Notes

INTRODUCTION: RASSELAS’S QUESTION

1. Clark, Civilisation.

2. Braudel, History of Civilizations.

3. See also Bagby, Culture and History; Mumford, City in History.

4. On manners see Elias, Civilizing Process.

5. See Coulborn, Origins of Civilized Societies and, more recently, Fernández-Armesto, Civilizations.

6. Quigley, Evolution of Civilizations.

7. Bozeman, Politics and Culture.

8. Melko, Nature of Civilizations.

9. Eisenstadt, Comparative Civilizations.

10. McNeill, Rise of the West.

11. Braudel, History of Civilizations, pp. 34f.

12. See Fernández-Armesto, Millennium; Goody, Capitalism and Modernity and Eurasian Miracle; Wong, China Transformed.

13. McNeill, Rise of the West. See also Darwin, After Tamerlane.

14. Based on data in Maddison, World Economy. The historic figures for global output (gross domestic product) must be treated with even more caution than those for population because of the heroic assumptions Maddison had to make to construct his estimates, and also because he elected to calculate GDP in terms of purchasing-power parity to allow for the much lower prices of non-traded goods in relatively poor countries.

15. Details in Fogel, Escape from Hunger, tables 1.2, 1.4.

16. Figures from Chandler, Urban Growth.

17. Calculated in terms of current dollars, from the World Bank’s World Development Indicators online database.

18. For an illuminating discussion, see Scruton, The West and the Rest.

19. See e.g. Laue, ‘World Revolution of Westernization’.

20. Acemoglu et al., ‘Reversal of Fortune’; Putterman and Weil, ‘Post-1500 Population Flows’.

21. Pomeranz, Great Divergence.

22. Elvin, Pattern of the Chinese Past.

23. Clark, Farewell to Alms.

24. Johnson, Rasselas, pp. 56f.

25. Murray, Human Accomplishment.

26. Landes, Wealth and Poverty.

27. Hibbs and Olsson, ‘Geography’; Bockstette et al., ‘States and Markets’.

28. Diamond, Guns, Germs and Steel.

29. Diamond, ‘How to Get Rich’.

30. See e.g. Roberts, Triumph of the West.

31. See North, Understanding the Process of Economic Change; North et al., Violence and Social Orders.

32. Clark, Farewell to Alms, pp. 337–42.

33. Rajan and Zingales, ‘Persistence of Underdevelopment’; Chaudhary et al., ‘Big BRICs, Weak Foundations’.

34. Huntington, Clash of Civilizations.

35. Wallerstein, Modern World-System.

36. Huntington, Clash of Civilizations.

37. See e.g. Kagan, Paradise and Power and, more recently, Schuker, ‘Sea Change’.

38. See most recently Osborne, Civilization.

39. Morris, Why the West Rules.

40. Brownworth, Lost to the West.

41. Cahill, How the Irish Saved Civilization. At the time of writing, it remains to be seen if the compliment will be returned.

42. Dawson, Making of Europe; Woods, How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization.

43. Matthews, ‘Strange Death’; Guyver, ‘England’.

44. Amanda Kelly, ‘What Did Hitler Do in the War, Miss?’, Times Educational Supplement, 19 January 2001.

45. MacGregor, History of the World.

CHAPTER 1: COMPETITION

1. Smith, Wealth of Nations, Book I, chs. 8, 11, Book IV, ch. 9.

2. Montesquieu, Spirit of the Laws, Book VIII, ch. 21. See also Book VII, ch. 7, Book XIX, chs. 17–20.

3. See in general Bishop, China’s Imperial Way.

4. Tsai, Perpetual Happiness, p. 123.

5. Brook, Confusions of Pleasure.

6. Pinker, Better Angels.

7. Castor, Blood and Roses.

8. Fogel, Escape from Hunger, tables 1.2, 1.4.

9. Clark, Farewell to Alms.

10. Dardess, ‘Ming Landscape’, pp. 323f.

11. Needham (ed.), Science and Civilization, vol. V, pp. 52, 313.

12. Ibid., vol. VI, pp. 558, 571, 581. Cf. Hobson, Eastern Origins, p. 201.

13. Mokyr, Lever of Riches, pp. 209ff.

14. Needham (ed.), Science and Civilization, vol. IV, p. 184.

15. Ibid., vol. V, pp. 61, 157, 354, 421. Cf. Hobson, Eastern Origins, pp. 207–12.

16. Levathes, When China Ruled the Seas.

17. Ray, ‘Analysis’, p. 82.

18. Ibid., pp. 82–4.

19. Duyvendak, ‘True Dates’.

20. Cotterell, Imperial Capitals, p. 222. See also Fernández-Armesto, Millennium, ch. 4; Pathfinders, ch. 4.

21. Landes, Wealth and Poverty, pp. 95f.

22. Keay, China: A History, p. 385.

23. According to Nicholas D. Kristof, ‘1492: The Prequel’, New York Times, 6 June 1999.

24. Finlay, ‘Portuguese and Chinese Maritime Imperialism’, pp. 240f.

25. Flynn and Giraldez, ‘Born with a “Silver Spoon” ’, p. 204.

26. Chirot, ‘Rise of the West’, pp. 181ff.

27. Cipolla, Guns and Sails, pp. 77–82.

28. Hoffman, ‘Why Was It that Europeans Conquered the World?’ On the deficiencies of the Ming tax system, see Huang, 1587, p. 64.

29. Jones, European Miracle, p. 67.

30. Ibid., p. 120.

31. Birch, Historical Charters, pp. 3f.

32. Ibid., pp. 19f.

33. Ibid., pp. 61f.

34. Details from Inwood, History of London.

35. Burrage and Corry, ‘At Sixes and Sevens’.

36. Landes, Revolution in Time, pp. 34–42.

37. Barmé, Forbidden City.

38. Cotterell, Imperial Capitals, p. 222.

39. Cotterell, China: A History, p. 178.

40. Catto, ‘Written English’.

41. Flynn and Giraldez, ‘Arbitrage, China, and World Trade’.

42. Ebrey, Cambridge Illustrated History of China, esp. p. 215.

43. For a good summary, see Goody, Capitalism and Modernity, pp. 103–17.

44. Guan and Li, ‘GDP and Economic Structure’.

45. See Mintz, Sweetness and Power, p. 191; Higman, ‘Sugar Revolution’.

46. Clark, Farewell to Alms, p. 57.

47. Pelzer and Pelzer, ‘Coffee Houses of Augustan London’.

48. For a revisionist view, which downplays the social damage done by exports of opium from British India, see Newman, ‘Opium Smoking in Late Imperial China’.

49. Barrow, Life of Macartney, vol. I, pp. 348f.

CHAPTER 2: SCIENCE

1. See in general Bakar, Tawhid and Science; Morgan, Lost History; Lyons, House of Wisdom.

2. Freely, Aladdin’s Lamp, p. 163.

3. Lyons, House of Wisdom, p. 5.

4. İhsanoglu, Science, Technology and Learning, pp. 16f.

5. Mansel, Constantinople, p. 62.

6. Hamdani, ‘Ottoman Response’.

7. Forster and Daniel (eds.), Life and Letters, p. 221.

8. Hess, ‘Ottoman Seaborne Empire’.

9. İnalcik and Quataert, Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, p. xviii.

10. Stoye, Siege of Vienna, p. 32.

11. Ibid., p. 119. Cf. Panaite, Ottoman Law.

12. Goodwin, Lords of the Horizons, p. 229.

13. Lewis, What Went Wrong?, pp. 18f.

14. Özmucur and Pamuk, ‘Real Wages’; Quataert, Ottoman Manufacturing. As in India, traditional textile manufacturing was hard hit by European competition in the early nineteenth century, but the Ottoman economy fared better in the period after 1850.

15. Rafeq, ‘Making a Living’; Pamuk, ‘Institutional Change’.

16. Grant, ‘Rethinking the Ottoman “Decline” ’.

17. Steinberg, Five Hundred Years, pp. 22–5.

18. Eisenstein, Printing Revolution, p. 168.

19. Luther, Concerning Christian Liberty (1520).

20. Crofts, ‘Printing, Reform and Catholic Reformation’, p. 376.

21. Holborn, ‘Printing and the Growth of a Protestant Movement’, pp. 134f.

22. Dittmar, ‘Ideas, Technology, and Economic Change’.

23. Walsham, ‘Unclasping the Book?’, p. 156.

24. Hall, ‘Intellectual Tendencies’, pp. 390f.

25. Bohnstedt, ‘Infidel Scourge of God’, p. 24.

26. Clark, ‘Publication of the Koran’, p. 9.

27. Thomas, Religion and the Decline of Magic; Levack, Witch-Hunt.

28. Kuhn, Structure of Scientific Revolutions.

29. Henry, Scientific Revolution, p. 74.

30. Shank, Newton Wars, p. 239.

31. Murray, Human Accomplishment, esp. pp. 257f., 297f. See also Basalla, ‘Spread of Western Science’.

32. Smith, ‘Science and Technology’. Cf. Clark, ‘Aristotle and Averroes’.

33. Deen, Science under Islam, pp. 122ff.; Huff, Rise of Early Modern Science, p. 92.

34. Huff, Rise of Early Modern Science, p. 75.

35. Deen, Science under Islam, pp. 4f.; Faroqhi, Subjects of the Sultan.

36. Mansel, Constantinople, p. 45.

37. Lewis, What Went Wrong?, p. 43.

38. Barkey, Empire of Difference, pp. 232f.; İhsanoglu, Science, Technology and Learning, p. 20. See also Mansel, Constantinople, p. 46; Vlahakis et al., Imperialism and Science, p. 79.

39. İhsanoglu, Science, Technology and Learning, p. 4.

40. Barkey, Empire of Difference, p. 233.

41. Sprat, History of the Royal Society, pp. 63f.

42. Fernández-Armesto, Pathfinders, p. 281.

43. Gribbin, Fellowship, pp. 253f.

44. Hall, Philosophers at War.

45. Stewart, Rise of Public Science, p. 258.

46. Allen, Steam Engine; Allen, 1715 and Other Newcomen Engines.

47. Goldstone, Revolution and Rebellion, p. 367. Cf. Gerber, ‘Monetary System’; Pamuk, ‘Prices’.

48. Goffman, Ottoman Empire and Early Modern Europe, p. 119.

49. Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire, p. 207.

50. Lewis, Middle East, p. 126. See also Goldstone, Revolution and Rebellion, pp. 378f.

51. Lewis, Modern Turkey, p. 23.

52. Coles, Ottoman Impact, p. 163.

53. Mansel, Constantinople, pp. 86–96; Goodwin, Lords of the Horizons, p. 168.

54. Clark, Iron Kingdom, p. 240.

55. T. R. Ybarra, ‘Potsdam of Frederick the Great – After William II’, New York Times, 10 September 1922.

56. Clark, Iron Kingdom, p. 189.

57. Chakrabongse, Education of the Enlightened Despots, pp. 52f.

58. Fraser, Frederick the Great, pp. 29f.

59. Clark, Iron Kingdom, p. 215.

60. Frederick, Anti-Machiavel, ch. 26.

61. Clark, Iron Kingdom, p. 231.

62. Ibid., pp. 241f.

63. Haffner, Rise and Fall of Prussia, pp. 37, 43f.

64. Gerber, ‘Jews and Money-Lending’. See also Quataert, Manufacturing and Technology Transfer.

65. Clark, Iron Kingdom, p. 187.

66. Blanning, Culture of Power, pp. 108f.

67. Darnton, Literary Underground, p. 25.

68. Terrall, Man Who Flattened the Earth, pp. 181–5.

69. Aldington (ed.), Letters of Voltaire and Frederick the Great, p. 179.

70. Frederick, Anti-Machiavel, pp. 400–405.

71. Terrall, Man Who Flattened the Earth, p. 235.

72. Shank, Newton Wars, p. 475; Fraser, Frederick the Great, p. 259.

73. Kant, ‘ “What is Enlightenment?” ’

74. Clark, Iron Kingdom, p. 215.

75. Ibid., p. 195.

76. Palmer, ‘Frederick the Great’, p. 102.

77. Bailey, Field Artillery, pp. 165ff.

78. Duffy, Frederick the Great, p. 264.

79. Kinard, Weapons and Warfare, pp. 157f.

80. Steele, ‘Muskets and Pendulums’, pp. 363ff.

81. Ibid., pp. 368f.

82. Agoston, ‘Early Modern Ottoman and European Gunpowder Technology’.

83. Coles, Ottoman Impact, p. 186.

84. Montesquieu, Persian Letters, Letter XIX.

85. Mansel, Constantinople, pp. 185f.

86. Shaw, History of the Ottoman Empire, pp. 236–8.

87. Lewis, What Went Wrong?, p. 27.

88. Aksan, Ottoman Statesman.

89. İhsanoglu, Science, Technology and Learning, p. 56. See also Levy, ‘Military Reform’.

90. Reid, Crisis of the Ottoman Empire, pp. 59–64.

91. Mansel, Constantinople, pp. 237ff.

92. Araci, ‘Donizetti’, p. 51.

93. İhsanoglu, Science, Technology and Learning, pp. 170ff.

94. Clarke, ‘Ottoman Industrial Revolution’, pp. 67f.

95. Findley, ‘Ottoman Occidentalist’.

96. Weiker, ‘Ottoman Bureaucracy’, esp. pp. 454f.

97. Pamuk, ‘Bimetallism’, p. 16; Davison, Essays, pp. 64–7. Cf. Farley, Turkey, pp. 121f.

98. Pamuk, Ottoman Empire, pp. 55–9.

99. Kinross, Atatürk, p. 386.

100. Mango, Atatürk, p. 396.

101. Kinross, Atatürk, pp. 442f.

102. Mango, Atatürk, p. 412.

103. World Intellectual Property Organization, World Intellectual Property Indicators 2010 (Geneva, 2010): http://www.wipo.int/ipstats/en/statistics/patents/.

104. Senor and Singer, Start-Up Nation.

105. Ferguson, High Financier, pp. 317f.

CHAPTER 3: PROPERTY

1. Fernández-Armesto, Americas, p. 66.

2. The classic statements are Pomeranz, Great Divergence; Williams, Capitalism and Slavery. For a modified version of the argument, see Acemoglu et al., ‘Rise of Europe’.

3. Barrera-Osorio, Experiencing Nature.

4. Churchill, ‘Civilization’, pp. 45f.

5. Hemming, Conquest of the Incas, p. 28.

6. Markham (ed.), Reports, pp. 113–27.

7. Wood, Conquistadors, p. 134.

8. Hemming, Conquest of the Incas, p. 121.

9. Bingham, Lost City.

10. Burkholder, Colonial Latin America, p. 46.

11. Ibid., p. 126.

12. Findlay and O’Rourke, Power and Plenty, figure 4.4.

13. Lanning, Academic Culture.

14. Barrera-Osorio, Experiencing Nature.

15. Fernández-Armesto, Americas, p. 95.

16. South Carolina Department of Archives and History, Charleston.

17. Tomlins, ‘Indentured Servitude’.

18. Engerman and Sokoloff, ‘Once upon a Time in the Americas’.

19. See in general Egnal, New World Economies.

20. Elliott, Empires of the Atlantic World, p. 411.

21. Adamson, ‘England without Cromwell’.

22. Clark, ‘British America’.

23. Acemoglu et al., ‘Reversal of Fortune’.

24. Clark, Farewell to Alms.

25. Emmer, Colonialism and Migration, p. 35.

26. North et al., Violence and Social Orders, ch. 3.

27. Fernández-Armesto, Americas, p. 159.

28. The classic statement is by North and Weingast, ‘Constitutions and Commitment’. See also on the role of fiscal strength and overseas expansion O’Brien, ‘Inseparable Connections’.

29. Hobbes, Leviathan, Part I, ch. 13.

30. Ibid., ch. 18.

31. Ibid., Part II, chs. 17, 19.

32. Locke, Two Treatises, Book II, ch. 3.

33. Ibid., ch. 11.

34. Ibid., ch. 6.

35. Ibid., ch. 9.

36. Ibid., ch. 13.

37. Full text at http://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/nc05.asp.

38. Engerman and Sokoloff, ‘Once upon a Time in the Americas’.

39. Arneil, John Locke and America, p. 98.

40. Locke, Two Treatises, Book II, ch. 5.

41. Elliott, Empires of the Atlantic World, p. 135.

42. Ibid., p. 40. See also Sato, Legal Aspects of Landownership.

43. Engerman and Sokoloff, ‘Once upon a Time in the Americas’.

44. Ibid.

45. See Clark, Language of Liberty.

46. Clark, ‘British America’.

47. George Washington to William Crawford, 20 September 1767, in Washington and Crawford, Washington–Crawford Letters, pp. 3f.

48. See Jasanoff, Liberty’s Exiles.

49. Lynch, Bolívar, p. 63.

50. http://faculty.chass.ncsu.edu/slatta/hi216/documents/bolivar/sbwar1813.htm.

51. Ortega, ‘Earthquakes’.

52. Lynch, ‘Bolívar and the Caudillos’, pp. 6f.

53. King, ‘Royalist View’.

54. Lynch, ‘Bolívar and the Caudillos’, pp. 16f.

55. Woodward, ‘Spanish Army’.

56. Ulrick, ‘Morillo’s Attempt’, p. 553.

57. Hamnett, ‘Counter Revolution’.

58. Lynch, Bolívar, p. 99.

59. See in general Langley, Americas in the Age of Revolution, esp. pp. 243–84.

60. http://web.archive.org/web/19970615224356/www.umich.edu/ ~proflame/mirror/etext/bol5.html.

61. Williamson, Penguin History, p. 218.

62. http://web.archive.org/web/19970615224356/www.umich.edu/ ~proflame/mirror/etext/bol5.html.

63. Bolívar to Sir Henry Cullen, 6 September 1815, in Bolívar (ed.), Selected Writings, vol. I, p. 114.

64. http://web.archive.org/web/19970615224356/www.umich.edu/~proflame/ mirror/etext/bol2.html.

65. http://web.archive.org/web/19970615224356/www.umich.edu/ ~proflame/mirror/etext/bol5.html.

66. Lynch, Bolívar, p. 218.

67. Engerman and Sokoloff, ‘Once upon a Time in the Americas’.

68. Brown, Adventuring, figure 2.2.

69. Lynch, ‘Bolívar and the Caudillos’, pp. 16ff.

70. Data from Engerman and Sokoloff, ‘Once upon a Time in the Americas’.

71. Lynch, ‘Bolívar and the Caudillos’, p. 34.

72. Lynch, Bolívar, p. 276.

73. Cordeiro, ‘Constitutions’.

74. Engerman and Sokoloff, ‘Once upon a Time in the Americas’.

75. Fage, ‘Slavery and the Slave Trade’, p. 395.

76. Curtin, Plantation Complex, pp. 4–26.

77. Thornton and Heywood, Central Africans.

78. Curtin, Plantation Complex, p. 26; Klein and Luna, Slavery in Brazil, p. 28. See also Prado, Colonial Background; Poppino, Brazil.

79. Schwartz, ‘Colonial Past’, p. 185.

80. Schwartz, Slaves, Peasants and Rebels, p. 46.

81. Graham, Patronage and Politics, p. 26.

82. Elkins, Slavery, p. 76.

83. Davis, ‘Slavery’, p. 72.

84. Thomas, Slave Trade, p. 633.

85. Davis, ‘Slavery’, p. 78.

86. Schwartz, Slaves, Peasants and Rebels, p. 42.

87. Elkins, Slavery, p. 40.

88. Ibid., p. 50.

89. Elliott, Empires of the Atlantic World, p. 283.

90. Davis, ‘Slavery’, p. 125.

91. Walvin, Black Ivory, pp. 16f.

92. See Rostworowski, Doña Francisca Pizarro.

93. Wang et al., ‘Geographic Patterns’.

94. Carvajal-Carmona et al., ‘Strong Amerind/White Sex Bias’; Bedoya et al., ‘Admixture Dynamics’.

95. Ferguson, War of the World, pp. 20–22.

96. Creel, Peculiar People.

97. Eltis, ‘Volume and Structure’, table 1.

98. Schaefer, Genealogical Encyclopaedia; Thornton and Heywood, Central Africans.

99. Langley, Americas in the Age of Revolution, p. 240. Emphasis added.

100. Sam Roberts, ‘Projections Put Whites in Minority in U.S. by 2050’, New York Times, 18 December 2009.

101. Haber, ‘Development Strategy’.

CHAPTER 4: MEDICINE

1. For a classic formulation, see Jules Ferry’s speech of 28 July 1885, quoted in Brunschwig, French Colonialism, pp. 76f.

2. Gandhi, Hind Swaraj, ch. VI.

3. Twain, Following the Equator, p. 321.

4. Lenin, Imperialism, ch. X.

5. Collier, Bottom Billion.

6. Moyo, Dead Aid. See also Easterly, White Man’s Burden.

7. Gandhi, Collected Works, vol. LIV, pp. 233f. http://www.gandhiserve.org/cwmg/VOL054.PDF.

8. Riley, ‘Health Transitions’, esp. figure 2, table 1.

9. Ibid., pp. 750, 752.

10. Shaw, ‘Preface on Doctors’, pp. lxvii–lxviii.

11. Burke, Reflections, p. 151.

12. Ferguson, Ascent of Money, p. 154.

13. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/rightsof.asp.

14. Burke, Reflections, pp. 190f.

15. Rousseau, Social Contract.

16. Burke, Reflections, p. 291.

17. Schama, Citizens, remains the most readable English account.

18. Tocqueville, Democracy in America, pp. 148–51.

19. Ibid., p. 153.

20. Carter et al., (eds.), Historical Statistics of the United States, table Ed1-5.

21. http://users.erols.com/mwhite28/wars18c.htm.

22. All quotations from Clausewitz, On War, Book I, chs. 1, 2, 7; Book III, ch. 17; Book VII, chs. 4, 5, 6, 22; Book VIII, chs. 1–9.

23. Acemoglu et al., ‘Consequences of Radical Reform’.

24. McLynn, Napoleon, p. 664.

25. Lieven, Russia against Napoleon.

26. Ferguson, Ascent of Money, pp. 81f.

27. Taylor, ‘1848 Revolutions’.

28. Blanton et al., ‘Colonial Style’.

29. Crowder, Senegal, pp. 6f., 14f.; Cruise O’Brien, White Society, p. 39.

30. Klein, Islam and Imperialism, p. 118.

31. R. L. Buell, The Native Problem in Africa (1928), quoted in Crowder, Senegal, p. 23.

32. Cruise O’Brien, White Society, p. 33.

33. Gifford and Louis, France and Britain, p. 672.

34. Cohen, Rulers of Empire, ch. 1.

35. Brunschwig, ‘French Exploration and Conquest’.

36. Conklin, Mission, p. 13.

37. Fonge, Modernization without Development, p. 66.

38. Ibid.

39. Berenson, Heroes of Empire, pp. 197f.

40. Joireman, ‘Inherited Legal Systems’.

41. Cohen, Rulers of Empire, pp. 79f.

42. Asiwaju, West African Transformations, p. 60.

43. Taithe, Killer Trail.

44. Echenberg, Colonial Conscripts, p. 18.

45. Cohen, Rulers of Empire, p. 38.

46. Lunn, Memoirs of the Maelstrom, p. 62.

47. Marr, Vietnamese Anticolonialism. For full English text, see www.fsmitha.com/h2/y14viet.html.

48. Gardiner, ‘French Impact on Education’, p. 341.

49. Sabatier, ‘ “Elite” Education in French West Africa’.

50. See in general Acemoglu et al., ‘Disease and Development’.

51. Iliffe, Africans, p. 70.

52. Cohen, Rulers of Empire, p. 23.

53. MacLeod and Lewis (eds.), Disease, Medicine and Empire, p. 7.

54. Punch, 16 September 1903.

55. MacLeod and Lewis (eds.), Disease, Medicine and Empire.

56. Echenberg, ‘Medical Science’; Marcovich, French Colonial Medicine.

57. See e.g. Beck, ‘Medicine and Society’.

58. Conklin, Mission, pp. 56f.

59. Ibid., pp. 51ff.

60. Ibid., pp. 48ff.

61. Robiquet (ed.), Discours et opinions, pp. 199–201, 210–11.

62. Cohen, Rulers of Empire, p. 74.

63. Ibid., p. 77.

64. Van Beusekom, Negotiating Development, p. 6.

65. Schneider, ‘Smallpox in Africa’.

66. Ngalamulume, ‘Keeping the City Totally Clean’, p. 199.

67. Wright, Conflict on the Nile. See also Daly, ‘Omdurman and Fashoda’; Chipman, French Power, p. 53.

68. Gide, Travels in the Congo, p. 35.

69. Crowder, Senegal, pp. 4ff.

70. Yansané, ‘Impact of France’, p. 350; Gifford and Louis, France and Britain, p. 697.

71. Betts, ‘Establishment of the Medina’; Cruise O’Brien, White Society, p. 54. Cf. Smith, Vietnam, pp. 88f.

72. Cohen, Rulers of Empire, p. 49. Cf. Betts, Assimilation and Association, pp. 64, 152.

73. Echenberg, Black Death.

74. Rohrbach, Deutsche Kolonialwirtschaft, vol. I, pp. 330–33. Cf. Steer, Judgment, p. 61.

75. Madley, ‘Patterns’, p. 169.

76. Deutsch, Emancipation without Abolition.

77. Steer, Judgment, pp. 55ff.

78. Seiner, Bergtouren, pp. 267–78.

79. Olusoga and Erichsen, Kaiser’s Holocaust, p. 118.

80. Gewald, Herero Heroes, pp. 146ff.

81. Rust, Krieg und Frieden, pp. 6–15; Anon., Rheinische Mission, pp. 10–16; Leutwein, Elf Jahre Gouverneur, pp. 466–7; Kuhlmann, Auf Adlers Flügeln, pp. 42f.

82. Olusoga and Erichsen, Kaiser’s Holocaust, p. 139.

83. Full text in Gewald, ‘Great General’, p. 68.

84. Zimmerer, ‘First Genocide’, p. 37.

85. Gewald, Herero Heroes, p. 173. For a contemporary German account, Bayer, Mit dem Hauptquartier, pp. 161–7.

86. Drechsler, Südwestafrika unter deutscher Kolonialherrschaft, pp. 251–79. Cf. Olusoga and Erichsen, Kaiser’s Holocaust, p. 235.

87. Ibid., p. 224.

88. Fischer, Rehobother Bastards, pp. 302f.

89. Eiermann, ‘The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly’.

90. Rohrbach, Aus Südwest-Afrikas schweren Tagen, pp. 177f.

91. For a good overview of a now large literature, see Madley, ‘From Africa to Auschwitz’.

92. The point is well made in Mazower, Dark Continent.

93. Strachan, First World War in Africa.

94. Strachan, To Arms, p. 95.

95. Conklin, Mission, pp. 146–59.

96. Lunn, Memoirs of the Maelstrom, p. 78.

97. Ibid., p. 69.

98. Ibid., p. 71.

99. Ibid., p. 139.

100. Eichacker, ‘Blacks Attack!’

101. Smith et al., France and the Great War, p. 128.

102. Lunn, Memoirs of the Maelstrom, p. 140.

103. Winter, Great War, p. 75; Beckett and Simpson (eds.), Nation in Arms, p. 11.

104. Kipling, ‘France at War’, pp. 341f.

105. See in general McCullum, Military Medicine.

106. Olusoga and Erichsen, Kaiser’s Holocaust, pp. 284f.

107. Evans, ‘Anthropology at War’.

108. Madley, ‘From Africa to Auschwitz’, pp. 453ff. See in general Weindling, Health, Race and German Politics.

109. Mazower, Hitler’s Empire, pp. 147, 584.

110. Levine, ‘Film and Colonial Memory’.

111. Riley, ‘Health Transitions’, table 4.

112. Iliffe, Africans, pp. 251–3.

113. Singer and Langdon, Cultured Force, p. 20.

114. Tai, ‘Politics of Compromise’.

115. Saxe, ‘Changing Economic Structure’.

116. Centre d’Informations Documentaires, Work of France, p. 17.

117. Hochschild, Leopold’s Ghost.

118. Mazower, Hitler’s Empire, p. 205.

119. Ibid., pp. 152, 286.

120. Ibid., p. 137.

121. Ibid., p. 149.

122. Ibid., p. 256.

123. Ibid., p. 248.

124. Fieldhouse, Black Africa.

CHAPTER 5: CONSUMPTION

1. Okuefuna, Wonderful World of Albert Kahn.

2. Galeano, Open Veins, p. 47.

3. Crafts, ‘British Economic Growth’, table 6.1.

4. Clark, Farewell to Alms, figure 9.2.

5. Gildea, Barricades and Borders, pp. 6, 145, 181.

6. Mokyr, Industrial Revolution, p. 109.

7. Esteban, ‘Factory Costs’, figure 1.

8. Allen, British Industrial Revolution, p. 156.

9. Morris, Why the West Rules, p. 497.

10. Jones, ‘Living the Enlightenment’.

11. Morris, Why the West Rules, p. 491.

12. See especially McKendrick et al., Birth of a Consumer Society.

13. Berg, ‘Pursuit of Luxury’.

14. Vries, ‘Purchasing Power’.

15. Berg, ‘Imitation to Invention’.

16. Findlay and O’Rourke, Power and Plenty, tables 6.2 and 6.4.

17. La Porta et al., ‘Law and Finance’, ‘Investor Protection’ and ‘Economic Consequences’.

18. O’Brien et al., ‘Political Components’. See also Leunig, ‘British Industrial Success’, p. 93.

19. Guinnane et al., ‘Putting the Corporation in its Place’; Lamoreaux, ‘Scylla or Charybdis?’

20. Allen, British Industrial Revolution.

21. Parthasarathi, ‘Rethinking Wages’.

22. Pollard, Peaceful Conquest.

23. See Fowler Mohanty, Labor and Laborers of the Loom, esp. p. 76. On the wider ramifications of cotton cultivation, see Dattel, Cotton and Race.

24. Clark, Farewell to Alms, p. 267.

25. Farnie, ‘Role of Merchants’, pp. 20ff.

26. Darwin, Origin, chs. 3, 4 and 14.

27. Ferguson, ‘Evolutionary Approach’.

28. Carlyle, Past and Present, Book I, chs. 1–4, Book IV, chs. 4, 8.

29. Kaelble, Industrialization and Social Inequality.

30. Evans, Death in Hamburg.

31. Grayling, Light of Liberty, pp. 189–93.

32. Wilde, De Profundis, pp. 21, 23, 33.

33. Berger and Spoerer, ‘Economic Crises’.

34. See e.g. Fowler, Lancashire Cotton Operatives.

35. Allen, ‘Great Divergence in European Wages’. I am grateful to Robert Allen for sharing his wage data with me.

36. Allen et al., ‘Wages, Prices, and Living Standards’.

37. Mazzini, ‘To the Italians’.

38. Bismarck, Reminiscences, Vol. I, ch. 13.

39. Schorske, Fin-de-Siècle Vienna.

40. H. C. Martin, ‘Singer Memories’: http://www.singermemories.com/index.html.

41. Maddison, World Economy, tables B-10, B-21.

42. Kennedy, Rise and Fall, p. 190.

43. Bairoch, ‘International Industrialization Levels’.

44. Broadberry, ‘Total Factor Productivity’.

45. Fordham, ‘ “Revisionism” Reconsidered’.

46. Clark and Feenstra, ‘Technology in the Great Divergence’, table 8.

47. Dyos and Aldcroft, British Transport, table 4.

48. Maurer and Yu, Big Ditch, p. 145.

49. Clark and Feenstra, ‘Technology in the Great Divergence’.

50. Clark, Farewell to Alms, table 15.3.

51. McKeown, ‘Global Migration’, p. 156.

52. Carter et al. (eds.), Historical Statistics of the United States, tables Ad354–443.

53. Mitchell, Abstract of British Historical Statistics, pp. 333f.

54. I am grateful to Simon Cundey of Henry Poole for giving me sight of the firm’s old order books and other useful documents.

55. Beasley, Japan Encounters the Barbarian.

56. See Hirano, State and Cultural Transformation, p. 124.

57. Keene, Emperor of Japan, p. 12. See the 1873 photograph of the Emperor by Uchida Kyuichi: http://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/21f/21f.027j/throwing_off_asia_01/ emperor_02.html.

58. Malony, ‘Modernity, Gender and Empire’.

59. See Illustration of the Ceremony Promulgating the Constitution, unknown artist (1890).

60. Penn State University, Making Japanese online resource, http://www.east-asian-history.net/textbooks/MJ/ch3.htm.

61. Keene, Emperor of Japan, p. 295.

62. Gong, Standard of ‘Civilization’.

63. Keene, Emperor of Japan, p. 194.

64. Japan Cotton Spinners’ Association, Cotton Statistics of Japan: 1903–1924, table 1.

65. Wall, Japan’s Century, p. 17.

66. Kamisaka, Cotton Mills and Workers.

67. Moser, Cotton Textile Industry, p. 30.

68. Ibid.

69. Farnie, ‘Role of Cotton Textiles’.

70. Clark and Feenstra, ‘Technology in the Great Divergence’. On American productivity, see Copeland, ‘Technical Development’.

71. See e.g. Moser, Cotton Textile Industry, p. 102. See also Wolcott and Clark, ‘Why Nations Fail’.

72. Upadhyay, Existence, Identity and Mobilization.

73. A fine example is Mizono Toshikata’s woodblock print in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

74. Meech-Pekarik, World of the Meiji Print, p. 145.

75. From Lenin, The State and Revolution (1918).

76. Cole et al., ‘Deflation and the International Great Depression’.

77. Friedman and Schwartz, Monetary History of the United States.

78. Keynes, Tract on Monetary Reform (1924).

79. Tooze, Wages of Destruction.

80. For further details, see Ferguson, War of the World.

81. Harrison, Economics of World War II.

82. Westad, Global Cold War.

83. Ferguson, War of the World, pp. 606–17.

84. Data from Singer and Small, Correlates of War.

85. Piketty and Saez, ‘Income Inequality’, esp. figure 20.

86. Hyman, ‘Debtor Nation’.

87. I am grateful to my colleague Diego Comin for these figures.

88. Sullivan, Jeans, pp. 9, 77.

89. Ibid., pp. 214f.

90. ‘Coca-Cola as Sold Throughout the World’, Red Barrel, 8, 3 (March 1929).

91. See Allen, Secret Formula, p. 325.

92. Interview with the author, 2009. See also Wolle, Traum von der Revolte, esp. pp. 56–61.

93. Debray, ‘The Third World’, http://www.digitalnpq.org/archive/1986_spring/kalashnikov.html

94. Suri, Power and Protest.

95. Kurlansky, 1968.

96. Marshall, Demanding the Impossible, pp. 551ff.

97. For 1968 graffiti, see http://www.bopsecrets.org/CF/graffiti.htm.

98. Greer, Female Eunuch, p. 322.

99. Sullivan, Jeans, p. 131.

100. Interview with author, 2009.

101. Interview with author, 2009.

102. Ramet, ‘Rock Music in Czechoslovakia’, pp. 59, 63.

103. Poiger, Jazz, Rock and Rebels, pp. 62ff.

104. Safanov, ‘Revolution’.

105. Siefert, ‘From Cold War to Wary Peace’.

106. Interview with author, 2009.

107. Bergson, ‘How Big was the Soviet GDP?’ See in general Cox (ed.), Rethinking the Soviet Collapse.

108. Fukuyama, End of History.

109. Gaddis, Cold War.

110. Charlotte Sector, ‘Belarusians Wear Jeans in Silent Protest’, ABC News, 13 January 2006.

111. Interview with author, 2009.

112. Ferdows, ‘Women and the Islamic Revolution’; Nashat, ‘Women in the Islamic Republic’.

113. Ebadi, Iran Awakening, pp. 41f.

CHAPTER 6: WORK

1. Gibbon, Decline and Fall, ch. 31, Parts III and IV.

2. Scaff, ‘Remnants of Romanticism’.

3. Weber, Max Weber, p. 292.

4. Weber, Protestant Ethic, pp. 112, 154.

5. Ibid., p. 119.

6. Ibid., p. 24. For a modern restatement, see Koch and Smith, Suicide of the West, pp. 184f.

7. Weber, Protestant Ethic, p. 180.

8. Ibid., pp. 70f.

9. Ibid., p. 166. See Chiswick, ‘Economic Progress’.

10. Tawney, Religion and the Rise of Capitalism.

11. Cantoni, ‘Economic Effects’.

12. Delacroix and Nielsen, ‘Beloved Myth’. See also Iannaccone, ‘Introduction’.

13. Young, ‘Religion and Economic Growth’.

14. Grier, ‘Effect of Religion on Economic Development’.

15. Becker and Wössmann, ‘Was Weber Wrong?’

16. Trevor-Roper, ‘Religion, the Reformation and Social Change’.

17. Woodberry, ‘Shadow of Empire’.

18. Guiso et al., ‘People’s Opium?’

19. Barro and McCleary, ‘Religion and Economic Growth’.

20. World Bank, World Development Indicators online.

21. Ferguson, ‘Economics, Religion and the Decline of Europe’.

22. Data from the Conference Board Total Economy Database, September 2010, http://www.conference-board.org/data/economydatabase/. See also OECD.Stat and various OECD publications.

23. World Values Survey Association, World Values Survey.

24. Chesterton, Short History, p. 104.

25. Bruce, God is Dead, p. 67.

26. Data from http://www.cofe.anglican.org/news/pr2009.html.

27. See Brown, Death of Christian Britain, esp. p. 191. See also the essays in McLeod and Ustorf (eds.), Decline of Christendom.

28. Bruce, God is Dead, p. 65.

29. Davie, Religion in Britain, pp. 119, 121.

30. Davie, Europe: The Exceptional Case, pp. 6f.

31. The celebrated interview quoted in the first epigraph was by Maureen Cleave, ‘How Does a Beatle Live? John Lennon Lives Like This’, Evening Standard, 4 March 1966.

32. See Barro and McCleary, ‘Religion and Political Economy’.

33. Tolstoy, Kingdom of God, p. 301.

34. Freud, Future of an Illusion, p. 25.

35. Ibid., p. 30.

36. Ibid., p. 34.

37. Ibid., p. 84.

38. Freud, Civilization, pp. 55, 59, 69.

39. Szasz, Anti-Freud: Karl Kraus’s Criticism of Psychoanalysis and Psychiatry.

40. Attendance is down from 25–55 per cent in the 1970s to 18–22 per cent today, but religion is clearly consumed in myriad ways (television and internet evangelists) undreamt of forty years ago: Putnam and Campbell, American Grace, pp. 74, 105.

41. Sheehan, ‘Liberation and Redemption’, p. 301.

42. Putnam and Campbell, American Grace, p. 326.

43. Barro and McCleary, ‘Which Countries Have State Religions?’

44. Iannaconne, ‘Introduction’; Davie, Europe: The Exceptional Case, pp. 43ff. For a popular account, see Micklethwait and Wooldridge, God is Back, esp. p. 175.

45. Smith, Wealth of Nations, Book V, ch. I.

46. Micklethwait and Wooldridge, God is Back, p. 175.

47. Zakaria, Future of Freedom, pp. 199ff.

48. Putnam and Campbell, American Grace, p. 137.

49. Weber, Protestant Ethic, pp. 115, 117.

50. For an historically informed account of the crisis, see Ferguson, Ascent of Money.

51. Different estimates in Aikman, Beijing Factor, pp. 7f.

52. Bays, ‘Chinese Protestant Christianity’, p. 182.

53. Aikman, Beijing Factor, pp. 141f.

54. Ibid., p. 285.

55. Ibid., pp. 20–34.

56. Morrison, Memoirs, pp. 77f., 288f.

57. Ibid., pp. 335ff.

58. Cohen, China and Christianity.

59. Taylor, Hudson Taylor, pp. 144f.

60. Stott, Twenty-six Years, pp. 26–54.

61. Austin, China’s Millions, pp. 4–10, 86–90, 167–9.

62. Ng, ‘Timothy Richard’, p. 78.

63. Austin, China’s Millions, p. 192. See also Steer, J. Hudson Taylor.

64. See in general Kuang-sheng, Antiforeignism.

65. Thompson, Reluctant Exodus, esp. pp. 45–50.

66. Aikman, Beijing Factor, pp. 53f.

67. Dikötter, Mao’s Great Famine.

68. Zuo, ‘Political Religion’, p. 101.

69. Aikman, Beijing Factor, pp. 159, 162, 215.

70. See Chen and Huang, ‘Emergence’, pp. 189, 196; Bays, ‘Chinese Protestant Christianity’, pp. 194–6.

71. Interview with the author, 2010. See also Fenggang, ‘Lost in the Market’, p. 425.

72. Jianbo and Fenggang, ‘The Cross Faces the Loudspeakers’.

73. Jiwei, Dialectic of the Chinese Revolution, pp. 150ff.

74. Simon Elegant, ‘The War for China’s Soul’, Time, 20 August 2006. See also Bays, ‘Chinese Protestant Christianity’.

75. Aikman, Beijing Factor, pp. 73–89.

76. Fenggang, ‘Cultural Dynamics’, p. 49. See also Sheila Melvin, ‘Modern Gloss on China’s Golden Age’, New York Times, 3 September 2007; Timothy Garton Ash, ‘Confucius Can Speak to Us Still – And Not Just about China’, Guardian, 9 April 2009.

77. Christian Solidarity Worldwide, China: Persecution of Protestant Christians in the Approach to the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games (June 2008); Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor, International Religious Freedom Report, 2007 (2007).

78. Hunter and Chan, Protestantism in Contemporary China, p. 23. See also Yihua, ‘Patriotic Protestants’.

79. Simon Elegant, ‘The War for China’s Soul’, Time, 20 August 2006. See also Potter, ‘Belief in Control’.

80. Evan Osnos, ‘Jesus in China: Christianity’s Rapid Rise’, Chicago Tribune, 22 June 2008.

81. Hunter and Chan, Protestantism in Contemporary China, p. 6.

82. Peng, ‘Unreconciled Differences’, pp. 162f.; Zhao, ‘Recent Progress of Christian Studies’.

83. Aikman, Beijing Factor, p. 5.

84. Zhuo, ‘Significance of Christianity’, p. 258.

85. Aikman, Beijing Factor, pp. 245ff.

86. Evan Osnos, ‘Jesus in China: Christianity’s Rapid Rise’, Chicago Tribune, 22 June 2008.

87. Bao, ‘Intellectual Influence of Christianity’, p. 274.

88. Aikman, Beijing Factor, p. 17.

89. Chesterton, ‘Miracle of Moon Crescent’, p. 116.

90. Craig Whitlock, ‘2 British Suspects Came from Africa’, Washington Post, 27 July 2005.

91. Barber, Jihad vs. McWorld.

92. Cox and Marks, The West, Islam and Islamism.

93. Pew Forum, Muslim Networks, p. 6.

94. Tony Barber, ‘Tensions Unveiled’, Financial Times, 16 November 2010, p. 9.

95. Calculated from figures in the UK Labour Force Survey and the United Nations Population Prospects middle projection. See also ‘Muslim Population “Rising 10 Times Faster than Rest of Society” ’, The Times, 30 January 2009.

96. Caldwell, Reflections.

97. Pew Forum, Muslim Networks, pp. 20–56.

98. Simcox et al., Islamist Terrorism.

99. See Goldsworthy, How Rome Fell; Heather, Fall of the Roman Empire.

100. Ward-Perkins, Fall of Rome.

101. Chesterton, ‘Patriotic Idea’, p. 618; Shaw, Back to Methuselah, pp. xv–xvi.

CONCLUSION: THE RIVALS

1. Hexter, ‘Seyssel, Machiavelli, and Polybius’.

2. Goldstone, ‘Cultural Orthodoxy’, pp. 129f.; Goldstone, Revolution and Rebellion, p. 354.

3. Bolingbroke, Patriot King, p. 273.

4. Sorokin, Social and Cultural Dynamics.

5. Quigley, Tragedy and Hope, pp. 3f. See also Quigley, Evolution of Civilizations.

6. Kennedy, Rise and Fall, p. xvi.

7. Diamond, Collapse, p. 158.

8. For an interesting critique, see Joseph A. Tainter’s review in Current Anthropology, 46 (December 2005).

9. For an introduction see Mitchell, Complexity.

10. Ibid., p. 5. See also Holland, Emergence.

11. Buchanan, Ubiquity.

12. Waldrop, Complexity.

13. Taleb, ‘Fourth Quadrant’.

14. Krakauer et al. (eds.), History, Big History and Metahistory. Cf. Holland, Hidden Order.

15. Richardson, Statistics of Deadly Quarrels. For a modern review, see Hayes, ‘Statistics of Deadly Quarrels’ and the discussion in Pinker, Better Angels.

16. Kotkin, Armageddon Averted.

17. Guan and Li, ‘GDP and Economic Structure’.

18. Maddison, World Economy.

19. http://gcr.weforum.org/gcr2010/.

20. http://www.conference-board.org/data/economydatabase/.

21. I am grateful to Jim O’Neill at Goldman Sachs for providing me with the relevant dataset.

22. Martin Wolf, ‘Will China’s Rise Be Peaceful?’, Financial Times, 16 November 2010.

23. Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision, http://esa.un.org/unpp, 27 November 2010.

24. Huntington, Clash of Civilizations, tables 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 4.3, 4.5, 4.6.

25. Cecchetti et al., ‘Future of Public Debt’.

26. All details from Ferguson, Cash Nexus.

27. Congressional Budget Office, ‘Supplemental Data for the Congressional Budget Office’s Long-Term Budget Outlook’ (June 2010).

28. Marès, ‘Sovereign Subjects’, Exhibit 2.

29. Sargent, ‘Ends of Four Big Inflations’.

30. Eichengreen, Exorbitant Privilege.

31. http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/90776/90883/7179010.html.

32. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTOE6A301Q20101104.

33. http://www.businessweek.com/news/2010-11-09/china-researcher-says-u-s-s-qe2-is-financial-protectionism.html.

34. http://www.ustreas.gov/tic/mfh.txt.

35. Author’s calculations from CBO data.

36. Congressional Budget Office, ‘The Budget and Economic Outlook: An Update’ (August 2010), table 1.7.

37. Huntington, Clash of Civilizations.

38. Huntington, ‘Clash of Civilizations’, p. 22.

39. Sen, Identity and Violence; Berman, Terror and Liberalism. See also Edward Said, ‘The Clash of Ignorance’, Nation, 22 October 2001.

40. Tusicisny, ‘Civilizational Conflicts’.

41. Marshall and Gurr, Peace and Conflict, appendix, table 11.1.

42. See e.g. Luard, War in International Society.

43. David E. Sanger, ‘With Warning, Obama Presses China on Currency’, New York Times, 23 September 2010.

44. Alan Beattie, Joshua Chaffin and Kevin Brown, ‘Wen Warns against Renminbi Pressure’, Financial Times, 6 October 2010.

45. Ferguson and Schularick, ‘End of Chimerica’.

46. Jacques, When China Rules the World.

47. International Energy Agency, World Energy Outlook 2010 (London, 2010).

48. http://en.china.cn/content/d732706,cd7c6d,1912_6577.html.

49. Collier, Plundered Planet.

50. Raine, China’s African Challenges, p. 97.

51. Ibid., p. 164.

52. Economy, ‘Game Changer’, p. 149.

53. World Intellectual Property Organization, World Intellectual Property Indicators 2010 (Geneva, 2010): http://www.wipo.int/ipstats/en/statistics/patents/.

54. Mu Rongping, ‘China’, in UNESCO Science Report 2010, pp. 379–98.

55. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Survey of the UK (October 2005).

56. Institution of Education Sciences, Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (2007).

57. Pew Global Attitudes Project, ‘The Chinese Celebrate their Roaring Economy, as They Struggle with its Costs’, 22 July 2008: http://pewglobal.org/2008/07/22/.

58. Nicholas Eberstadt, ‘China’s Family Planning Policy Goes Awry’, American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 23 November 2010: http://www.aei.org/article/101389.

59. Economy, ‘Game Changer’.

60. Pew Research Center for People and the Press, ‘Public Sees a Future Full of Promise and Peril’, 22 June 2010: http://people-press.org/report/?pageid=1740.

61. Zakaria, Post-American World.

62. Rongping, ‘China’, p. 395.

63. Churchill, ‘Civilization’, pp. 45f.

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