Modern history

NOTES

INTRODUCTION

1. Booven 1913: 23–24.

2. http://www-odp.tamu.edu/publications/175_SR/chap_11/c11_3.htm.

3. Julien 1953: 10.

4. Northrup 2002: 18–21; McLynn 1992: 321–22; Hilton 1985: 50.

5. Hilton 1985: 80.

6. Jadin 1968.

7. Hilton 1985: 69–84.

8. Vansina 1990: 86.

9. Harms 1981: 3–5.

10. Harms 1981: 21–9.

11. Harms 1981: 3.

12. Northrup 2002: 113–14.

13. Harms 1981: 54.

14. Vansina 1965: 146–52.

15. http://neveu01.chez-alice.fr/birasouf.htm.

CHAPTER 1

1. Makulo Akambu 1983: 15.

2. Makulo Akambu 1983: 15–16.

3. Bontinck 1974: 250.

4. Stanley 1899: 210, 212.

5. Jeal 2007: 199.

6. Jeal 2007: 469.

7. Vansina 1976: 30.

8. Wesseling 1991: 119.

9. Stengers 1997: 275.

10. Makulo Akambu 1983: 18.

11. Makulo Akambu 1983: 20–30.

12. Bontinck 1974: 269–71.

13. Jeal 2007: 274–76.

14. Stanley 1886: 2:147, 151–52.

15. Jeal 2007: 276.

16. Harms 1981: 33.

17. Makulo Akambu 1983: 32–34.

18. Fabian 2000: 103.

19. McLynn 1992: 322.

20. Johnston 1908: 222–24.

21. Bentley 1900: 81.

22. Bentley 1900: 126.

23. Johnston 1908: 328.

24. Alexander L. Bain, registry card, archival collection, Board of International Ministries (BIM), American Baptist Historical Society, Atlanta, GA.

25. Slade 1959: 154; Braekman 1961: 129–36, 351.

26. Etambala 1987: 237–85.

27. Ernest T. Welles, registry card, archival collection, Board of International Ministries (BIM), American Baptist Historical Society, Atlanta, GA.

28. Jeal 2007: 464–75.

29. Makulo Akambu 1983: 36.

30. Bailey 1894: 161–63.

31. Denuit-Somerhausen 1988: 77–146.

32. Wesseling 1991: 126.

33. Jeal 2007: 277–78.

34. Stengers 1989: 58–9.

35. Maquet-Tombu 1952: 56.

CHAPTER 2

1. Stengers and Vansina 1985: 351.

2. Ndaywel è Nziem 1998: 289–92.

3. Van der Smissen 1920: 425.

4. Vellut 2005b: 247.

5. Jeal 2007: 281.

6. Vansina and Stengers 1985: 351.

7. Jeal 2007: 294.

8. Makulo Akambu 1983: 36–37.

9. Etambala 1987.

10. Etambala 1993.

11. Maquet-Tombu 1952.

12. Meeuwis 1999.

13. Hawker 1909: 244.

14. Picard 1896: 161.

15. Bailey 1894: 246.

16. New York Times, April 16, 1899.

17. Lauro 2005: 78.

18. Makulo Akambu 1983: 38.

19. Makulo Akambu 1983: 38–39.

20. Makulo Akambu 1983: 45.

21. Hemmens 1949: 27.

22. Johnston 1908: 328.

23. Makulo Akambu 1983: 58.

24. Makulo Akambu 1983: 68–69.

25. Makulo Akambu 1983: 70.

26. Makulo Akambu 1983: 71.

27. Makulo Akambu 1983: 80–81.

28. Interview with Étienne Nkasi, Kinshasa, December 8, 2008.

29. Sadin 1918.

30. Sadin 1918: 16–17.

31. Sadin 1918: 20.

32. Travaux du Groupe d’Études Coloniales 1912: 7.

33. Travaux du Groupe d’Études Coloniales 1912: 7.

34. Sadin 1918.

35. Sadin 1918: 68.

36. Van Acker 1924: 164.

37. Interview with Victor Masunda Kukana, Boma, October 8, 2008.

38. Interview with Camille Mananga Nkanu, Boma, October 9, 2008.

39. Makulo Akambu 1983: 40–44.

40. Michaux 1913: 46, 52.

41. Flament 1952: 509, 516.

42. Flament 1952: 81–82.

43. Interview with Eugène Yoka Kinene, Kinshasa, November 11, 2008.

44. Joye and Lewin 1961: 18.

45. Stengers 1957: 32.

46. Stengers 1997: 277.

47. Stengers 1997: 240.

48. Catherine 1994: 126–30.

49. Interview with Martin Kabuya, Kinshasa, October 16, 2008.

50. Gann and Duignan 1979: 97; Poel 2006: 1, 26.

51. Van der Poel 2006: 1:8–30.

52. Interview with Etienne Nkasi, Kinshasa, November 6 and 10, 2008.

53. Goffin 1907: 79.

54. Interview with Étienne Nkasi, Kinshasa, November 10, 2008.

55. Vangroenweghe 2005: 376; Stengers 1989: 102.

56. Makulo Akambu 1983: 79–80.

57. FOD Buitenlandse Zaken, Africa archives, papers E. Janssens, D1366, 27/12/1904.

58. FOD Buitenlandse Zaken, Africa archives, papers E. Janssens, D1366, 12/12/1904.

59. FOD Buitenlandse Zaken, Africa archives, papers E. Janssens, D1366, 2/1/1905.

60. FOD Buitenlandse Zaken, Africa archives, papers E. Janssens, D1366, 12/12/1904.

61. FOD Buitenlandse Zaken, Africa archives, papers E. Janssens, D1366, 3/1/1905.

62. FOD Buitenlandse Zaken, Africa archives, papers E. Janssens, D1366, 22/11/1904.

63. FOD Buitenlandse Zaken, Africa archives, papers E. Janssens, D1366, 12/12/1904.

64. Bosschaerts 2007: 216.

65. FOD Buitenlandse Zaken, Africa archives, papers E. Janssens, D1366, 5/1/1905.

66. Vangroenweghe 1985: 64.

67. Vangroenweghe 1985: 62.

68. Marechal 2005: 45–46.

69. Johnston 1908: 378–79.

70. Stengers 1989: 109.

71. Johnston 1908: 380.

72. Singleton-Gates and Girodias 1959: 120–22.

73. Singleton-Gates and Girodias 1959: 114.

74. Janssens 1905: 197.

75. Cattier 1906: 341.

76. Cornevin 1963: 129; Gann and Duignan 1979: 79; Stengers and Vansina 1985: 346, 354.

77. Makulo Akambu 1983: 85.

CHAPTER 3

1. Thiel 1982: 20; Boelaert et al. 1995: 36–117.

2. Stanley 1886: 2:214.

3. Maquet-Tombu 1952 .

4. Cornevin 1963: 173–228; Stengers 1989.

5. Young 1968: 23.

6. De Meulder 2000: 50.

7. Cornevin 1963: 187.

8. Vanderkerken 1920: 235.

9. Vanderkerken 1920: 234.

10. Van Wing 1959: 128–29.

11. Carton de Wiart 1923: 70–71.

12. Cattier 1906: 321.

13. Cattier 1906: 322.

14. Couttenier 2005: 225.

15. Van Overbergh 1913: viii.

16. De Jonghe 1908: 304.

17. Van Overbergh 1913: 181.

18. Van Overbergh 1913: 183.

19. Depaepe et al. 2003: 233, 236.

20. Vinck 2002.

21. Depaepe et al. 2003: 191.

22. Frères Maristes 1927: 30–31.

23. Vinck 2002.

24. Kalundi Mango, interviewed by Johannes Fabian, Lubumbashi, June 1986, http://www2.fmg.uva.nl/lpca/aps/vol4/vocabulairekalundicomments.html.

25. Kaoze 1910.

26. Chalux 1925: 125.

27. Interview with Étienne Nkasi, Kinshasa, November 6, 2008.

28. Chalux 1925: 111–14.

29. Chalux 1925: 122–25.

30. Interview with Étienne Nkasi, Kinshasa, November 10, 2008.

31. Stengers 1989: 213–14.

32. Cornet 1944: 261.

33. Stengers 1989: 215.

34. Carton de Wiart 1923: 93.

35. Carton de Wiart 1923: 5.

36. Chalux 1925: 204.

37. Buelens 2007: 405.

38. Carton de Wiart 1923: 83.

39. Merlier 1962: 130.

40. Jewsiewicki 1988: 231–32.

41. Foire Internationale d’Elisabethville 1962: 71–73.

42. Yav 1965: 29.

43. Yav 1965: 5.

44. Brausch 1961: 21–22.

45. Higginson 1989: 33.

46. Higginson 1989: 35.

47. Chalux 1925: 79.

48. Yav 1965: 7.

49. Northrup 1988: 97–99.

50. Chalux 1925: 209.

51. Joye and Lewin 1961: 184.

52. Kimoni Iyay 1990: 155–82.

53. Vandewalle 1966: 45.

54. Banque Centrale du Congo 2007.

55. Chalux 1925: 147.

56. Boelaert et al. 1995.

57. Delcommune 1920: 26.

58. Cayen 1938: 58.

59. Cayen 1938: 47–54.

60. Cornevin 1963: 176–77.

61. Geernaert n.d.

62. Depaepe et al. 2003: 220.

63. Interview with Martin Kabuya, Kinshasa, October 16, 2008.

64. Kisobele Ndontoni 2008.

65. Interview with Hélène Nzimbu Diluzeyi and Leon Wasolua, Kinshasa, November 11, 2008.

66. Interview with Eugène Yoka Kinene, Kinshasa, November 11, 2008.

67. Vanthemsche 2010.

68. Brion and Moreau 2006: 95.

69. Jewsiewicki 1980.

70. Hulstaert 1990.

71. Ndaywel è Nziem 1998: 411.

72. Libotte n.d.

73. Delannoo 2006.

74. Etambala 1993: 33–37; Odette Kudjabo, press communiqué.

75. Dominiek Dendooven, press communiqué.

76. Habran 1925: 52–53.

CHAPTER 4

1. Geldof 1937: 131.

2. Interview with Marcel Wanzungasa, Nkamba, November 4, 2008.

3. Cited by Vellut 2005a: 10.

4. Mokoko Gampiot 2004: 60–63.

5. Sinda 1972: 73.

6. Munayi 1977.

7. Gérard 1969: 9–13.

8. Nelson 1994: 176–77.

9. Ndaywel è Nziem 1998: 411–12.

10. Kibari 1985.

11. Maquet-Tombu 1952: 135–36.

12. Thieffry 1926: 267.

13. Blanchart et al. 1999.

14. Guebels 1952: 262.

15. Vandewalle 1966: 13.

16. Nzula et al. 1979: 64.

17. Vanthemsche 1999: 17.

18. Vandewalle 1966: 45.

19. Davidson et al. 1987: 739.

20. FOD Buitenlandse Zaken, Africa archives, personnel dossier, Firmin Joseph Arthur Peigneux.

21. Interview with Pierre Diakanua, Kinshasa, December 8, 2008.

22. Interview with Étienne Nkasi, Kinshasa, November 10, 2008.

23. Vellut 1992: 201.

24. Vellut 1992: 175.

25. Nelson 1994: 155.

26. Sikitele 1973: 117–18.

27. Sikitele 1973: 109.

28. Cited by Nzula et al. 1979: 110.

29. Saint Moulin 2007: 42.

30. Fetter 1976: 74.

31. Brion and Moreau 2006: 115, 134.

32. Nelson 1994: 151; Northrup 1988: 206–209.

33. Fetter 1973: 23.

34. Higginson 1989: 56.

35. Northrup 1988: 208.

36. Joye and Lewin 1961: 160.

37. Joye and Lewin 1961: 159.

38. Fetter 1974: 216.

39. Grévisse 1951: 98.

40. Esgain 2000: 61.

41. Verhaegen 1999: 126.

42. Daye 1929: 207.

43. Davis 1933: 287–90.

44. Van Peel 2000: 152.

45. Daye 1929: 239.

46. Chalux 1925: 213.

47. Chalux 1925: 157–58.

48. Stewart 2000: 16.

49. Fetter 1973: 38.

50. Chalux 1925: 126.

51. Fabian 1986.

52. Cited by Depaepe et al. 2003: 164–65.

53. Boel 2005: 77, 83.

54. Boel 2005: 111, 139.

55. Boel 2005: 88.

56. Emongo Lomomba 1985: 136.

57. Fabian 1971: 60.

58. Young 1984: 700.

59. Emongo Lomomba 1985: 137–38.

60. Joye and Lewin 1961: 161–3; Fabian 1971: 55–60; Fetter 1973: 38.

61. Cited by Brion and Moreau 2006: 137.

62. Tilman 2000.

63. Van Peel 2000: 180.

64. Renson and Peeters 1994: 204.

65. Van Peel 2000: 185.

66. Interviews with Henri de la Kéthulle, Kinshasa, May 26, 2007, Kikwit, June 2, 2007, and September 20, 2008.

67. Fetter 1974.

68. Perrings 1979: 216.

69. Kalundi Mango, interviewed by Johannes Fabian, Lubumbashi, June 1986, http://www2.fmg.uva.nl/lpca/aps/vol4/vocabulairekalundicomments.html.

70. Yav 1965: 22.

71. Fetter 1974: 212–13.

72. Brausch 1961: 20.

73. Brausch 1961: 19–39.

74. Souchard 1983: 47.

75. Cited by Feuchaux 2000: 88–90.

76. Cited by Etambala 1993: 40.

77. Cited by Etambala 1993: 40.

78. Cited by Bontinck 1980: 608.

CHAPTER 5

1. Interview with André Kitadi, Kinshasa, October 16, 2008.

2. Bourla Errera 2000: 59.

3. McCrummen 2009.

4. Interview with André Kitadi, Kinshasa, November 11, 2008.

5. Interview with André Kitadi, Kinshasa, October 16, 2008.

6. Interview with Martin Kabuya, Kinshasa, October 16, 2008.

7. Ergo 2008: 132–34.

8. Interview with Libert Otenga, November 11, 2008.

9. Wrong 2000: 136–44.

10. Buelens 2007: 282.

11. Buelens 2007: 288.

12. Jewsiewicki et al. 1973: 160.

13. Tshibangu Kabet 1974: 297.

14. Etambala 1999a: 77–78.

15. Dibwe dia Mwembu 1999: 195.

16. Perrings 1979: 226.

17. Yav 1965: 24.

18. Emongo Lomomba 1985: 140.

19. Vellut 1983: 506–514.

20. Jewsiewicki et al. 1973.

21. Young 1984: 703.

22. Souchard 1983: 176.

23. Souchard 1983: 59.

24. Souchard 1983: 58.

25. Souchard 1983: 59–60.

26. Souchard 1983: 146–48.

27. Souchard 1983: 155.

28. Hulstaert 1983: 590.

29. Souchard 1983: 234.

30. Souchard 1983: 84–87.

31. Souchard 1983: 235.

32. Interview with Libert Otenga, November 11, 2008.

33. Vellut 1983: 505.

34. Interview with André Kitadi, Kinshasa, October 16, 2008.

35. Vanderlinden 1994: 604.

36. Van Bilsen 1993: 55.

37. Guebels 1952: 640.

38. Roussel 1949:49.

39. Wauters 1929: 142.

40. Dehoux 1950: 1:155.

41. Lefebvre 1952: 519.

42. Ceuppens 2009.

43. Young 1984: 704–707.

44. Stengers 1989: 226.

45. Drachoussoff 1954: 115–16.

46. Guebels 1952: 738.

47. Tempels 1944: 22.

48. Tempels 1945 [1946]: 105.

49. Guebels 1952: 659.

50. Saint Moulin 2007: 42.

51. Gourou 1955: 33.

52. Guebels 1952: 642.

53. Interviews with Longin Ngwadi, Kikwit, September 19–20, 2008.

54. Comhaire-Sylvain 1968: 54–56.

55. Interview with Sister Apolline Lemole Daringi, Kinshasa, September 29, 2008.

56. Interview with Victorine Ndjoli, Kinshasa, November 7, 2008.

57. Interview with François Ngombe, Kinshasa, November 9, 2009.

58. Comhaire-Sylvain 1968: 23.

59. Gondola 1997a.

60. Pauwels-Boon 1979: 137.

61. Jewsiewicki 1976: 69.

62. Guebels 1952: 664.

63. Martens 1999: 141.

64. Young 1968: 24–25.

65. Pons 1969: 147–50.

66. Young 1968: 150–53.

67. Pons 1969: 214.

68. Interview with Kipulu Sambo and Hery Mambo, Kinshasa, September 17, 2008.

69. Emongo Lomomba 1985: 139.

70. Leysen 1982: 35 min.04 sec.

71. Jewsiewicki 1976: 69.

72. Cited by Rubbens 1945: 128–29.

73. Mantels 2007: 206.

74. Kadima-Nzuji 1984: 55.

75. Interview with Camille Mananga Nkanu, Boma, October 9, 2008.

76. Interview with Victor Masunda Kukana, Boma, October 8, 2008.

77. Ndaywel è Nziem 1998: 462.

78. Interviews with Jean Lema, alias Jamais Kolonga, Kinshasa, October 3 and 14 and November 6, 2008.

79. Interview with Paul Kasenge, Lubumbashi, June 29, 2007.

80. Interview with Zizi Kabongo, Kinshasa, April 21, 2008.

81. Tshitungu Kongolo 2003b: 62.

CHAPTER 6

1. Interview with Michel Lechat, Brussels, September 19, 2007.

2. De Backer 1959: 1:7.

3. Van Bilsen 1958: 164–202.

4. Labrique 1957: 253, 256.

5. Labrique 1957: 261.

6. Labrique 1957: 254.

7. Young 1968: 114–17.

8. Labrique 1957: 271.

9. Labrique 1957: 107–10.

10. Queuillle 1965: 315.

11. Klein 1957: 84; Pétillon 1985: 448.

12. Interview with Jean Cordy, Louvain-la-Neuve, September 5, 2009.

13. Verhaegen 1971: 419–21; Bouvier 1965: 39–56.

14. Ghilain 1963: 90–91.

15. Archer 1971: 67.

16. Wolter et al. 1957: 55–58.

17. Sinatu Bolya 2003.

18. Interview with Victorine Ndjoli, Kinshasa, November 7, 2008.

19. Michel 1962: 72.

20. Verhaegen 1971: 419.

21. Gondola 1999.

22. Laude 1956: 29.

23. Sohier 1959: 236.

24. Etambala 1999b: 50.

25. Ganshof van der Meersch 1958: 40–54.

26. CRISP 1962: 136.

27. Interviews with Jean Lema, alias Jamais Kolonga, Kinshasa, October 3 and 14 and November 6, 2008.

28. Monstelle 1962: 119.

29. Interviews with Longin Ngwadi, Kikwit, September 19–20, 2008.

30. Pétillon 1985: 446.

31. Pétillon 1985: 517.

32. De Backer 1959: 1:32.

33. Etambala 2008: 79–80.

34. Scott 1969: 21–22.

35. Etambala 2008: 82, 84.

36. De Vos 1961: 52.

37. De Backer 1959: 1:32.

38. Interview with Albert Tukeke Talulue, Kisangani, November 18, 2008.

39. Interview with Jean Mayani, Kisangani, November 19, 2008.

40. Interview with Raphaël Maindo, Kisangani, November 17, 2008.

41. Van Bilsen 1993: 124.

42. Interview with Jean Cordy, Louvain-la-Neuve, September 5, 2009.

43. Monheim 1961: 22–24.

44. Janssens 1961: 60.

45. Lumenganeso 2005: 108–109.

46. Janssens 1961: 59–61.

47. Interview with Jean Cordy, Louvain-la-Neuve, September 5, 2009.

48. Interview with Jean Cordy, Louvain-la-Neuve, September 5, 2009.

49. Interview with Jean Cordy, Louvain-la-Neuve, September 5, 2009.

50. CRISP 1960: 10.

51. Demunter 1975: 266.

52. Interview with Jean Cordy, Louvain-la-Neuve, September 5, 2009.

53. Young 1968: 159–60.

54. Caprasse 1959: 137–41.

55. CRISP 1960: 51–53.

56. De Backer 1959: 3:64.

57. Interview with Jean Mayani, Kisangani, November 19, 2008.

58. De Backer 1959: 2:20.

59. De Backer 1959: 3:158.

60. De Backer 1959: 2:83.

61. Interview with Jean Mayani, Kisangani, November 19, 2008.

62. Interview with Jean Mayani, Kisangani, November 19, 2008.

63. Ndaywel è Nziem 1998: 546.

64. Schöller 1982: 114.

65. Interview with Charly Henault, Méhaigne, August 28, 2008.

66. Ganshof van der Meersch 1960: 25; Scott 1969: 25.

67. Fierlafyn 1990: 200.

68. Demunter 1975: 276–77.

69. Archer 1971: 84.

70. Interview with Mario Cardoso, Kinshasa, October 1, 2008.

71. Buelens 2007: 327.

72. Merlier 1962: 292.

73. Eyskens 1994: 567.

74. Remilleux 1989: 46.

75. Joye and Lewin 1961: 290–95.

76. Young 1984: 712–13.

77. Weiss 1965: 2.

78. Inforcongo 1958; Verhaegen 1971: 421.

79. Kanza 1959: 39.

CHAPTER 7

1. Interviews with Jean Lema, alias Jamais Kolonga, Kinshasa, October 3 and 14 and November 6, 2008.

2. Interview with Victorine Ndjoli, Kinshasa, November 7, 2008.

3. Archer 1971: 11.

4. Etambala 1999b: 147.

5. Etambala 2008: 432–33.

6. CRISP 1961: 318–20.

7. Verlinden 2008: 140.

8. Interview with Jean Cordy, Louvain-la-Neuve, September 18, 2009.

9. De Vos 1961: 193–94.

10. CRISP1961: 323.

11. Interview with Victor Masunda Kukana, Boma, October 8, 2008.

12. Interview with Camille Mananga Nkanu, Boma, October 9, 2008.

13. Interview with Mario Cardoso, Kinshasa, October 1, 2008.

14. Schöller 1982: 178–83.

15. Ganshof van der Meersch 1958: 284.

16. Paulus 1962: 224.

CHAPTER 8

1. Janssens 1961: 12.

2. CRISP 1961: 353–54.

3. De Vos 1961: 202.

4. CRISP 1961: 381, 388; Geerts 1970: 79.

5. Verlinden 2002: 154.

6. CRISP 1961: 375.

7. Janssens 1961: 216.

8. Jorissen 2005: 115.

9. Verlinden 2002: 148–51.

10. De Craemer and Fox 1968: 3.

11. Interview with Jacques Courtejoie, Nsioni, October 5, 2008.

12. Souchard 1983: 254.

13. Kanza 1959: 40.

14. Souchard 1983: 248–49.

15. Geerts 1970: 11.

16. Interview with Bonyololo Lokombe, alias Papa Rovinscky, Kisangani, November 7, 2008.

17. Vesse 1961: 16.

18. Van den Bosch 1986: 57.

19. De Vos et al. 2004: 41.

20. De Vos et al. 2004: 40.

21. Boehme 2005.

22. De Vos et al. 2004: 521.

23. http://www.congo-1960.be/WilfriedDeBrouwerFAF_Piloot.html.

24. Kestergat 1961.

25. Interview with Camille Mananga Nkanu, Boma, October 9, 2008.

26. Verlinden 2002: 151.

27. CRISP 1961: 544.

28. Abi-Saab 1978: 14.

29. CRISP 1961: 555.

30. Devlin 2007: 48.

31. Pardigon 1961: 89.

32. CRISP 1961: 555–56.

33. Devlin 2007.

34. El-Tahri 2007.

35. Interview with Jean Lema alias Jamais Kolonga, Kinshasa, October 3, 2008.

36. Brian Urquhart, cited by Meredith 2005: 104.

37. Meredith 2005: 104–105.

38. Eyskens 1994: 584.

39. CRISP 1961: 806.

40. CRISP 1961: 110.

41. Geerts 1970: 90–91.

42. Interview with Mario Cardoso, Kinshasa, October 1, 2008.

43. De Vos et al. 2004: 581.

44. Devlin 2007: 94–97.

45. Young 1984: 721.

46. De Vos et al. 2004: 255.

47. Interview with Mario Cardoso, Kinshasa, October 1, 2008.

48. Meredith 2005: 109.

49. De Vos et al. 2004: 363–422.

50. De Vos et al. 2004: 395.

51. Soete 1993: 98–101.

52. Walter Zinzen, press release, November 4, 2009.

53. Van Bilsen 1993: 161.

54. Interview with Anne Mutosh Amuteb, Lubumbashi, April 23, 2008.

55. Ziégler 1963.

56. Yakemthouck 1988a: 177.

57. Scholl-Latour 1986: 216.

58. Gérard-Libois 1963: 186–87.

59. Ziégler 1963: 38.

60. Interview with Walter and Alice Lumbeeck, Oostkamp, July 25, 2009.

61. Interview with Frans and Marja Vleeschouwers, Berchem, July 25, 2009.

62. Hammarskjöld 1964: 93.

63. Martelli 1966: 198.

64. http://www.congo-1960.be/huurlingencongo.htm.

65. Interview with Walter en Alice Lumbeeck, Oostkamp, July 25, 2009.

66. Interview with Frans and Marja Vleeschouwers, Berchem, July 25, 2009.

67. Interview with Walter en Alice Lumbeeck, Oostkamp, July 25, 2009.

68. CRISP 1964: 99.

69. Kamitatu 1971: 97.

70. Young 1968: 319–48.

71. CRISP 1965: 104.

72. CRISP 1964: 105–107.

73. Verhaegen 1966–1969: 1:122.

74. Fox et al. 1965: 22.

75. Makulo Akambu 1983: 91–94.

76. Manya K’Omalowete 1986.

77. Verhaegen 1986: 7, 12.

78. Takizala 1964: 69.

79. Manya K’Omalowete 1986: 102.

80. Zinzen 2004: 101.

81. Geerts 1970: 189.

82. Etambala 1999b: 266.

83. Etambala 1999b: 258.

84. Tielemans 1966; Esposito 1978.

85. Ndaywel è Nziem 1998: 638–39.

86. CRISP 1965: 141.

87. Ndaywel è Nziem 1998: 639.

88. Verbeken 2005: 36.

89. Devlin 2007: 225.

90. Ndaywel è Nziem 1998: 623.

91. Brion 1986: 63.

92. Makulo Akambu 1983: 92.

93. Makulo Akambu 1983: 93–94.

94. El-Tahri 2007.

95. Guevara 2001: 298.

96. Guevara 2001: 83.

97. Guevara 2001: 313.

98. Guevara 2001: 281.

99. Zinzen 1995: 19–20.

100. CRISP 1966: 441.

101. CRISP 1966: 257.

102. Houyoux 1973: 30.

103. La Fontaine 1970: 64.

104. Close 2007: 164.

105. CRISP 1966: 6.

106. Interview with Jean Lema, alias Jamais Kolonga, Kinshasa, October 3, 2008.

107. Ilosono 1985: 67–72.

CHAPTER 9

1. Interviews with Zizi Kabongo, Kinshasa, May 31, November 14 and 16, 2007, April 21 and September 16, 2008.

2. Buana Kabue 1975: 105.

3. CRISP 1966: 438–44.

4. Joris 2001: 33.

5. Interview with Vincent Lombume Kalimasi, Kinshasa, June 14, 2007.

6. Diallo 1977: 88.

7. CRISP 1967: 441.

8. CRISP 1967: 442–43.

9. Saint Moulin 2007: 42.

10. Houyoux 1973: 30–31.

11. Geerts 1970: 358.

12. CRISP 1966: 415–16.

13. CRISP 1967: 102.

14. Geerts 1970: 286–95.

15. CRISP 1967: 120.

16. CRISP 1967: 179.

17. Geerts 1970: 274.

18. Interview with Alphonsine Mosolo Mpiaka, Kinshasa, November 7, 2008.

19. Zinzen 1995: 29–31.

20. Verhaegen 1970: 23.

21. Braeckman 1992: 38–40.

22. Geerts 1970: 255.

23. Huybrechts et al. 1980: 152–63.

24. Ikembana 2007: 31.

25. Bureau du Président de la République 1972: 384–85.

26. Sakombi Inongo 1974b: 409.

27. Close 2007: 235.

28. Close 2007: 190.

29. Close 2007: 251.

30. Interview with François Ngombe, alias Maître Taureau, Kinshasa, November 9, 2009.

31. Lubabu Mpasi-A-Mbongo and Musangi Ntemo 1987: 56.

32. Mwabila Malela 1979: 128.

33. Huybrechts et al. 1980: 239.

34. Interview with Paul Kasenge, Lubumbashi, June 29, 2007.

35. Huybrechts et al. 1980: 170.

36. Interview with André Kitadi, Kinshasa, October 16, 2008.

37. Gast 1996.

38. Lubabu Mpasi-A-Mbongo and Musangi Ntemo 1987: 76.

39. Verhaegen 1978: 126–30.

40. Interview with Adolphine Ngoy, Bukavu, June 19, 2007.

41. Interview with Bertrand Bisengimana, Kivumeer, April 25, 2008.

42. Young and Turner 1985: 167–68.

43. Ndaywel è Nziem 1995.

44. Sakombi Inongo 1974b: 409.

45. Sakombi Inongo 1974a: 334.

46. Ekanga Botombele 1975.

47. Sakombi Inongo 1974b: 318.

48. Interview with Joseph Ibongo, Kinshasa, June 1, 2007.

49. with Jean-Pierre Mukoko, Kinshasa, March 19, 2005.

50. White 2008: 73–79.

51. Huybrechts et al. 1980: 155.

52. Schatzberg 1988: 122–25.

53. Nzongola-Ntalaja 2002: 148.

54. Bézy et al. 1981: 57–68.

55. Van den Bosch 1992: 90.

56. Bézy et al. 1981: 61.

57. Mobutu 1973: 233, 243.

58. Chomé 1975: 28.

59. Chomé 1978: 142–43.

60. Stewart 2000: 199.

61. Mailer 1975.

62. Young and Turner 1985: 326–62.

63. Houyoux 1972 ; Houyoux 1973.

64. Pain 1984: 114.

CHAPTER 10

1. Braeckman 1992: 298.

2. Remilleux 1989: 91.

3. Remilleux 1989: 92.

4. http://www.bernd-leitenberger.de/otrag.shtml.

5. Kalonga 1978: 32–47.

6. Mende Omalanga and Tshilenge wa Kabamb 1992: 75–77.

7. Willame 1986.

8. Ndaywiel è Nziem 1998: 737.

9. Willame 1986: 132.

10. Willame 1986: 80–81.

11. Interviews with Zizi Kabongo, Kinshasa, May 31and November 14 and 16, 2007, April 21 and September 16, 2008.

12. Geerts 2005: 173–76.

13. Yambuya 1991: 34–36.

14. Yambuya 1991: 33.

15. Yambuya 1991: 28.

16. Cabinet du Département de la Défense Nationale 1974: 40.

17. Kamitatu-Massamba 1977: 103.

18. Yambuya 1991: 69.

19. Yakemtchouk 1988b: 399–402.

20. Young and Turner 1985: 375.

21. Wrong 2000: 190.

22. Interview with Eugène Yoka Kinene, Kinshasa, November 11, 2008.

23. Interview with Alphonsine Mosolo Mpiaka, Kinshasa, November 7, 2008.

24. Young and Turner 1985: 324.

25. Ndaywel è Nziem 1998: 732.

26. Young and Turner 1985: 324.

27. Ndaywel è Nziem 1998: 732.

28. Willame 1992: 96.

29. Peemans 1988: 23.

30. Young and Turner 1985: 379.

31. Mende Omalanga and Tshilenge wa Kabamb 1992: 28–29.

32. Blumenthal 1982: 8.

33. Blumenthal 1982: 15.

34. Nguza Karl I Bond 1982.

35. Released CIA document, “Zaire’s IMF Problem,” September 15, 1986, http://www.foia.cia.gov/.

36. Stiglitz 2002: 12.

37. Kabuya Kalala et al. 1980.

38. Interview with Didace Kawang, Kinshasa, September 30, 2008.

39. Stiglitz 2002: 18.

40. Young and Turner 1985: 323.

41. Emizet 1997: 22, 26.

42. Nzongola-Ntalaja 1986: 4.

43. Peemans 1988: 39.

44. Emizet 1997: 25.

45. Young and Turner 1985: 311.

46. Janssen 1997: 78–83.

47. Janssen 1997: 73–78.

48. Interview with Kibambi Shintwa, Kinshasa, September 25, 2008.

49. Interviews with Jean Lema, alias Jamais Kolonga, Kinshasa, October 3, 14, and November 6, 2008.

50. Bender 2006: 304.

51. Interview with Alfons Mertens, Puurs, November 5, 2007.

52. Willame 1992: 132.

53. Interview with Raymond Mukoka, Kinshasa, September 29, 2008.

54. Wrong 2000: 97.

55. Braeckman 1992: 72.

56. Interview with Mrs.A., Kinshasa, March 17, 2005; cf. Nlandu-Tsasa 1997: 16.

57. Vandommele 1983: 78–79; Batumike 1986: 52–53.

58. Amnesty International 1980; Amnesty International 1983.

59. Yambuya 1991: 91.

60. Nlandu-Tsasa 1997: 98.

61. Mvumbi Ngolu Tsasa 1986: 68–69.

62. Interview with Papy Mbwiti, Kinshasa, September 30, 2008.

63. MacGaffey 1991: 17–19.

64. Nlandu-Tsasa 1997: 64.

65. Renton et al. 2007: 136.

66. Interview with Papy Mbwiti, Kinshasa, September 30, 2008.

67. Interview with Rufin Kibari Nsanga, Kikwit, September 21, 2008.

68. Newbury 1984.

69. Interview with Régine Mutijima, Kinshasa, December 10, 2008.

70. Interview with Thérèse Pakasa, Kinshasa, November 8, 2008.

71. Michel 1999.

72. Braeckman 1992: 303.

CHAPTER 11

1. Interview with Régine Mutijima, Kinshasa, December 10, 2008.

2. Interview with Modeste Mutinga, Kinshasa, October 3, 2008.

3. Interview with Baudouin Hamuli, Kinshasa, September 16 and 24, 2008.

4. Hamuli Kabarhuza et al. 2003: 27.

5. Braeckman 1992: 205.

6. Interview with Baudouin Hamuli, Kinshasa, September 16 and 24, 2008.

7. Mende Omalanga and Tshilenge wa Kabamb 1992: 45–47.

8. Buyse 1994: 29.

9. Interview with Kibambi Shintwa, Kinshasa, September 25, 2008.

10. Interview with Baudouin Hamuli, Kinshasa, September 16 and 24, 2008.

11. Interview with José Mpundu, Kinshasa, September 23, 2008.

12. De Dorlodot 1994: 90–94.

13. Interviews with Zizi Kabongo, Kinshasa, May 31, November 14 and 16, 2007, April 21 and September 16, 2008.

14. Nzongola-Ntalaja 2002: 193.

15. Nzongola-Ntalaja 2002: 199.

16. Villers and Omasomba 2002: 403.

17. Nzongola-Ntalaja 2002: 196–98.

18. De Herdt and Marysse 2002: 175.

19. Banque Centrale du Congo 2007: 92.

20. Michel 1992.

21. Smith 2005: 234.

22. Devisch 1995: 608.

23. Hamuli Kabarhuza et al. 2003: 18.

24. Devisch 1995.

25. Ndaywel è Nziem 1995: 78, 116.

26. Ndaywel è Nziem 1995: 65–66.

27. Banque Centrale du Congo 2007: 117.

28. Beaugrand 1997: 9.

29. Banque Centrale du Congo 2007: 119; De Boeck and Plissart 2004: 187.

30. Beaugrand 2003.

31. Interview with Alexandre Kasumba Dunia, zoo manager, Kinshasa, December 29, 2003.

32. Kabuya Kalala and Matata Ponyo 1999.

33. Interview with Sekombi Katondolo, Goma, November 26, 2008.

34. Mamdani 2001: 253.

35. Interview with anonymous Mai-mai, Goma, December 4, 2008.

36. Interview with Pierrot Bushala, Goma, November 26, 2008.

37. Vlassenroot 2000.

38. Prunier 2009: 25.

39. Interview with Ruffin Luliba, Kinshasa, October 1, 2008.

40. Reyntjens 2009: 88.

41. Prunier 2009: 122.

42. Interview with Katelijne Hermans, Brussels, September 12, 2007.

43. Interview with Dr. Soki, Kisangani, November 16, 2008.

44. Interview with Sekombi Katondolo, Goma, November 26, 2008.

45. Efinda 2009: 49.

46. Efinda 2009: 73.

47. Human Rights Watch 1997a: 23.

48. Interview with Papy Bulaya, Kinshasa, December 11, 2008.

49. Van Dijck 1997: 9.

50. Prunier 2009: 148.

51. Interview with Rufin Kibari Nsanga, Kikwit, September 21, 2008.

52. Interview with Katelijne Hermans, Brussels, September 12, 2007.

53. Interview with Rufin Kibari Nsanga, Kikwit, September 21, 2008.

54. Interview with Rufin Kibari Nsanga, Kikwit, September 21, 2008.

55. Willame 1998.

56. Reyntjens 2009: 67–77.

57. Prunier 2009: 137–43.

58. El-Tahri 2000.

59. Tokwaulu Aena n.d.: 187.

60. El-Tahri 2000.

CHAPTER 12

1. Reyntjens 2009: 152.

2. Reyntjens 2009: 152.

3. Banque Centrale du Congo 2007: 95.

4. Human Rights Watch 1997b: 16.

5. Rights Watch 1997b: 48.

6. Reyntjens 2009: 152.

7. Interview with Bertin Punga, Kinshasa, September 29, 2008.

8. Frère 2005: 100.

9. Interview with Zizi Kabongo, Kinshasa, November 14, 2007.

10. Reyntjens 2009: 154.

11. Prunier 2009: 150.

12. Reyntjens 2009: 57.

13. Ngbanda 2004: 41.

14. Braeckman et al. 1998: 132.

15. Prunier 2009: 178.

16. International Rescue Committee 2007.

17. Interview with Simba Regis, Kigali, June 25, 2007.

18. Interview with Ruffin Luliba, Kinshasa, December 11, 2008.

19. Interview with Rufin Kibari Nsanga, Kikwit, September 21, 2008.

20. Reyntjens 2009: 186.

21. Lanotte 2003: 109.

22. Interview with Jeanine Mukanirwa, Kinshasa, November 12, 2007.

23. Interview with Tharcisse Kayira, Bukavu, June 20, 2007.

24. Interview with Pierrot Bushala, Goma, November 26 2008.

25. Human Rights Watch 2000.

26. Interview with Muhindo, Goma, December 4, 2008.

27. Interview in De Morgen, June 23, 2007.

28. Interview with Yves Van Winden, Goma, December 4, 2008.

29. Villers 2001: 12.

30. Zinzen 2004: 180–5.

31. Interview with Agustin Utshudi, Goma, December 1, 2008.

32. Lanotte 2003: 111–15.

33. Interview with Agustin Utshudi, Goma, December 1, 2008.

34. Interview with Dr. Soki, Kisangani, November 16, 2008.

35. Prunier 2009: 229.

36. Lanotte 2003: 122.

37. Villers 2001: 159–60.

38. Human Rights Watch 2005: 18.

39. Marysse and André 2001.

40. Leclercq 2001: 69.

41. Marysse and André 2001.

42. Global Witness 2005: 30.

43. Wamu Oyatambwe 1999: 122.

44. Harden 2001.

45. Marysse and André 2001.

46. UNESCO 2005: 34.

47. Debroux et al. 2007: 7, 10.

48. Interview with Papy Bulaya, Kinshasa, December 11, 2008.

49. Pole Institute 2002: 11, 13.

50. Vlassenroot and Romkema 2002.

51. Human Rights Watch 2001.

52. Human Rights Watch 2005: 27, 29, 45.

53. Interview with UPC veteran, Kasenyi, November 23, 2008.

54. Jourdan 2004.

55. Interview with Baptiste Uzele-Uparpiu, Kasenyi, November 23, 2008.

56. Interview with Masika Katsuva, Goma, December 2, 2008.

CHAPTER 13

1. Prunier 2009: 252.

2. Braeckman 2003: 97–125.

3. Villers 2009: 15–20.

4. Interview with Antoine Vumilia, Kinshasa, December 12, 2008.

5. Zeebroek 2008: 8–9.

6. Villers 2009: 222.

7. Interview with Johan Swinnen, Kinshasa, November 17, 2007.

8. Reyntjens 2009: 239.

9. Reyntjens 2009: 243–44.

10. NIZA 2006: 20.

11. Interview with Rufin Kibari Nsanga, Kikwit, September 21, 2008.

12. Nzeza 2004: 29.

13. NIZA 2006: 20–21.

14. NIZA 2006: 9.

15. Prunier 2009: 306.

16. Reyntjens 2009: 243.

17. Interview with Frank Werbrouck, Kinshasa, November 11, 2008.

18. Vlassenroot and Raeymaekers 2004b.

19. Prunier 2009: 325–26.

20. Interviews with Marie Djoza, Bunia, November 28, 2008; interview with Marie Pacuriema and Jacqueline Dz’ju Malosi, Bunia, November 22, 2008.

21. Human Rights Watch 2003: 6.

22. Interview with Johan Swinnen, Kinshasa, November 17, 2007.

23. Human Rights Watch 2004: 5.

24. Market Volume DRC, internal document Bralima, September 2008.

25. Interview with Jo De Neckere, Brussels, January 23, 2010.

26. Bruijn et al. 2001.

27. Giovannoni et al. 2004: 102–105.

28. Interview with Riza Labwe, Kikwit, September 21, 2008.

29. Interview with Justine Masika, Goma, December 1, 2008.

30. Interview with Dolf van den Brink, September 17, 2008.

31. Yoka 2005: 60.

32. Interview with Papy Mbwiti, Kinshasa, September 16, 2008.

33. De Boeck and Plissart 2004: 41.

34. “Werrason,” Wikipedia, January 30, 2010.

35. Interviews with seven Werrason fans, Kikwit, September 21, 2008.

36. Werrason,” Wikipedia, January 30, 2010.

37. Interview with Flamme Kapaya, Kisangani, November 13 and 16, 2008.

38. Interview with Dolf van den Brink, October 4, 2008.

39. Le Potentiel, September 25, 2008.

40. Interview with Beko, May 28, 2007.

41. Frère 2005: 124.

42. Tigo 2007: Annual Report and Accounts.

43. Frère 2009: 210.

44. Frère 2009: 209.

45. Pype 2009a: 103.

46. Pype 2009a: 103.

47. Ayad 2001.

48. Pype 2007.

49. Kalulambi Pongo 2004: 59.

50. Pype, 2009c.

51. Le Potentiel, February 4, 2006.

52. Muambi 2009: 96.

53. Interview with Martin Kayembe, Kinshasa, April 22, 2008.

54. Le Potentiel, May 31, 2007.

55. De Boeck 2004: 162–64.

56. Ndaywel è Nziem 2002.

57. Interview with Dominique Khonde Mpolo, Kinshasa, November 10, 2008.

58. Interview with José Mpundu, Kinshasa, September 23, 2008.

59. Kennes 2003: 298.

60. Amnesty International 2006.

61. Olinga 2006.

62. Reyntjens 2009: 237.

63. White 2008: 184, 187.

64. White 2008: 173; Olinga 2006.

65. Interview with Israël Tshipamba, Kinshasa, May 29, 2007.

66. Frère 2007.

67. Villers 2009: 372.

68. www.deboutcongolais.info/actualite5/art_330.htm.

CHAPTER 14

1. Interview with Pascal Rukengwa, Kinshasa, September 26, 2008.

2. Muambi 2009: 78.

3. Villers 2009: 366.

4. Braeckman 2009: 123.

5. Villers 2009: 369.

6. Saint Moulin 2009: 54.

7. Telephone interview with Pascal Rukengwa, Brussels-Kinshasa, February 9, 2010.

8. Vandaele 2008: 30.

9. De Valon 2006: 23.

10. Interview with Carl De Keyzer, Kinshasa, May 27, 2007.

11. Braeckman 2009: 132.

12. International Crisis Group 2007: 10.

13. Human Rights Watch 2008a: 16–65.

14. Soudan 2007: 28.

15. Quiproquo, 20 juni 2007.

16. Interview with Baudouin Waterkeyn, hospital chaplain, Lubumbashi, June 29, 2007.

17. Villers 2009: 430.

18. The Africa Report, accessed December 2009: 197.

19. Muzito 2010: 4–8.

20. hrd.undp.org.

21. www.foreignpolicy.com.

22. www.doingbusiness.org.

23. www.unicef.org/infobycountry/drcongo_statistics.html.

24. Villers 2009: 426.

25. IPIS 2008a.

26. Africa Confidential, October 8, 2009: 2.

27. Interview with Alain Chirwisa, alias Alesh, Kisangani, November 16, 2008.

28. Stiglitz 2002: 18.

29. Radio France International, September 22, 2009.

30. Amnesty International 2010.

31. Baldauf, 2008.

32. Scott 2008: 170.

33. Lemarchand 2009: 270.

34. IPIS 2008b.

35. Interview in De Morgen, May 6, 2008.

36. Human Rights Watch 2008b.

37. Interview with Major Antoine, Rwanguba, November 27, 2008.

38. Human Rights Watch 2002b: 18–20.

39. Interview with Laurent Nkunda, Rwanguba, November 27, 2008.

40. United Nations Security Council 2008; Human Rights Watch 2008b.

41. Interview with Grâce Nirahabimana, Mugunga, December 2, 2008.

42. International Crisis Group 2009a, b.

43. Hoebeke et al. 2009: 136.

44. Berwouts 2010.

45. De Keyzer 2009: 14–15.

46. Campbell 2007.

47. Braeckman 2009: 158–59.

48. RAID 2009: 8–26.

49. IPIS 2009.

50. Braeckman 2010: 52.

51. Braeckman 2009: 175.

52. Soudan 2007: 28.

53. Braeckman 2009: 177.

54. IMF, December 11, 2009: press release 09/445.

55. Minani 2010.

56. Vandaele 2005: 166; www.imf.org.

57. Reuters, December 12, 2009.

58. ASADHO 2010.

59. Stearns 2010.

60. Interview with Dadine Musitu, Kinshasa, September 16, 2008.

61. Interview with Rosemonde N., Kinshasa, September 25, 2008.

CHAPTER 15

1. China Daily, October 28, 2008.

2. Interview with Jules Bitulu, Guangzhou, October 27, 2008.

3. Interview with Lukisu Fule, Guangzhou, October 25, 2008.

4. Interview with Patou Lelo, Guangzhou, October 26, 2008.

5. Interviews with Commandant “César” and “Timothée,” Guangzhou, October 26, 2008.

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