NOTES

CHAPTER TWO:

THE LONG WALK OF THE NAVAHOS

1. U.S. Congress. 49th. 1st session. House of Representatives Executive Document 263, p. 14.

2. U.S. Congress. 39th. 2nd session. Senate Report 156, p. 314.

3. Official record. The War of the Rebellion. Series I, Vol. 15, p. 580.

4. U.S. Interior Dept., Report, 1863, pp. 544–45; Document published in Kelly, Lawrence C. Navajo Roundup. Boulder, Pruett, 1970; Cremony, John C. Life Among the Apaches. San Francisco, 1868, p. 201.

5. U.S. Congress. 39th. 2nd session. Senate Report 156, p. 103.

6. Ibid., pp. 108, 116.

7. Ibid., pp. 136, 139.

8. Document in Kelly, Navajo Roundup; Bailey, Lynn R. Long Walk. Los Angeles, Westernlore, 1964, p. 157; Senate Report 156, p. 141.

9. Senate Report 156, pp. 153–54, 255; Document in Kelly, Navajo Roundup.

10. U.S. Congress. 49th. 1st session. House of Representatives Executive Document 263, p. 15.

11. Senate Report 156, pp. 144, 157, 162–67, 174, 179, 183–84, 259–60; Bailey, Long Walk, pp. 164–66; Document in Kelly, Navajo Roundup; Kelleher, William A. Turmoil in New Mexico, 1846–1868. Santa Fe, Rydal Press, 1952, p. 441.

12. Ibid., pp. 221–22.

13. Ibid., p. 223.

14. U.S. Office of Indian Affairs. Report, 1867, p. 190.

15. U.S. Congress. 49th. 1st session. House of Representatives Executive Document 263, p. 15.

CHAPTER THREE:

LITTLE CROW’S WAR

1. “Big Eagle’s Story of the Sioux Outbreak of 1862.” Minnesota Historical Society, Collections. Vol. VI, 1894, p. 385.

2. Folwell, William W. A History of Minnesota. St. Paul, Minnesota Historical Society, 1924. Vol. II, p. 232.

3. Ibid., p. 233. Meyer, Roy W. History of the Santee Sioux. Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1967, p. 114.

4. “Big Eagle’s Story,” p. 389.

5. “Ta-oya-te-duta Is Not a Coward.” Minnesota History, Vol. 38, 1962, p. 115.

6. “Big Eagle’s Story,” p. 390.

7. Carley, Kenneth, ed. “As Red Men Viewed It; Three Indian Accounts of the Uprising.” Minnesota History, Vol. 38, 1962, p. 144.

8. Ibid., pp. 144–45.

9. Ibid., pp. 145–46.

10. Ibid., p. 148.

11. Ibid., p. 146.

12. “Big Eagle’s Story,” pp. 394–97.

13. Heard, Isaac V. D. History of the Sioux War. New York, Harper & Brothers, 1864, p. 147.

14. Carley, Kenneth. The Sioux Uprising of 1862. St. Paul, Minnesota Historical Society, 1961, p. 54.

15. Heard, pp. 147–48.

16. Riggs, S. R. “Narrative of Paul Mazakootemane.” Minnesota Historical Society, Collections, Vol. III, 1880, pp. 84–85.

17. Heard, pp. 151–52.

18. Ibid., p. 150.

19. “Big Eagle’s Story,” pp. 398–99. Sibley Order Book 35. Folwell, p. 182.

20. Oehler, C. M. The Great Sioux Uprising. New York, Oxford University Press, 1959, p. 197.

21. Riggs, p. 8.

22. Folwell, pp. 202–05. Oehler, p. 208.

23. Lincoln to Sibley, December 6, 1963.

24. Folwell, p. 211.

25. Heard, p. 284.

26. “Big Eagle’s Story,” pp. 399–400.

27. Heard, p. 311.

28. Ibid., p. 312. Trenerry, Walter N. “The Shooting of Little Crow: Heroism or Murder?” Minnesota History, Vol. 38, 1962, pp. 152–53.

29. Winks, Robin W. “The British North American West and the Civil War.” North Dakota History, Vol. 24, 1957, pp. 148–51. Folwell, pp. 443–50.

CHAPTER FOUR:

WAR COMES TO THE CHEYENNES

1. Grinnell, George Bird. The Fighting Cheyennes. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1956, pp. 145–46. Hyde, George E. Life of George Bent. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1968, pp. 131–32.

2. U.S. Congress. 39th. 2nd session. Senate Report 156, pp. 93–94.

3. Berthrong, Donald J. The Southern Cheyennes. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1963, p. 185.

4. U.S. Congress. 39th. 2nd session. Senate Report 156, p. 94.

5. Ibid., pp. 55–56.

6. U.S. Secretary of the Interior. Report, 1864, pp. 374–75.

7. Ibid., pp. 374, 377.

8. Hoig, Stan. The Sand Creek Massacre. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1961, p. 99.

9. Hyde, p. 142.

10. U.S. Congress. 39th. 2nd session. Senate Executive Document 26, p. 44.

11. Official record. The War of the Rebellion. Series I, Vol. 41, Pt. 3, p. 462.

12. U.S. Congress. 39th. 2nd session. Senate Report 156, p. 77.

13. Ibid., pp. 87–90.

14. Hyde, p. 146.

15. Berthrong, p. 213.

16. U.S. Congress. 39th. 2nd session. Senate Executive Document 26, p. 226.

17. U.S. Congress. 38th. 2nd session. Senate Report 142, p. 18.

18. U.S. Congress. 39th. 2nd session. Senate Executive Document 26, p. 25.

19. Ibid., p. 47. U.S. Congress. 39th. 2nd session. Senate Report 156, pp. 53, 74.

20. Ibid., p. 66.

21. George Bent to George E. Hyde, April 14, 1906 (Coe Collection, Yale University).

22. U.S. Congress. 39th. 2nd session. Senate Report 156, pp. 66, 73.

23. U.S. Congress. 39th. 2nd session. Senate Executive Document 26, p. 70.

24. U.S. Congress. 39th. 2nd session. Senate Report 156, pp. 73, 96.

25. Ibid., p. 53. Berthrong, p. 220.

26. Bent, George. “Forty Years with the Cheyennes.” The Frontier, Vol. IV, No. 6, December, 1905, p. 3. Hyde, pp. 152, 158–59.

27. U.S. Congress. 39th. 2nd session. Senate Executive Document 26, pp. 73–74.

28. Hyde, p. 177.

29. U.S. Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Report, 1871, p. 439.

30. U.S. Secretary of the Interior. Report, 1865, pp. 701–11.

31. Kappler, Charles J. Indian Affairs, Laws and Treaties. Vol. 2, pp. 887–88.

CHAPTER FIVE:

POWDER RIVER INVASION

1. Official record. The War of the Rebellion. Series I, Vol. 48, Pt. 2, pp. 1048–49.

2. Bent, George. “Forty Years with the Cheyennes.” The Frontier, Vol. IV, No. 7, January, 1906, p. 4.

3. Holman, Albert M. Pioneering in the Northwest. Sioux City, Iowa, 1924.

4. Bent, p. 5.

5. Ibid.

6. Grinnell, George Bird. The Fighting Cheyennes. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1956, pp. 210–11.

7. Humfreville, J. Lee. Twenty Years Among Our Hostile Indians. New York, Hunter and Co., 1903, p. 356.

8. Palmer, H. E. “History of the Powder River Indian Expedition of 1865.” Nebraska State Historical Society, Transactions and Reports, Vol. II, p. 216.

9. Grinnell, George Bird. Two Great Scouts and Their Pawnee Battalion. Cleveland, Arthur H. Clark Co., 1928, p. 117.

10. Hyde, George E. Life of George Bent. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1968, pp. 239–40.

11. Hafen, L. R. and Ann W. Powder River Campaign and Sawyers’ Expedition of 1865. Glendale, Calif., A. H. Clark Co., 1961, p. 97.

CHAPTER SIX:

RED CLOUD’S WAR

1. U.S. Congress. 40th. 2nd session. House Executive Document 97, p. 9.

2. U.S. Department of the Interior. Report, 1866, pp. 206–07.

3. Olson, James C. Red Cloud and the Sioux Problem. Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1965, p. 31.

4. U.S. Congress. 50th. 1st session. Senate Executive Document 33, p. 5.

5. Ibid., p. 18.

6. Carrington, Frances C. My Army Life and the Fort Phil Kearny Massacre. Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1911, pp. 291–92. Carrington, Margaret I. Ab-sa-ra-ka, Land of Massacre. Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1878, pp. 79–80.

7. Carrington, H. B. The Indian Question. Boston, 1909, p. 9.

8. U.S. Congress. 50th. 1st session. Senate Executive Document 33, pp. 20–21.

9. John Stands in Timber and Margot Liberty. Cheyenne Memories. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1967, p. 172.

10. Ibid., pp. 174–76. Hyde, George E. Life of George Bent. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1968, pp. 276–77.

11. Lockwood, James D. Life and Adventures of a Drummer Boy; or Seven Years a Soldier. Albany, N.Y., 1893, pp. 188–89.

12. Neihardt, John G. Black Elk Speaks. Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1961, p. 17.

13. Stanley, Henry M. My Early Travels and Adventures. New York, Scribner’s, 1895, Vol. I, pp. 201–16.

14. Simonin, Louis L. The Rocky Mountain West in 1867. Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1966, p. 107.

15. U.S. Congress. 40th. 2nd session. House Executive Document 97, p. 5. U.S. Congress. 41st. 3rd session. Senate Executive Document 39, pp. 63–66.

16. Omaha Weekly Herald, June 10, 1868.

17. U.S. Congress. 44th. 2nd session. Senate Executive Document 9, p. 38.

CHAPTER SEVEN:

“THE ONLY GOOD INDIAN IS A DEAD INDIAN”

1. Hyde, George E. Life of George Bent. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1968, p. 253.

2. Hancock, Winfield Scott. Reports of … upon Indian Affairs. 1867, pp. 45–46, 77.

3. Ibid., p. 47.

4. U.S. Secretary of the Interior. Report, 1867, p. 311.

5. Hyde, p. 259.

6. U.S. Secretary of the Interior. Report, 1867, p. 312.

7. Stanley, Henry M. My Early Travels and Adventures. New York, Scribner’s, 1895, Vol. I, pp. 37–38. Grinnell, George B. The Fighting Cheyennes. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1956, pp. 250–52.

8. U.S. Congress. 40th. 2nd session. House Executive Document 97, p. 12.

9. U.S. Congress. 40th. 1st session. Senate Executive Document 13, pp. 11–12, 95, 121.

10. Berthrong, Donald J. The Southern Cheyennes. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1963, p. 294.

11. Chicago Tribune, November 4, 1867. Jones, Douglas C. The Treaty of Medicine Lodge. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1966, pp. 165–69.

12. Brill, Charles J. Conquest of the Southern Plains. Oklahoma City, 1938, p. 107.

13. Grinnell, p. 286.

14. Keim, De Benneville Randolph. Sheridan’s Troopers on the Borders. Philadelphia, McKay, 1885, p. 103.

15. U.S. War Department. Report, 1869, pp. 47–48.

16. Ibid., p. 48. Berthrong, p. 332.

17. Sheridan Papers, January 1, 1869, as quoted in Berthrong, pp. 333–34.

18. Ellis, Edward S. The History of Our Country. Indianapolis, 1900, Vol. 6, p. 1483.

CHAPTER EIGHT:

THE RISE AND FALL OF DONEHOGAWA

1. U.S. Department of the Interior. Report, 1870, pp. 672–82. U.S. Congress. 41st. 3rd session. Senate Executive Document 39, p. 2.

2. Parker, Arthur C. The Life of General Ely S. Parker. Buffalo, N.Y., Buffalo Historical Society, 1919, pp. 102–03.

3. U.S. Congress. 41st. 3rd session. Senate Executive Document 39, pp. 38–39.

4. Ibid., p. 39.

5. Ibid., pp. 40–41.

6. Ibid., pp. 42–44.

7. The New York Times, June 17, 1870.

8. Olson, James C. Red Cloud and the Sioux Problem. Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1965, p. 127.

9. Cheyenne (Wyoming) Daily Leader, March 3,1870.

10. U.S. Congress. 41st. 3rd session. House of Representatives Report 39, p. 284.

CHAPTER NINE:

COCHISE AND THE APACHE GUERRILLAS

1. Conner, Daniel E. Joseph Reddeford Walker and the Arizona Adventure. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1956, p. 37.

2. McClintock, James H. Arizona. Chicago, 1916, Vol. I, pp. 176–78.

3. Conner, pp. 38–42.

4. U.S. Congress. 39th. 2nd session. Senate Report 156, pp. 305–06.

5. U.S. Secretary of the Interior. Report, 1871, p. 485.

6. Ibid., p. 486.

7. Ibid., p. 488.

8. U.S. Secretary of the Interior. Report, 1871, p. 470.

9. Ibid., pp. 475–79.

10. Ellis, A. N. “Recollections of an Interview with Cochise, Chief of the Apaches.” Kansas State Historical Society, Collections, Vol. 13, 1915, pp. 391–92.

11. Howard, O. O. My Life and Experiences Among Our Hostile Indians. Hartford, Conn., 1907, pp. 204–19.

12. Schmitt, Martin F., ed. General George Crook. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1946, p. 182.

13. Clum, Woodworth. Apache Agent, the Story of John P. Clum. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1936, pp. 99–100, 129.

14. Lockwood, Frank C. Pioneer Days in Arizona. New York, Macmillan, 1932, pp. 171–72.

CHAPTER TEN:

THE ORDEAL OF CAPTAIN JACK

1. U.S. Congress. 43rd. 1st session. House Executive Document 122, p. 173.

2. Riddle, Jeff C. The Indian History of the Modoc War. 1914, p. 44.

3. Ibid., pp. 45–46.

4. U.S. Congress. 43rd. 1st session. House Executive Document 122, p. 173.

5. Ibid., p. 174.

6. Ibid., pp. 50–51.

7. Riddle, p. 61.

8. Britt, Albert. Great Indian Chiefs. New York, Whittlesey House, 1938, pp. 235–36.

9. Sherman to Canby, March 12, 1873, as quoted in Murray, Keith A. The Modocs and Their War. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1959, pp. 156–57.

10. Meacham, A. B. Wigwam and Warpath, Boston, 1875, p. 441.

11. Ibid., pp. 444–52.

12. Riddle, pp. 69–77.

13. U.S. Congress. 43rd. 1st session. House Executive Document 122, pp. 140–41.

14. Riddle, pp. 90–91.

15. Ibid., pp. 143–44.

16. U.S. Congress. 43rd. 1st session. House Executive Document 122, p. 111.

17. Ibid., pp. 140–41.

CHAPTER ELEVEN:

THE WAR TO SAVE THE BUFFALO

1. Kappler, Charles J. Indian Affairs, Laws and Treaties. Vol. 2, p. 980.

2. Nye, W. S. Carbine and Lance. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1937, p. 95.

3. Leckie, William H. Military Conquest of the Southern Plains. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1963, p. 113.

4. Tatum, Lawrie. Our Red Brothers. Philadelphia, Winston, 1899, p. 29.

5. U.S. Bureau of American Ethnology. Annual Report, 17th, 1895–96, p. 208.

6. L. Tatum to E. Hoag, as quoted in Nye, pp. 173–74.

7. Nye, p. 179.

8. Ibid., p. 182.

9. Leckie, p. 151.

10. U.S. Bureau of American Ethnology. Annual Report, 17th, 1895–96, p. 329.

11. Carter, Captain R. G. On the Border with Mackenzie. New York, Antiquarian Press, 1961, pp. 355–56.

12. U.S. Department of the Interior. Report, 1872, p. 516.

13. Army and Navy Journal, Vol. 10, October 26, 1872, p. 165.

14. Battey, Thomas C. Life and Adventures of a Quaker Among the Indians. Boston, Lee and Shepard, 1891, p. 90.

15. Nye, p. 209.

16. Ibid., p. 219.

17. Battey, pp. 202–03.

18. Garretson, Martin S. The American Bison. New York Zoological Society, 1938, p. 128. Hornaday, W. T. The Extermination of the American Bison. Washington, Smithsonian Institution, 1889, pp. 496–501.

19. Nye, W. S. Bad Medicine and Good. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1962, pp. 179–80.

20. Ibid., p. 182.

21. Nye, Carbine and Lance, p. 246.

22. Battey, p. 296.

23. Nye, Carbine and Lance, p. 300.

CHAPTER TWELVE:

THE WAR FOR THE BLACK HILLS

1. New York Herald, August 27 and September 25, 1874.

2. Gilbert, Hila. “Big Bat” Fourier. Sheridan, Wyoming, Mills Company, 1968, p. 43.

3. Kappler, Charles J. Indian Affairs, Laws and Treaties. Vol. 2, p. 1002.

4. U.S. Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Report, 1875, p. 187.

5. Gilbert, p. 43.

6. Mills, Anson. My Story. Washington, D.C., 1918, p. 168.

7. U.S. Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Report, 1875, p. 199.

8. U.S. Congress. 44th. 1st session. House Executive Document 184, pp. 8–9.

9. U.S. Secretary of War. Report, 1875, p. 21.

10. U.S. Congress. 44th. 1st session. House Executive Document 184, pp. 10, 17–18.

11. U.S. Secretary of War. Report, 1876, p. 441.

12. Neihardt, John G. Black Elk Speaks. Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1961, p. 90.

13. Marquis, Thomas B. Wooden Leg, a Warrior Who Fought Custer. Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1957, pp. 165, 168. De Barthe, Joe. Life and Adventures of Frank Grouard. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1958, p. 98.

14. Garland, Hamlin. “General Custer’s Last Fight as Seen by Two Moon.” McClure’s Magazine, Vol. 11, 1898, p. 444.

15. Ibid., p. 445.

16. Marquis, p. 185.

17. Vestal, Stanley. Sitting Bull, Champion of the Sioux. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1957, pp. 150–51.

18. Neihardt, p. 106.

19. Marquis, p. 205.

20. U.S. Bureau of American Ethnology. Annual Report, 19th, 1888–89, p. 564.

21. McLaughlin, James. My Friend the Indian. Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1910, pp. 168–69.

22. Neihardt, pp. 108–09.

23. Leavenworth (Kansas) Weekly Times, August 18, 1881.

24. Garland, p. 446.

25. Robinson, D. W. “Editorial Notes on Historical Sketch of North and South Dakota.” South Dakota Historical Collections, Vol. I, 1902, p. 151.

26. St. Paul (Minnesota) Pioneer Press, July 18, 1886.

27. McLaughlin, pp. 172–73.

28. New York Herald, September 24, 1876. Easterwood, T. J. Memories of Seventy–Six. Dundee, Oregon, 1880, p. 15.

29. McLaughlin, p. 175.

30. Leavenworth (Kansas) Weekly Times, August 18, 1881.

31. U.S. Bureau of American Ethnology. Annual Report, 10th, 1888–89, p. 565.

32. Leavenworth (Kansas) Weekly Times, August 18, 1881.

33. New York Herald, November 16, 1877.

34. Graham, W. A. The Custer Myth. Harrisburg, Pa., Stackpole Co., 1953, p. 110.

35. U.S. Congress. 44th. 2nd session. Senate Executive Document 9, pp. 5, 31.

36. New York Herald, September 23, 1876.

37. U.S. Congress. 44th. 2nd session. Senate Executive Document 9, pp. 8, 38–40, 66.

38. De Barthe, pp. 157–58.

39. Mills, pp. 171–72.

40. U.S. Secretary of the Interior. Report, 1877, p. 724.

41. U.S. War Department. Military Division of the Missouri. Record of Engagements with Hostile Indians. 1882, p. 62.

CHAPTER THIRTEEN:

THE FLIGHT OF THE NEZ PERCÉS

1. Chief Joseph. “An Indian’s Views of Indian Affairs.” North American Review, Vol. 128, 1879, p. 417.

2. Ibid., p. 418.

3. U.S. Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Annual Report, 1873, p. 527.

4. Chief Joseph, p. 419.

5. U.S. Secretary of War. Annual Report, 1877, p. 594. McWhorter, Lucullus V. Yellow Wolf: His Own Story. Caldwell, Idaho, 1940, p. 39.

6. Chief Joseph, pp. 420, 423.

7. Ibid., p. 425.

8. Ibid., p. 426.

9. McWhorter, p. 144.

10. Shields, G. D. Battle of the Big Hole. Chicago, 1889, pp. 51–52.

11. McWhorter, pp. 120, 132.

12. Chief Joseph, p. 427.

13. McWhorter, p. 204.

14. Chief Joseph, pp. 425, 428.

15. U.S. Secretary of War. Report, 1877, p. 630.

16. Chief Joseph, p. 432.

17. Ibid.

CHAPTER FOURTEEN:

CHEYENNE EXODUS

1. Marquis, Thomas B. Wooden Leg, a Warrior Who Fought Custer. Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1957, p. 308.

2. Ibid., p. 310.

3. Ibid., p. 320.

4. U.S. Congress. 46th. 2nd session. Senate Report 708, pp. 153, 266, 269.

5. Ibid., pp. 267–68, 271–72.

6. Ibid., pp. 146–47, 217–19.

7. Ibid., p. 278. Grinnell, George B. The Fighting Cheyennes. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1956, p. 401.

8. Grinnell, p. 403.

9. Campbell, C. E. “Down Among the Red Men.” Kansas State Historical Society, Collections, Vol. 17, pp. 677–78.

10. U.S. Congress. 46th. 2nd session. Senate Report 708, p. 241.

11. Bronson, Edgar B. Reminiscences of a Ranchman. New York, McClure Company, 1908, pp. 167–69.

12. U.S. Congress. 46th. 2nd session. Senate Report 708, pp. 244, 251.

13. “Liquidation of Dull Knife.” Nebraska History, Vol. 22, 1941, pp. 109–10.

14. U.S. Congress. 46th. 2nd session. Senate Report 708, p. 242.

15. Ibid., p. 249.

16. Marquis, p. 333.

CHAPTER FIFTEEN:

STANDING BEAR BECOMES A PERSON

1. Howard, James H. The Ponca Tribe. (U.S. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 195.) Washington, D.C., 1965, p. 21.

2. U.S. Congress. 46th. 3rd session. Senate Executive Document 30, p. 7.

3. Ibid., pp. 14–15.

4. Ibid., p. 15.

5. Ibid., p. 31.

6. U.S. Secretary of the Interior. Report, 1877, p. 493.

7. U.S. Congress. 46th. 3rd session. Senate Executive Document 30, pp. 15,31.

8. U.S. Secretary of the Interior. Report, 1877, pp. 493–96.

9. U.S. Congress. 46th. 3rd session. Senate Executive Document 30, p. 16.

10. Tibbies, Thomas H. Buckskin and Blanket Days. New York. Doubleday, 1957, p. 197.

11. U.S. Secretary of War. Report, 1879, p. 78.

12. Tibbies, p. 198.

13. Sheldon, Addison E. Nebraska, the Land and the People. Chicago, Lewis, 1931, Vol. I, p. 117.

14. U.S. v. Crook, 5 Dillon, 453.

15. Foreman, Grant. The Last Trek of the Indians. Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1946, p. 253.

16. U.S. Secretary of the Interior. Report, 1880, pp. 22–25.

17. U.S. Congress. 46th. 3rd session. Senate Executive Document 14, p. 4.

18. Ibid., p. 5.

19. Ibid., pp. 5–6.

20. Ibid., p. 13.

21. Tibbies, p. 15.

CHAPTER SIXTEEN:

“THE UTES MUST GO!”

1. Sprague, Marshall. Massacre; the Tragedy at White River. Boston, Little, Brown, 1957, p. 92.

2. U.S. Secretary of the Interior. Report, 1873, pp. 465–79.

3. U.S. Secretary of the Interior. Report, 1879, p. 124.

4. U.S. Congress. 46th. 2nd session. House Executive Document 83. p. 66.

5. U.S. Secretary of the Interior. Report, 1879, pp. 124–25. Wellman. Paul. Death on Horseback. Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1947, p. 217.

6. Sprague, p. 157.

7. Ibid., p. 163.

8. U.S. Secretary of the Interior. Report, 1879, p. 84.

9. U.S. Congress. 46th. 2nd session. House Executive Document 84, p. 68.

10. Ibid., pp. 53–54.

11. Sprague, p. 176.

12. U.S. Congress. 46th. 2nd session. House Executive Document 84, pp. 7–8.

13. U.S. Congress. 46th. 2nd session. House Miscellaneous Document 38, p. 199.

14. U.S. Secretary of the Interior. Report, 1879, pp. 91–92.

15. U.S. Secretary of War. Report, 1879, p. 9.

16. U.S. Congress. 46th. 2nd session. House Miscellaneous Document 38, p. 193.

17. U.S. Congress. 46th. 2nd session. House Executive Document 83, p. 72.

18. U.S. Secretary of the Interior. Report, 1879, pp. 92–93.

19. U.S. Congress. 46th. 2nd session. House Executive Document 83, p. 62.

20. Ibid., p. 63.

21. U.S. Congress. 46th. 2nd session. House Miscellaneous Document 38, p. 14.

22. U.S. Secretary of the Interior. Report, 1879, p. 94.

23. Emmitt, Robert. The Last War Trail; the Utes and the Settlement of Colorado. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1954, pp. 234–35.

24. U.S. Congress. 46th. 2nd session. House Executive Report 83, p. 3.

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN:

THE LAST OF THE APACHE CHIEFS

1. Davis, Britton. The Truth About Geronimo. Chicago, Lakeside Press, 1951, p. 48.

2. Clum, Woodworth. Apache Agent; the Story of John P. Clum. Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1936, p. 198.

3. Barrett, S. M. Geronimo’s Story of His Life. New York, Duffield & Company, 1907, pp. 131–32.

4. U.S. Secretary of War. Report, 1877, p. 134.

5. Thrapp, Dan L. The Conquest of Apacheria. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1967, p. 179.

6. U.S. Secretary of War. Report, 1883, pp. 159–65.

7. Ibid., p. 167.

8. Betzinez, Jason, with W. S. Nye. I Fought with Geronimo. Harris-burg, Pa., Stackpole Company, 1959, p. 116.

9. Thrapp, p. 290.

10. Bourke, John G. An Apache Campaign in the Sierra Madre. New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1958, p. 114.

11. Betzinez and Nye, p. 122.

12. U.S. Congress. 51st. 1st session. Senate Executive Document 88, p. 12.

13. Ibid., p. 11. Betzinez and Nye, p. 129.

14. U.S. Congress. 51st. 1st session. Senate Executive Document 88, pp. 16–17.

15. Crook, George. Résumé of Operations Against Apache Indians, 1882 to 1886. Omaha, Nebraska, 1886, p. 12.

16. Betzinez and Nye, p. 135. Barrett, p. 139. U.S. Congress. 51st. 1st session. Senate Executive Document 83, p. 33.

17. Faulk, Odie B. The Geronimo Campaign. New York, Oxford University Press, 1969, pp. 125–26.

CHAPTER EIGHTEEN:

DANCE OF THE GHOSTS

1. Vestal, Stanley. Sitting Bull, Champion of the Sioux. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1957, p. 215.

2. U.S. Secretary of the Interior. Report, 1877, pp. 723–25.

3. Ibid., pp. 726–27.

4. Canada. House of Commons Debates, Session 1878, pp. 353–54.

5. Neihardt, John G. Black Elk Speaks. Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1961, p. 159.

6. DeBarthe, Joe. Life and Adventures of Frank Grouard. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1958, p. 248.

7. U.S. Congress. 48th. 1st session. Senate Report 283, p. 137.

8. Ibid., pp. 135–36, 149.

9. Ibid., pp. 139, 143, 158.

10. Ibid., pp. 71–72.

11. Ibid., pp. 79–81.

12. Glaspell, Kate E. “Incidents in the Life of a Pioneer.” North Dakota Historical Quarterly, Vol. 8, 1941, pp. 187–88.

13. Vestal, pp. 251, 255.

14. U.S. Congress. 51st. 1st session. Senate Executive Document 51, pp. 52, 58, 65.

15. Ibid., pp. 21, 203.

16. McLaughlin, James. My Friend the Indian. Boston, Houghton Mifflin Co., 1910, p. 285.

17. U.S. Congress. 51st. 1st session. Senate Executive Document 51, p. 213.

18. U.S. Bureau of Ethnology. Report, 14th, 1892–93, Part 2, p. 795.

19. Olson, James C. Red Cloud and the Sioux Problem. Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press, 1965, p. 326.

20. U.S. Bureau of Ethnology. Report, 14th, 1892–93, Part 2, p. 789.

21. U.S. Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Report, 1891, p. 333.

22. Schmitt, Martin F., and Dee Brown. Fighting Indians of the West. New York, Scribner’s, 1948, p. 335. Utley, Robert M. The Last Days of the Sioux Nation, New Haven, Yale University Press, 1963, p. 159.

CHAPTER NINETEEN:

WOUNDED KNEE

1. Utley, Robert M. The Last Days of the Sioux Nation. New Haven, Yale University Press, 1963, p. 195.

2. McGregor, James H. The Wounded Knee Massacre from the Viewpoint of the Survivors. Baltimore, Maryland, Wirth Brothers, 1940, pp. 105, 118, 134.

3. Utley, p. 210.

4. McGregor, pp. 106, 109, 126.

5. U.S. Bureau of Ethnology. Report, 14th, 1892–93, Part 2, p. 885.

6. McGregor, pp. Ill, 140.

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