Power, History, pp. 110-13; and see also Bauer, `Iglesia, economia', in Iglesia, estado, ed. Martinez Lopez-Cano, pp. 30-1.

119. For both the supply and the demand, with the take-off occurring in the 1740s, see Breen's impressively documented Marketplace of Revolution.

120. Francisco Cervantes de Salazar, Mexico en 1554 y el tumulo imperial, ed. Edmundo O'Gorman (Mexico City, 1963), Dialogo 2, p. 63.

121. For a list of universities in Spanish America, with dates of foundation, see Rodriguez Cruz, La universidad, appendix I.

122. See, for example, Salinas y Cordova, Memorial, Discurso II cap. 4, on Lima's University of San Marcos.

123. Villarroel, cited in Ponce Leiva, Certezas ante la incertidumbre, p. 237.

124. For this argument in relation to Spanish American cultural production, see, for example, the exhibition catalogue, Donna Pierce (ed.), Painting a New World. Mexican Art and Life, 1521-1821 (Denver Art Museum, 2004), and in particular the Introduction by Jonathan Brown, to whom I am grateful for advice on this section. For British America, Richard L. Bushman, 'American High Style and Vernacular Cultures', in Greene and Pole (eds), Colonial British America, ch. 12, and Bernard Bailyn, To Begin the World Anew. The Genius and Ambiguities of the American Founders (New York, 2003), ch. 1, which takes as its starting-point Kenneth Clark's essay on `Provincialism', reprinted in his Moments of Vision (London, 1981). A general survey of Iberian American colonial art and architecture is provided by Gauvin Alexander Bailey, Art of Colonial Latin America (London, 2005).

125. For Flemish and Castilian artists in New Spain, see Gruzinski, Les Quatre Parties du monde, ch. 13. For Ferrer, Montserrat Gali Boadella, Pedro Garcia Ferrer, un artista aragones del siglo XVII en la Nueva Espana (Teruel, 1996); and above, p. 202.

126. For recent work on the transmission and diffusion of European influences in Spanish America, see, in addition to Pierce (ed.), Painting a New World, the catalogue of the important exhibition held in 1999-2000 in the Museo de America in Madrid, Los siglos de oro en los virreinatos de America, 1550-1700 (Sociedad Estatal, Madrid, 1999).

127. Ramon Maria Serrera, `Las Indias Espanolas entre 1550 y 1700', in Los siglos de oro en los virreinatos, p. 55.

128. See Serge Gruzinski, La Pensee metisse (Paris, 1999), for the development of hybrid cultural forms in sixteenth-century New Spain.

129. Albert o, Les espagnols dans le Mexique colonial, p. 119.

130. For Villalpando, see especially Pierce, Painting a New World. For the arquebusier angels, above, p. 195.

131. See Cristina Esteras Martin, 'Acculturation and Innovation in Peruvian Viceregal Silverwork', in Elena Phipps, Johanna Hecht and Cristina Esteras Martin (eds), The Colonial Andes. Tapestries and Silverwork, 1530-1830 (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 2004), pp. 59-71.

132. Paz, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz, p. 364. Paz points out that the poems of Anne Bradstreet were similarly published as being by `The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America ..

133. See Irving Leonard, Don Carlos de Sigiienza y Gongora. A Mexican Savant of the Seventeenth Century (Berkeley, 1929).

134. Luis Eduardo Wuffarden, `La ciudad y sus emblemas: imagenes del criollismo en el virreinato del Peru', in Los siglos de oro, pp. 59-75; Bernand, Negros esclavos y libres, p. 13.

135. See Mayer, Dos americanos, for an extended comparison of Mather and Sigiienza y Gongora and their respective worlds.

136. The comparison of New England and Mexican book inventories is made by Irving Leonard in his Baroque Times in Old Mexico (Ann Arbor, 1959), ch. 11. Leonard's book remains a valuable and highly accessible introduction to the literary culture of colonial New Spain. For brief accounts of the theatre in Spanish and British America, see respectively Oscar Mazin, L'Amerique espagnole, XVIe-XVIIIe siecles (Paris, 2005), pp. 162-3 and 215-16, and Kenneth Silverman, A Cultural History of the American Revolution (New York, 1976), pp. 59-69.

137. Above, p. 205.

138. 'A Proposal for Promoting Useful Knowledge among the British Plantations in America'. Franklin's `Proposal' led to the formation of the American Philosophical Society in the following year, and is reproduced in facsimile in the Society's annual Year Book (see the Year Book for 2002-3, pp. 321-2).

139. For Nicholson and `Virginian baroque', see Kornwolf, Architecture and Town Planning, 2, pp. 567-8, 586, 632, 725-7, and Bushman, Refinement of America, pp. 151-4, who also discusses the balance between ceremonial and commercial considerations.

140. For the comparison, with illustrations, see Bailyn, To Begin the World Anew, pp. 9-17.

141. See the essays in Carson, Hoffman and Albert (eds), Of Consuming Interests, especially Kevin M. Sweeney, `High Style Vernacular: Lifestyles of the Colonial Elite', pp. 1-58.

142. Margaretta M. Lovell, `Painters and Their Customers: Aspects of Art and Money in Eighteenth-Century America', in Carson, Hoffman and Albert (eds), Of Consuming

Interests, pp. 284-306; Silverman, Cultural History of the American Revolution, pp. 11-30. 143. Bailey, Art of Colonial Latin America, pp. 173-4.

Chapter 9

1. Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa, Las `Noticias secretas de America' de Jorge Juan y Antonio de Ulloa, 1735-1745, ed. Luis J. Ramos Gomez (2 vols, Madrid, 1985), 2, p. 29.

2. Above, pp. 227-8.

3. Fisher, Economic Aspects of Spanish Imperialism, p. 95.

4. Ibid., pp. 187-8; Bakewell, History of Latin America, pp. 257-8.

5. D. H. Brading, Miners and Merchants in Bourbon Mexico, 1763-1810 (Cambridge, 1971), ch. 2, for possible explanations of the rise in output, and Bakewell, `Mining in Colonial Spanish America', CHLA, 2, ch. 4.

6. Anthony McFarlane, Colombia Before Independence. Economy, Society and Politics under Bourbon Rule (Cambridge, 1993), p. 73, with reference to gold mining in New Granada.

7. Guillermo Cespedes del Castillo, Ensayos sobre los reinos castellanos de Indias (Madrid, 1999), p. 210. Fisher, Economic Aspects of Spanish Imperialism, p. 64, suggests a figure of probably less than 75,000 out of a total population of 17 million directly involved in silver mining in the late eighteenth century

8. Brading, Haciendas and Ranchos, p. 18. This work is the classic study on eighteenthcentury developments in this region.

9. Anthony McFarlane, `Hispanoamerica bajo el gobierno de los Borbones: desarrollo economico y crisis politica', in Jose Manuel de Bernardo Ares (ed.), El hispanismo anglonorteamericano (Actas de la I Conferencia Internacional, Hacia un nuevo humanismo, 2 vols, Cordoba, 2001), 1, pp. 531-63, at pp. 562-3.

10. See Studnicki-Gizbert, `From Agents to Consulado', pp. 52-3.

11. Garner, `Long-Term Silver Mining Trends', p. 902.

12. Bakewell, History of Latin America, p. 198; CHLA, 2, p. 100.

13. Bakewell, History of Latin America, pp. 262-3; and above, p. 227.

14. Above, p. 217.

15. For the eighteenth-century population increase and its implications, see McCusker and Menard, Economy of British America, ch. 10; Richard B. Johnson, `Growth and Mastery: British North America, 1690-1748', in OHBE, 2, ch. 13; Jack P. Greene, Pursuits of Happiness (Chapel Hill, NC and London, 1988), pp. 177-84, and Negotiated Authorities, pp. 100-9. Herbert S. Klein, A Population History of the United States (Cambridge, 2004), ch. 2, provides a succinct survey of population trends over the colonial period.

16. McCusker and Menard, Economy of British America, p. 217.

17. See table 8.1 in Greene, Pursuits of Happiness, pp. 178-9.

18. Johnson, in OHBE, 2, p. 279.

19. McCusker and Menard, Economy of British America, p. 217.

20. Johnson in OHBE, 2, p. 280; McCusker and Menard, Economy of British America, pp. 231-4.

21. See A. Roger Ekirch, Bound for America. The Transportation of British Convicts to the Colonies, 1718-1775 (Oxford, 1987).

22. William Moraley, The In fortunate (1743), ed. Susan E. Klepp and Billy G. Smith (University Park, PA, 1992), p. 52.

23. James Horn, `British Diaspora: Emigration from Britain, 1680-1815', in OHBE, 2, ch. 2, p. 31.

24. Bernard Bailyn, Voyagers to the West (New York, 1986), p. 25.

25. See the chapter by Marianne Wokeck on German-speaking immigrants in Altman and Horn, `To Make America', ch. 7, and above, p. 213.

26. Moraley The Infortunate, p. 89. The same expression occurs in a letter written by Christopher Sauer in 1724 giving an early description of Pennsylvania. See Lemon, The Best Poor Man's Country, p. xiii.

27. The estimate, however, of just over 50,000 for the whole century, seems unrealistically small. See Magnus Morner on `Spanish Migration to the New World, Prior to 1800', in Chiappelli (ed.), First Images of America, 2, p. 742.

28. Chiappelli (ed.), First Images of America, 2, pp. 745-6; CHLA, 2, pp. 31-2; Rosario Marquez Macias, `La emigracion espanola en el siglo XVIII a America', Rabida, 10 (1991), pp. 68-79.

29. See Manuel Hernandez Gonzalez, Los canarios en la Venezuela colonial, 1670-1810 (Tenerife, 1999).

30. Canny (ed.), Europeans on the Move, p. 34; Weber, Spanish Frontier, pp. 182 and 192-3.

31. Jordi Nadal, La poblacion espanola (Siglos XV a XX) (2nd edn, Barcelona, 1984), table 12, p. 90.

32. CHLA, 2, pp. 32-3, citing Curtin. The figures for 1651-1750 given in table III of Eltis, `Volume and Structure of the Transatlantic Slave Trade', are much smaller - 53,400 - but there are many gaps, and the figures are for the direct trade from Africa, and do not include the large numbers of Africans shipped to Spanish America from receiving-points in the Caribbean.

33. McFarlane, Colombia Before Independence, pp. 66-7.

34. Ferry, Colonial Elite of Early Caracas, p. 72.

35. Thomas, Slave Trade, pp. 272-3; Klein, Slavery in the Americas, p. 150.

36. See chapter 8 (Artisans') by Lyman Johnson in Hoberman and Socolow (eds), Cities and Society, especially pp. 244-5.

37. Bakewell, Latin America, p. 256.

38. See the suggestive table of child mortality rates, although for the period after 1755, in Brading, Haciendas and Ranchos, p. 57.

39. Ibid., p. 177; CHLA, 2, pp. 23-5.

40. Marcello Carmagnani, `Colonial Latin American Demography: Growth of Chilean Population, 1700-1830', Journal of Social History, 1 (1967-8), pp. 179-91.

41. Above, p. 170.

42. McFarlane, Colombia Before Independence, p. 34; Carmagnani, `Colonial Latin American Demography', p. 187; Bakewell, Latin America, pp. 277-8.

43. McFarlane, Colombia Before Independence, pp. 34-8.

44. Figures for North America are taken from Bridenbaugh, Cities in the Wilderness, p. 303. Those for Spanish America from the table on p. 5 of Hoberman and Socolow (eds), Cities and Society. The figure for Quito, which does not appear on this table, comes from Martin Minchom, The People of Quito, 1690-1810 (Boulder, CO, 1994), p. 135. I owe this reference to the kindness of Professor Anthony McFarlane. For an acute analysis of variations in the rate of growth in leading North American cities in the eighteenth century, and in particular of the stagnation of Boston after 1740, see Jacob M. Price, `Economic Function and the Growth of American Port Towns in the Eighteenth Century', Perspectives in American History, 8 (1974), pp. 123-86.

45. McCusker and Menard, Economy of British America, p. 250.

46. Romano, Conjonctures opposees, p. 39-40 and table 3; CHLA, 2, p. 99, table 2.

47. Bridenbaugh, Cities in the Wilderness, p. 232.

48. Nash, Urban Crucible, pp. 63-5; Richard Middleton, Colonial America. A History, 1585-1776 (2nd edn, Oxford, 1996), p. 245.

49. Above, p. 173.

50. See ch. 10 ('The Underclass') by Gabriel Haslip-Vieira in Hoberman and Socolow (eds), Cities and Society, pp. 302-4.

51. Bridenbaugh, Cities in the Wilderness, p. 233; Fischer, Albion's Seed, p. 178; Richard Hofstadter, America at 1750. A Social Portrait (1971; repr., New York, 1973), pp. 26-7.

52. Rutman and Rutman, A Place in Time, pp. 195-203.

53. Bridenbaugh, Cities in the Wilderness, p. 238, and see also for poverty and poor relief in North America the essays in Billy G. Smith (ed.), Down and Out in Early America (University Park, PA, 2004).

54. Cambridge Economic History of the United States, 1, p. 152.

55. Manuel Carrera Stampa, Los gremios mexicanos (Mexico City, 1954); CHLA, 2, pp. 233-4; Hoberman and Socolow (eds), Cities and Society, pp. 236-9.

56. Emilio Harth-Terre and Alberto Marquez Abanto, `Perspectiva social y economica del artesano virreinal en Lima', Revista del Archivo National del Peru, 26 (1962), pp. 3-96, at p. 36; Hoberman and Socolow (eds), Cities and Society, pp. 240-1.

57. For examples of land dispute cases brought by the Indian communities of New Spain before the General Indian Court, see Borah, Justice by Insurance, pp. 128-42. See also, for a Mexican regional study, William B. Taylor, Landlord and Peasant in Colonial Oaxaca (Stanford, CA, 1972), ch. 3.

58. Since the days of Herbert Eugene Bolton and Frederick Jackson Turner the literature on the frontier in American society has become very large. See David J. Weber, `Turner, the Boltonians and the Borderlands', AHR, 91 (1986), pp. 66-81. For a recent overview of some of the major issues in debate, affecting both British and Iberian America, see the recent survey by Jeremy Adelman and Stephen Aron, `From Borderlands to Borders: Empires, Nation States, and the Peoples in Between in North American History', AHR, 104 (1999), pp. 814-41.

59. Peter Sahlins, Boundaries. The Making of France and Spain in the Pyrenees (Berkeley, Los Angeles, Oxford, 1989), pp. 2-7.

60. See Donna J. Guy and Thomas E. Sheridan (eds), Contested Ground. Comparative Frontiers on the Northern and Southern Edges of the Spanish Empire (Tucson, AZ, 1998), ch. 1.

61. Gregory Nobles, American Frontiers. Cultural Encounters and Continental Conquest (New York, 1997), pp. 60-2.

62. For expansion into the Ohio Valley, see Eric Hinderaker, Elusive Empires. Constructing Colonialism in the Ohio Valley, 1673-1800 (Cambridge, 1997).

63. Francis Jennings, The Ambiguous Iroquois Empire (New York and London, 1984), p. 367.

64. OHBE, 2, p. 362.

65. Lepore, The Name of War, p. xiii.

66. Fred Anderson, Crucible of War. The Seven Years' War and the Fate of Empire in British North America, 1754-1766 (London, 2000), pp. 11-12.

67. Jennings, Ambiguous Iroquois Empire, pp. 210-12.

68. Kammen, Colonial New York, p. 179.

69. Anderson, Crucible of War, pp. 17-18.

70. Crane, Southern Frontier, p. 111. For the Yamasee War, see Crane, ch. 7.

71. For Iroquois diplomacy, see Jennings, Ambiguous Iroquois Empire, and the more positive assessment of its achievements in Richard Aquila, The Iroquois Restoration. Iroquois Diplomacy on the Colonial Frontier, 1701-1754 (Lincoln, NE, London, 1983, repr. 1997).

72. Crane, Southern Frontier, p. 8.

73. J. Leitch Wright Jr., Anglo-Spanish Rivalry in North America (Athens, GA, 1971), pp. 69-70.

74. Guy and Sheridan (eds), Contested Ground, p. 3. For the `horse revolution' among the nomadic Indian tribes, see Hennessy, The Frontier, p. 63.

75. Solano and Bernabeu (eds), Estudios sobre la frontera, pp. 210-11.

76. John Hemming, `Indians and the Frontier in Colonial Brazil', CHLA, 2, ch. 13, at pp. 505-12. For the arming of the Indians, Solano and Bernabeu (eds), Estudios sobre la frontera, pp. 213-14; and above, p. 186 for the Jesuit missions.

77. Solano, Ciudades his panoamericanos, p. 30.

78. Manuel Lucena Giraldo, Laboratorio tropical. La expedition de limites al Orinoco, 1750-1767 (Caracas, 1993), pp. 48-58.

79. Jean Claude Roux, `De los limites a la frontera: o los malentendidos de la geopolitica amazonica', Revista de Indias, 61 (2001), pp. 513-39; and, for a map of the moving frontiers of Brazil, see Chaunu, L'Amerique et les Ameriques, map 6, p. 135.

80. Spicer, Cycles of Conquest, p. 282; Suarez Roca, Lingiiistica misionera, pp. 254-76. 81. Above, pp. 86-7.

82. The term `frontier of inclusion' seems to have been coined by a geographer, Marvin Mikesell, in 1960. See Weber, `Turner, the Boltonians and the Borderlands', n. 30.

83. For what follows, see the article on the Chilean frontier by Sergio Villalobos, reprinted in Solano and Bernabeu (eds), Estudios sobre la frontera, pp. 289-359; and above, p. 62.

84. Jennings, Ambiguous Iroquois Empire, pp. 242-8. The existence of treaties between Spaniards and Indians is often denied, but see the essay by David J. Weber, `Bourbons and Barbaros', in Christine Daniels and Michael N. Kennedy (eds), Negotiated Empires. Centers and Peripheries in the Americas, 1500-1820 (London, 2002), pp. 79-103, which provides evidence of their growing use. Also Abelardo Levaggi, Diplomacia hispanoindigena en las fronteras de America (Madrid, 2002).

85. Peter T. Bradley, `El Peru y el mundo exterior. Extranjeros, enemigos y herejes (siglos XVI-XVII'), Revista de Indias, 61 (2001), pp. 651-71, at p. 654.

86. David J. Weber, The Spanish Frontier in North America (New Haven and London, 1992), provides a comprehensive account of the history of the northern frontier of Spanish America throughout the colonial period.

87. Gutierrez, When Jesus Came, p. 107.

88. Ibid., p. 147.

89. Weber, Spanish Frontier, pp. 141-5; Paul E. Hoffman, Florida's Frontiers (Bloomington, IN, and Indianapolis, 2002), ch. 7.

90. Gutierrez, When Jesus Came, pp. 46-94 for the Franciscan century in New Mexico, and pp. 130-40 for the Pueblo revolt.

91. Crane, Southern Frontier, p. 10.

92. Weber, Spanish Frontier, pp. 137-41.

93. Donald E. Chipman, Spanish Texas, 1591-1821 (Austin, TX, 1992), p. 94.

94. Ibid., chs. 6 and 7.

95. James Logan, cited by Maldwyn A. Jones, `The Scotch-Irish in British America', in Bailyn and Morgan (eds), Strangers Within the Realm, p. 285.

96. Above, p. 80.

97. See John Jay TePaske, The Governorship of Spanish Florida, 1700-1763 (Durham, NC, 1964). Also Wickman, `The Spanish Colonial Floridas', in Jackson (ed.), New Views of Borderland History, ch. 7.

98. Wright, Anglo-Spanish Rivalry, pp. 78-80.

99. Anderson, Crucible of War, p. 17.

100. Shy, A People Numerous, ch. 2.

101. Gutierrez, When Jesus Came, p. 148.

102. Ibid., p. 92, table 2.1, and p. 172.

103. Bailyn and Morgan (eds), Strangers Within the Realm, pp. 122-4.

104. Weber, Spanish Frontier, p. 263.

105. Cited by James Merrell in Bailyn and Morgan (eds), Strangers Within the Realm, p. 124.

106. Gutierrez, When Jesus Came, pp. 148-56, and, for the genizaros, James E Brooks, Captives and Cousins. Slavery, Kinship and Community in the Southwest Borderlands (Chapel Hill, NC and London, 2002), pp. 123-38. The janissaries were the elite soldiers of non-Turkish origin in the Ottoman army, but Covarrubias's Tesoro de la lengua castellana of 1611 shows that by the early seventeenth century the word genizaro was being used in Spain to describe someone whose parents were of different nationalities, presumably on the assumption that janissaries were the offspring of mixed unions of Turks and Christians. By the eighteenth century the word was being used, at least in Andalusia, simply to describe foreigners living among Spaniards. It remains a mystery when and how genizaro came to be used of detribalized Indians in New Mexico - a usage that is apparently not to be found in other borderland regions of Spain's American empire. I am indebted to David Weber for this information.

107. Brooks, Captives and Cousins, pp. 103-4.

108. The now fashionable term `middle ground' was introduced by Richard White, The Middle Ground. Indians, Empires, and Republics in the Great Lakes Region, 1650-1815 (Cambridge, 1991), where it is defined on p. x as `the place in between: in between cultures, peoples, and in between empires and the nonstate world of villages'. In so far as it connotes the desire for mutual accommodation and understanding, it is obviously more applicable to some areas of contact between Europeans and non-Europeans than others, and can easily lead to the ignoring or under-estimation of the degree of coercion involved in many such areas.

109. See Axtell, Invasion Within, ch. 13 ('The White Indians').

110. For Johnson's background and rise, see Francis Jennings, Empire of Fortune. Crown, Colonies and Tribes in the Seven Years War in America (New York and London, 1988), pp. 75-9. His activities are traced in White, The Middle Ground.

111. Bailyn and Morgan (ed.), Strangers Within the Realm, p. 299.

112. Cited by Merrell, ibid., p. 118.

113. Ibid., pp. 306-7.

114. Cited by John Demos, The Unredeemed Captive (1994; New York, 1995), p. 230.

115. Cited from the journal of the Rev. Charles Woodmason by Nobles, American Frontiers, p. 104.

116. James Logan, cited by Jones in Bailyn and Morgan (ed.), Strangers Within the Realm, p. 297.

117. Nobles, American Frontiers, pp. 107-8.

118. Breen, Marketplace of Revolution, p. 118; and see above, pp. 243-4.

119. See the listing of narratives in Lepore, The Name of War, pp. 50-1.

120. Slotkin, Regeneration through Violence, p. 97.

121. Axtell, Invasion Within, ch. 13; and see also, for captivity in North America, Linda Colley, Captives. Britain, Empire and the World, 1600-1850 (London, 2002), part 2.

122. Above, p. 235.

123. Slotkin, Regeneration through Violence, p. 121.

124. Reprinted in Jehlen and Warner (eds), The English Literatures of America, pp. 349-82; and see for Mary Rowlandson, Lepore, The Name of War, especially pp. 126-31.

125. See Demos, The Unredeemed Captive.

126. Francisco Nunez de Pineda y Bascunan, Cautiverio feliz (Santiago de Chile, 1863); abridged edn. by Alejandro Lipschutz and Alvaro Jara (Santiago de Chile, 1973). Abridged English trans. by William C. Atkinson, The Happy Captive (Chatham, 1979). A suggestive comparison of the two captivity narratives is to be found in ch. 4 of Ralph Bauer, The Cultural Geography of Colonial American Literatures (Cambridge, 2003), in the context of the transatlantic dialogue between creoles and their critics at the centre of empire.

127. Ed. Jara, pp. 102, 183-4, 187.

128. Cited by Le pore, The Name of War, p. 130.

129. First published in Zaragoza in 1542, and included in Ramusio's Delle navigationi et viaggi (vol. 3, Venice, 1565). See the edn by Enrique Pupo-Walker: Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, Los naufragios (Madrid, 1992), and Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca, The Narrative of Cabeza de Vaca, ed. and trans. by Rolena Adorno and Patrick Charles Pautz (Lincoln, NE, 2003).

130. S. M. Socolow, `Spanish Captives in Indian Societies: Cultural Contacts Along the Argentine Frontier', HAHR, 72 (1992), pp. 73-99; and see Peter Stern, `Marginals and Acculturation in Frontier Society', in Jackson (ed.), New Views of Borderland History, ch. 6. The question of the relative scarcity of captivity narratives in Spanish America is addressed in Fernando Opere, Historias de la frontera. El cautiverio en la America hispanica (Buenos Aires, 2001).

131. Gutierrez, When Jesus Came, pp. 203-4 and 211-12.

132. See Slotkin, Regeneration through Violence, ch. 7.

133. Slotkin, Regeneration through Violence, pp. 199-200; David A. Lupher, Romans in a New World. Classical Models in Sixteenth-Century Spanish America (Ann Arbor, MI, 2003), pp. 302-3.

134. Arturo Warman, La danza de moros y cristianos (Mexico City, 1972), pp. 80 and 118-20.

135. Above, p. 240.

136. See Richard R. Beeman, The Varieties of Political Experience in Eighteenth-Century America (Philadelphia, 2004), pp. 157-9; and, for a brief survey of backcountry history, Eric Hinderaker and Peter C. Mancall, At the Edge of Empire. The Backcountry in British North America (Baltimore and London, 2003).

137. Butler, Becoming America, p. 10.

138. Cited by Richard Hofstadter, America at 1750. A Portrait (1971; edn, New York, 1973), p. 23.

139. Figures as given in McCusker and Menard, Economy of British America, p. 222.

140. Morgan, Slave Counterpoint, p. 81; Berlin, Many Thousands Gone, p. 126.

141. Alan Taylor, American Colonies. The Settlement of North America to 1800 (London, 2001), pp. 241-3.

142. See above, pp. 105-6. For a general survey of the Atlantic plantation complex, see Philip D. Curtin, The Rise and Fall of the Plantation Complex. Essays in Atlantic History (Cambridge, 1990).

143. McCusker and Menard, Economy of British America, p. 222.

144. For a valuable attempt to classify the varieties of labour systems that developed in British America, see Richard S. Dunn, `Servants and Slaves: the Recruitment and Employment of Labor', in Greene and Pole (eds), Colonial British America, ch. 6.

145. These differences are skilfully charted in Morgan's Slave Counterpoint. For the summary account of slave societies that follows, I have also drawn on Allan Kulikoff, Tobacco and Slaves. The Development of Southern Cultures in the Chesapeake, 1680-1800 (Chapel Hill, NC and London, 1986), as well as Berlin, Many Thousands Gone.

146. For Maryland, up to 1720, see Main, Tobacco Colony; and, for the general characteristics of tobacco culture, T. H. Breen, Tobacco Culture. The Mentality of the Great Tidewater Planters on the Eve of Revolution (Princeton, 1985).

147. See for this, and what follows, Jane Landers, Black Society in Spanish Florida (Urbana, IL and Chicago, 1999), ch. 1. Also Berlin, Many Thousands Gone, pp. 72-4.

148. Berlin, Many Thousands Gone, p. 160. For Africans in Spanish American cities, see above, pp. 100-1.

149. Ben Vinson III, Bearing Arms for His Majesty. The Free Colored Militia in Colonial Mexico (Stanford, CA, 2001).

150. Brown, Good Wives, Nasty Wenches, p. 182.

151. John Shy, Toward Lexington. The Role of the British Army in the Coming of the American Revolution (Princeton, 1965), p. 12.

152. The relationship between the two is explored with great subtlety by Morgan, American Slavery, American Freedom.

153. For the construction of this world in Virginia, see Mechal Sobel, The World They Made Together. Black and White Values in Eighteenth-Century Virginia (Princeton, 1987), and Morgan, Slave Counterpoint, part 2.

154. Bernand and Gruzinski, Les Metissages, pp. 253-5.

155. Cited by Rhys Isaac, Landon Carter's Uneasy Kingdom. Revolution and Rebellion on a Virginia Plantation (Oxford, 2004), p. 117. This book brilliantly re-creates the physical environment and troubled mental world of a Virginia planter who left a copious record of his daily life.

156. For a horrifying account of Jamaican plantation life, based on the diaries of Thomas Thistlewood, appointed overseer of a sugar plantation shortly after his arrival on the island in 1750, see Trevor Burnard, Mastery, Tyranny, and Desire. Thomas Thistlewood and his Slaves in the Anglo-Jamaican World (Chapel Hill, NC, 2004). There were, however, significant differences between the Jamaican and Virginian environments, as also between their African populations and the nature of their plantations, and it would be a mistake to extrapolate from one plantation to the entire plantation complex of the Caribbean and the American South.

157. Isaac, Landon Carter's Uneasy Kingdom, p. 75 (1757).

158. Sobel, The World They Made Together, pp. 147-52; Berlin, Many Thousands Gone, p. 161.

159. Berlin, Many Thousands Gone, pp. 178-9.

160. Nash, Urban Crucible, p. 107; Berlin, Many Thousands Gone, p. 107.

161. Nash, Urban Crucible, F107

162. See Richard S. Dunn, `The Recruitment and Employment of Labour', in Greene and Pole (eds), Colonial British America, pp. 182-3.

163. See Salvucci, Textiles and Capitalism, pp. 101-3 (for numbers employed), and 110-111.

164. Bennett, Africans in Colonial Mexico, p. 27.

165. John Lynch, The Spanish American Revolutions, 1808-1825 (2nd edn, New York and London, 1973), pp. 191 and 380-1; CHLA, 2, pp. 375-7.

166. A point well made by Bennett in Africans in Colonial Mexico.

167. Dunn, `The Recruitment and Employment of Labour', p. 182.

168. See Marc Egnal, `The Economic Development of the Thirteen Colonies, 1720 to 1775', WMQ, 3rd set. (1975), pp. 191-222, for a valuable discussion of the relationship between population growth, immigration and increasing productivity.

169. Greenberg, `The Middle Colonies in Recent American Historiography'.

170. McCusker and Menard, Economy of British America, pp. 101-11.

171. Nash, Urban Crucible, pp. 136-8, and 212-14; T. H. Breen and Timothy Hall, `Structuring Provincial Imagination: the Rhetoric and Experience of Social Change in Eighteenth-Century New England', AHR, 103 (1998), pp. 1411-39.

172. For the Great Awakening, see Bonomi, Under the Cope of Heaven, ch. 5, Butler, Awash in a Sea of Faith, ch. 6, and Robert A. Ferguson, American Enlightenment, 1750-1820 (Cambridge, Mass., and London, 1997), ch. 3. For its impact in New England, see Nash, Urban Crucible, pp. 204-19, and Breen and Hall, `Structuring Provincial Imagination'.

173. Beeman, Varieties of Political Experience, ch. 3; Breen, The Good Ruler.

174. Beeman, Varieties of Political Experience, ch. 2.

175. Ibid., ch. 5.

176. Tully, Forming American Politics, p. 126.

177. Cited by Randall H. Balmer, A Perfect Babel of Confusion. Dutch Religion and English Culture in the Middle Colonies (Oxford and New York, 1989), p. 87. This book provides a cogent account of the attempt to anglicize, and Anglicanize, the New York Dutch.

178. Above, pp. 180-1.

179. In addition to Balmer, see Beeman, Varieties of Political Experience, p. 104; Patricia U. Bonomi, A Factious People. Politics and Society in Colonial New York (New York and London, 1971), and Kammen, Colonial New York.

180. See in particular Nash, Urban Crucible, and Tully, Forming American Politics.

181. Kammen, Colonial New York, ch. 8.

182. Nash, Urban Crucible, pp. 140-8.

183. Tully, Forming American Politics, pp. 140-9.

184. Butler, Becoming America, p. 200.

185. Ruth H. Bloch, Visionary Republic. Millennial Themes in American Thought, 1756-1800 (Cambridge, 1985).

186. Above, p. 154.

187. Above, p. 151.

Chapter 10. War and Reform

1. Anderson, Crucible of War, ch. 5.

2. Above, p. 265.

3. Cited by Isaac, Landon Carter's Uneasy Kingdom, p. 157.

4. Anderson, Crucible of War, p. 135.

5. See John Robert McNeill, Atlantic Empires of France and Spain. Louisbourg and Havana, 1700-1763 (Chapel Hill, NC and London, 1985), for the role of Louisbourg in the French imperial system.

6. See Anderson, Crucible of War, parts IV to VI, for a vivid account of the course and outcome of the conflict.

7. Ibid., pp. 484-5 and 489-90.

8. For the siege of Havana see Hugh Thomas, Cuba, or the Pursuit of Freedom (London, 1971), ch. 1, and McNeill, Atlantic Empires, pp. 103-4.

9. For the terms of the Peace of Paris, see Wright, Anglo-Spanish Rivalry, pp. 107-8, and Anderson, Crucible of War, pp. 504-6.

10. Cited by Cespedes de Castillo, America hispknica, p. 324.

11. Above, p. 274.

12. Above, p. 284.

13. For the deficiencies of the militia system and military reorganization in New Spain, see Lyle N. McAlister, `The Reorganization of the Army of New Spain, 1763-1766', HAHR, 33 (1953), pp. 1-32, and his The `Fuero Militar' in New Spain, 1764-1800 (Gainesville, FL, 1957), p. 2.

14. Shy, A People Numerous, pp. 37-9.

15. John Shy, Armed Force in Colonial North America: New Spain, New France, and AngloAmerica', in Kenneth J. Hagan and William R. Roberts (eds), Against All Enemies. Interpretations of American Military History from Colonial Times to the Present (Greenwood Press, Contributions in Military Studies, no. 51, New York, Westport, Conn., London, 1986), at p. 9.

16. Cited by Andrews, Colonial Period, vol. 4, p. 417.

17. Anderson, Crucible of War, ch. 7. For ambivalent attitudes in London to plans for colonial union, see Alison Olson, `The British Government and Colonial Union, 1754', WMQ, 3rd set., 17 (1960), pp. 22-34.

18. Anderson, Crucible o f War, p. 85. For William Johnson, who was appointed superintendent of Northern Indian affairs, see above pp. 275-6.

19. Cited by Anderson, Crucible of War, p. 148.

20. Jack P. Greene, `The Seven Years' War and the American Revolution: the Causal Relationship Reconsidered', in Peter Marshall and Glyn Williams (eds), The British Atlantic Empire Before the American Revolution (London, 1980), pp. 85-105, at p. 88. For the problem, and extent, of illicit trade in these years see Barrow, Trade and Empire, ch. 7.

21. Cited by Barrow, Trade and Empire, p. 152.

22. Shy, Toward Lexington, p. 35 for troop numbers; for relative tax burdens, Taylor, American Colonies, p. 438.

23. John L. Bullion, "`The Ten Thousand in America": More Light on the Decision on the American Army, 1762-1763', WMQ, 3rd set., 43 (1986), pp. 646-57.

24. Lynch, Bourbon Spain, pp. 312-17.

25. A. S. Aiton, `Spanish Colonial Reorganization Under the Family Compact', HAHR, 12 (1932), pp. 269-80; Stanley J. Stein and Barbara H. Stein, Apogee of Empire. Spain and New Spain in the Age of Charles III, 1759-1789 (Baltimore and London, 2003), pp. 58-68.

26. For the military reforms, see McAlister, `The Reorganization of the Army of New Spain'; Cespedes del Castillo, Ensayos, pp. 261-9; Archer, The Army in Bourbon Mexico, pp. 9-16.

27. Archer, The Army, p. 12; Greene, `Seven Years' War', p. 89.

28. CHLA, 1, p. 400.

29. Cespedes del Castillo, America hispanica, p. 325.

30. McAlister, The `Duero Militar', pp. 10-11.

31. See Juan Marchena Fernandez, Ejercito y militias en el mundo colonial americano (Madrid, 1992), table, p. 62, and his `The Social World of the Military in Peru and New Granada: the Colonial Oligarchies in Conflict', in John R. Fisher, Allan J. Kuethe and Anthony McFarlane (eds), Reform and Insurrection in Bourbon New Granada and Peru (Baton Rouge, LA and London, 1990), ch. 3.

32. Shy A People Numerous, p. 40.

33. Anderson, Crucible of War, pp. 560-2.

34. Greene, `Seven Years' War', p. 95.

35. P. D. Thomas, British Politics and the Stamp Act Crisis. The First Phase of the American Revolution, 1763-1767 (Oxford, 1975), p. 38.

36. Above, pp. 228-9.

37. Burkholder and Chandler, From Impotence to Authority, part 1; Mark A. Burkholder, `From Creole to Peninsular; the Transformation of the Audiencia of Lima', HAHR, 52 (1972), pp. 395-415; Jaime E. Rodriguez 0., The Independence of Spanish America (Cambridge, 1998), pp. 21-2.

38. Cited by Labaree, Royal Government in America, p. 308.

39. Greene, Quest for Power, pp. 70 and 360-1.

40. Olson, Anglo-American Politics, pp. 147-8; Barrow, Trade and Empire, pp. 157-8.

41. For `rational' and scientific preoccupations in the Spain of Charles III, and their impact on imperial government, see in particular the essays in the exhibition catalogue, Carlos III y la Ilustracion, 2 vols (Madrid and Barcelona, 1989). For Britain, Drayton, Nature's Government, especially pp. 67-9, and Shy, A People Numerous, pp. 77-9.

42. See Allan J. Kuethe and G. Douglas Inglis, 'Absolutism and Enlightened Reform: Charles III, the Establishment of the Alcabala, and Commercial Reorganization in Cuba', Past and Present, 109 (1985), pp. 118-43.

43. For the overthrow of Esquilache and its consequences, see Stein and Stein, Apogee of Empire, ch. 4, and the exhaustive study by Jose Andres-Gallego, El motin de Esquilache, America y Europa (Madrid, 2003).

44. Cespedes del Castillo, Ensayos, p. 308; MacLachlan, Spain's Empire, pp. 93-4.

45. The administrative career of Galvez deserves a comprehensive study. The now antiquated study by Herbert Ingram Priestley, Jose de Galvez, Visitor-General of New Spain, 1765-1771 (Berkeley, 1916), does not extend beyond his visitation of New Spain. For a recent brief survey, see Ismael Sanchez-Bella, `Las reformas en Indias del Secretario de Estado Jose de Galvez (1776-1787)', in Feliciano Barrios Pintado (ed.), Derecho y administration publica en las Indias hispanicas (2 vols, Cuenca, 2002), 2, pp. 1517-54.

46. Above, p. 260. By 1800 Spanish America would have some 13.5 million inhabitants to Spain's 10.5 million (CHLA, 2, p. 34).

47. See Table 4.1 in OHBE, 2, p. 100.

48. Cited by Thomas, British Politics, p. 34.

49. Anderson, Crucible of War, ch. 59.

50. Robert L. Gold, Borderland Empires in Transition. The Triple Nation Transfer of Florida (Carbondale, IL and Edwardsville, IL, 1969); Cecil Johnson, British West Florida, 1763-1783 (New Haven, 1943), ch. 1; C. L. Mowat, East Florida as a British Province, 1763-1784 (Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1943), ch. 1.

51. For seventeenth-century French Acadia and its replacement in 1713 by the British colony of Nova Scotia, see John G. Reid, Acadia, Maine and New England. Marginal Colonies in the Seventeenth Century (Toronto, Buffalo, NY, London, 1981).

52. For the background to the promulgation of the 1763 Proclamation, see Jack M. Sosin, Whitehall and the Wilderness. The Middle West in British Colonial Policy, 1760-1775 (Lincoln, NE, 1961), ch. 3.

53. Barrow, Trade and Empire, pp. 187-8.

54. Anderson, Crucible of War, pp. 583-5.

55. Barrow, Trade and Empire, pp. 183-4.

56. Andrien, Crisis and Decline, pp. 154-5.

57. Cited by Thomas, British Politics, p. 53.

58. Lynch, Bourbon Spain, pp. 344-5; Guillermo Cespedes del Castillo, El tabaco en Nueva Espana (Madrid, 1992), ch. 3; Jose Jesus Hernandez Palomo, El aguardiente de cana en Mexico (Seville, 1974).

59. Thomas, British Politics, p. 112.

60. Sosin, Whitehall and the Wilderness, p. 130. The estimates would be vastly exceeded as a result of extraordinary expenses.

61. Shy, Toward Lexington, pp. 188-9; Anderson, Crucible of War, pp. 720-2.

62. Cited in Barrow, Trade and Empire, p. 225.

63. Cespedes del Castillo, Ensayos, pp. 234-6.

64. Above, p. 232.

65. Vicent Llombart, Campomanes, economista y politico de Carlos III (Madrid, 1992). Campomanes served in the Council of Castile for three decades, from 1762 to 1791.

66. N. M. Farriss, Crown and Clergy in Colonial Mexico, 1759-1821 (London, 1968), p. 92.

67. Cited by Laura Rodriguez, Reforma e Ilustracidn en la Espana del siglo XVIII: Pedro K. Campomanes (Madrid, 1975), p. 59.

68. Horst Pietschmann, Las reformas borbonicas y el sistema de intendencias en Nueva Espana (Mexico City, 1996), p. 302.

69. Cited by I. A. A. Thompson in Richard L. Kagan and Geoffrey Parker (eds), Spain, Europe and the Atlantic World. Essays in Honour of John H. Elliott (Cambridge, 1995), p. 158.

70. See Farriss, Crown and Clergy. For provincial councils, pp. 33-8.

71. Taylor, Magistrates of the Sacred, pp. 83-6.

72. Mazin, Ent re dos majestades, pp. 138-40.

73. The alleged involvement of the Jesuits in the overthrow of Esquilache is examined in Stein and Stein, Apogee of Empire, pp. 98-107. Andres-Gallego, El moon de Esquilache, pp. 655-63, leaves the problem unresolved, but provides (pp. 501-28) a useful summary of attitudes to the Jesuits and to their activities, including their activities in the Indies, in the period leading up to their expulsion.

74. D. A. Brading, Church and State in Bourbon Mexico. The Diocese of Michoacan, 1749-1810 (Cambridge, 1994), ch. 1; Antonio Mestre, `La actitud religiosa de los catolicos ilustrados', in Austin Guimera (ed.), El reformismo borbdnico. Una vision interdisciplinar (Madrid, 1996), pp. 147-63; Teofanes Egido (ed.), Los jesuitas en Espana y en el mundo hispanico (Madrid, 2004), pp. 256-73.

75. Andres-Gallego, El moon de Esquilache, p. 596; and see more generally pp. 595-645 for his assessment of the consequences of the expulsion on both sides of the Spanish Atlantic.

76. Martinez Lopez-Cano (ed.), Iglesia, estado y economia, p.

77. Brading, Church and State, pp. 4-7.

78. Cited by McFarlane, `The Rebellion of the Barrios: Urban Insurrection in Bourbon Quito', in Fisher, Kuethe and McFarlane (eds), Reform and Insurrection, p. 202.

79. The account that follows is based on McFarlane, `The Rebellion of the Barrios', and Kenneth J. Andrien, `Economic Crisis, Taxes and the Quito Insurrection of 1765', Past and Present, 129 (1990), pp. 104-31.

80. McFarlane, Colombia Before Independence, pp. 232-3; Fisher, Kuethe and McFarlane (eds), Reform and Insurrection, pp. 3-4.

81. Andres-Gallego, El motin de Esquilache, p. 194.

82. Ibid., p. 197.

83. Cited in Edmund S. and Helen M. Morgan, The Stamp Act Crisis. Prologue to Revolution (1953; repr. New York, 1962), p. 43.

84. Thomas M. Doerflinger, A Vigorous Spirit of Enterprise. Merchants and Economic Development in Revolutionary Philadelaphia (Chapel Hill, NC and London, 1986), pp. 175-6. For the relationship of the Stamp Act crisis to the impact of the post-war depression on the port towns, see especially Nash, Urban Crucible, ch. 11.

85. Cited in David McCullough, John Adams (New York and London, 2001), p. 43.

86. Greene, `Seven Years' War', p. 97.

87. Morgan and Morgan, Stamp Act Crisis, pp. 121-32.

88. Ibid., pp. 123-4.

89. Above, p. 262.

90. Nash, Urban Crucible, p. 247; Morgan and Morgan, Stamp Act Crisis, pp. 48-9.

91. For the Loyal Nine and their transformation into the inter-colonial `Sons of Liberty', see, in addition to Morgan and Morgan, Stamp Act Crisis, Pauline Maier, From Resistance to Revolution. Colonial Radicals and the Development of American Opposition to Britain, 1765-1776 (1971; repr. New York and London, 1992), ch. 4.

92. Cited in John L. Bullion, `British Ministers and American Resistance to the Stamp Act, October-December 1765', WMQ, 3rd set., 49 (1992), pp. 89-107, at p. 91.

93. Burke, European Settlements, 2, p. 172.

94. Ibid., p. 167.

95. Morgan and Morgan, Stamp Act Crisis, p. 139. New Hampshire declined, but approved the proceedings after the congress was over.

96. Cited in Morgan and Morgan, Stamp Act Crisis, p. 146.

97. For the response in the West Indies, where there were riots in the Leeward Islands, see O'Shaughnessy, An Empire Divided, pp. 86-104.

98. Cited in Anderson, Crucible of War, p. 684.

99. See Breen, Marketplace of Revolution, pp. 222-34, for the early stages of the nonimportation movement.

100. C. Knick Harley, `Trade, Discovery, Mercantilism and Technology', in Roderick Floud and Paul Johnson (eds), The Cambridge Economic History of Modern Britain (Cambridge, 2004), 1, p. 184. See also his table 7.1 for official values of British trade, 1663-1774 (p. 177). Part 1 of Breen, Marketplace of Revolution, provides a vivid account of the huge variety of British imports on offer and the patterns of marketing and consumption in the colonies.

101. Jacob M. Price, `Who Cared About the Colonies?', in Bailyn and Morgan (eds), Strangers Within the Realm, pp. 395-436, at p. 417.

102. Barlow Trecothick to Rockingham, 7 November 1765, cited by Bullion, `British Ministers', p. 100.

103. Price, `Who Cared About the Colonies?', p. 412.

104. Bullion, `British Ministers'.

105. See H. G. Koenigsberger, `Composite States, Representative Institutions and the American Revolution', Historical Research. The Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, 62 (1989), pp. 135-53. See also Miller, Defining the Common Good, chs 3 and 4.

106. Above, p. 230.

107. Greene, Peripheries and Center, pp. 61-2.

108. Cited by Anderson, Crucible of War, p. 700.

109. Miller, Defining the Common Good, pp. 192-4. The Greeks did in fact consider their colonies as dependent on the mother city The Roman notion of colonia, on the other hand, lacked this notion of dependency, which may have arisen in the minds of British politicians as a result of confusing Rome's `colonies', originally settlements of veteran soldiers, with its `provinces', which were indeed dependent on the metropolis. I am grateful to Professor Glen Bowersock for guidance on this point. `Colony' and 'plantation' were interchangeable terms in the early phases of English overseas colonization, but the notion of dependency had obviously established itself by 1705, when Lord Cornbury wrote that in his opinion `all these Colloneys, which are but twigs belonging to the Main Tree [England] ought to be Kept entirely dependent upon and subservient to England' (E. B. O'Callaghan, The Documentary History of the State of New York, 4 vols (Albany, NY11850-1), 1, p. 485). For an example of the distinction drawn by eighteenth-century British commentators between Greek and Roman colonies, see James Abercromby's De Jure et Gubernatione Coloniarum (1774), reprinted in Jack P. Greene, Charles F. Mullett and Edward C. Papenfuse (eds), Magna Charta for America (Philadelphia, 1986), p. 203.

110. Cited by Anderson, Crucible of War, p. 642.

111. Cited by Edmund S. Morgan, Benjamin Franklin (New Haven and London, 2002), pp. 154-5.

112. Greene, Peripheries and Center, pp. 80-4. 'A mere cob-web', Daniel Dulany, in his `Considerations on the Propriety of Imposing Taxes in the British Colonies', as cited in Samuel Eliot Morison (ed.), Sources and Documents Illustrating the American Revolution, 1764-1788 (2nd edn, London, Oxford, New York, 1965), p. 26.

113. Robert W. Tucker and David C. Hendrickson, The Fall of the First British Empire. Origins of the War of American Independence (Baltimore and London, 1982), p. 157. See also Richard R. Johnson, "`Parliamentary Egotisms": the Clash of Legislatures in the Making of the American Revolution', The Journal of American History, 74 (1987), pp. 338-62.

114. P. J. Marshall, `Britain and the World in the Eighteenth Century: II, Britons and Americans', TRHS, 9 (1999), pp. 1-16, at p. 11.

115. Cited by Stephen Conway `From Fellow-Nationals to Foreigners: British Perceptions of the Americans, circa 1739-1783', WMQ, 3rd set., 59 (2002), pp. 65-100, at p. 84.

116. Cited by Eliga H. Gould, The Persistence of Empire. British Political Culture in the Age of the American Revolution (Chapel Hill, NC and London, 2000), p. 125.

117. Eyzaguirre, Ideario y ruta, p. 44.

118. Richard Morris, Josefina Zoraida Vazquez and Elias Trabulse, Las revoluciones de independencia en Mexico y los Estados Unidos. Un ensayo comparativo, 3 vols (Mexico City, 1976), 1, p. 165.

119. Brading, Miners and Merchants, pp. 44-51.

120. Richard Konetzke, `La condition legal de los criollos y las causal de la independencia', Estudios americanos, 2 (1950), pp. 31-54; Eyzaguirre, Ideario y ruta, p. 53; Brading, First America, p. 477.

121. John H. Elliott, The Count-Duke of Olivares. The Statesman in an Age of Decline (New Haven and London, 1986), pp. 191-202.

122. Ibid., p. 244.

123. Konetzke, `La condition legal', pp. 45-6.

124. Cited by Farriss, Crown and Clergy, p. 130.

125. Table 2 in Brading, Miners and Merchants, p. 40.

126. `Representation que hizo la ciudad de Mexico al rey D. Carlos III en 1771 . . .', in Juan E. Hernandez y Davalos (ed.), Coleccion de documentos Para la historia de la guerra de independencia de Mexico de 1808 a 1821, 6 vols (Mexico City, 1877-82), 1, pp. 427-55. There is an abridged English translation in John Lynch (ed.), Latin American Revolutions, 1808-1826 (Norman, OK, 1994), pp. 58-70, which I have used here. See also Brading, First America, pp. 479-83.

127. Above, p. 319.

128. Marshall, `Britain and the World', pp. 9-10.

129. Konetzke, `La condition legal', p. 48; Brading, Miners and Merchants, p. 37.

Chapter 11. Empires in Crisis

1. Above, p. 321.

2. Above, p. 149.

3. The Political Works of James Harrington, ed. J. G. A. Pocock (Cambridge, 1979), pp. 168-9. For the tracing of this and other ideas about colonial dependence, see J. M. Bumsted, "`Things in the Womb of Time": Ideas of American Independence, 1633 to 1763', WMQ, 3rd set., 31 (1974), pp. 533-64.

4. Caroline Robbins, The Eighteenth-Century Commonwealthmen (Cambridge, Mass., 1959), pp. 112-13. For the influence in America of Trenchard and Gordon's Cato's Letters, see Bernard Bailyn, The Ideological Origins of the American Revolution (1967; enlarged edn, Cambridge, MA, 1992), pp. 35-6.

5. Cited in Barrow, Trade and Empire, p. 176.

6. Above, p. 235.

7. For these works and the debate they produced on both sides of the Atlantic, see Gerbi, Dispute of the New World, chs 3-6; Durand Echevarria, Mirage in the West. A History of the French Image of American Society to 1815 (1957; 2nd edn, Princeton, 1968), ch. 1; Jorge Canizares-Esguerra, How to Write the History of the New World. Histories, Epistemologies, and Identities in the Eighteenth-Century Atlantic World (Stanford, CA, 2001).

8. Francisco Javier Clavijero, Historia antigua de Mexico, ed. Mariano Cuevas, 4 vols (2nd edn, Mexico City, 1958-9). For Pauw's `monstrous portrait of America', vol. 4, pp. 7-10; and see Bra ding, The First America, ch. 20, for Clavijero and the `Jesuit patriots'.

9. Thomas Jefferson, Notes on the State of Virginia, ed. William Peden (Chapel Hill, NC and London, 1982), p. 64.

10. See note 4, above.

11. Federica Morelli, `La revolution en Quito: el camino hacia el gobierno mixto', Revista de Indias, 62 (2002), pp. 335-56, at p. 342; Antonio Annino, `Some Reflections on Spanish American Constitutional and Political History', Itinerario, 19 (1995), pp. 26-47, at p. 40.

12. Manuel Gimenez Fernandez, Las doctrinas populistas en la independencia de HispanoAmerica (Seville, 1947), p. 57.

13. Rene Millar Corbacho, `La inquisition de Lima y la circulation de libros prohibidos (1700-1800)', Revista de Indias, 44 (1984), pp. 415-44.

14. Richard L. Bushman, King and People in Provincial Massachusetts (Chapel Hill, NC and London, 1992), p. 42; Amory and Hall (eds), The Colonial Book in the Atlantic World, pp. 367-73. For juries in pre-revolutionary North American politics, see John M. Murrin, `Magistrates, Sinners and a Precarious Liberty: Tried by Jury in Seventeenth-Century New England', in Hall, Murrin and Tate (eds) Saints and Revolutionaries, pp. 152-206; Reid, In a Defiant Stance, especially ch. 8; and Hoffer, Law and People, pp. 87-9.

15. For the contrasts, see in particular the observations on colonial American newspapers in Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities (London and New York, 1983, repr. 1989), pp. 61-5.

16. Francois-Xavier Guerra, Modernidad e independencias. Ensayos sobre las revoluciones hispanicas (Madrid, 1992), p. 285; Haring, Spanish Empire, pp. 246-9.

17. Amory and Hall (eds), The Colonial Book, 1, pp. 154 and 354.

18. Ibid., p. 358.

19. Louis B. Wright, The Cultural Life of the British Colonies, 1607-1763 (New York, 1957), pp. 241-2; Kammen, Colonial New York, pp. 338-41.

20. Butler, Becoming America, pp. 170-4; Maier, From Resistance to Revolution, pp. 83-91; Beeman, Varieties of Political Experience, p. 259.

21. Figures in Anderson, Imagined Communities, p. 64, n. 50. I am grateful to Peter Bakewell for advice on this point.

22. John Lynch, The Spanish American Revolutions (2nd edn., New York and London, 1973), p. 26.

23. John Leddy Phelan, The People and the King. The Comunero Revolution in Colombia, 1781 (Madison, WI, 1978), p. 85.

24. John Dunn, `The Politics of Locke in England and America in the Eighteenth Century', in John W. Youlton (ed.), John Locke: Problems and Perspectives (Cambridge, 1969), pp. 45-80. See, however, Jerome Huyler, Locke in America. The Moral Philosophy of the Founding Era (Lawrence, KS, 1995), especially pp. 207-8. Against recent tendencies to play down the influence of Locke in pre-revolutionary America, Huyler makes a cogent case for the permeation of American culture by Lockean ideals.

25. Wright, Cultural Life, pp. 119-20, 151-2; Isaac, Landon Carter's Uneasy Kingdom, pp. 88 and 359.

26. Wright, Cultural Life, p. 121; Henry F. May, The Enlightenment in America (Oxford, 1976), pp. 61-4; Bonomi, Under the Cope of Heaven, pp. 131-2; Ferguson, American Enlightenment, p. 57.

27. May, Enlightenment, pp. 33-4.

28. See J. M. Lopez Pinero, La introduction de la ciencia moderna en Espana (Barcelona, 1969), for the arrival of the new science and medicine in later seventeenth-century Spain.

29. See Richard Herr, The Eighteenth-Century Revolution in Spain (Princeton, 1958).

30. See Canizares-Esguerra, How to Write the History of the New World, for innovation in the writing of history.

31. John Tate Lanning, Academic Culture in the Spanish Colonies (Oxford, 1940; repr., Port Washington and London, 1971), p. 65; Arthur P. Whitaker (ed.), Latin America and the Enlightenment (2nd edn, Ithaca, NY11961), p. 35.

32. Colley, Britons, p. 132; T. H. Breen, `Ideology and Nationalism on the Eve of the American Revolution: Revisions Once More in Need of Revising', Journal of American History, 84 (1997), pp. 13-39.

33. Breen, `Ideology and Nationalism', pp. 30-1.

34. There is a massive literature on the ideological shifts on both sides of the Atlantic in the years following the accession of George III. See in particular Robbins, Commonwealthmen, ch. 9; Bailyn, Ideological Origins; J. G. A. Pocock, Virtue, Commerce, and History (Cambridge, 1985), and the relevant essays in J. G. A. Pocock (ed.), Three British Revolutions: 1641, 1688, 1776 (Princeton, 1980). I have drawn on all these for the brief account that follows.

35. In addition to the literature cited above, see Jonathan Scott, `What were Commonwealth Principles?', Historical Journal, 47 (2004), pp. 591-613.

36. See Bailyn, Ideological Origins, pp. 86-93.

37. Bushman, King and People, pp. 194-5.

38. Beeman, Varieties of Political Experience, pp. 111 and 244.

39. Townshend's project is examined in detail in Peter D. G. Thomas, The Townshend Duties Crisis. The Second Phase of the American Revolution, 1767-1773 (Oxford, 1987). See also Barrow, Trade and Empire, pp. 216-24.

40. Maier, From Resistance to Revolution, pp. 114-38; Breen, Marketplace of Revolution, ch. 7.

41. Maier, From Resistance to Revolution, p. 118.

42. Breen, Marketplace of Revolution, pp. 230-4.

43. `Philo Americanus', cited in ibid., p. 265.

44. Theodore Draper, A Struggle for Power. The American Revolution (London, 1996), pp. 356-60; McCullough, John Adams, pp. 65-8. For succinct accounts of the pre-revolutionary period in the aftermath of the Boston Massacre see Edmund S. Morgan, The Birth of the Republic, 1763-1789 (Chicago, 1956), ch. 4, and Gordon S. Wood, The American Revolution. A History (London, 2003), pp. 33-44.

45. Nash, Urban Crucible, pp. 355-6; Maier, From Resistance to Revolution, p. 129.

46. See Nash, Urban Crucible, pp. 351-82.

47. Beeman, Varieties of Political Experience, pp. 258-62. For evidence that Adams made up his mind in favour of independence as early as 1768, see John K. Alexander, Samuel Adams. America's Revolutionary Politician (Lanham, MD, 2002), p. 65.

48. Nash, Urban Crucible, p. 371.

49. See Gordon S. Wood, 'A Note on Mobs in the American Revolution', WMQ, 3rd set., 23 (1966), pp. 635-42.

50. Alexander, Samuel Adams, pp. 82 and 91-2.

51. Ibid., pp. 117 and 122.

52. Draper, Struggle for Power, pp. 415-19.

53. Cited in Maier, From Resistance to Revolution, pp. 224-5.

54. Bonomi, Under the Cope of Heaven, pp. 199-200; Isaac, Transformation of Virginia, pp. 187-9.

55. Morgan, Birth of the Republic, p. 61; Draper, Struggle for Power, pp. 434-5. For the role of conspiracy theory in eighteenth-century thought, see the fine article by Gordon S. Wood, `Conspiracy and the Paranoid Style: Causality and Deceit in the Eighteenth Century', WMQ, 3rd set., 39 (1982), pp. 401-41.

56. Edward Countryman, The American Revolution (Harmondsworth, 1985), pp. 75-97; Beeman, Varieties of Political Experience, pp. 169-77 (the Regulator Movement), and pp. 228-42 (the Paxton Boys).

57. Cited in Wyatt-Brown, Southern Honor, p. 70.

58. Gordon S. Wood, The Radicalism of the American Revolution (New York, 1993), pp. 123-4; and see also for the historiographical debate over the relationship between the colonial social structure and the American Revolution, Pauline Maier, `The Transforming Impact of Independence Reaffirmed', in James A. Henretta, Michael Kammen and Stanley N. Katz (eds), The Transformation of Early American Society (New York, 1991), pp. 194-217.

59. Wyatt-Brown, Southern Honor, pp. 67-8; Isaac, Transformation of Virginia, pp. 290-1.

60. See Bushman, Refinement of America, pp. 38-41.

61. Above, p. 289.

62. See Tully, Forming American Politics, especially pp. 423-5.

63. Beeman, Varieties of Political Experience, pp. 131-4.

64. Above, pp. 168-9.

65. Draper, Struggle for Power, p. 420; Breen, Tobacco Culture, pp. 201-2.

66. Breen, Tobacco Culture, pp. 80-2.

67. Wright, The First Gentlemen of Virginia, pp. 349-50; and, for the special characteristics of tobacco culture and its impact on the mentality of the Tidewater planters, Breen, Tobacco Culture.

68. Cited in Morgan, American Slavery, American Freedom, p. 373.

69. Isaac, Landon Carter's Uneasy Kingdom, p. 251.

70. Eduardo Arcila Farias, Comercio entre Venezuela y Mexico en los siglos XVII y XVIII (Mexico City, 1950), pp. 114-16.

71. Ferry, Colonial Elite, ch. 5, and Guillermo Moron, A History of Venezuela (London, 1964), pp. 77-9, for the 1749 rebellion.

72. Ferry, Colonial Elite, p. 216.

73. Cited in Julian P. Boyd, Anglo-American Union. Joseph Galloway's Plans to Preserve the British Empire, 1774-1788 (Philadelphia, 1941), p. 34.

74. Jerrilyn Greene Marston, King and Congress. The Transfer of Political Legitimacy, 1774-1776 (Princeton, 1987), pp. 91-3.

75. Garry Wills, Inventing America. Jefferson's Declaration of Independence (1978; London, 1980), pp. 57-61.

76. Marston, King and Congress, pp. 103-4, 122-3; Breen, Marketplace of Revolution, pp. 325-6; and see, for the spread of English associational life to the colonies, Peter Clark, British Clubs and Societies, 1580-1800. The Origins of an Associated World (Oxford, 2000), ch. 11.

77. Marston, King and Congress, pp. 122-30; Beeman, Varieties of Political Experience, pp. 270-1; Gordon S. Wood, The American Revolution. A History (London, 2003), pp. 45-50.

78. Cited in Morgan, Benjamin Franklin, p. 172.

79. Franklin to Galloway, 25 February 1775, cited in Morgan, Benjamin Franklin, p. 211.

80. Maier, From Resistance to Revolution, pp. 246-53.

81. Tucker and Hendrickson, Fall of the First British Empire, pp. 358 and 378.

82. Cited by Marston, King and Congress, p. 185.

83. Ibid., p. 150.

84. Ibid., p. 38.

85. Ibid., p. 54.

86. Below, p. 388.

87. Cited by J. D. G. Clark, The Language of Liberty, 1660-1832 (Cambridge, 1994), p. 121.

88. Maier, From Resistance to Revolution, p. 266.

89. Cited by Tucker and Hendrickson, Fall of the First British Empire, pp. 66-7.

90. Cited by McCullough, John Adams, pp. 100-1.

91. The Writings of George Washington, ed. John C. Fitzpatrick, vol. 5 (Washington, 1932), p. 92 (31 May 1776).

92. Thomas Paine, Common Sense, ed. Isaac Kramnick (Harmondsworth, 1986), p. 8. For Common Sense and its impact, see especially Eric Foner, Tom Paine and Revolutionary America (1976; updated edn, New York and Oxford, 2005), ch. 3, and the acute analysis by Robert A. Ferguson, `The Commonalities of Common Sense', WMQ, 3rd set., 57 (2000), pp. 465-504.

93. Paine, Common Sense, pp. 68, 97 and 108-9. It should be noted, however, that Paine claimed never to have read Locke.

94. Ibid., p. 68.

95. Cited by McCullough, John Adams, p. 97.

96. Paine, Common Sense, p. 82.

97. Ibid., p. 94.

98. Ibid., p. 98.

99. Pauline Maier, American Scripture. Making the Declaration of Independence (New York, 1997), pp. 34-6.

100. For the marginality of republics in the eighteenth century, see Franco Venturi, Utopia and Reform in the Enlightenment (Cambridge, 1971), ch. 3.

101. cf. Ezra Stiles to Catharine Macaulay 6 December 1773, as cited in Maier, From Resistance to Revolution, p. 289: `My ideas of the Eng[lish] constitution have much diminished.'

102. Paine, Common Sense, p. 120.

103. Above, pp. 187-8.

104. Bloch, Visionary Republic, p. 47, and see part 2 in general for the relationship between millenarianism and the revolution. Also, Ferguson, American Enlightenment, pp. 52-3.

105. Maier, American Scripture, pp. 38-41.

106. Morison, Sources and Documents, p. 148.

107. Ibid., p. 63.

108. Foner, Tom Paine, especially pp. 56-66.

109. Ibid., pp. 127-34; Beeman, Varieties of Political Experience, pp. 270-5.

110. Marston, King and Congress, pp. 286-8 and 292-6; and see also Countryman, The American Revolution, ch. 4, for the differences in the balance of forces and the outcome of the struggle over independence in the various colonies.

111. Maier, American Scripture, pp. 51-8.

112. Wills, Inventing America, p. 325; and for the Declaration of Independence in the context of international relations and alliances, see David Armitage, `The Declaration of Independence and International Law', WMQ, 3rd set., 59 (2002), pp. 39-64.

113. McCullough, John Adams, p. 120; Maier, American Scripture, pp. 100-1.

114. The text of this paragraph, an indictment of George III, as a Christian king, for not suppressing the slave trade, is reproduced in Appendix C of Maier, American Scripture, p. 239.

115. For the editorial process and the approval of the Declaration, see Maier, American Scripture, ch. 3.

116. For analyses of the text, together with the context in which it was produced, see especially Wills, Inventing America, and Maier, American Scripture.

117. For the Dutch Act of Abjuration, see H. G. Koenigsberger, Monarchies, States Generals and Parliaments. The Netherlands in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries (Cambridge, 2001), pp. 296-7. For the conceptual ambiguities involved in the transition from `United Colonies' to `United States', see J. R. Pole, `The Politics of the Word "State" and its Relation to American Sovereignty', Parliaments, Estates and Representation, 8 (1988), pp. 1-10.

118. See Morton White, Philosophy, the Federalist, and the Constitution (New York and Oxford, 1987), pp. 208-11.

119. Wills, Inventing America, ch. 12.

120. 1 follow here the argument developed at length in Huyler, Locke in America.

121. White, Philosophy, p. 181; Wills, Inventing America, ch. 18; and overviews in Darrin McMahon, `From the Happiness of Virtue to the Virtue of Happiness: 400 B.C. - A.D. 1780', Daedalus (Spring, 2004), pp. 5-17, and Jack P. Greene and J. R. Pole (eds), The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of the American Revolution (Oxford, 1991), pp. 641-7 (Jan Lewis, `Happiness').

122. The Boston News-Letter, no. 1412, 18 February 1731.

123. Bailyn, To Begin the World Anew, p. 134.

124. Luis Angel Garcia Melero, La independencia de los Estados Unidos de Norteamerica a traves de la prensa espanola (Madrid, 1977), pp. 297-8.

125. Richter, Facing East in Indian Country, pp. 219-21; Colin C. Calloway, The American Revolution in Indian Country (Cambridge, 1995), ch. 1.

126. For a nuanced account of West Indian reactions to the American Revolution, see O'Shaughnessy An Empire Divided.

127. William H. Nelson, The American Tory (Westport, Conn., 1961), p. 133.

128. Paul H. Smith, `The American Loyalists: Notes on their Organization and Strength', WMQ, 3rd set., 25 (1968), pp. 259-77; R. R. Palmer, The Age of the Democratic Revolution, vol. 1 (Princeton, 1959), p. 188.

129. Wood, The American Revolution, p. 82.

130. For Spain's intervention in the war, see Thomas E. Chavez, Spain and the Independence of the United States. An Intrinsic Gift (Albuquerque, NM, 2003).

131. To Arthur Lee, 4 April 1774, cited in Draper, Struggle for Power, p. 469.

132. Above, p. 304.

133. For Spanish expansion into California, see Weber, Spanish Frontier, ch. 9, and O. H. K. Spate, Monopolists and Freebooters (Minneapolis, 1983), ch. 13.

134. For a brief survey of these various expeditions, including a chronological listing, see the essay by Jose de la Sota Rius, `Spanish Science and Enlightenment Expeditions', in Chiyo Ishikawa (ed.), Spain in the Age of Exploration (Seattle Art Museum Exhibition Catalogue, 2004), pp. 159-87. For Malaspina, see Juan Pimentel, La fisica de la Monarquia. Ciencia y politica en el pensamiento colonial de Alejandro Malaspina, 1754-1810 (Aranjuez, 1998), and Manuel Lucena Giraldo and Juan Pimentel Igea, Los Axiomas politicos sobre la America' de Alejandro Malaspina (Madrid, 1991).

135. This figure is taken from Carlos Marichal, La bancarrota del virreinato. Nueva Espana y las finanzas del imperio espanol, 1780-1810 (Mexico City, 1999), Appendix I, table 1.

136. Garner, `Long-Term Silver Mining Trends', p. 903.

137. Weber, Spanish Frontier, p. 266; Chavez, Spain and the Independence of the United States, p. 216.

138. Alberto Flores Galindo, Buscando on Inca (Lima, 1988), p. 156.

139. Humboldt, Ensayo politico, 2, p. 105 (lib. II, cap. 6).

140. Charles E Walker, Smouldering Ashes. Cuzco and the Creation of Republican Peru, 1780-1840 (Durham, NC, and London, 1999), p. 12; Lillian Estelle Fisher, The Last Inca Revolt, 1780-1783 (Norman, OK, 1966), p. ix. See also for Tupac Amaru's revolt Scarlett O'Phelan Godoy, Rebellion and Revolts in Eighteenth-Century Peru and Upper Peru (Cologne, 1985); Flores Galindo, Buscando un Inca; and parts I and II of Steve J. Stern (ed.), Resistance, Rebellion, and Consciousness in the Andean Peasant World. 18th to 20th Centuries (Madison, WI, 1987). For a short survey of the history of later Bourbon Peru, see John R. Fisher, Bourbon Peru, 1750-1824 (Liverpool, 2003).

141. McFarlane, Colombia Before Independence, p. 250.

142. O'Phelan Godoy, Rebellion, pp. 161-70.

143. Phelan, The People and the King, p. 29.

144. Taylor, Drinking, Homicide and Rebellion, pp. 113-14; Stern (ed.), Resistance, Rebellion, pp. 75-6.

145. Above p. 298, and see especially White, Middle Ground, ch. 7. Gregory Evans Dowd, War under Heaven. Pontiac, the Indian Nations and the British Empire (Baltimore and London, 2002), provides an illuminating account of Pontiac's rebellion.

146. MOrner, The Andean Past, p. 91.

147. O'Phelan Godoy, Rebellion, p. 118.

148. Spalding, Huarochiri, p. 300.

149. Sergio Serulnikov, Subverting Colonial Authority. Challenges to Spanish Rule in the Eighteenth-Century Southern Andes (Durham, NC, and London, 2003), pp. 12-14.

150. O'Phelan Godoy, Rebellion, p. 166; Walker, Smouldering Ashes, pp. 22-3; Alberto Flores Galindo, `La revolucion tupamarista y el imperio espanol', in Massimo Ganci and Ruggiero Romano (eds), Governare it mondo. L'impero spagnolo dal XV al XIX secolo (Palermo, 1991), pp. 387-9.

151. Boleslao Lewin, La rebelion de Tupac Amaru y los orlgenes de la independencia de Hispanoamerica (3rd edn., Buenos Aires, 1967), pp. 283-4; Walker, Smouldering Ashes, pp. 25-7.

152. Flores Galindo, Buscando un Inca, p. 148; Stern (ed.), Resistance, Rebellion, chs 4 and 6.

153. White, Middle Ground, pp. 279-80; Dowd, War under Heaven, pp. 94-105. For extirpation of idolatry campaigns, see above, p. 190.

154. For the ambivalent position of Catholic priests in Bourbon Peru, see Serulnikov, Subverting Colonial Authority, pp. 95-106, and Thomas A. Abercrombie, Pathways of Memory and Power. Ethnography and History Among an Andean People (Madison, Wisconsin, 1998), pp. 294 and 300. I grateful to Professor Abercrombie for advice and suggestions on the Andean world.

155. Cited by Flores Galindo, Buscando un Inca, p. 150.

156. Lewin, La rebelion, pp. 414ff.; Walker, Smouldering Ashes, p. 19.

157. Cited in Lewin, La rebelion, p. 414.

158. Flores Galindo, Buscando un Inca, p. 150.

159. O'Phelan Godoy Rebellion, pp. 213-19.

160. For an excellent analysis of the Inca nobility of Cuzco and their responses to the rebellion, see David T. Garrett, "`His Majesty's Most Loyal Vassals": the Indian Nobility and Tupac Amaru', HAHR, 84 (2004), pp. 575-617.

161. David Cahill, From Rebellion to Independence in the Andes. Soundings from Southern Peru, 1750-1830 (CEDLA Latin American Studies, 89, Amsterdam, 2002), ch. 7.

162. These figures, which come from an account of the rebellion written in 1784, have been contested. See Cahill, From Rebellion to Independence, pp. 120-1.

163. Ibid., p. 118.

164. O'Phelan Godoy, Rebellion, p. 272.

165. For the revolt of the Comuneros, see Phelan, The People and the King, and McFarlane, Colombia Before Independence, pp. 251-71. Also, Fisher, Kuethe and McFarlane (eds), Reform and Insurrection.

166. McFarlane, Colombia Before Independence, pp. 209-14.

167. Phelan, The People and the King, p. 99.

168. Ibid., p. 87.

169. Fisher, Kuethe and McFarlane (eds), Reform and Insurrection, p. 3.

170. Phelan, The People and the King, p. 30; McFarlane, Colombia Before Independence, p. 215.

171. Phelan, The People and the King, ch. 13.

172. McFarlane, Colombia Before Independence, pp. 264 and 278-9. 173. See Phelan, The People and the King, pp. 34-5.

174. Piers Mackesy, The War for America, 1775-1783 (London, 1964), appendix, pp. 524-5. 175. McFarlane, Colombia Before Independence, pp. 259-60.

176. Robert A. Gross, The Minutemen and their World (New York, 1981), pp. 151-3; Shy, A People Numerous, pp. 127-32.

177. Phelan, The People and the King, p. 98.

178. For indications of atrocities in the War of Independence, see Shy, A People Numerous, ch. 8 (Armed Loyalism').

179. See the preface to Joseph Ellis, Founding Brothers. The Revolutionary Generation (London, 2002).

180. McFarlane, Colombia Before Independence, p. 256.

181. Phelan, The People and the King, pp. 239-40; McFarlane, Colombia Before Independence, p. 217.

182. Gongora, Studies in Colonial History, pp. 195-6.

183. Fisher, The Last Inca Revolt, pp. 386-9; Walker, Smouldering Ashes, p. 69.

184. Joseph Perez, Los movimientos precursores de la emancipation en Hispanoamerica (Madrid, 1977), p. 131; and see McFarlane, Colombia Before Independence, pp. 205-6, for the proposals for educational reform.

185. Phelan, The People and the King, p. 244.

186. Cited in Mackesy, The War for America, p. 187.

187. See Gould, Persistence of Empire, ch. 5.

188. Cited in Lewin, La rebelion de Tupac Amaru, p. 413 from Manuel Godoy, Memorias (Madrid, 1836), vol. 3, pp. 285-6.

189. Joaquin Oltra and Maria Angeles Perez Samper, El Conde de Aranda y los Estados Unidos (Barcelona, 1987), pp. 234-8. For the full text of the memorandum, see Manuel Lucena Giraldo (ed.), Premoniciones de la independencia de Iberoamerica (Aranjuez and Madrid, 2003), pp. 75-85.

190. Cited in Gould, Persistence of Empire, p. 166.

191. Cited by Liss, Atlantic Empires, p. 142.

Chapter 12

1. See Merrill Jensen, The Articles of Confederation. An Interpretation of the SocialConstitutional History of the American Revolution, 1774-1781 (Madison, WI, 1940; repr. 1948) for the divisions between conservatives and radicals.

2. Above, p. 346.

3. Clinton Rossiter, 1787. The Grand Convention (1966; New York, 1987), p. 138. For valuable insights into the national debate of 1787 and beyond, see John M. Murrin, `The Great Inversion, or Court versus Country: a Comparison of the Revolutionary Settlements in England (1688-1721) and America (1776-1816)', in Pocock (ed.), Three British Revolutions, pp. 368-453, and Isaac Kramnick, `The "Great National Discussion": the Discourse of Politics in 1787', WMQ, 3rd set., 45 (1988), pp. 3-32. Also, more generally, for the creation of the republic, Gordon S. Wood, The Creation of the American Republic, 1776-1787 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1969; repr. 1998), and Stanley Elkins and Eric McKitrick, The Age of Federalism (Oxford, 1993).

4. Rossiter, 1787, p. 145.

5. Ibid., pp. 266-7.

6. Bernard Bailyn (ed.), The Debate on the Constitution, 2 vols (New York, 1993), 1, p. 310 (Jefferson to William Stephens Smith, 13 November 1787).

7. Alan Knight, Mexico. The Colonial Era (Cambridge, 2002), pp. 233-5 and 290.

8. For discussions of the very mixed impact of free trade, see Jacques Barbier and Allan J. Kuethe (eds), The North American Role in the Spanish Imperial Economy, 1760-1819 (Manchester, 1984), ch. 1; Josep Fontana and Antonio Miguel Bernal (eds), El comercio libre entre Espana y America Latina, 1765-1824 (Madrid, 1987); Fisher, Economic Aspects, chs 9 and 10.

9. Wright, Anglo-Spanish Rivalry, pp. 163-4; Weber, Spanish Frontier, pp. 290-1; Hoffman, Florida's Frontiers, ch. 10.

10. Lynch, Bourbon Spain, pp. 380-95; Fisher, Economic Aspects, pp. 201-6; Liss, Atlantic Empires, pp. 112-13.

11. Sanchez Bella, Iglesia y estado, pp. 302-15; Brading, Church and State, pp. 222-7; Marichal, La bancarrota, ch. 4.

12. Lynch, Bourbon Spain, p. 415. For annual statistics and percentages of the American contribution to the Spanish royal treasury, 1763-1811, see table 1 in Appendix 1 of Marichal, La bancarrota.

13. Bliss, Revolution and Empire, pp. 60-6.

14. For a succinct account of the background to the convocation of the Cortes, see Timothy E. Anna, Spain and the Loss of America (Lincoln, NE and London, 1983), ch. 2.

15. Cited in Gimenez Fernandez, Las doctrines populistas, p. 61.

16. Rodriguez 0., Independence of Spanish America, pp. 55-6.

17. Timothy E. Anna, The Fall of the Royal Government in Peru (Lincoln, NE and London, 1979), p. 40.

18. Above, p. 320.

19. See Breen, `Ideology and Nationalism', and above, p. 334.

20. See the arguments advanced by Anthony McFarlane, `Identity Enlightenment and Political Dissent in Late Colonial Spanish America', TRHS, 6th set., 8 (1998), pp. 309-35, especially pp. 323ff.

21. Anna, Loss o f America, p. 29.

22. Anna, Fall of Royal Government, ch. 2.

23. Lynch, Spanish American Revolutions, pp. 304-6; Knight, Colonial Era, pp. 292-6.

24. Cited in Simon Collier, Ideas and Politics of Chilean Independence, 1808-1833 (Cambridge, 1967), p. 52. William Burke, the author of An Account of the European Settlements in America (1757), died in 1797, and cannot therefore be the William Burke who made this observation. There has been much speculation about his identity. See Mario Rodriguez, `William Burke' and Francisco de Miranda. The Word and the Deed in Spanish America's Emancipation (Lanham, MD, New York and London, 1994), especially ch. 4, where `Burke' is identified with James Mill.

25. Decree of 22 January 1809, in Manuel Chust, La cuestion national americana en las Cortes de Cadiz (Valencia, 1999), pp. 32-3, n. 5.

26. Rodriguez 0., Independence of Spanish America, pp. 59-64.

27. Chust, La cuestion national, p. 46.

28. Cited in Draper, Struggle for Power, p. 397.

29. See above, p. 318.

30. Quoted from a comment in El Observador, two weeks before the opening of the Cortes, by Demetrio Ramos, `Las Cortes de Cadiz y America', Revista de Estudios Politicos, 126 (1962), pp. 433-634, at p. 488.

31. James E King, `The Colored Castes and the American Representation in the Cortes of Cadiz', HAHR, 33 (1953), pp. 33-64.

32. Chust, La cuestion national, pp. 39 and 55-62.

33. Miguel Izard, El miedo a la revolution. La lucha por la libertad en Venezuela, 1777-1830 (Madrid, 1979), p. 30; Rodriguez 0., Independence of Spanish America, pp. 109-11.

34. Guillermo Cespedes del Castillo, Lima y Buenos Aires. Repercusiones economicas y politicas de la creation del virreinato del Plata (Seville, 1947), pp. 122-9.

35. Tulio Halperin Donghi, Politics and Society in Argentina in the Revolutionary Period (Cambridge, 1975), pp. 29-40. For the effects of the creation of the new viceroyalty and the economic and social impact of the Bourbon reforms on the region, see also Jeremy Adelman, Republic of Capital. Buenos Aires and the Legal Transformation of the Atlantic World (Stanford, CA, 1999), ch. 2.

36. Adelman, Republic of Capital, p. 77; Lynch, Spanish American Revolutions, ch. 2.

37. Lynch, Spanish American Revolutions, pp. 52-8 and 135.

38. Collier, Ideas and Politics, p. 69.

39. Izard, El miedo, pp. 139-43; Lynch, Spanish American Revolutions, ch. 6.

40. Knight, Colonial Era, pp. 298-304; Lynch, Spanish American Revolutions, pp. 306-13; Eric Van Young, `Islands in the Storm: Quiet Cities and Violent Countrysides in the Mexican Independence Era', Past and Present, 118 (1988), pp. 130-55 (also in Spanish in Eric Van Young, La crisis del orden colonial (Madrid, 1992), ch. 8); Archer, The Army in Bourbon Mexico, p. 299.

41. Izard, El miedo, p. 30.

42. Lynch, Spanish American Revolutions, pp. 58-60, 89-93; Adelman, Republic of Capital, pp. 85-7.

43. See above, p. 352.

44. Izard, El miedo, pp. 133-4.

45. Nelson, The American Tory, pp. 86-8.

46. Izard, El miedo, pp. 55 and 129.

47. Marchena Fernandez, Ejercito y militias, pp. 162 and 182.

48. John Lynch, `Spain's Imperial Memory', Debate y Perspectivas, 2 (2002), pp. 47-73, at p. 72.

49. Anna, Fall of Royal Government, p. 184.

50. Cited in Raymond Carr, Spain, 1808-1939 (Oxford, 1966), p. 104, n. 1.

51. See Anna, Loss of America, pp. 80-3, for the free trade question in the Cortes.

52. Chust, La cuestion national, p. 54; Rodriguez 0., Independence of Spanish America, p. 84.

53. Cespedes del Castillo, Ensayos, pp. 375-83.

54. Josep M. Fradera, Gobernar colonias (Barcelona, 1999), pp. 54-5.

55. Chust, La cuestion nacional, p. 71.

56. For the position of the castas pardas, see Fradera, Gobernar colonias, pp. 57-67.

57. Nettie Lee Benson (ed.), Mexico and the Spanish Cortes, 1810-1822 (Austin, TX and London, 1966), p. 31.

58. King, `The Colored Castes'; Anna, Loss of America, pp. 68-79; Rodriguez 0., Independence of Spanish America, p. 86.

59. Thomas, Slave Trade, pp. 498-502. For a recent treatment of the slavery question in the age of revolution, see Ellis, Founding Brothers, ch. 3.

60. Chust, La cuestion national, pp. 102-14; Thomas, Slave Trade, pp. 578-81; Rossiter, 1787, pp. 215-18.

61. Wilcomb E. Washburn, Red Man's Land/White Man's Law. A Study of the Past and Present Status of the American Indian (New York, 1971), p. 164. From the early nineteenth century the United States began conferring citizenship on some Indians, particularly those who had been allocated parcels of tribal land, and the process was accelerated following the Dawes Act of 1887. Two-thirds of the Indian population of the United States had full citizenship by the time when the Citizenship Act of 1924 extended it to all. Even after 1924, however, Indians were denied the franchise in some states.

62. Borah, Justice by Insurance, pp. 396-401, 412.

63. Anna, Loss of America, pp. 94-5.

64. Collier, Ideas and Politics, p. 105.

65. Anna, Fall of Royal Government, pp. 54-5.

66. Jaime E. Rodriguez 0., `Las elecciones a las tortes constituyentes mexicanas', in Louis Cardaillac and Angelica Peregrina (eds), Ensayos en homenaje a lose Maria Muria (Zapopan, 2002), pp. 79-109. The text of the constitution of 1812, with a helpful introduction, has been made conveniently available in Antonio Fernandez Garcia (ed.), La constitution de Cadiz (1812) y discurso preliminar a la constitution (Madrid, 2002).

67. Figure cited in Jaime E. Rodriguez 0., `La naturaleza de la representation en Nueva Espana y Mexico', Secuencia, 61 (2005), pp. 7-32, at p. 25.

68. King, `Colored Castes', p. 64.

69. Rodriguez 0., Independence of Spanish America, p. 98.

70. Chust, La cuestion national, ch. 5; Rodriguez 0., Independence of Spanish America, pp. 94-103.

71. Gibson, Aztecs Under Spanish Rule, pp. 175-9.

72. Rodriguez 0., `La naturaleza de la representation', pp. 16-17.

73. For the later eighteenth-century extension of schooling, and attempts at linguistic unification, see Serge Gruzinski, `La "segunda aculturacion": el estado ilustrado y la religiosidad indigena en Nueva Espana', Estudios de historic novohispana, 8 (1985), pp. 175-201.

74. Guerra, Modernidad e independencias, pp. 278-81; Rodriguez 0., Independence of Spanish America, pp. 93-4; Clarice Neal, `Freedom of the Press in New Spain', in Benson (ed.), Mexico and the Spanish Cortes, ch. 4.

75. Chust, La cuestion national, p. 308.

76. Rodriguez 0., Independence of Spanish America, p. 103.

77. Van Young, La crisis, pp. 419-20.

78. Anna, Loss of America, pp. 135-8.

79. Ibid., pp. 143-7; and, for Ferdinand's American policy, see Michael P. Costeloe, Response to Revolution. Imperial Spain and the Spanish American Revolutions, 1810-1840 (Cambridge, 1986), especially pp. 59-100.

80. Lynch, Spanish American Revolutions, chs 2 and 3.

81. Anna, Fall of Royal Government, chs 6 and 7.

82. Robert Harvey, Liberators. Latin America's Struggle for Independence, 1810-1830 (London, 2000), provides a graphic account of the various military campaigns that won independence for Spain's empire in America.

83. For the financial and political collapse of the Spanish monarchy in these years, see especially Josep Fontana, La quiebra de la monarqula absoluta, 1814-1820 (Barcelona, 1971).

84. Benson (ed.), Mexico and the Spanish Cortes, ch. 6; Knight, Colonial Era, pp. 329-30.

85. Anna, Loss of America, pp. 255-6.

86. Bakewell, History of Latin America, p. 380; Thomas, Cuba, chs 5 and 6.

87. George Canning to Viscount Granville, 19 August 1825, in C. K. Webster, Britain and the Independence of Latin America, 1812-1830 (2 vols, London, New York, Toronto, 1938), 2, doc. 416, p. 193.

88. Cited in Shy A People Numerous, p. 331, n. 21.

89. Ibid., p. 250.

90. Lynch, Spanish American Revolutions, pp. 199-204; Shy, A People Numerous, ch. 8 ('Armed Loyalism'); Shy, 'Armed Force', in Hagan and Roberts (eds), Against All Enemies, p. 13.

91. Anna, Fall of Royal Government, pp. 16-17.

92. Lester D. Langley, The Americas in the Age of Revolution, 1750-1850 (New Haven and London, 1996), p. 185; Anna, Fall of Royal Government, p. 196.

93. `Speech on the Independence of Latin America, 28 March 1818', in The Papers of Henry Clay, ed. James F. Hopkins (11 vols, Lexington, KY11959-92), 2, p. 551.

94. Richter, Facing East, pp. 217-21 for Indians; Shy, A People Numerous, pp. 130-1 and 205 for slaves.

95. Anna, Fall of Royal Government, ch. 5.

96. See Shy, A People Numerous, ch. 11 ('The Legacy of the Revolutionary War'); McCusker and Menard, Economy of British America, p. 367, for levels of income and wealth.

97. The expression is that of Van Young, `Islands in the Storm'.

98. See the Introduction to Webster, Britain and the Independence of Latin America, vol. 1. For the ideological background to British policy towards Spanish America in this period, see Gabriel Paquette, `The Intellectual Context of British Diplomatic Recognition of the South American Republics, c. 1800-1830', Journal of Transatlantic Studies, 2 (2004), pp. 75-95.

99. See Bernstein, Origins of Inter-American Interest, pp. 83-7; and, for the debate over the creation of a hemispheric system, Arthur P. Whitaker, The Western Hemisphere Idea. Its Rise and Decline (Ithaca, NY, 1954), ch. 2.

100. Above, p. 300; John Lynch, Caudillos in Spanish America, 1800-1850 (Oxford, 1992), pp. 30-4.

101. Gerhard Masur, Simon Bolivar (2nd edn, Albuquerque, NM, 1969), ch. 2; for Belgrano, Lynch (ed.), Latin American Revolutions, p. 258.

102. Manuel Belgrano, Autobiografia y otras paginas (Buenos Aires, 1966), p. 24. The translation is taken from Lynch, Latin American Revolutions, p. 259.

103. Masur, Bolivar, p. 329.

104. McCullough, John Adams, p. 593.

105. The sixth, John Witherspoon, born in Scotland in 1723, moved to America in 1768 to become president of the College of New Jersey at Princeton.

106. Information on the Signers is taken from the Dictionary of American Biography. For Carroll's European upbringing, see Hoffman, Princes of Ireland, ch. 4.

107. Rossiter, 1787, p. 140.

108. For Bolivar's political vision, see Anthony Pagden, Spanish Imperialism and the Political Imagination (New Haven and London, 1990), ch. 6.

109. Cited by David Brading in David A. Brading et al., Cinco miradas britanicas a la historia de Mexico (Mexico City, 2000), p. 102.

110. For the problems of nation-building in Hispanic America, see Lynch, Caudillos, ch. 4.

111. See Benson, Mexico and the Spanish Cortes, ch. 1 (Charles R. Berry, `The Election of the Mexican Deputies to-the-Spanish Cortes, 1810-1820').

112. See Collier, Ideas and Politics of Chilean Independence.

113. Robert W. Tucker and David C. Hendrickson, Empire of Liberty. The Statecraft of Thomas Jefferson (Oxford, 1992), pp. 26-7 and 64-5.

114. Cambridge Economic History of the United States, 1, ch. 9; Tucker and Hendrickson, Empire of Liberty, p. 190.

115. Leandro Prados de la Escosura and Samuel Amaral (eds), La independencia americana: consecuencias economicas (Madrid, 1993), p. 264.

116. See David J. Weber, The Mexican Frontier, 1821-1846 (Albuquerque, NM, 1982).

117. John H. Coatsworth, `Obstacles to Economic Growth in Nineteenth-Century Mexico', AHR, 83 (1978), pp. 80-100. The Spanish version of this important article is printed in ch. 4 of John H. Coatsworth, Los origenes del atraso. Nueve ensayos de historia economica de Mexico en los siglos XVIII y XIX (Mexico City, 1990), with a short addendum responding to a critique by Enrique Cardenas.

118. Cambridge Economic History of the United States, 1, p. 396.

119. See Joyce Appleby, Inheriting the Revolution. The First Generation of Americans (Cambridge, MA, 2000), for the attitudes and achievements of this generation.

120. Ibid., p. 52; Steven Watts, The Republic Reborn. War and the Making of Liberal America, 1790-1820( Baltimore and London, 1987), pp. 283-9.

121. Appleby, Inheriting the Revolution, p. 28.

122. Ibid., pp. 69-71.

123. See Wyatt Brown, Southern Honor; also Appleby, Inheriting the Revolution, ch. 8.

Epilogue

1. Dennis D. Moore (ed.), More Letters from the American Farmer. An Edition of the Essays in English Left Unpublished by Crevecoeur (Athens, GA and London, 1995), pp. 82-9. I have modernized the punctuation and spelling.

2. For a set of valuable discussions of the colonial legacy of Iberian America, see the essays in Jeremy Adelman (ed.), Colonial Legacies. The Problem of Persistence in Latin American History (New York and London, 1999).

3. The Black Legend was first systematically examined by Julian Juderias in La Leyenda Negra (Madrid, 1914, and frequently reprinted), and has been the subject of numerous subsequent studies, among them Sverker Arnoldsson, La Leyend Negra. Estudios sobre sus origenes (Goteborg, 1960); William S. Maltby, The Black Legend in England. The Development of Anti-Spanish Sentiment, 1558-1660 (Durham, NC, 1971); Ricardo Garcia Carcel, La Leyenda Negra. Historia y opinion (Madrid, 1992); J. N. Hillgarth, The Mirror of Spain, 1500-1700. The Formation of a Myth (Ann Arbor, MI, 2000). Charles Gibson, The Black Legend. Anti-Spanish Attitudes in the Old World and the New (New York, 1971), is an anthology of relevant contemporary and later extracts.

4. See Adelman (ed.), Colonial Legacies, p. 5.

5. Thomas Pownall, A Translation of the Memorial of the Sovereigns of Europe Upon the Present State of Affairs Between the Old and New World (London, 1781), p. 11. For the evolution of Pownall's ideas, see Shy, A People Numerous, ch. 3.

6. Smith, Wealth of Nations, 2, p. 486 (book S, ch. 3).

7. See Stanley L. Engerman, `British Imperialism in a Mercantilist Age, 1492-1849: Conceptual Issues and Empirical Problems', Revista de Historia Economica, 16 (1998), pp. 195-231, and especially pp. 218-19. This special issue of the journal, containing papers delivered at the Twelfth International Economic History Congress, and edited by Patrick K. O'Brien and Leandro Prados de la Escosura under the title of The Costs and Benefits of European Imperialism from the Conquest of Ceuta, 1415, to the Treaty of Lusaka, 1974, acknowledges and illustrates the many problems involved in attempts at drawing up a cost-benefit analysis of empire, but provides a valuable comparative survey using case studies based on the current state of knowledge.

8. See John TePaske, `The Fiscal Structure of Upper Peru and the Financing of Empire', in Karen Spalding (ed.), Essays in the Political, Economic and Social History of Colonial Latin America (Newark, DE, 1982), pp. 69-94.

9. See Bartolome Yun-Casalilla, `The American Empire and the Spanish Economy: an Institutional and Regional Perspective', Revista de Historia Economica, 16 (1996), pp. 123-56.

10. Marichal, La bancarrota, pp. 22-3.

11. A purely monetary explanation of sixteenth-century Castilian inflation is no longer acceptable. Other considerations, and in particular population growth, need to be taken into account. For a lucid survey of the current state of debate over the monetary and other consequences of Spain's acquisition of an American empire, see Bartolome Yun- Casalilla, Marte contra Minerva. El precio del imperio espanol, c. 1450-1600 (Barcelona, 2004), ch. 3.

12. James Campbell, A Concise History of the Spanish America (London, 1741; facsimile edn, Folkestone and London, 1972), p. 291.

13. See Patrick Karl O'Brien and Leandro Prados de la Escosura, `The Costs and Benefits for Europeans from their Empires Overseas', Revista de Historia Economica, 16 (1998), pp. 29-89. Also Renate Pieper, `The Volume of African and American Exports of Precious Metals and its Effects in Europe, 1500-1800', in Hans Pohl (ed.), The European Discovery of the World and its Economic Effects on Pre-Industrial Society (Papers of the Tenth International Economic History Congress, Vierteljahrschrift fur Sozial-Und Wirtschaftsgeschichte, Beihefte, No. 89, Stuttgart, 1990), pp. 97-117.

14. Above, p. 131.

15. I have attempted a brief counterfactual history along these lines in Armitage and Braddick (eds), The British Atlantic World, pp. 241-3.

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