Illustrations

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1. Petty warring kingdoms: England and France clash yet again in the Hundred Years’ War

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2. The Four Conditions of Society: Poverty by Jean Bourdichon, c. 1500

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3. The Triumph of Death by Peter Bruegel the Elder, c. 1562

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4. The Yongle Emperor

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5. Su Song’s water clock in the Forbidden City, Beijing

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6. A game of Chinese golf (chuiwan)

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7. The qilin: the Sultan of Malindi’s tribute to the Middle Kingdom

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8. The culture of conformity: the Chinese civil service examination in the reign of the Jen Tsung Emperor

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9. The victor of the spice race: Vasco da Gama’s tomb, monastery of St Jerome, Lisbon

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10. Earl Macartney vainly seeks to arouse the Xianlong Emperor’s interest in Western civilization: a cartoon by James Gillray

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11. Jan Sobieski’s men raise the Ottoman siege of Vienna

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12. Prisoner of the harem: Sultan Osman III

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13. The Ottoman envoy Ahmed Resmî Effendi’s arrival in Berlin, 1763

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14. The original manuscript of Frederick the Great’s Anti-Machiavel, with annotations by Voltaire

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15. Pages from the German edition of Benjamin Robins’s New Principles of Gunnery

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16. The city the Spaniards failed to find: Machu Picchu, Peru

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17. Boneyard Beach, South Carolina

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18. You do the work … Millicent How’s indenture document

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19. … you get the land: Abraham Smith’s land grant

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20. The American dream: a piece of Charleston

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21. Conquistador: Jerónimo de Aliaga

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22. The Washington who wasn’t: Simón Bolívar as seen in present-day Caracas

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23. The scars of slavery in the United States

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24. The baguette as a legacy of empire: Saint-Louis, Senegal

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25. The black sheep who beat the white sheep: Blaise Diagne, the first black member of the French National Assembly

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26. Louis Faidherbe, Governor of Senegal, ponders his mission civilisatrice

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27. Tirailleurs Sénégalais proudly show off their samples

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28. Médecins Sans Frontières, imperial style: French doctors brave the tropics

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29. Three photographs of ‘Bastard’ women from the German racial theorist Eugen Fischer’s study of the Rehoboth Basters

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30. ‘I didn’t know what the war was really like’: a Senegalese tirailleur on the Western Front

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31. Lüderitz, Namibia

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32. The sartorial world we have lost: a young woman on horseback, Urga [Ulan Bator], Mongolia, 1913, taken by Stéphane Passet for Albert Kahn’s ‘archives of the planet’

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33. Two princes in Savile Row: Hirohito and Edward

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34. The Meiji makeover, 1: Observance of His Imperial Majesty of the Military Manoeuvres of Combined Army and Navy Forces, Yōshū Chikanobu, 1890

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35. The Meiji makeover, 2: Ladies Sewing, Adachi Ginkō, 1887

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36. James Dean unleashes the jeans genie in Giant

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37. Levi’s® London flagship store, 174–176 Regent Street

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38. ‘They are afraid of freedom. / They are afraid of democracy… So why the hell are we afraid of them?’ The Plastic People of the Universe rock Soviet communism

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39. Headscarves on dummies in Istanbul

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40. In search of the Protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism: Max Weber in America

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41. American cornucopia: The St Louis World’s Fair, 1904

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42. The Word comes to Wenzhou: China Inland Mission Students with their teacher, c. 1900

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43. The cartography of salvation: an American missionary’s map of South-east China

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44. A scene of death and destruction from the Taiping Rebellion

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45. Mass-producing scripture: the Nanjing Amity Bible Printing Company

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46. Industrial Revelation: China today

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47. The end of Western predominance: President Barack Obama bows to Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao, November 2009

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