FOOTNOTES

* Sadly young black Britons today face different forms of racism and lack of opportunity, perhaps more insidious and subtle but no less damaging.

*At various times in its history Bunce Island has been known as both ‘Bance’ and ‘Bence’. There is no definitive spelling.

* In a further slip in the European account of Africa, the region that became known as the Gold Coast, from which the gold of the Akan peoples of the interior did flow, was conflated with the ancient kingdom of Ghana, an error that was to be compounded when the Gold Coast took the name Ghana at independence despite lying many miles distant from ancient Ghana.

* Anthony Anes Pinteado’s fall from grace in Portugal may have been connected to his faith, as he may well have been a converso – an Iberian Jew who had converted to Catholicism to avoid persecution, yet who remained distrusted and relegated even after accepting the Catholic faith.

* The other, numerous follies of Anne were the subjects of a long series of satirical prints and the trope of the country girl corrupted into folly by the city was more generally a favourite of the Georgian era, as evidenced by Hogarth’s A Harlot’s Progress.

* As Kathleen Chater has pointed out this gender balance might be distorted by the fact that male slaves were more likely to abscond than female.

* The poem was originally published as The Dying Negro, a Poetical Epistle, supposed to be written by a black, (who lately shot himself on board a vessel in the River Thames;) to his intended Wife (London, 1773). Some sources say the English woman was the fiancée rather than wife.

* Laurens was part of a prisoner exchange and was swapped for the British general Lord Cornwallis.

* Ultimately some of the more significant female abolitionists were included in the main body of figures in Haydon’s painting.

* America in the middle of the nineteenth century was a nation cursed by something comparable to the cultural cringe of post-war Australia, a literary and cultural inferiority complex, one that was fed by a sense that British writers looked down upon the efforts of Americans and that the nation lacked a literary tradition or much sign of literary talent. The desire to escape from the literary shadow of Britain and create authentic American literary forms motivated many American writers in the latter half of the nineteenth century.

* The very first was James McCune Smith in 1831.

* Even before the 1850 Act free black people in the United States were at risk of kidnap. Solomon Northup, the author of Twelve Years a Slave, was kidnapped from Washington DC in 1841. Although Northup did not join his fellow authors and tour Britain, Twelve Years a Slave sold thousands of copies there. Twenty-seven thousand were bought in Britain and America within two years of publication.

* These were extremely cheap as there were no reciprocal copyright arrangements between Britain and America, which meant that publishers in Britain were able to print and sell books by American authors without paying the writers any royalties. American publishers returned the favour, to the fury of Charles Dickens in particular.

* Significantly, George and Eliza Harris were mixed-race, and in some visual depictions of the novel appear almost as a white couple.

* Only later in the century did the phrase ‘white slavery’ come to denote the trafficking of women and girls for sex.

* James Pinson Labulo Davies, Samuel Ajayi Crowther and Thomas Babington Macaulay were buried in Ajele Cemetery in Lagos Island, and there remained until 1971 when the cemetery was needlessly destroyed in order to build an anonymous official building by Mobolaji Johnson, the Military Governor of Lagos State. This act of cultural vandalism was condemned at the time by Wole Soyinka.

NOTES

PREFACE

1 Tim Bale, The Conservatives Since 1945: The Drivers of Party Change (2012), p. 127.

INTRODUCTION: ‘Years of Distant Wandering’

1 David Hancock, Citizens of the World: London Merchants and the Integration of the British Atlantic Community, 1735–1785 (1997), p. 1.

2 Anna Maria Falconbridge, Narratives of Two Voyages to the River Sierra Leone during the years 1791-1792-1793 (1794), p. 23.

3 Hancock, Citizens of the World, p. 2.

4 Falconbridge, Narratives of Two Voyages.

5 Among the first to work on Bunce Island was Dr M. C. F. Easmon in the 1940s. From the 1970s onwards the American archaeologist Joseph Opala became heavily involved in research into the island and its place in the Atlantic slave trade. It was Opala who made the links between Bunce Island and the Gullah people of South Carolina and Georgia. More recent work has been carried out by the American archaeologist Christopher DeCorse.

6 See Edward Ball, Slaves in the Family (1998).

7 Gretchen Gerzina, Black London: Life before Emancipation (1995), p. 3.

8 Geoffrey Littlejohns, Independent, 7 August 1995, quoted in Sukhdev Sandhu, London Calling: How Black and Asian Writers Imagined a City (2004), p. 1.

9 The date for this speech is often given as 1964. Most sources however report that it was delivered on 23 April 1961.

10 Ben Jackson and Robert Saunders, Making Thatcher’s Britain (2012), p. 239.

11 Quoted in Simon Heffer, Like the Roman: The Life of Enoch Powell (2014), p. 335.

12 Jackson and Saunders, Making Thatcher’s Britain, p. 239.

13 Heffer, Like the Roman, p. 337.

14 Ceri Peach, The Caribbean in Europe: Contrasting Patterns of Migration ond Settlement in Britain, France and The Netherlands, Research Paper in Ethnic Relations No. 15, October 1991.

15 See Paul Gilroy, Postcolonial Melancholia (2004).

16 Randall Hansen, Citizenship and Immigration in Postwar Britain (2000), p. 188.

17 Satnam Virdee, Racism, Class and the Racialized Outsider (2014), p.115.

18 Stuart Hall, ‘Black Chronicles II’ (2008), http://autograph-abp.co.uk/­exhibitions/­black-chronicles-ii

19 Kim F. Hall, Things of Darkness: Economies of Race and Gender in Early Modern England (1995), p. 222.

20 See Karen C. C. Dalton, ‘Art for the Sake of Dynasty: The Black Emperor in the Drake Jewel and Elizabethan Imperial Imagery’, in Peter Erickson, Clark Hulse, Early Modern Visual Culture: Representation, Race, and Empire in Renaissance England (2000).

21 Quoted in Edith Hall, Richard Alston, Justine McConnell, Ancient Slavery and Abolition: From Hobbes to Hollywood (2011), p. 36.

22 The details were supplied by the men; the navy made no attempt to check them. For example, in the Victory, the seaman George Ryan is listed as born in Africa, but he is recorded as being born in Monserrat in the Jalouse’s muster books in 1809.

23 K. G. Davies, The Royal African Company (1957), p. 67.

24 See David M. Levy, How the Dismal Science Got Its Name: Classical Economics and the Ur-Text of Racial Politics (2002).

ONE: ‘Sons of Ham’

1 Thanks to Dr Richard Benjamin for his guidance on the evidence of the African presence in Cumbria.

2 Hella Eckardt, Objects and Identities: Roman Britain and the North-western Provinces (2014), p. 74.

3 Peter Fryer, Staying Power: The History of Black People in Britain (1984), p. 2.

4 See York Herald, 15 August 1901; and An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in City of York, volume 1, Eburacum, Roman York. Originally published by Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, 1962.

5 Eckardt, Objects and Identities, p. 86.

6 Edith Bruder, The Black Jews of Africa: History, Religion, Identity (2008), p. 25.

7 Bruder, Black Jews of Africa, p. 25.

8 J. Burton and A. Loomba, Race in Early Modern England: A Documentary Companion (2007), p. 46.

9 Burton and Loomba, Race in Early Modern England, p. 46.

10 Iain Macleod Higgins, Writing East: The ‘Travels’ of Sir John Mandeville (1997), pp. 9–12.

11 Quoted in Kofi Omoniyi Sylvanus Campbell, Literature and Culture in the Black Atlantic: From Pre- to Postcolonial (2006), p. 72.

12 Sarah Arrowsmith, Mappa Mundi: Hereford’s Curious Map (2015), p. 53.

13 Jean Delumeau (trans. Matthew O’Connell), History of Paradise: The Garden of Eden in Myth and Tradition (2000), p. 72.

14 Michael C. Thomsett, Heresy in the Roman Catholic Church: A History (2011), p. 187.

15 Stefan Goodwin, Africa in Europe: Antiquity into the Age of Global Exploration (2008), p. 172.

16 Kenneth R. Andrews, Trade, Plunder and Settlement: Maritime Enterprise and the Genesis of the British Empire, 1480–1630 (1984), p. 106.

17 Andrews, Trade, Plunder and Settlement, p. 106.

18 Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: History of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1440–1870 (1997), p. 154.

19 Richard Hakluyt, The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques and Discoveries of the English Nation, ‘The second voyage to Guinea set out by Sir George Barne, Sir John Yorke, Thomas Lok, Anthonie Hickman and Edward Castelin, in the yere 1554. The Captaine where of was M. John Lok’.

20 Hakluyt, Principal Navigations, quoted in Burton and Loomba, Race in Early Modern England, p. 129.

21 Hakluyt, Principal Navigations, vol. 4 (1907), p. 101.

22 Andrews, Trade, Plunder and Settlement, p. 109.

23 David Northrup, in Peter C. Mancall (ed.), The Atlantic World and Virginia, 1550–1624 (2007), p. 177.

24 Peter Martyr d’Anghiera, The decades of the newe worlde or west India conteynyng the nauigations and conquestes of the Spanyardes, with the particular description of the moste ryche and large landes and ilandes lately founde in the west ocean perteynyng to the inheritaunce of the kinges of Spayne. Wrytten in the Latine tounge by Peter Martyr of Angleria, and translated into Englysshe by Rycharde Eden (1555), p. 358.

25 Harry Kelsey, Sir John Hawkins: Queen Elizabeth’s Slave Trader (2003), p. 31.

26 See Gustav Ungerer, The Mediterranean Apprenticeship of British Slavery (2008).

27 Cheryl A. Fury, The Social History of English Seamen, 1485–1649 (2012), p. 76.

28 Hakluyt, Principal Navigations, p. 330.

29 Michael Guasco, Slaves and Englishmen: Human Bondage in the Early Modern Atlantic World (2014), p. 106.

30 Burton and Loomba, Race in Early Modern England, p. 108.

31 Jan Nederveen Pieterse, White on Black: Images of Africa and Blacks in Western Popular Culture (1992), p. 18; and Richard C. Trexler, The Journey of the Magi: Meanings in History of a Christian Story (2014), p. 102.

32 David Bindman, Henry Louis Gates and Karen C. C. Dalton, The Image of the Black in Western Art: From the early Christian Era to the ‘Age of Discovery’: from the demonic threat to the incarnation of sainthood (2010), p. 4.

33 Burton and Loomba, Race in Early Modern England, p. 109.

TWO: ‘Blackamoors’

1 The belief that Africans were the descendants of the biblical Ham did not necessarily translate into support for their enslavement. As the historian Robin Blackburn points out, when the English trader Richard Jobson visited West Africa in the 1620s he expressed his confident belief that Africans were the descendants of the disgraced son of Noah, but was adamant in his disdain for the slave trade. See Robin Blackburn, The Making of New World Slavery: From the Baroque to the Modern, 1492–1800 (1998).

2 See Imtiaz Habib, Black Lives in the English Archives, 1500–1677: Imprints of the Invisible (2008); and Miranda Kaufmann, Black Tudors (2017).

3 Guasco, Slaves and Englishmen, p. 103; Habib, Black Lives, p. 198.

4 Peter Fryer, Staying Power: The History of Black People in Britain (1984), p. 9.

5 In November 1513 another boy, again given the name Henry, was to be born to Henry and Catherine. That infant lived for only a few hours and was the third of the six pregnancies of Catherine of Aragon, from which only one child, Mary, would survive.

6 TNA: E 101/417/2, no. 150.

7 Miranda Kaufmann, ‘Blanke, John (fl. 1507–1512)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2014.

8 TNA: E 101/417/6, no. 50.

9 Kaufmann, ‘Blanke, John’.

10 Fryer, Staying Power, p. 2.

11 Fryer, Staying Power, p. 9.

12 Miranda Kaufmann, in David Dabydeen, John Gilmore and Cecily Jones, The Oxford Companion to Black British History (2010), p. 487.

13 Burton and Loomba, Race in Early Modern England, p. 136.

14 TNA, Tudor Royal Proclamations, vol. 3, pp. 221–2 (c. January 1601).

15 TNA, Tudor Royal Proclamations, vol. 3, pp. 221–2 (c. January 1601).

16 Miranda Kaufmann, ‘Caspar van Senden, Sir Thomas Sherley and the “Blackamoor” Project’, Historical Research, vol. 81, no. 212 (May 2008), pp. 366–71.

17 My thanks go to Dr Miranda Kaufmann for her advice on Casper Van Senden.

18 Eric Martone, Encyclopedia of Blacks in European History and Culture (2008), p. 201.

19 Harold Bloom, William Shakespeare’s Othello (1987), p. 45.

20 Guasco, Slaves and Englishmen, p. 105.

21 Mary Floyd-Wilson, English Ethnicity and Race in Early Modern Drama (2003), p. 2.

22 B. Sokol, Shakespeare and Tolerance (2008), p. 117.

23 Andrew Hadfield and Paul Hammond (eds), Shakespeare and Renaissance Europe (2004), p. 5.

24 Richard S. Dunn, Sugar and Slaves: The Rise of the Planter Class in the English West Indies, 1624–1713 (2000), p. 240.

25 Jeremy Black, The Atlantic Slave Trade in World History (2015), p. 46.

26 Dunn, Sugar and Slaves, p. 240.

27 Thomas, The Slave Trade, p. 176.

28 D’Maris Coffman, Adrian Leonard and William O’Reilly, The Atlantic World (2014), p. 446.

29 Coffman et al., The Atlantic World, p. 448; and William A. Pettigrew, Freedom’s Debt: The Royal African Company and the Politics of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1672–1752 (2013), p. 25.

30 Pettigrew, Freedom’s Debt, p. 11.

31 James A. Rawley and Stephen D. Behrendt, The Transatlantic Slave Trade: A History (2005), p. 139.

32 Rawley and Behrendt, The Transatlantic Slave Trade, p. 139.

33 Pettigrew, Freedom’s Debt, p. 11.

34 Fryer, Staying Power, p. 18.

THREE: ‘For Blacks or Dogs’

1 Robert Hughes, Fatal Shore (1982), p. 19.

2 Nocturnal Revels, or the History of King’s-Place and Other Modern Nunneries, vol. 1 (1779), quoted in Alison Twells, British Women’s History: A Documentary History from the Enlightenment to World War I (2007), p. 194.

3 Norma Myers, Reconstructing the Black Past: Blacks in Britain 1780–1830 (1996), p. 48.

4 Daily Advertiser, 13 December 1744, reprinted in Nigel File and Chris Power, Black Settlers in Britain 1555–1958 (1981), p. 8.

5 Kathleen Chater, Untold Histories: Black people in England and Wales during the period of the British slave trade c.1660–1807 (2009), p. 86.

6 Cited in Gomer Williams, History of the Liverpool Privateers and Letters of Marque: With an Account of the Liverpool Slave Trade (1897), p. 78. The Tatler of 1709 was a journal founded by Richard Steele. The modern publication is named after this original but is not a successor company.

7 Cited in Williams, History of the Liverpool Privateers, p. 478.

8 See David Dabydeen, Hogarth’s Blacks: Images of Blacks in Eighteenth Century English Art (1987), p. 101.

9 James Walvin, Black and White: The Negro and English Society 1555–1945 (1973), p. 50.

10 John Latimer, The Annals of Bristol in the Eighteenth Century (1893), p. 15.

11 Latimer, The Annals of Bristol, p. 147.

12 Latimer, The Annals of Bristol, p. 146.

13 Latimer, The Annals of Bristol, p. 147.

14 Quoted in K. L. Little, Negroes in Britain: A Study of Racial Relations in English Society (1948), p. 198.

15 Quoted in Gretchen Gerzina, Black London: Life before Emancipation (1995), p. 42.

16 Gentleman’s Magazine, October 1764, p. 493.

17 Walvin, Black and White, p. 47.

18 Edward Long, Candid Reflections Upon the Judgment Lately Awarded by the Court of King’s Bench, in Westminster-Hall, on What Is Commonly Called the Negroe-Cause by a Planter (1772).

19 Walvin, Black and White, p. 46.

20 See Chater, Untold Histories, p. 43.

21 Notes and Queries, vol. 6, 1852. Reprint. London: Forgotten Books, 2013. pp. 410–11. Quoted in Walvin, Black and White, p. 48.

22 Dabydeen, Hogarth’s Blacks, p. 30.

23 Daily Register, 18 October 1765, reprinted in Nigel File and Chris Power, Black Settlers in Britain 1555–1958 (1981), p. 12.

24 British Apollo, 13 February 1708, reprinted in File and Power, Black Settlers, p. 11.

25 Quoted in Dabydeen, Hogarth’s Blacks, p. 30.

26 Joshua Reynolds, Portrait of the Prince of Wales. Arundel Castle.

27 Elizabeth Murray, Lady Tollemache, later Countess of Dysart and Duchess of Lauderdale (1626–1698) with a Black Servant by Sir Peter Lely (Soest 1618 – London 1680), circa 1651.

28 Lady Grace Carteret, Countess of Dysart (1713–1755) with a Child (possibly Lady Frances Tollemache [1738–1807]), a Black Servant, Cockatoo and Spaniel. Johann Aegidius Eckhardt (d. Chelsea 1779), circa 1740.

29 The Character of A Town-Miss (1680), p. 7. Quoted in Fryer, Staying Power, p. 31.

30 Heyday! Is this my daughter Anne! F. E. Adams invt. et fecit. The Lewis Walpole Library Image ID lwlpr04459.

31 Chater, Untold Histories, p. 85.

32 The Orthodox Gentleman’s Magazine, quoted in Myers, Reconstructing the Black Past, p. 71.

33 Chater, Untold Histories, p. 93.

34 Bath Chronicle, 10 February 1763.

35 Daily Courant, 29 March 1719, reprinted in File and Power, Black Settlers in Britain, p. 14.

36 Eric Williams, Capitalism and Slavery (1944), p. 44.

37 Cited in Williams, History of the Liverpool Privateers, p. 477.

38 Fryer, Staying Power, p. 22.

39 Thomas Read Rootes Cobb, An Historical Sketch of Slavery: From the Earliest Period (1858), p. cxlvi. Quoted in Michael Bundock, The Fortunes of Francis Barber: The True Story of the Jamaican Slave Who Became Samuel Johnson’s Heir (2015), p. 61 and Monica L. Miller, Slaves to Fashion: Black Dandyism and the Styling of Black Diasporic Identity (2010), p. 50.

40 ‘Fielding’s Penal Laws of London’, 1768, in The Retrospective Review, vol XII, ed. Henry Southern and Sir Nicholas Harris Nicolas (London, 1825), p. 221.

41 Gentleman’s Magazine, October 1764, p. 493.

42 Quoted in Little, Negroes in Britain, p. 198.

43 Seymour Drescher, Capitalism and Antislavery: British Mobilization in Comparative Perspective (1987), p. 33.

44 See Chater, Untold Histories.

45 Felicity A. Nussbaum, The Limits of the Human: Fictions of Anomaly, Race and Gender in the Long Eighteenth Century (2003), p. 167.

46 London Chronicle, 16–18 February 1764, quoted in Fryer, Staying Power, p. 69.

47 In Bundock, The Fortunes of Francis Barber, p. 99.

48 Henry Mayhew, The London Underworld in the Victorian Period: Authentic First-Person Accounts by Beggars, Thieves and Prostitutes (2012), pp. 364–5.

49 Chater, Untold Histories, p. 94.

50 Drescher, Capitalism and Antislavery, p. 34.

51 Drescher, Capitalism and Antislavery, p. 35.

52 See Chater, Untold Histories.

53 See Terri L. Snyder, The Power to Die: Slavery and Suicide in British North America (2015), p. 122.

54 Latimer, The Annals of Bristol, p. 492.

55 Latimer, The Annals of Bristol, p. 492.

56 Fryer, Staying Power, p. 73.

57 Quoted in Gerzina, Black London, p. 53.

58 Tim Macquiban, ‘Africanus, Scipio (c. 1702–1720)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.

59 Quoted in Chater, Untold Histories, p. 228.

60 Quoted in Fryer, Staying Power, pp. 23–4.

61 Chater, Untold Histories, p. 93.

62 Caroline Bressey and Hakim Adi, Belonging in EuropeThe African Diaspora and Work (2013), p. 16.

63 Lady Mary Coke (Letters and Journals, 1.194–5), quoted in Vincent Carretta, ‘Soubise, Julius (c. 1754–1798)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004.

64 Vincent Carretta, Unchained Voices: An Anthology of Black Authors in the English-Speaking World of the Eighteenth Century (2004), p. 7.

65 A point made by the music journalist Bernard Gordillo, quoting the Gentleman’s Magazine, 1780.

FOUR: ‘Too Pure an Air for Slaves’

1 Prince Hoare, Memoirs of Granville Sharp, esq. (1820), p. 32.

2 Quoted in Adam Hochschild, Bury the Chains: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire’s Slaves (2005), p. 43.

3 Hoare, Memoirs of Granville Sharp, p. 33.

4 Hoare, Memoirs of Granville Sharp, p. 33.

5 Hoare, Memoirs of Granville Sharp, p. 34.

6 Hoare, Memoirs of Granville Sharp, p. 36.

7 1694, Gelly v. Cleve.

8 Quoted in Fryer, Staying Power, p. 116.

9 Norman S. Poser, Lord Mansfield: Justice in the Age of Reason (2015), p. 288.

10 Travis Glasson, Mastering Christianity: Missionary Anglicanism and Slavery in the Atlantic World (2011), p. 79.

11 Quoted in Harry Potter, Law, Liberty and the Constitution: A Brief History of the Common Law (2015), p. 176.

12 Quoted in Potter, Law, Liberty and the Constitution, p. 176.

13 Quoted in Potter, Law, Liberty and the Constitution, p. 176.

14 Quoted in Potter, Law, Liberty and the Constitution, p. 176.

15 James Walvin, England, Slaves and Freedom, 1776–1838 (1986), p. 39.

16 Granville Sharp, Extract From A Representation of the Injustice and Dangerous Tendency of Tolerating Slavery, or of Admitting the Least Claim of Private Property in the Persons of Men, in England. In four parts (1769), pp. 20–21.

17 Sharp, Extract From A Representation, p. 20.

18 Hoare, Memoirs of Granville Sharp, p. 49.

19 Hoare, Memoirs of Granville Sharp, p. 49.

20 Hoare, Memoirs of Granville Sharp, p. 52.

21 Esther Copley, A History of Slavery and Its Abolition (1839), p. 212.

22 Hoare, Memoirs of Granville Sharp, pp. 53–4.

23 Fryer, Staying Power, p. 119.

24 Hoare, Memoirs of Granville Sharp, pp. 53–4.

25 James Walvin, Black and White: The Negro and English Society, 1555–1945 (1973), p. 120.

26 Thomas Clarkson, The history of the rise, progress, and accomplishment of the abolition of the African slave-trade, by the British Parliament (1836), p. 62.

27 Hoare, Memoirs of Granville Sharp, p. 60.

28 Hoare, Memoirs of Granville Sharp, p. 70.

29 Poser, Lord Mansfield, p. 293.

30 James Oldham, English Common Law in the Age of Mansfield (2004), p. 308.

31 Quoted in Fryer, Staying Power, p. 123.

32 Gretchen Gerzina, Black London: Life before Emancipation (1995), p. 120.

33 Poser, Lord Mansfield, p. 293.

34 The Legal Observer, Or, Journal of Jurisprudence, vol. 6, p. 64.

35 The Legal Observer, p. 64.

36 Hoare, Memoirs of Granville Sharp, p. 77.

37 Arguments on the Negro Cause. Mr. Hargrave’s arguments in the case of James Somerset, the Negro lately determined by the court of the Kings bench, The Gentleman’s and London Magazine, December 1772, p. 779.

38 T. B. Howell, A Complete Collection of State Trials, vol. XX, 1 January 1816, p. 80.

39 Poser, Lord Mansfield, p. 293.

40 Howell, State Trials, p. 79.

41 Quoted in Fryer, Staying Power, p. 124.

42 Howell, State Trials, pp. 79–80.

43 Walvin, Black and White, p. 126.

44 Walvin, Black and White, p. 126.

45 Quoted in Daniel O’Quinn, Staging Governance: Theatrical Imperialism in London, 1770–1800 (2005), p. 54.

46 Quoted in Paul Kosmetatos, ‘A portrait of a banking calamity’, http://www.cam.ac.uk/­research/discussion/­a-portrait-of-a-banking-calamity From James Boswell, The Scots Magazine, vol. 34, p. 312.

47 Quoted version comes from a letter to the General Evening Post of 21–23 June 1772.

48 Howell, State Trials, p. 82.

49 Quoted in Fryer, Staying Power, p. 69 and Vincent Carretta, Equiano, the African: Biography of a Self-made Man (2005), p. 208.

50 See Walvin, Black and white, p. 127.

51 Poser, Lord Mansfield, p. 297.

52 Quoted in Alan Gilbert, Black Patriots and Loyalists: Fighting for Emancipation in the War for Independence (2012), p. 8.

53 Quoted in Carretta, Equiano, p. 208.

54 Hoare, Memoirs of Granville Sharp, p. 91.

55 Quoted in Gilbert, Black Patriots, p. 8.

56 Quoted in Fryer, Staying Power, p. 126.

FIVE: ‘Province of Freedom’

1 George William Van Cleve, A Slaveholders’ Union: Slavery, Politics, and the Constitution in the Early American Republic (2010), p.35.

2 Norman S. Poser, Lord Mansfield: Justice in the Age of Reason (2013), p. 296.

3 Van Cleve, A Slaveholders’ Union, p. 37.

4 Vincent Carretta, Phillis Wheatley: Biography of a Genius in Bondage (2011), p. 130.

5 Alan Gilbert, Black Patriots and Loyalists: Fighting for Emancipation in the War for Independence (2012), p. 9.

6 A point expansively and eloquently made by Alan Gilbert in Black Patriots and Loyalists.

7 Michael Bundock, The Fortunes of Francis Barber: The True Story of the Jamaican Slave Who Became Samuel Johnson’s Heir (2015), p. 112.

8 Gilbert, Black Patriots and Loyalists, p. 6.

9 Van Cleve, A Slaveholders’ Union, p. 38.

10 David Lee Russell, The American Revolution in the Southern Colonies (2000), p. 69.

11 John Craig Hammond, Matthew Mason (eds), Contesting Slavery: The Politics of Bondage and Freedom in the New American Nation (2011), p. 57.

12 Virginia Gazette, 25 November 1775.

13 See Orlando Patterson, Slavery and Social Death (1982).

14 Quoted in Pybus, Black Founders, p. 18.

15 Gilbert, Black Patriots, pp. 174–5.

16 Gilbert, Black Patriots, p. 175.

17 Kevin G. Lowther, The African American Odyssey of John Kizell: A South Carolina Slave Returns to Fight the Slave Trade in His African Homeland (2012), p. 98.

18 Henry Laurens, David R. Chesnutt, The Papers of Henry Laurens, vol. 16, September 1, 1782–December 17, 1792 (2002), p. 79.

19 Quoted in Maya Jasanoff, Liberty’s Exiles: The Loss of America and the Remaking of the British Empire (2011), p. 80.

20 Quoted in Jasanoff, Liberty’s Exiles, p. 88.

21 Fritz Hirschfeld, George Washington and Slavery: A Documentary Portrayal (1997), p. 26.

22 Pybus, Black Founders, p. 37.

23 Stephen J. Braidwood, Black Poor and White Philanthropists: London’s Blacks and the Foundation of the Sierra Leone Settlement, 1786–91 (1994), p. 31.

24 Peter Fryer, Staying Power: The History of Black People in Britain (1984), p. 193.

25 Fryer, Staying Power, p. 193.

26 Fryer, Staying Power, p. 193.

27 Braidwood, Black Poor, p. 68.

28 Pybus, Black Founders, p. 44.

29 Simon Schama, Rough Crossings: Britain, the Slaves and the American Revolution (2009), p. 218.

30 Braidwood, Black Poor, p. 85.

31 See Deirdre Coleman, Romantic Colonization and British Anti-Slavery (2009), p. 28.

32 Braidwood, Black Poor, p. 86.

33 See Emma Christopher, A Merciless Place: The Fate of Britain’s Convicts after the American Revolution (2011), and David Olusoga and Casper W. Erichsen, The Kaiser’s Holocaust: Germany’s Forgotten Genocide and the Colonial Roots of Nazism (2010).

34 Seymour Drescher, The Mighty Experiment: Free Labor Versus Slavery in British Emancipation (2004), p. 91.

35 Braidwood, Black Poor, p. 87.

36 Fryer, Staying Power, p. 197.

37 Coleman, Romantic Colonization, p. 29.

38 Braidwood, Black Poor, p. 93.

39 Christopher Fyfe, A History of Sierra Leone (1962), p. 16.

40 Adam Hochschild, Bury the Chains: Prophets and Rebels in the Fight to Free an Empire’s Slaves (2005), p. 152.

41 Braidwood, Black Poor, p. 132.

42 Fryer, Staying Power, p. 201.

43 Two voyages to Sierra Leone, during the years 1791-2-3, in a series of letters: By Anna Maria Falconbridge. To which is added, a letter from the author, to Henry Thornton, Esq. M.P. and chairman of the Court of Directors of the Sierra Leone Company (1794), pp. 64, 65.

44 Simon Schama, Rough Crossings: Britain, the Slaves and the American Revolution (2009), p. 193.

45 Norma Myers, Reconstructing the Black Past: Blacks in Britain, c. 1780–1830 (1996), p. 127.

46 Prince Hoare, Memoirs of Granville Sharp, esq. (1820), p. 317.

47 Hoare, Memoirs of Granville Sharp, p. 313.

48 Hoare, Memoirs of Granville Sharp, p. 345.

49 Quoted in Fyfe.

50 Granville Sharp, A Short Sketch of Temporary Regulations (until better shall be proposed) for the Intended Settlement on the Grain Coast of Africa, near Sierra Leona (1786), p. 22.

51 Sharp, A Short Sketch, p. 27.

52 Braidwood, Black Poor, p. 86.

53 Hoare, Memoirs of Granville Sharp, pp. 320–21.

54 Hoare, Memoirs of Granville Sharp, pp. 320–21.

55 Hoare, Memoirs of Granville Sharp, pp. 313–14.

56 Hoare, Memoirs of Granville Sharp, p. 314.

57 Hoare, Memoirs of Granville Sharp, p. 344.

58 Hoare, Memoirs of Granville Sharp, pp. 345–6.

59 Hoare, Memoirs of Granville Sharp, p. 353.

60 Document made available to author at Sierra Leone Archives, Freetown.

61 Document made available to author at Sierra Leone Archives, Freetown.

62 Hochschild, Bury the Chains, p. 178.

63 Hochschild, Bury the Chains, p. 202.

64 Hochschild, Bury the Chains, p. 203.

65 Hochschild, Bury the Chains, p. 206.

66 Mary Louise Clifford, From Slavery to Freetown: Black Loyalists After the American Revolution (2006), p. 126.

67 Hochschild, Bury the Chains, p. 208.

SIX: ‘The Monster is Dead’

1 Richard Jobson, The Golden Trade (1623), p. 89.

2 Edward Long, The History of Jamaica. Or, General Survey of the Antient and Modern State of that Island: with Reflections on its Situation, Settlements, Inhabitants, Climate, Products, Commerce, Laws, and Government, 3 vols (1774), vol. 1, pp. 493–4.

3 Seymour Drescher, Econocide: British Slavery in the Era of Abolition (2012), p. 24.

4 Printed in the London Chronicle, 18–20 June 1772.

5 Printed in the London Chronicle, 18–20 June 1772.

6 For the most comprehensive account of the Zong affair see James Walvin, The Zong: A Massacre, the Law and the End of Slavery (2011).

7 Prince Hoare, Memoirs of Granville Sharp, esq. Appendix Number VIII SHIP ZONG, p. xviii.

8 James Walvin, A Short History of Slavery (2007), p. 152.

9 Kenneth Morgan, Slavery and the British Empire: From Africa to America (2007), p. 157.

10 William Fox, An Address to the People of Great Britain, on the Propriety of Refraining from the Use of West India Sugar and Rum (1791), p. 4.

11 Morgan, Slavery and the British Empire, p. 155.

12 Quoted in Vincent Carretta, Unchained Voices: An Anthology of Black Authors in the English-Speaking World of the Eighteenth Century (2013), p. 150.

13 Hoare, The Memoirs of Granville Sharp, p. 374.

14 One of the two models of the Brooks is held by Hull Museums. See http://www.hullcc.gov.uk/­museumcollections/­collections/storydetail.php?irn=154

15 Richard Cecil, The Works of the Rev. John Newton, To which are Prefixed Memoirs of his Life, vol. 2 (1844), p. 438.

16 Steven Mintz (ed.), African American Voices: A Documentary Reader, 1619–1877 (2009), p. 69.

17 Stephen Tomkins, The Clapham Sect: How Wilberforce’s Circle Transformed Britain (2012), p. 98.

18 Adam Hochschild, Bury the Chains: The British Struggle to Abolish Slavery (2005), p. 86.

19 John Almon, John Debrett, John Stockdale, The Parliamentary Register, vol. XXIII (1788), p. 606.

20 Olaudah Equiano and Vincent Carretta (eds), The Interesting Narrative and Other Writings: Revised Edition (2003), p. 343.

21 British and Foreign State Papers, vol. V: 1817–1818 (1837), p. 559.

22 These are Seymour Drescher’s figures, quoted in Kenneth Morgan, Slavery and the British Empire: From Africa to America (2007), p. 168.

23 Elizabeth Heyrick, Immediate, not Gradual Abolition (1824), pp. 2–3.

24 Hochschild, Bury the Chains, p. 326.

25 Richard Gott, Britain’s Empire: Resistance, Repression and Revolt (2011), p. 265.

26 Hochschild, Bury the Chains, p. 344.

27 John Howard Hinton, Memoir of William Knibb, Missionary in Jamaica (1849), p. 49.

28 Hinton, William Knibb, p. 261.

29 Hinton, William Knibb, p. 262.

SEVEN: Moral Mission

1 For an explanation of the discrepancies between the number of delegates and attendees, see Douglas H. Maynard, ‘The World’s Anti-Slavery Convention of 1840’, Mississippi Valley Historical Review, vol. 47, no. 3 (December 1960).

2 Catherine Hall, ‘The Lords of Humankind Re-Visited’, in Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, vol. 66, no. 3 (2003), pp. 472–85.

3 Drescher, Abolition, p. 267.

4 Hall, ‘The Lords of Humankind Re-Visited’, pp. 472–85.

5 Description of Haydon’s picture of the Great Meeting of Delegates held at the Freemasons’ Tavern, June 1840, for the abolition of slavery and the slave trade throughout the world (1840), p. 8.

6 Description of Haydon’s picture, p. 9.

7 Proceedings of the General Anti-Slavery Convention, Called by the Committee of the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, Held in London, Friday, June 12th, to Tuesday, June 23rd (1840), p. iii.

8 Proceedings of the General Anti-Slavery Convention, p. 543.

9 Quoted in Maynard, ‘The World’s Anti-Slavery Convention of 1840’, p. 468.

10 Proceedings of the General Anti-Slavery Convention, p. 11.

11 Proceedings of the General Anti-Slavery Convention, p. 22.

12 Trollope quoted in Richard Huzzey, Freedom Burning: Anti-Slavery and Empire in Victorian Britain (2012), p. 18. Darwin quoted in Dr Joselyn M. Almeida, Reimagining the Transatlantic, 1780–1890 (2013), p. 195.

13 R. J. M. Blackett, Building an Antislavery Wall: Black Americans in the Atlantic Abolitionist Movement 1830–1860 (1983), p. 7.

14 Blackett, Building an Antislavery Wall, p. 10.

15 R. J. M. Blackett, Making Freedom: The Underground Railroad and the Politics of Slavery (2013), pp. 22–3.

16 Proceedings of the General Anti-Slavery Convention, p. 3.

17 Proceedings of the General Anti-Slavery Convention, pp. 12–13.

18 Proceedings of the General Anti-Slavery Convention, p. 3.

19 American slavery: report of a public meeting held at Finsbury Chapel, Moorfields, to receive Frederick Douglass, the American slave, on Friday, May 22, 1846: with a full report of his speech (1846).

20 Quoted in Sandhya Shukla and Heidi Tinsman, Imagining Our Americas: Toward a Transnational Frame (2007), p. 94.

21 Huzzey, Freedom Burning, p. 39.

22 Blackett, Building an Antislavery Wall, p. 15.

23 Wolverhampton Chronicle, March 1852.

24 Suzette Spencer and the Dictionary of Virginia Biography, ‘Henry Box Brown (1815 or 1816–after February 26, 1889)’. Encyclopedia Virginia. Virginia Foundation for the Humanities, 4 Nov. 2014. Web. 10 Jan. 2016.

25 Blackett, Building an Antislavery Wall, p. 4.

26 Henry Mayhew, London Labour and the London Poor (1861), pp. 425–8.

27 Henry Mayhew, The London Underworld in the Victorian Period: Authentic First Person Accounts by Beggars, Thieves and Prostitutes (2012), pp. 364–5.

28 William Wells Brown, Three Years in Europe; or, Places I have Seen and People I have Met (1852), pp. 112–13.

29 Cited in James A. Colaiaco, Frederick Douglass and the Fourth of July (2015), p. 21.

30 Frederick Douglass, The Frederick Douglass Papers: 1842–1852 (2009), Douglass to Jonathan D. Carr, 1 November 1847, pp. 267–8.

31 ‘England Should Lead the Cause of Emancipation: An Address Delivered in Leeds, England, on December 23, 1846’, Leeds Times, 26 December 1846. Gilder Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance, and Abolition http://glc.yale.edu/­england-should-lead-cause-emancipations.

32 Blackett, Building an Antislavery Wall, p. 6.

33 Douglass, The Frederick Douglass Papers, Henry C. Wright to Frederick Douglass, 12 December 1846.

34 Douglass, The Frederick Douglass Papers, Douglass to Wright, 22 December 1846.

35 Farewell Speech of Mr. Frederick Douglass, Previously to Embarking on Board the Cambria, Upon His Return to America, Delivered at the Valedictory Soiree Given to Him at the London Tavern, on March 30, 1847 (1847). Gilder Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance, and Abolition http://glc.yale.edu/­farewell-british-people

36 Quoted in Robert Nowatzki, Representing African Americans in Transatlantic Abolitionism and Blackface Minstrelsy (2010), p. 46.

37 Nowatzki, Representing African Americans, p. 44.

38 Blackett, Building an Antislavery Wall, p. 159.

39 Albert Boime, Art in an Age of Counterrevolution, 1815–1848 (2004), p. 582.

40 Paul O’Keeffe, A Genius for Failure: The Life of Benjamin Robert Haydon (2009), p. 406.

41 Hall, ‘The Lords of Humankind Re-Visited’, pp. 472–85.

42 Quoted in Laura Peters, Dickens and Race (2013), p. 64.

43 Quoted in Julia Sun-Joo Lee, The American Slave Narrative and the Victorian Novel (2010), p. 3.

44 Wolverhampton Chronicle, March 1852.

45 Jonathan Rose, The Intellectual Life of the British Working Classes (2001), p. 383.

46 Huzzey, Freedom Burning, p. 22.

47 Marcus Wood, Blind Memory: Visual Representations of Slavery in England and America, 1780–1865 (2000), p. 147.

48 Wood, Blind Memory, p. 146.

49 Harriet Beecher Stowe, Uncle Tom’s Cabin: or, Life Among the Lowly, Applewood Edition (2001), vol. 2, p. 238.

50 Harriet Beecher Stowe, A Key to Uncle Tom’s Cabin; Presenting the Original Facts and Documents Upon Which the Story is Founded Together with Corroborative Statements Verifying the Truth of the Work (1853), p. 10.

51 Quoted in Rose, The Intellectual Life of the British Working Classes, p. 383.

52 Quoted in Sarah Meer, Uncle Tom Mania: Slavery, Minstrelsy, and Transatlantic Culture in the 1850s (2005), p. 21.

53 Meer, Uncle Tom Mania, p. 163.

54 Quoted in Meer, Uncle Tom Mania, p. 167.

55 Nancy Koester, Harriet Beecher Stowe: A Spiritual Life (2014), p. 153.

56 Meer, Uncle Tom Mania, p. 140.

57 The Times, 12 September 1836.

58 Nowatzki, Representing African Americans, p. 60 and Meer, Uncle Tom Mania, p. 149.

59 Meer, Uncle Tom Mania, p. 161.

60 Nowatzki, Representing African Americans, p. 4.

61 Blackett, Building an Antislavery Wall, p. 160.

62 Nowatzki, Representing African Americans, p. 7.

63 Henry Mayhew, Mayhew’s London, Being Selections from London Labour and the London Poor (1970), pp. 535–6.

64 The Morning Chronicle: Labour and the Poor, 1849–50; Henry Mayhew – Letter LV, Thursday 6 June 1850.

65 The Morning Chronicle: Labour and the Poor, 1849–50; Henry Mayhew – Letter LV, Thursday 6 June 1850.

66 Mark Knowles, Tap Roots: The Early History of Tap Dancing (2002), p. 118.

67 Errol G. Hill and James V. Hatch, A History of African American Theatre (2003), p. 102.

68 Hill and Hatch, A History of African American Theatre, p. 102.

69 Frederick Burkhardt, Sydney Smith (eds), The Correspondence of Charles Darwin: volume 1, 1821–1836 (1985), letter to Caroline Darwin, [9 November 1836]; Frederick Burkhardt, Sydney Smith (eds), The Correspondence of Charles Darwin: volume 2, 1837–1843 (1986), Appendix IV, ‘Darwin’s notes on marriage’. Emma Darwin referred to CD as her ‘nigger’ as a term of endearment (Emma Darwin 2: 104). Darwin, C. R. to Darwin, Emma [25 May 1848].

70 Frederick Burkhardt, Sydney Smith (eds), The Correspondence of Charles Darwin: volume 4, 1847–1850 (1985), pp. 145–6.

71 Burkhardt, Smith (eds), The Correspondence of Charles Darwin: volume 1, 1821–1836, pp. 518–19.

72 See Adrian Desmond and James Moore, Darwin’s Sacred Cause: Race, Slavery and the Quest for Human Origins (2010), p. 137.

73 Mark E. Neely Jr., The Boundaries of American Political Culture in the Civil War Era (2015), p. 127.

EIGHT: ‘Liberated Africans’

1 Siân Rees, Sweet Water and Bitter: The Ships that Stopped the Slave Trade (2009), p. 3.

2 AN ACT to amend and consolidate the Laws relating to the abolition of the slave trade (24th June 1824).

3 Slave Trade Consolidation Act 1824.

4 Figures from William James, Naval History of Great Britain, vol. 5 of the 1837 edn, annexe 167.

5 Marika Sherwood, After Abolition: Britain and the Slave Trade Since 1807 (2007), pp. 116–17.

6 A. W. Ward and G. P. Gooch (eds)., The Cambridge History of British Foreign Policy 1783–1919 (1922–23), p. 244.

7 Jeremy Black, A Brief History of Slavery (2011), p. 124.

8 Seymour Drescher, Abolition: A History of Slavery and Antislavery (2009), p. 267.

9 Christopher Lloyd, The Navy and the Slave Trade (1949), p. 4.

10 Instructions for the Guidance of Her Majesty’s Naval Officers Employed in the Suppression of the Slave Trade (1844), p. 1.

11 Proceedings of the General Anti-Slavery Convention, Called by the Committee of the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, Held in London, Friday, June 12th, to Tuesday, June 23rd (1840), pp. 239–40.

12 William Balfour Baikie, Narrative of an exploring voyage up the rivers Kwo’ra and Bi’nue (Commonly known as the Niger and Tsádda) in 1854 (1856), p. 390.

13 Lieutenant Frederick Edwyn Forbes, Six Months’ Service in the African Blockade, from April to October, 1848, in Command of HMS Bonetta (1849), p. vii.

14 Baikie, Narrative of an exploring voyage, pp. 390–91.

15 Parliamentary Papers, House of Commons and Command, volume 45, pp. 3–5.

16 Theophilus Conneau, A Slaver’s Log Book: Or 20 Years’ Residence in Africa: the Original Manuscript (1853), p. 95.

17 F. Harrison Rankin, The White Man’s Grave: A Visit to Sierra Leone, in 1834, vol. 2 (1834), p. 137.

18 National Maritime Museum, Greenwich, London, Macpherson Collection (PAH8184).

19 Miles Taylor (ed.), The Victorian Empire and Britain’s Maritime World, 1837–1901: The Sea and Global Power (2013), p. 50.

20 Benjamin Nicholas Lawrance, Amistad’s Orphans: An Atlantic Story of Children, Slavery, and Smuggling (2015), p. 301.

21 Diane Frost, ‘Diasporan West African Communities: the Kru in Freetown and Liverpool’, Review of African Political Economy 29:92 (2002), pp. 285–300.

22 Taylor, The Victorian Empire, p. 49.

23 Richard Huzzey, Freedom Burning: Anti-Slavery and Empire in Victorian Britain (2012), p. 42.

24 Leslie Bethell, The Abolition of the Brazilian Slave Trade: Britain, Brazil and the Slave Trade Question, 1807–1869 (2009), p. 160.

25 Huzzey, Freedom Burning, p. 45.

26 Huzzey, Freedom Burning, p. 42.

27 Robert J. Blyth, ‘Britain, The Royal Navy and the Suppression of Slave Traders in the Nineteenth Century’ in Douglas Hamilton and Robert J. Blyth (eds), Representing Slavery (2007), p. 81.

28 Seymour Drescher, Abolition: A History of Slavery and Antislavery (2009), p. 287.

29 Marika Sherwood, After Abolition: Britain and the Slave Trade Since 1807 (2007), pp. 187–8.

30 Conneau, A Slaver’s Log Book, p. 178.

31 Instructions, pp. 4–5.

32 Parliamentary Papers, House of Commons and Command: volume 19, 1831 Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons Colonies and Slaves One Volume Relating To Colonies; Africans Captured Jamaica; Slave Emancipation; Slave Trade Session 14 June–20 October 1831 H.M. Stationery Office, p. 65. Cited in Richard Murphy, The Limits of Law: British Efforts to Suppress the Slave Trade, 1818–1850 (Unpublished thesis, University of Colorado at Boulder, History).

33 Parliamentary Papers, House of Commons and Command: volume 19 Great Britain. Parliament. House of Commons January 1, 1831 H.M. Stationery Office, p. 65.

34 Rankin, The White Man’s Grave, pp. 119–21.

35 Rankin, The White Man’s Grave, pp. 121–3.

36 Pascoe Grenfell Hill, Fifty Days on Board a Slave-Vessel in the Mozambique Channel, in April and May, 1843 (1844), pp. 47–8.

37 Hill, Fifty Days on Board a Slave-Vessel, pp. 48–9.

38 Lloyd, The Navy and the Slave Trade, p. 99.

39 Huzzey, Freedom Burning, p. 46.

40 The illegality of the slave trade in the nineteenth century means that the historical data on the numbers of Africans enslaved is problematic and is subject to an ongoing historical debate. See David Eltis, David Richardson, Atlas of the Transatlantic Slave Trade (2015) and Paul Lovejoy, ‘The Volume of the Atlantic Slave Trade: a Synthesis’, in Journal of African History (No. 23, 1982), pp. 473–501.

41 A. G. Hopkins, An Economic History of West Africa (2014), p. 113.

42 Suzanne Schwarz, ‘Reconstructing the Life Histories of Liberated Africans: Sierra Leone in the Early Nineteenth Century’, in History in Africa: A Journal of Method 39 (January 2012), p. 2.

43 Rankin, The White Man’s Grave, p. 106.

44 Parliamentary Papers, House of Commons and Command: volume 51, p. 19, His Majesty’s Commissioners to Viscount Palmerston, Sierra Leone, 4th June 1834.

45 Rankin, The White Man’s Grave, pp. 123–5.

46 Rankin, The White Man’s Grave, p. 108.

47 Rankin, The White Man’s Grave, p. 113.

48 Suzanne Schwarz, ‘Extending the African Names Database: New Evidence from Sierra Leone’, in African Economic History, vol. 38 (2010), p. 140.

49 Schwarz, ‘Extending the African Names Database’, p. 143.

50 Brian Dyde, The Empty Sleeve: The story of the West India Regiments of the British Army (1997), p. 31.

51 Dyde, The Empty Sleeve, p. 124.

52 Rankin, The White Man’s Grave, p. 108.

53 Rankin, The White Man’s Grave, p. 92.

54 Christopher Fyfe, A History of Sierra Leone (1962), p. 182.

55 Fyfe, A History of Sierra Leone, p. 183.

56 Fyfe, A History of Sierra Leone, p. 115.

57 Lloyd, The Navy and the Slave Trade, p. 16.

58 Rankin, The White Man’s Grave, pp. 115–16.

59 Fyfe, A History of Sierra Leone, p. 171.

60 Fyfe, A History of Sierra Leone, p. 131.

61 Fyfe, A History of Sierra Leone, p. 204.

62 Seymour Drescher, The Mighty Experiment: Free Labor Versus Slavery in British Emancipation (2004), p. 98.

63 Fyfe, A History of Sierra Leone, p. 153.

64 William H. Worger, Nancy L. Clark, Edward A. Alpers, Africa and the West: From the slave trade to conquest, 1441–1905 (2010), p. 110.

65 Kristin Mann, Slavery and the Birth of an African City: Lagos, 1760–1900 (2007), p. 93.

66 Robert Sydney Smith, The Lagos Consulate, 1851–1861 (1979), p. 19.

67 Smith, The Lagos Consulate, p. 19.

68 Quoted in Smith, The Lagos Consulate, p. 25.

69 Smith, The Lagos Consulate, p. 30.

70 Fyfe, A History of Sierra Leone, p. 212.

71 Toyin Falola and Matthew M. Heaton, A History of Nigeria (2008), p. 126.

72 Kristin Mann, Slavery and the Birth of an African City: Lagos, 1760–1900 (2007), p. 125.

73 Mann, Slavery and the Birth of an African City, p. 122.

74 Richard James Hammond, Portugal and Africa, 1815–1910: A Study in Uneconomic Imperialism (1967), p. 69.

75 Robin Law, Ouidah: The Social History of a West African Slaving ‘port’, 1727–1892 (2004), p. 157.

76 Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The Story of the Atlantic Slave Trade 1440–1870 (1997), p. 695, and Elisée Soumonni, ‘The compatibility of the slave and palm oil trades in Dahomey 1818–1858’, in Robin Law, From Slave Trade to ‘Legitimate’ Commerce: The Commercial Transition in Nineteenth-Century West Africa (1998), p. 82.

77 Joan Amin-Addo in Gretchen Gerzina, Black Victorians/Black Victoriana (1995), p. 12.

78 F. E. Forbes, Dahomey and the Dahomans: Being the Journals of Two Missions to the King of Dahomey, and Residence at His Capital, in the Year 1849 and 1850 (1851), vol. 2, pp. 33–5.

79 Forbes, Dahomey and the Dahomans, p. 188.

80 Lieutenant Forbes, Six Months’ Service in the African Blockade, from April to October, 1848, in Command of HMS Bonetta (1849), p. ix.

81 Soumonni, ‘The compatibility of the slave and palm oil trades’, p. 82.

82 Forbes, Dahomey and the Dahomans, p. 187.

83 Forbes, Dahomey and the Dahomans, p. 193.

84 Forbes, Dahomey and the Dahomans, p. 207.

85 Sean Stilwell, Slavery and Slaving in African History (2014), p. 115; and see Nancy Jay, Throughout Your Generations Forever: Sacrifice, Religion, and Paternity (1992), Chapter 5.

86 Philip D. Curtin, The Image of Africa: British Ideas and Action, 1780–1850, vol. 2 (1964), pp. 407–8 and Thomas, The Slave Trade, p. 696.

87 Forbes, Dahomey and the Dahomans, p. 193.

88 Forbes, Dahomey and the Dahomans, p. 207.

89 Quoted in Walter Dean Myers, At Her Majesty’s Request: An African Princess in Victorian England (1999), p. 24.

90 Forbes, Dahomey and the Dahomans, p. 208.

91 Quoted in Myers, At Her Majesty’s Request, p. 30.

92 Forbes, Dahomey and the Dahomans, p. 208.

93 Helen Rappaport, Queen Victoria: A Biographical Companion (2003), p. 307.

94 Caroline Bressey, ‘Of Africa’s brightest ornaments: a short biography of Sarah Forbes Bonetta’, Social and Cultural Geography, vol. 6, no. 2, April 2005.

95 Leeds Mercury, Saturday 16 August 1862.

96 Brighton Herald, 16 August 1862.

97 Brighton Gazette, 16 August 1862.

98 Forbes, Dahomey and the Dahomans, p. 207.

99 Bressey, ‘Of Africa’s brightest ornaments’.

100 Brighton Herald, 16 August 1862.

101 Bressey, ‘Of Africa’s brightest ornaments’.

102 Rappaport, Queen Victoria, p. 307.

103 Rappaport, Queen Victoria, p. 307.

104 Alessandro Stanziani, Debt and Slavery in the Mediterranean and Atlantic Worlds (2016), p. 79.

105 Rappaport, Queen Victoria, p. 307.

NINE: ‘Cotton is King’

1 The Times, 4 July 1851.

2 Gene Dattel, Cotton and Race in the Making of America: The Human Costs of Economic Power (2011), p. 37.

3 R. Arthur Arnold, The History of the Cotton Famine, from the Fall of Sumter to the Passing of the Public Works Act (2013), p. 4. (Original work published 1864.)

4 Peter Fryer, Staying Power. The History of Black People in Britain (1984), p. 14.

5 Joseph E. Inikori, Stanley L. Engerman (eds), The Atlantic Slave Trade: Effects on Economies, Societies and Peoples in Africa, the Americas, and Europe (1992), p. 167.

6 Walter Johnson, River of Dark Dreams: Slavery and Empire in the Cotton Kingdom (2013), p. 6.

7 Johnson, River of Dark Dreams, p. 2.

8 Ira Berlin, Generations of Captivity: A History of African-American Slaves (2009), p. 14.

9 Stephen Yafa, Cotton: The Biography of a Revolutionary Fiber (2006), p. 145.

10 Johnson, River of Dark Dreams, p. 5.

11 The Economist, 19 January 1861, quoted in Lance E. Davis, Stanley L. Engerman, Naval Blockades in Peace and War: An Economic History since 1750 (2006), p. 127.

12 David Christy, Cotton is king: or, The culture of cotton, and its relation to agriculture, manufactures and commerce; to the free colored people; and to those who hold that slavery is in itself sinful (1855), p. 58.

13 Quoted in Christy, Cotton is king, pp. 46–7.

14 Arnold, The History of the Cotton Famine, p. 7.

15 Arnold, The History of the Cotton Famine, p. 7.

16 Davis and Engerman, Naval Blockades in Peace and War, p. 127.

17 New York Herald-Tribune, 14 October 1861.

18 Junius P. Rodriguez, Slavery in the United States: A Social, Political, and Historical Encyclopedia, volume 1 (2007), p. 666.

19 James Henry Hammond, Gov. Hammond’s Letters on Southern Slavery: Addressed to Thomas Clarkson, the English Abolitionist (1845), p. 5.

20 Wagner, Gallagher, McPherson, The Library of Congress Civil War Desk Reference, p. 54.

21 Hammond, Gov. Hammond’s Letters, p. 32.

22 Christy, Cotton is king, p. 11.

23 Christy, Cotton is king, p. 48.

24 Christy, Cotton is king, p. 11.

25 The Times, 22 January 1861, in Norman Longmate, The Hungry Mills. The story of the Lancashire cotton famine 1861–5 (1978), p. 33.

26 Edwin Waugh, Lancashire Sketches (1869), p. 330.

27 John Watts, The Facts of the Cotton Famine (1866), p. 129.

28 Maurie D. McInnis, Slaves Waiting for Sale: Abolitionist Art and the American Slave Trade (2011), p. 209.

29 R. J. M. Blackett, Divided Hearts: Britain in the American Civil War (2001), p. 167.

30 Thomas E. Taylor, Running the Blockade During the American Civil War (1896), pp. 10–11 and in Marika Sherwood, After Abolition: Britain and the Slave Trade Since 1807 (2007), p. 53.

31 Marika Sherwood, ‘Perfidious Albion: Britain, the USA, and Slavery in the 1840s and 1860s’, in Contributions in Black Studies, A Journal of African and Afro-American Studies, vol. 13, Special Double Issue, 1 January 1995, p. 12.

32 Longmate, The Hungry Mills, p. 246.

33 New York Times, 17 November 1863, ‘Rev. Henry Ward Beecher’s Final Farewell Speech at Liverpool on Oct. 30’.

34 A reply to “The affectionate and Christian address of many thousands of women of Great Britain and Ireland, to their sisters, the women of the United states of America”. By Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe, in behalf of many thousands of American women (1863), p. 62.

35 Stowe, A reply, p. 53.

36 See Blackett, Divided Hearts.

37 Richard Huzzey, Freedom Burning: Anti-Slavery and Empire in Victorian Britain (2012) pp. 128–9.

38 See Mary Ellison, Support for Secession: Lancashire and the American Civil War (1973).

39 Bill Cash, John Bright: Statesman, Orator, Agitator (2011), p. 146.

40 Quoted in Blackett, Divided Hearts, p. 32.

41 The Anti-slavery Reporter, 5 February 1863, pp. 43–4.

42 Longmate, The Hungry Mills, p. 254.

TEN: ‘Mercy in a Massacre’

1 Thomas C. Holt, The Problem of Freedom: Race, Labor, and Politics in Jamaica and Britain, 1832–1938 (1992), p. 280.

2 Thomas Carlyle, ‘Occasional Discourse on the Negro Question’, Fraser’s Magazine for Town and Country (London, vol. XL, February 1849).

3 Christine Bolt, Victorian Attitudes to Race (1971), p. 79.

4 Thomas Carlyle, The Selected Works of Thomas Carlyle (2014), p. 469.

5 Carlyle, ‘Occasional Discourse’.

6 John Greenleaf Whittier, a New England, Quaker abolitionist, quoted in Vanessa D. Dickerson, Dark Victorians (2008), p. 76.

7 See Catherine Hall, Civilising Subjects: Metropole and Colony in the English Imagination 1830–1867 (2002).

8 On the Origin of Species went on sale to the book trade two days earlier. See Janet Browne, Charles Darwin: The Power of Place (2003). For Douglass’ arrival see Michael A. Schuman, Frederick Douglass: “Truth Is of No Color” (2009), p. 85.

9 J. Edward Chamberlin, Come Back to Me My Language: Poetry and the West Indies (1993), p. 23.

10 The Rev. Frederic W. Farrar, ‘Aptitudes of Races’, Transactions of the Ethnological Society of London, 27 March 1866.

11 Thomas Carlyle, The Works of Thomas Carlyle: vol. 30, Critical and Miscellaneous Essays, volume 6 (2010), p. 5.

12 See Darwin’s Sacred Curse.

13 W. F. Bynum, Roy Porter (eds), Companion Encyclopedia of the History of Medicine, vol. 2 (1993), p. 1,439.

14 Dane Kennedy, The Highly Civilized Man: Richard Burton and the Victorian World (2005), p. 168.

15 Anthropology at the British Association: The Anthropological Review, vol. 1, no. 3 (Nov. 1863), p. 379 and Ben Grant, Postcolonialism, Psychoanalysis and Burton: Power Play of Empire (2008), p. 89.

16 R. J. M. Blackett, Divided Hearts: Britain in the American Civil War (2001), p. 42.

17 ‘The Negro before the Savans’, The Pacific Appeal, Saturday 31 October 1863.

18 ‘The Negro before the Savans’.

19 Anthropology at the British Association, p. 389.

20 Anthropology at the British Association, p. 391.

21 Anthropology at the British Association, p. 462.

22 Anthropology at the British Association, p. 391.

23 Anthropology at the British Association, p. 391.

24 Christine Bolt, Victorian Attitudes to Race (1971), p. 93.

25 Joseph John Williams, Psychic Phenomena of Jamaica (2011), p. 166.

26 It was arguably chance and circumstance that meant that the Morant Bay Rebellion was the disturbance that brought to a climax the tensions that had been brewing in Jamaica since the 1840s. For accounts of earlier disturbances, riots and violent land disputes that had similar potential see Thomas C. Holt, The Problem of Freedom: Race, Labor, and Politics in Jamaica and Britain, 1832–1938 (1992).

27 Frank McGlynn and Seymour Drescher (eds), The Meaning of Freedom: Economics, Politics, and Culture after Slavery (1992), p. 134.

28 Holt, The Problem of Freedom, p. 265.

29 Holt, The Problem of Freedom, p. 263.

30 Thomas Harvey and William Brewin, Jamaica in 1866: a narrative of a tour through the island: with remarks on its social, educational and industrial condition (1867), pp. 101–2.

31 Mark Cumming (ed.), The Carlyle Encyclopedia (2004), p. 461.

32 The Anti-Slavery Reporter and Aborigines’ Friend (1865), p. 28.

33 Gad Heuman, Killing Time: Morant Bay Rebellion Jamaica (1995), p. 171.

34 Jamaica Disturbances: Papers Laid Before The Royal Commission of Inquiry by Governor Eyre (London, 1866), p. 3: Despatch from Governor Eyre to the Right Hon. Edward Cardwell, M.P. Flamstead, January 1866.

35 The Times, 13 November 1865.

36 Bolt, Victorian Attitudes, p. 77.

37 Spectator, 18 November 1865.

38 The Times, 18 November 1865, quoted in The Popular Magazine of Anthropology, vol. 1, issue no. 1, January 1866, p. 16.

39 The Times, 18 November 1865, quoted in The Popular Magazine of Anthropology, p. 16.

40 The Times, 18 November 1865, quoted in The Popular Magazine of Anthropology, p. 16.

41 The Spectator, 18 November 1865.

42 Report of the Jamaica Royal Commission 1866, p. 41.

43 The Popular Magazine of Anthropology, p. 17.

44 Gad Heuman, Killing Time, p. 171.

45 Ian Thomson, The Dead Yard: Tales of Modern Jamaica (2009), p.140.

46 Edward Bean Underhill, The Tragedy of Morant Bay: A Narrative of the Disturbances in the Island of Jamaica in 1865 (1895), p. 199.

47 The Diplomatic Review, vol. 14, 1886, p. 118.

48 Spectator, 6 June 1868.

49 Richard Huzzey, Freedom Burning: Anti-Slavery and Empire in Victorian Britain (2012), p.184.

50 The Times, 18 November 1865, quoted in The Popular Magazine of Anthropology, p. 16.

51 The Popular Magazine of Anthropology, pp. 14–15.

52 Commander Bedford Pim, The Negro and Jamaica: Read Before the Anthropological Society of London, February 1, 1866, at St. James’s Hall, London (1866), p. v.

53 Pim, The Negro and Jamaica, p. vi.

54 Pim, The Negro and Jamaica, p. 63.

55 Winwood Reade, Savage Africa; being the narrative of a tour in equatorial, southwestern, and northwestern Africa; with notes on the habits of the gorilla; on the existence of unicorns and tailed men; on the slave-trade; on the origin, character, and capabilities of the negro, and on the future civilization of western Africa (1863), p. 327.

56 Reade, Savage Africa, p. 452.

ELEVEN: ‘Darkest Africa’

1 J. R. Oldfield, Chords of Freedom: Commemoration, Ritual and British Transatlantic Slavery (2008), p. 90.

2 The Times, 2 August 1884.

3 The Times, 2 August 1884.

4 Henry Rider Haggard, Child of Storm, quoted in Ian Knight, Companion to the Anglo-Zulu War (2008), p. 103.

5 Quoted in Shehu Sani, Hatred for Black People (2013), pp. 68–9.

6 Neil MacMaster, Racism in Europe: 1870–2000 (2001), p. 77.

7 A. Geppert, Fleeting Cities: Imperial Expositions in Fin-de-Siècle Europe (2010), p. 124.

8 Quoted in Geppert, Fleeting Cities, p. 124.

9 Jeffrey Green, Black Edwardians: Black People in Britain 1901–1914 (1998), p. 4.

10 Green, Black Edwardians, p. 4.

11 Franco-British Exhibition 1908 Official Guide Section III: The Visible Empire (1908).

12 Annie E. Coombes, Reinventing Africa: Museums, Material Culture and Popular Imagination in Late Victorian and Edwardian England (1997), p. 95.

13 Quoted in Neil MacMaster, p. 75.

14 Bristol Mercury and Daily Post, 22 April 1899.

15 The Era, 22 April 1899.

16 Charles Ricketts, The Boswells: the story of a South African Circus (2003), p. 16.

17 Hansard HC Deb 4 May 1899, vol. 70 cc1302–4.

18 The Times, 9 May 1899.

19 Galveston Daily News, 20 August 1899, quoted in Ben Shephard, ‘Showbiz Imperialism: The Case of Peter Lobengula’, in John MacKenzie (ed.), Imperialism and Popular Culture (1986). See also Ben Shephard, Kitty and the Prince (2003).

20 Galveston Daily News, 20 August 1899, quoted in Shephard, ‘Showbiz Imperialism’. See also Shephard, Kitty and the Prince.

21 Tit-Bits, 21 July 1917, quoted In Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies, EMPIRE STRIKES BACK: Race and Racism in 70’s Britain (2004), p. 62.

22 Neil Parsons, King Khama, Emperor Joe, and the Great White Queen: Victorian Britain through African Eyes (1998), p. 51.

23 Gaborone Archives. Documents made available to the author by kind permission of the Botswana National Archives and Records Service.

24 Gaborone Archives.

25 Gaborone Archives.

26 Gaborone Archives.

27 Yorkshire Daily Post, 1895, quoted in G. W. H. Knight-Bruce, Memories of Mashonaland (1895).

28 Parsons, King Khama, p. 60.

29 Parsons, King Khama, p. 214.

30 Eric Ames, Carl Hagenbeck’s Empire of Entertainments (2008), p. 296.

31 Parsons, King Khama, p. 111.

32 Parsons, King Khama, p. 196.

33 Parsons, King Khama, p. 207.

34 Parsons, King Khama, p. 222.

35 Parsons, King Khama, p. 80.

36 James Africanus Beale Horton, West African Countries and Peoples, British and Native: A Vindication of the African Race (1868), p. v.

37 Paul Gilroy, The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness (1995), p. 90.

38 Gilroy, The Black Atlantic, p. 89.

39 Tit-Bits, 7 September 1900.

40 Quoted in Steve Ward, Beneath the Big Top: A Social History of the Circus in Britain (2014), p. 80.

41 Ward, Beneath the Big Top, p. 80.

42 Blackwood’s Lady’s Magazine, vol. 22, 1847, p. 162, and Illustrated London News, 20 March 1847.

43 Ward, Beneath the Big Top, p. 81.

44 Douglas A. Lorimer, Colour, Class and the Victorians: English attitudes to the Negro in the mid-nineteenth century (1978).

45 Quoted in K. L. Little, Negroes in Britain (1948), p. 191.

TWELVE: ‘We are a Coloured Empire’

1 Richard Smith, Jamaican Volunteers in the First World War: Race, Masculinity and the Development of a National Consciousness (2004), p. 41.

2 Jamaica Times, 5 September 1914, quoted in Anne Spry Rush, Bonds of Empire: West Indians and Britishness from Victoria to Decolonization (2011), p. 122.

3 John Starling, Ivor Lee, No Labour, No Battle: Military Labour during the First World War (2009), p. 237.

4 1915 West Ham Police Court Register Charges Court Ledgers 1915, West Ham Magistrate Court Records, Newham Archives and Local Studies Library.

5 Stratford Express, 19 May 1915, ‘The Docks Black Men for the Front At West Ham Police Court to-day’.

6 Stratford Express, 29 May 1915, ‘The Docks – Spoiling for a Fight’.

7 Quoted in Richard Smith, Jamaican Volunteers in the First World War, p. 55.

8 Rush, Bonds of Empire, p. 121.

9 Smith, Jamaican Volunteers in the First World War, p. 71.

10 The Times History of the War, vol. 16 (1918), p. 86.

11 Richard Smith, ‘Loss and Longing: Emotional Responses to West Indian Soldiers during the First World War’, Round Table, 2014, vol. 103, no. 2, pp. 243–52.

12 Quoted in Rush, Bonds of Empire, p. 121.

13 Quoted in Timothy C. Winegard, Indigenous Peoples of the British Dominions and the First World War (2014), p. 98.

14 Dick van Galen Last, Ralf Futselaar, Black Shame: African Soldiers in Europe, 1914–1922 (2015), p. 43.

15 David Killingray, ‘The Idea of a British Imperial African Army’, Journal of African History, vol. 20, no. 3 (1979), pp. 421–36.

16 Major Darnley Stuart-Stephens, ‘Our Million Black Army’, English Review, October 1916, quoted in Lothrop Stoddard, The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy (1920), Preface p. vi.

17 Louise Ryan, Wendy Webster, Gendering Migration: Masculinity, Femininity and Ethnicity in Post-war Britain (2008), p. 20.

18 Joseph Rowntree Foundation, Contemporary Social Evils (2009), p. 8.

19 Smith, ‘Loss and Longing’.

20 Killingray, ‘The Idea of a British Imperial African Army’.

21 Last, Futselaar, Black Shame, p. 43.

22 Greg Kennedy, Keith Neilson, Far-flung Lines: Studies in Imperial Defence in Honour of Donald Mackenzie Schurman (2013), p. 86.

23 ‘African Man-Power’, Sun, Christchurch, vol. III, issue 924, 26 January 1917.

24 Hansard HC Deb 23 May 1916 vol. 82 cc2003–69.

25 Hansard HC Deb 23 May 1916 vol. 82 cc2003–69.

26 Akinjide Osuntokun, Nigeria in the First World War (1979), p. 45.

27 Kennedy, Neilson, Far-flung Lines, p. 86.

28 Killingray, ‘The Idea of a British Imperial African Army’.

29 Ray Costello, Black Tommies: British Soldiers of African Descent in the First World War (2015), p. 73.

30 Quoted in Costello, Black Tommies, p. 26.

31 Ernest Marke, In Troubled Waters: Memoirs of My Seventy Years in England (1975), p. 25.

32 David Killingray, ‘ “All the King’s Men?” British Blacks in the First World War’, in R. Lotz and I. Pegg (eds), Under the Imperial Carpet. Essays in Black British History 1780–1950 (1986), pp. 177–8.

33 Tull was commissioned into the Special Reserve because his was a Service battalion.

34 Quoted in David Olusoga, The World’s War (2014), p. 297.

35 Quoted in Olusoga, The World’s War, p. 402.

36 Jacqueline Jenkinson, ‘ “All in the Same Uniform”? The Participation of Black Colonial Residents in the British Armed Forces in the First World War’, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 40:2, pp. 207–30.

37 Quoted in Stephen Bourne, Black Poppies: Britain’s Black Community and the Great War (2014), p. 70.

38 Lothrop Stoddard, The Rising Tide of Color Against White World-Supremacy (1920), p. 209.

39 Jacqueline Nassy Brown, Dropping Anchor, Setting Sail: Geographies of Race in Black Liverpool (1994), p. 21.

40 Liverpool Echo, 6 June 1919, quoted in Jenkinson, ‘All in the Same Uniform’.

41 Liverpool Evening Express, 10 June 1919, ‘Negro in Dock No Evidence How he Got into Water’.

42 Liverpool Evening Express, 10 June 1919, ‘Negro in Dock’.

43 Liverpool Evening Express, 10 June 1919, ‘Negro in Dock’.

44 See Marika Sherwood, ‘Lynching in Britain’, History Today, XLIX (1999), pp. 21–3.

45 Liverpool Courier, 11 June 1919.

46 Marke, In Troubled Waters, p. 32.

47 Jacqueline Jenkinson, ‘Black Sailors on Red Clydeside: rioting, reactionary trade unionism and conflicting notions of “Britishness” following the First World War’, Twentieth Century British History 19 (1) (2008), pp. 29–60.

48 Jacqueline Jenkinson, Black 1919: Riots, Racism and Resistance in Imperial Britain (2009), p. 77.

49 Jenkinson, ‘All in the Same Uniform’.

50 Liverpool Daily Post, 11 June 1919, and Liverpool Weekly Post, 21 June 1919, quoted in Roy May and Robin Cohen, ‘The Interaction Between Race and Colonialism: A Case Study of the Liverpool Race Riots of 1919’, Race & Class, 10/15/1974, vol. 16, issue 2, pp. 111–26.

51 Marke, In Troubled Waters, pp. 30–31.

52 The Times, 10 June 1919.

53 Liverpool Evening Express, 11 June 1919.

54 May and Cohen, ‘The Interaction Between Race and Colonialism’.

55 David Killingray, Africans in Britain (ed) (1994).

56 The Times, 10 June 1919, quoted in Elazar Barkarn, The Retreat of Scientific Racism: Changing Concepts of Race in Britain and the United States Between the World Wars (1992), p. 58. The Morning Post, 13 June 1919, ‘The Negro Riots. A Lesson for England’.

57 Liverpool Courier, 11 June 1919.

58 Liverpool Courier, 16 June 1919, quoted in Susan Kingsley Kent, Aftershocks: Politics and Trauma in Britain, 1918–1931 (2009), p. 51.

59 The Morning Post, 13 June 1919, quoted in Kent, Aftershocks, p. 51.

60 Barkarn, The Retreat of Scientific Racism, p. 58.

61 Quoted in Peter Fryer, Staying Power: The History of Black People in Britain (1984), p. 316.

62 Liverpool Courier, 11 June 1919.

63 Costello, Black Tommies, p. 140.

64 Quoted in Kent, Aftershocks, p.53.

65 Alexander Keese, Ethnicity and the Colonial State: Finding and Representing Group Identifications in a Coastal West African and Global Perspective (1850–1960) (2015), p. 67.

66 J. Ayodele Langley, Pan-Africanism and Nationalism in West Africa, 1900–1945: a study in ideology and social classes (1973), p. 208.

67 May and Cohen, ‘The Interaction Between Race and Colonialism’.

68 Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies, EMPIRE STRIKES BACK, p. 60.

69 Liverpool Evening Express, 11 June 1919.

70 Laura Tabili, ‘The Construction of Racial Difference in Twentieth-Century Britain: The Special Restriction (Coloured Alien Seamen) Order, 1925’, Journal of British Studies 33 (January 1994), pp. 54–98.

71 May and Cohen, ‘The Interaction Between Race and Colonialism’.

72 K. L. Little, Negroes in Britain (1948), p. 65.

THIRTEEN: ‘We Prefer their Company’

1 There are various estimates. James Walvin, Black and White: The Negro and English Society, 1555–1945 (1973); K. L. Little, Negroes in Britain: A study of racial relations in English society (1948). In The Colour Bar (1944), Harold Moody suggested there were around ten thousand black people in Britain in 1939.

2 Peter Fryer in his Staying Power: The History of Black People in Britain (1984) suggests that by 1958, a hundred and twenty-five thousand West Indians had arrived in Britain, and some very modest immigration from Africa. Other estimates put the number who had arrived by 1958 at a hundred and fifteen thousand.

3 TNA: FO 371/26206, F. E. Evans, minute, 22 January 1942, Foreign Office General Political correspondence, A 10036/257/45. David Reynolds, ‘The Churchill Government and the Black American Troops in Britain During World War II’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, vol. 35 (1985), pp. 113–33.

4 Quoted in Reynolds, ‘The Churchill Government’.

5 Quoted in Philip Ziegler, London at War, 1939–1945 (1995), p. 218.

6 Michael L. Krenn, Race and U.S. Foreign Policy from 1900 Through World War II (1998), p. 343.

7 David Reynolds, Rich Relations: The American Occupation of Britain, 1942–1945 (2000), p. 303.

8 Christopher Hitchens, Why Orwell Matters (2002), p. 109.

9 Quoted in K. L. Little, Negroes in Britain (1948), p. 240.

10 Krenn, Race and U.S. Foreign Policy, p. 344.

11 Reynolds, Rich Relations, p. 305.

12 Graham Smith, When Jim Crow Met John Bull (1987), p. 180.

13 The Times, 2 October 1942, quoted in Little, Negroes in Britain, pp. 240–41.

14 Anthony Aldgate, Jeffrey Richards, Britain Can Take It: The British Cinema in the Second World War, second edition (2007), p. 292.

15 Aldgate and Richards, Britain Can Take It, p. 292.

16 Hansard HC Deb 29 September 1942, vol. 383 cc670–1.

17 Hansard HC Deb 29 September 1942, vol. 383 cc670–1.

18 Major General Arthur Dowler, Notes on Relations with Coloured Troops, quoted in Ben Bousquet and Colin Douglas, West Indian Women at War: British Racism in World War II (1991), pp. 175–7.

19 Dowler, Notes on Relations, quoted in Bousquet and Douglas, West Indian Women at War, pp. 175–7.

20 Dowler, Notes on Relations, quoted in Bousquet and Douglas, West Indian Women at War, pp. 175–7.

21 Peter Fryer, Staying Power: The History of Black People in Britain (1984), p. 361.

22 Quoted in Reynolds, Rich Relations, p. 306.

23 Fryer, Staying Power, p. 361.

24 Quoted in Paul Addison, Churchill: The Unexpected Hero (2005), p. 104.

25 Christopher Thorne, ‘Britain and the black G.I.s: Racial issues and Anglo-American relations in 1942’, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, vol. 3, 1974, issue 3, pp. 262–71.

26 Quoted in Alan Rice, Creating Memorials, Building Identities: The Politics of Memory in the Black Atlantic (2011), p. 169.

27 Quoted in Rice, Creating Memorials, p. 169.

28 Quoted in Reynolds, Rich Relations, p. 307.

29 Smith, When Jim Crow met John Bull, p. 190.

30 Smith, When Jim Crow met John Bull, p. 190.

31 Smith, When Jim Crow met John Bull, p. 94.

32 Army Service Experience Questionnaire Part 1 General Military Service Sergeant Theodore G. Aufort, US Army Military History Institute.

33 Reynolds, Rich Relations p. 303.

34 New Statesman and Nation, 22 August 1942, quoted in Samuel Lynn Hynes, Reporting World War II: American journalism, 1938–1944, p. 222.

35 New Statesman and Nation, 22 August 1942.

36 Christopher Paul Moore, Fighting for America: Black Soldiers – the Unsung Heroes of World War II (2005), pp. 91–2.

37 Sunday Pictorial, no. 1,434, 6 September 1942.

38 Sunday Pictorial, no. 1,434, 6 September 1942.

39 Sunday Pictorial, no. 1,434, 6 September 1942.

40 Reynolds, ‘The Churchill Government’.

41 Quoted in G. H. Bennett, Destination Normandy: Three American Regiments on D-Day (2009), p. 45.

42 Hansard HC Deb 11 February 1948, vol. 447 cc369–70.

43 Hansard HC Deb 11 February 1948, vol. 447 cc369–70.

44 Hansard HC Deb 11 February 1948, vol. 447 cc369–70.

45 Quoted in Paul B. Rich, Race and Empire in British Politics (1990), p. 152.

46 Quoted in Rich, Race and Empire, p. 152.

47 Sonya O. Rose, Which People’s War?: National Identity and Citizenship in Wartime Britain (2003), p. 262.

48 Smith, When Jim Crow met John Bull, p. 207.

49 Quoted in Smith, When Jim Crow met John Bull, p. 209.

50 Quoted in Smith, When Jim Crow met John Bull, p. 211.

51 Reynolds, ‘The Churchill Government’.

52 TNA: CAB 67/WP(G) 4015, quoted in Reynolds, ‘The Churchill Government’.

53 Quoted in Gen Doy, Black Visual Culture: Modernity and Post-Modernity (1999), p. 66.

54 New Statesman and Nation, 22 August 1942, quoted in Neil Campbell, Jude Davies, George McKay, Issues in Americanisation and Culture (2004), p. 88.

55 Quoted in Bennett, Destination Normandy, p. 43.

56 For Arthur Warlond’s service record, see the website ‘Caribbean aircrew in the RAF during WW2 A record of West Indian volunteers who served in the Royal Air Force during the Second World War’, http://www.caribbeanaircrew-ww2.com/­?p=292

57 Jack Williams, Cricket and Race (2001), p. 40.

58 Quoted in Phillip Alfred Buckner, Rediscovering the British World (2005), p. 335.

FOURTEEN: ‘Swamped’

1 Ranu Samantrai, AlterNatives: Black Feminism in the Postimperial Nation (2002), p. 73.

2 Satnam Virdee, Racism, Class and the Racialized Outsider (2014), p. 100.

3 Winston James and Clive Harris, Inside Babylon: The Caribbean Diaspora in Britain (1993), p. 22.

4 James and Harris, Inside Babylon, pp. 21–2.

5 James and Harris, Inside Babylon, p. 22.

6 James and Harris, Inside Babylon, p. 22.

7 Peter Fryer, Staying Power: The History of Black People in Britain (1984), p. 372.

8 Quoted in David Kynaston, Austerity Britain, 1945–1951 (2008), p. 274.

9 Quoted in Kynaston, Austerity Britain, p. 274.

10 Jo-Anne Lee, John Lutz, Situating: Critical Essays for Activists and Scholars (2005), p. 49.

11 James and Harris, Inside Babylon, p. 23.

12 Mike Phillips and Trevor Phillips, Windrush: The Irresistible Rise of Multi-racial Britain (1998), p. 87.

13 Wendy Webster, Imagining Home: Gender, ‘Race’ and National Identity, 1945–64 (1998), p. 26, and James and Harris, Inside Babylon, p. 25.

14 Peter Hennessy, Having it So Good: Britain in the Fifties (2007), p. 274.

15 The Times, 4 August 1948.

16 E. Cashmore, United Kingdom?: Class, Race and Gender since the War (1989), p. 79.

17 Quoted in Fryer, Staying Power, p. 367.

18 Quoted in Fryer, Staying Power, p. 367.

19 Lee Allyn Davis, Natural Disasters (2008), p. 276.

20 Roger Daniels, Guarding the Golden Door: American Immigration Policy and Immigrants since 1882 (2004), p. 120.

21 Kathleen Paul, Whitewashing Britain: Race and Citizenship in the Postwar Era (1997), p. 132.

22 Quoted in Winston James, ‘The Black Experience in Twentieth Century Britain’, in Philip D. Morgan and Sean Hawkins, The Oxford History of the British Empire Companion Series: Black Experience and the Empire (2004), p. 370.

23 Peter Fryer, Aspects of British Black History (1993), p. 34.

24 Fryer, Aspects of British Black History, p. 33.

25 James, ‘The Black Experience’, p. 371.

26 TNA: CO 1028/22, Draft Report of Working Party on Coloured People Seeking Employment in The United Kingdom, 17 December 1953.

27 Webster, Imagining Home, p. 23; James and Harris, Inside Babylon, p. 22.

28 Paul, Whitewashing Britain, p. 135.

29 Brian Harrison, Seeking a Role: The United Kingdom 1951–1970 (2010), p. 82.

30 Quoted in Susan Kingsley Kent, Gender and Power in Britain 1640–1990 (1991), p. 330.

31 Paul, Whitewashing Britain, p. 142.

32 Paul, Whitewashing Britain, p. 139.

33 Anthony H. Richmond, The Colour Problem (1955), p. 240.

34 Phillips and Phillips, Windrush, p. 82.

35 Richmond, The Colour Problem, p. 241.

36 Richmond, The Colour Problem, p. 241.

37 Michael Banton, White and Coloured: The Behaviour of British People Towards Coloured Immigrants (1959), p. 9.

38 Banton, White and Coloured, p. 203.

39 Banton, White and Coloured, p. 136.

40 Banton, White and Coloured, p. 137.

41 David Kynaston, Modernity Britain: Book One: Opening the Box, 1957–1959 (2013), p. 66.

42 Rosalind Edwards, Suki Ali, Chamion Caballero, Miri Song (eds), International Perspectives on Racial and Ethnic Mixedness and Mixing (2012), p. 170.

43 Paul Gilroy, There Ain’t No Black in The Union Jack (1987), p. 99.

44 Paul, Whitewashing Britain, p. 132.

45 Camilla Schofield, Enoch Powell and the Making of Postcolonial Britain (2013), p. 120.

46 Paul, Whitewashing Britain, p. 159.

47 Fryer, Staying Power, p. 377.

48 Malcolm Pearce and Geoffrey Stewart, British Political History, 1867–2001: Democracy and Decline (2002), p. 483.

49 Quoted in Neil MacMaster, Racism in Europe: 1870–2000 (2001), p. 180.

50 Randall Hansen, Citizenship and Immigration in Postwar Britain (2000), p. 188.

51 Fryer, Staying Power, p. 385.

52 Stephanie Barczewski, John Eglin, Stephen Heathorn, Michael Silvestri, Michelle Tusan, Britain Since 1688: A Nation in the World (2014), p. 320.

53 Margaret Thatcher Foundation 1978 Jan 27 Fr Margaret Thatcher TV Interview for Granada World in Action (‘rather swamped’) http://www.margaretthatcher.org/­document/103485

54 Observer, 25 February 1979.

55 Camilla Schofield, Enoch Powell and the Making of Postcolonial Britain, p. 234.

56 Zig Layton-Henry, Paul B. Rich, Race, Government and Politics in Britain (2016), p. 76.

57 Diane Frost and Richard Phillips, Liverpool ’81: Remembering the Riots (2011), p. 32.

58 Daryl Michael Scott, ‘The Origins of Black History Month’, Association for the Study of African American Life and History, LA Times, 11 February 2014.

CONCLUSION

1 William Harry Mitchell, Leonard Arthur Sawyer, The Empire Ships: A Record of British-built and Acquired Merchant Ships During the Second World War (1990), p. 477.

2 Michael Tillotson (ed.), SOE and The Resistance: As Told in The Times Obituaries (2012), p. 62.

3 See Daniel Stephen, The Empire of Progress: West Africans, Indians, and Britons at the British Empire Exhibition, 1924–25 (2013).

4 The Economist, 28 January 2016, ‘The Next Generation’.

5 Equality and Human Rights Commission, Healing a Divided Britain: The Need for a Comprehensive Race Equality Strategy (2016), p. 8.

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!