Notes

Chapter One: “The Faithful Slave”

1. Ralph Ellison, Shadow and Act (New York, 1964), 92.

2. Orland Kay Armstrong, Old Massa’s People: The Old Slaves Tell Their Story (Indianapolis, 1931), 200, 269.

3. Mary Boykin Chesnut, A Diary from Dixie (ed. Ben Ames Williams; Boston, 1949), 38. For white perceptions of slave reactions to the outbreak of the war, see also Duncan Clinch Heyward, Seed from Madagascar (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1937), 130, and William H. Russell, My Diary North and South (Boston, 1863), 84. For slave recollections of the bombardment of Fort Sumter, see Armstrong, Old Massa’s People, 278.

4. Armstrong, Old Massa’s People, 276–77; George P. Rawick (ed.), The American Slave: A Composite Autobiography (19 vols.; Westport, Conn., 1972), IV: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 174, 227; VI: Ala. Narr., 56; XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 62, 249; XVIII: Unwritten History of Slavery (Fisk Univ.), 3, 198.

5. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 192. For a nearly identical recollection, see IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 122.

6. Ibid., III: S.C. Narr. (Part 4), 171–72; IV: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 100; XII: Ga. Narr. (Part 2), 277–78; Whitelaw Reid, After the War: A Southern Tour, May 1, 1865, to May 1, 1866 (London, 1866), 52; Weymouth T. Jordan, Hugh Davis and His Alabama Plantation (University, Ala., 1948), 155–56; Laura S. Haviland, A Woman’s Life-Work: Labors and Experiences (Cincinnati, 1881), 264. Unable to provide properly for their own families, some planters bitterly protested the burdens of slave maintenance. See, e.g., Mary Ann Cobb to John B. Lamar, Nov. 11, 1861, in Kenneth Coleman (ed.), Athens, 1861–1865 (Athens, Ga., 1969), 28; Rev. John Jones to Mrs. Mary Jones, Dec. 7, 1863, in Robert M. Myers (ed.), The Children of Pride: A True Story of Georgia and the Civil War (New Haven, 1972), 1121–22; and Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 172, 243–44.

7. Letter from a slave to his mistress, in Robert S. Starobin (ed.), Blacks in Bondage: Letters of American Slaves (New York, 1974), 80–81; Francis B. Simkins and James W. Patton, The Women of the Confederacy (Richmond, 1936), 170–72; T. Conn Bryan, Confederate Georgia (Athens, Ga., 1953), 132.

8. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 131; XVIII: Unwritten History, 206; XII: Ga. Narr. (Part 2), 277.

9. Ibid., III: S.C. Narr. (Part 4), 48–50; VII: Okla. Narr., 46, 312. See also V: Texas Narr. (Part 3), 107, (Part 4), 97, 152; and Charles L. Perdue, Jr., Thomas E. Barden, and Robert K. Phillips (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat: Interviews with Virginia Ex-Slaves (Charlottesville, 1976), 335.

10. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IX: Ark. Narr. (Part 3), 169, 174; IV: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 29; XIII: Ga. Narr. (Part 3), 300; II: S.C. Narr. (Part 1), 46. See also VI: Ala. Narr., 97, 226, 404; XII: Ga. Narr. (Part 2), 8; Armstrong, Old Massa’s People, 316.

11. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VI: Ala. Narr., 129–32; John W. Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony: Two Centuries of Letters, Speeches, Interviews, and Autobiographies (Baton Rouge, 1977), 660.

12. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XVIII: Unwritten History, 14–15; XV: N.C. Narr. (Part 2), 25.

13. Ibid., IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 187; Booker T. Washington, Up from Slavery: An Autobiography (New York, 1902), 12–13; Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 539.

14. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, III: S.C. Narr. (Part 3), 40; IV: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 100, V (Part 3), 260; XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 218–19.

15. David Macrae, The Americans at Home (Edinburgh, 1870; repr., New York, 1952), 209; J. T. Trowbridge, The South: A Tour of Its Battle-Fields and Ruined Cities, A Journey Through the Desolated States, and Talks with the People (Hartford, 1867), 68.

16. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 135; VII: Miss. Narr., 115; M. F. Armstrong and Helen W. Ludlow, Hampton and Its Students (New York, 1875), 110–11. See also Rupert S. Holland (ed.), Letters and Diary of Laura M. Towne: Written from the Sea Islands of South Carolina, 1862–1884 (Cambridge, 1912), 29.

17. Bell I. Wiley (ed.), Letters of Warren Akin: Confederate Congressman (Athens, Ga., 1959), 5; Mrs. William Mason Smith to her family [Feb. 23, 1864], in Daniel E. Huger Smith et al. (eds.), Mason Smith Family Letters, 1860–1868 (Columbia, S.C., 1950), 83.

18. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, V: Texas Narr. (Part 4), 192, 193–94.

19. Ibid., VII: Okla. Narr., 88–90.

20. Simkins and Patton, Women of the Confederacy, 162; Bell I. Wiley, Southern Negroes: 1861–1865 (New Haven, 1938), 51n.

21. Wiley, Southern Negroes, 52n.

22. E. C. Ball to W. J. Ball, July 23, 1863, Ball Family Papers, South Caroliniana Library, Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia; Simkins and Patton, Women of the Confederacy, 174.

23. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 14–16. See also Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 537.

24. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VII: Okla. Narr., 135; New York Times, quoting the Louisville correspondent of the Cincinnati Commercial See also John K. Betters-worth, Confederate Mississippi (Baton Rouge, 1943), 163–64.

25. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 77–78; VI: Ala. Narr., 224; Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 535. See also Douglass’ Monthly (Rochester, N.Y.), IV (March 1862), 617; Perdue et al. (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat, 167; Starobin (ed.), Blacks in Bondage, 77–83; and Charles S. Sydnor, A Gentleman of the Old Natchez Region: Benjamin L. C. Wailes(Durham, N.C., 1938), 302–03.

26. Bryan, Confederate Georgia, 125; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 75–76.

27. Mrs. Mary Jones to Col. Charles C. Jones, Jr., June 5, 1863, in Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1068; Simkins and Patton, Women of the Confederacy, 164; Russell, My Diary North and South, 208–09.

28. Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 158–59; Kate Stone, Brokenburn: The Journal of Kate Stone, 1861–1868 (ed. John Q. Anderson; Baton Rouge, 1972), 298.

29. Simkins and Patton, Women of the Confederacy, 164; Edmund Ruffin, The Diary of Edmund Ruffin (ed. William K. Scarborough; 2 vols.; Baton Rouge, 1972, 1976), I, 556–57. See also Russell, My Diary North and South, 131–32.

30. Robert F. Durden, The Gray and the Black: The Confederate Debate on Emancipation (Baton Rouge, 1972), 7–8; Russell, My Diary North and South, 188.

31. Durden, The Gray and the Black, 14, 168; John K. Bettersworth (ed.), Mississippi in the Confederacy: As They Saw It (Baton Rouge, 1961), 249. See also Benjamin Quarles, The Negro in the Civil War (Boston, 1953), 37, 49–50; John E. Johns, Florida During the Civil War (Gainesville, 1963), 174; E. Merton Coulter, “Slavery and Freedom in Athens, Georgia, 1860–66,” in Elinor Miller and Eugene D. Genovese (eds.), Plantation, Town, and County: Essays on the Local History of American Slave Society (Urbana, Ill., 1974), 352; Coulter, The Confederate States of America (Baton Rouge, 1950), 256.

32. Memorial of Free Negroes, Jan. 10, 1861, quoted in George D. Terry, “From Free Men to Freedmen: Free Negroes in South Carolina, 1860–1866,” seminar paper, Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia. For examples of free black support of the war, see also Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entry for Sept. 3, 1861, Univ. of South Carolina; Henry William Ravenel, The Private Journal of Henry William Ravenel, 1859–1887 (ed. Arney R. Childs; Columbia, S.C., 1947), 50; Betters-worth (ed.), Mississippi in the Confederacy, 249; and Bryan, Confederate Georgia, 131. For the history of free blacks in the antebellum South, consult Ira Berlin, Slaves Without Masters (New York, 1974).

33. Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 174; James B. Sellers, Slavery in Alabama (University, Ala., 1950), 397–98.

34. Hope Summerell Chamberlain, Old Days in Chapel Hill: Being the Life and Letters of Cornelia Phillips Spencer (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1926), 131; Mrs. Nicholas Ware Eppes [Susan Bradford Eppes], The Negro of the Old South (Chicago, 1925), 110; [Sallie A. Putnam], In Richmond During the Confederacy (New York, 1867; repr. 1961), 179–80; Emily Caroline Douglas, Ms. Autobiography, c. 1904, Emily Caroline Douglas Papers, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge. See also Susan Dabney Smedes, Memorials of a Southern Planter (ed. Fletcher M. Green; New York, 1965), 184. For a description of an unusual statue erected in Fort Hill, South Carolina, dedicated to the faithfulness of the slaves during the Civil War, see Mason Crum, Gullah: Negro Life in the Carolina Sea Islands (Durham, N.C., 1940), 82.

35. Russell, My Diary North and South, 119, 131–32, 233, 257–58.

36. Mrs. Anna Andrews to Mrs. Courtney Jones, April 27, 1862, Andrews Papers, Duke University, Durham, N.C.

37. “Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Henry Bibb,” reprinted in Gilbert Osofsky (ed.), Puttin’ On Ole Massa (New York, 1969), 66; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XVIII: Unwritten History, 134.

38. Ellison, Shadow and Act, 56; James Freeman Clarke, Autobiography, Diary and Correspondence (ed. Edward Everett Hale; Boston, 1891), 286.

39. New York Times, Dec. 30, 1861, Oct. 2, 1863; Henry Hitchcock, Marching with Sherman: Passages from the Letters and Campaign Diaries of Henry Hitchcock (ed. M. A. DeWolfe Howe; New Haven, 1927), 71.

40. Cincinnati Daily Commercial, reprinted in Frank Moore (ed.), Rebellion Record (11 vols.; New York, 1861–68), IV (Part IV), 10. For comparable slave responses, see New York Times, Nov. 20, 1861, Dec. 1, 1862.

41. George W. Nichols, The Story of the Great March from the Diary of a Staff Officer (New York, 1865), 60; Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 158; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 291. See also John Richard Dennett, The South As It Is: 1865–1866 (ed. Henry M. Christman; New York, 1965), 174, and Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 383, 576.

42. Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 159.

43. Douglass’ Monthly, IV (Dec. 1861), 566. See also Bishop L. J. Coppin, Unwritten History (Philadelphia, 1919), 64; Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 616; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, III: S.C. Narr. (Part 4), 52–53; VIII: Ark. Narr. (Part 1), 281; XV: N.C. Narr. (Part 2), 199.

44. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VII: Miss. Narr., 52; VIII: Ark. Narr. (Part 2), 122; XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 64, 334; XV: N.C. Narr. (Part 2), 229; XVIII: Unwritten History, 113. See also VII: Okla. Narr., 2; VII: Miss. Narr., 12; VIII: Ark. Narr. (Part 2), 105.

45. Ibid., III: S.C. Narr. (Part 4), 52–53; Elizabeth H. Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands (Boston, 1893), 6–7; Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 28. For a different account of the “spelling-out” story, see Work Projects Adm. (WPA), The Negro in Virginia (New York, 1940), 44.

46. Washington, Up from Slavery, 8–9; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XIII: Ga. Narr. (Part 4), 348. See also III: S.C. Narr. (Part 4), 116; VI: Ala. Narr., 52; and Wiley, Southern Negroes, 18n.

47. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, V: Texas Narr. (Part 4), 42–43; XVII: Fla. Narr., 178.

48. Ibid., VII: Okla. Narr., 117. See also Wiley, Southern Negroes, 17.

49. Susie King Taylor, Reminiscences of My Life in Camp: With the 33d United States Colored Troops Late 1st S.C. Volunteers (Boston, 1904), 8; Thomas Wentworth Higginson, Army Life in a Black Regiment (Boston, 1869), 34, 217. For a discussion of “The Sacred World of Black Slaves,” see Lawrence W. Levine, Black Culture and Black Consciousness: Afro-American Folk Thought from Slavery to Freedom (New York, 1977), 3–80.

50. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 11. See also XVIII: Unwritten History, 76.

51. Mrs. Octavia Victoria Rogers Albert, The House of Bondage, or Charlotte Brooks and Other Slaves (New York, 1891), 55–56; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XII: Ga. Narr. (Part 1), 258.

52. Wiley, Southern Negroes, 106–07; Macrae, Americans at Home, 367.

53. Coppin, Unwritten History, 64–66; Russell, My Diary North and South, 147; Esther W. Douglass to Rev. Samuel Hunt, Feb. 1, 1866, American Missionary Assn. Archives, Amistad Research Center, Dillard University, New Orleans.

54. Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 377; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XV: N.C. Narr. (Part 2), 426.

55. New York Times, May 16, 1861, also reprinted in Douglass’ Monthly, IV (June 1861), 477; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 11. For slave recollections of clandestine gatherings, see also Albert, House of Bondage, 12; H. C. Bruce, The New Man: Twenty-nine Years a Slave, Twenty-nine Years a Free Man (York, Pa., 1895; repr. New York, 1969), 99; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV and V: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 199, (Part 3), 240–41, (Part 4), 43, 154; VI: Ala. Narr., 68; VIII: Ark. Narr. (Part 1), 9; XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 419.

56. Ravenel, Private Journal, 269; Douglass’ Monthly, IV (July, Dec. 1861), 487, 564; New York Times, May 16, June 2, 7, Dec. 8, 1861. After confirming the rumor of a slave conspiracy nearby, Edmund Ruffin confided to his diary on May 26, 1861, that many slaves, “as in this case, have learned that Lincoln’s election was to produce general emancipation—& of course, many hoped for that, & since for northern military carrying out of that measure.” Diary, II, 35.

57. Douglass’ Monthly, IV (June 1861), 477; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 19. See also Bruce, New Man, 99–100; Washington, Up from Slavery, 8; and Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 616.

58. 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction (Washington, D.C., 1866), Part II, 177. For examples of how ex-slaves recalled the causes and issues of the war, see Armstrong, Old Massa’s People, 265; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VII: Miss. Narr., 40; XIII: Ga. Narr. (Part 3), 101; XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 317; XVII: Fla. Narr., 292–93; Perdue et al. (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat, 216; Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 640.

59. L. G. C. [Causey] to husband [R. J. Causey], Nov. 19, 1863, R. J. Causey Papers, Louisiana State Univ. For the strengthening of patrol laws, see Wiley, Southern Negroes, 33–34. For the operation of the patrol system during slavery, see Kenneth M. Stampp, The Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the Ante-Bellum South (New York, 1956), 214–15, and Eugene D. Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll: The World the Slaves Made (New York, 1974), 617–19.

60. Brig. Gen. Richard Winter to Gov. John J. Pettus, June 6, 1862, in Betters-worth (ed.), Mississippi in the Confederacy, 77; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 36, 38; Ravenel, Private Journal, 130; George C. Rogers, Jr., The History of Georgetown County, South Carolina (Columbia, S.C., 1970), 406.

61. Johns, Florida During the Civil War, 152; Ruffin, Diary, II, 35–36. See also Putnam, Richmond During the Confederacy, 264–66; Richmond Dispatch, Nov. 13, 1862, quoted in New York Times, Nov. 23, 1862; Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1152–53; Jackson Daily Mississippian, April 15, 1863, in Bettersworth (ed.), Mississippi in the Confederacy, 238–39; Bryan, Confederate Georgia, 126. For efforts to restrict urban blacks, see, e.g., E. Merton Coulter, “Slavery and Freedom in Athens, Georgia, 1860–66,” in Miller and Genovese (eds.), Plantation, Town, and County, 344–50.

62. Bernard H. Nelson, “Legislative Control of the Southern Free Negro, 1861–1865,” Catholic Historical Review, XXXII (April 1946), 28–46; Vernon L. Wharton, The Negro in Mississippi, 1866–1890 (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1947), 18; Bryan, Confederate Georgia, 131; Louis H. Manarin (ed.), Richmond at War: The Minutes of the City Council, 1861–1865 (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1966), 346, 349; Berlin, Slaves Without Masters, 376.

63. Nancy and D. Willard to Micajah Wilkinson, May 15, 1862, Micajah Wilkinson Papers, Louisiana State Univ.; Bryan, Confederate Georgia, 126–27; Robert L. Kerby, Kirby Smith’s Confederacy: The Trans-Mississippi South, 1863–1865 (New York, 1972), 257. For the way in which College Hill, a Presbyterian community in Mississippi, dealt with a church member who had killed a “defiant” slave, see Maud M. Brown, “The War Comes to College Hill,” Journal of Mississippi History, XVI (Jan. 1954), 28–30.

64. WPA, Negro in Virginia, 188.

65. Simkins and Patton, Women of the Confederacy, 162.

66. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VII: Okla. Narr., 217–18, 220–22.

67. Albert V. House, Jr. (ed.), “Deterioration of a Georgia Rice Plantation During Four Years of Civil War,” Journal of Southern History, IX (1943), 101–02; Louis Manigault to “Mon Cher Pere” [Charles Manigault], Nov. 24, Dec. 5, 1861, South Carolina Dept. of Archives and History, Columbia; Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 216; D. E. Huger Smith to Mrs. William Mason Smith, July 28, 1863, in Smith et al. (eds.), Mason Smith Family Letters, 57.

68. Wiley, Southern Negroes, 6–7; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 108; V (Part 3), 129; Simkins and Patton, Women of the Confederacy, 174.

69. Albert, House of Bondage, 114–15; Charles Nordhoff, The Freedmen of South Carolina: Some Account of Their Appearance, Character, Condition, and Peculiar Customs [New York, 1863], 11–12; Mary Williams Pugh to Richard L. Pugh, Nov. 9, 1862, in Katharine M. Jones (ed.), Heroines of Dixie: Confederate Women Tell Their Story of the War(Indianapolis, 1955), 184; “Diary of John Berkley Grimball, 1858–1865,” South Carolina Historical Magazine, LVI (1955), 166–67. See also Douglass’ Monthly, IV (March 1862), 617; Henry L. Swint (ed.), Dear Ones at Home: Letters from Contraband Camps (Nashville, 1966), 42; Walter Clark, The Papers of Walter Clark (eds. Aubrey Lee Brooks and Hugh Talmage Lefler; 2 vols.; Chapel Hill, N.C., 1948), I, 94; Hitchcock, Marching with Sherman, 70.

70. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VII: Okla. Narr., 221, 338; IV and V: Texas Narr. (Part 3), 150, (Part 2), 154–55. The Texas (TV-V) and Arkansas (VIII-XI) Narratives contain numerous recollections of the wartime migration. For a graphic description by a young white woman, see Stone, Brokenburn, 186–225. Still other accounts may be found in Sir Arthur James Lyon Fremantle, Three Months in the Southern States: April-June, 1863 (New York, 1864), 82, 86, 87; Kerby, Kirby Smith’s Confederacy, 255, 392–93; Jefferson D. Bragg, Louisiana in the Confederacy (Baton Rouge, 1941), 216–17; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 4–6.

71. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV and V: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 108, (Part 3), 30, 79–80; VIII: Ark. Narr. (Part 2), 247.

72. Mary Williams Pugh to Richard L. Pugh, Nov. 9, 1862, in Jones (ed.), Heroines of Dixie, 184. See also Bragg, Louisiana in the Confederacy, 217.

73. Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 181–82; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV and V: Texas Narr. (Part 3), 129, (Part 2), 155.

74. Bayside Plantation Record, Louisiana, Part II, 1862–66, Southern Historical Collection, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; J. Carlyle Sitterson, Sugar Country: The Cane Sugar Industry in the South, 1753–1950 (Lexington, Ky., 1953), 214–15.

75. “Diary of John Berkley Grimball,” 166–67, 213–14; House (ed.), “Deterioration of a Georgia Rice Plantation,” 107; Henry Yates Thompson, An Englishman in the American Civil War: The Diaries of Henry Yates Thompson, 1863 (ed. Christopher Chancellor; New York, 1971), 113; Johns, Florida During the Civil War, 152.

76. Wiley, Southern Negroes, 86–97. For accounts of slave prices during the war, see also Ruffin, Diary, II, 353, 466; Fremantle, Three Months in the Southern States, 62; Bettersworth, Confederate Mississippi, 167–69; and Bryan, Confederate Georgia, 130–31.

77. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, V: Texas Narr. (Part 4), 195; XVI: Va. Narr., 6; Perdue et al. (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat, 39; Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 497.

78. Montgomery Advertiser, quoted in Douglass’ Monthly, IV (Sept. 1861), 526; ibid., IV (July 1861), 481.

79. James H. Brewer, The Confederate Negro: Virginia’s Craftsmen and Military Laborers, 1861–1865 (Durham, N.C., 1969); Wiley, Southern Negroes, 110–15; Coulter, Confederate States of America, 258; Charles B. Dew, Ironmaker to the Confederacy: Joseph R. Anderson and the Tredegar Iron Works (New Haven, 1966), 250; WPA, Negro in Virginia, 193; Ruffin, Diary, II, 20; New York Times, Feb. 11, 1864.

80. Richmond Examiner, quoted in New York Times, Oct. 16, 1864. For the efforts to mobilize black manpower for the Confederate war effort, see Brewer, Confederate Negro, 6–11, 139–40; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 114–22; Coulter, Confederate States of America, 258–59; Bettersworth, Confederate Mississippi, 81–82; Bragg, Louisiana in the Confederacy, 218; Bryan, Confederate Georgia, 132–33; Johns, Florida During the Civil War, 151; Kerby, Kirby Smith’s Confederacy, 56–57, 254–55; Ravenel, Private Journal, 46, 50, 96.

81. Wiley (ed.), Letters of Warren Akin, 33; Coulter, Confederate States of America, 259. For an owner who willingly sent her carriage driver for service on fortifications, see Mary Ann Cobb to F. W. C. Cook, July 12, 1864, in Coleman (ed.), Athens, 1861–1865, 94–95.

82. Brewer, Confederate Negro, 153–55; “Diary of Benjamin L. C. Wailes,” quoted in Bettersworth (ed.), Mississippi in the Confederacy, 225–26. For conditions among the black military laborers, see also Wiley, Southern Negroes, 123–31; Bettersworth, Confederate Mississippi, 169–70; Bryan, Confederate Georgia, 133; Perdue et al. (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat, 325; New York Times, Sept. 6, 1863; New York Tribune, Jan. 26, 1865.

83. Bryan, Confederate Georgia, 132; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 124–25, 131–33; Quarles, Negro in the Civil War, 275; Perdue et al. (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat, 325.

84. Wiley, Southern Negroes, 132; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IX: Ark. Narr. (Part 4), 182.

85. Jacob Stroyer, “My Life in the South,” in William Loren Katz (ed.), Five Slave Narratives (New York, 1969), 35–36, 81–97.

86. Stephen Moore to Rachel Moore, July 8, 1862, Thomas J. Moore Papers, Univ. of South Carolina. For the life of the body servant, see also Armstrong, Old Massa’s People, 282–91; WPA, Negro in Virginia, 193; Perdue et al. (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat, 167; Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 583; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, III: S.C. Narr. (Part 3), 154–55; IV: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 188–39; VI: Ala. Narr., 313–14; VII: Miss. Narr., 27–28; XII and XIII: Ga. Narr. (Part 2), 107–08, 325–26, (Part 3), 272; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 134–42.

87. Armstrong, Old Massa’s People, 281; John F. Stegeman, These Men She Gave: The Civil War Diary of Athens, Georgia (Athens, Ga., 1964), 39–40; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, III: S. C. Narr. (Part 3), 154. See also Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entry for Oct. 14, 1862, Univ. of South Carolina.

88. WPA, Negro in Virginia, 193; Armstrong, Old Massa’s People, 288–89, 295–99; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, III: S. C. Narr. (Part 4), 3; IV: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 181; VII: Miss. Narr., 28; XII: Ga. Narr. (Part 2), 326; XTV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 115–16; Perdue et al. (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat, 196; Putnam, Richmond During the Confederacy, 178–79; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 143–45.

89. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 278; Spencer B. King, Jr. (ed.), Rebel Lawyer: Letters of Theodorick W. Montfort, 1861–1862 (Athens, Ga., 1965), 69, 77; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 141. See also New York Times, Sept. 30, 1862, Sept. 16, 1863, and Perdue et al. (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat, 168.

90. Wiley, Southern Negroes, 143n.; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 188–89.

91. Montgomery Weekly Mail, Sept. 2, 1863, as quoted in Durden, The Gray and the Black, 32.

92. Joseph T. Wilson, The Black Phalanx: A History of the Negro Soldiers of the United States in the Wars of 1775–1812, 1861-’65 (Hartford, 1888), 482; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 147–48n.; Gerald M. Capers, Occupied City: New Orleans under the Federals, 1862–1865 (Lexington, Ky., 1965), 216–17; John W. Blassingame, Black New Orleans, 1860–1880 (Chicago, 1973), 33–34; Quarles, Negro in the Civil War, 38; James M. McPherson, The Negro’s Civil War (New York, 1965), 23–24.

93. McPherson, Negro’s Civil War, 24; Quarles, Negro in the Civil War, 39; Dudley T. Cornish, The Sable Arm: Negro Troops in the Union Army, 1861–1865 (New York, 1956), 67, 142.

94. Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 203–04; New Orleans Tribune, Nov. 3, 1864. For the debate on slave enlistments, see Durden, The Gray and the Black, especially 29–100.

95. Durden, The Gray and the Black, 89, 95, 118–19; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 156–57; McPherson, Negro’s Civil War, 244. See also Fremantle, Three Months in the Southern States, 282n.; Wiley (ed.), Letters of Warren Akin, 32–33; Ravenel, Private Journal, 201; New York Times, Sept. 12, 1863; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 152, 154–57; Coulter, Confederate States of America, 267–68; Bettersworth, Confederate Mississippi, 170–71; Bryan, Confederate Georgia, 133–34.

96. Durden, The Gray and the Black, 76; Wiley (ed.), Letters of Warren Akin, 117; Brooks and Lefler (eds.), Papers of Walter Clark, I, 140.

97. Durden, The Gray and the Black, 202–03; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 158–59; John S. Wise, The End of an Era (Boston, 1902), 394–95.

98. New York Tribune, April 4, 1865; Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 456.

99. Richmond Examiner, Feb. 27, 1865, quoted in New York Times, March 5, 1865.

100. New York Times, Jan. 1, 1865; Hitchcock, Marching with Sherman, 128; Milo M. Quaife (ed.), From the Cannon’s Mouth: The Civil War Letters of General Alpheus S. Williams (Detroit, 1959), 371.

101. Durden, The Gray and the Black, 44; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 160–61; Allan Nevins, The War for the Union: The Organized War to Victory, 1864–1865 (New York, 1971), 278–79; Trowbridge, The South: A Tour, 208. For periodic reports of black “soldiers” in the Confederate Army, see New York Times, Aug. 17, 1861, Oct. 27, 1862, March 1, 14, May 14, 1863, March 23, 1865.

102. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 134; XVI: Tenn. Narr., 12–13.

103. Douglass’ Monthly, IV (June 1861), 477; New York Times, May 21, Dec. 15, 1861; House (ed.), “Deterioration of a Georgia Rice Plantation,” 101; Sydnor, A Gentleman of the Old Natchez Region, 296; Bettersworth, Confederate Mississippi, 162.

104. Douglass’ Monthly, IV (June 1861), 477; New York Times, May 11, 21, June 1, Dec. 15, 1861; Haviland, A Woman’s Life-Work, 295–97; “Diary of Benjamin L. C. Wailes,” in Bettersworth (ed.), Mississippi in the Confederacy, 234–35; Sydnor, A Gentleman of the Old Natchez Region, 296–97; Herbert Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts(New York, 1943), 363–65; Aptheker, “Notes on Slave Conspiracies in Confederate Mississippi,” Journal of Negro History, XXIX (Jan. 1944), 75; Harvey Wish, “Slave Disloyalty under the Confederacy,” Journal of Negro History, XXIII (Oct. 1938), 443; Bettersworth, Confederate Mississippi, 162; Bryan, Confederate Georgia, 127; Ruffin, Diary, II, 35.

105. Cassville (Ga.) Standard, quoted in New York Times, May 31, 1861; Ruffin, Diary, II, 35; Nancy and D. Willard to Micajah Wilkinson, May 28, 1861, Micajah Wilkinson Papers, Louisiana State Univ.; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 82.

106. Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entry for Sept. 29, 1862, Univ. of South Carolina; Aptheker, “Notes on Slave Conspiracies in Confederate Mississippi,” 77.

107. Julia LeGrand, The Journal of Julia LeGrand (eds. Kate M. Rowland and Mrs. Morris E. Croxall; Richmond, 1911), 58–59. On Jan. 1, 1863, she wrote: “The long expected negro dinner did not come off.” Ibid., 61. For rumors of a general insurrection, see also Wish, “Slave Disloyalty under the Confederacy,” 445–46; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 82–83.

108. New York Times, Jan. 25, 1863; L. G. C. [Causey] to her husband [R. J. Causey], Nov. 19, 1863, R. J. Causey Papers, Louisiana State Univ.

109. Wiley, Southern Negroes, 68; Aptheker, “Notes on Slave Conspiracies in Confederate Mississippi,” 78–79; Elijah P. Marrs, Life and History of the Rev. Elijah P. Marrs (Louisville, 1885), quoted in McPherson, Negro’s Civil War, 206–07. For a conspiracy by slaves near Laurinburg, North Carolina, to force themselves into the Union lines, see David P. Conyngham, Sherman’s March Through the South (New York, 1865), 355.

110. “Memorial to the Senate and House of Representatives of Georgia,” Proceedings of the Freedmen’s Convention of Georgia, Assembled at Augusta, January 10th, 1866 (Augusta, 1866), 18. For punishments meted out to suspected insurrectionists, see Bettersworth, Confederate Mississippi, 162–63; Sydnor, A Gentleman of the Old Natchez Region, 296–97; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 68, 82; Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts, 365–67; New York Times, Oct. 21, 1862, Oct. 29, 1863; John D. Winters, The Civil War in Louisiana (Baton Rouge, 1963), 307; Bryan, Confederate Georgia, 127.

111. Higginson, Army Life in a Black Regiment, 248.

112. Ibid., 248; Christian Recorder (Philadelphia), June 28, 1862; Anglo-African, Sept. 21, 1861.

113. Susan R. Jervey and Charlotte St. J. Ravenel, Two Diaries: From Middle St. John’s, Berkeley, South Carolina, February–May, 1865 (St. John’s Hunting Club, 1921; copy in South Caroliniana Library, Univ. of South Carolina), 7, 18; Durden, The Gray and the Black, 56. See also William G. Eliot, The Story of Archer Alexander: From Slavery to Freedom, March 30, 1863 (Boston, 1885), 46; Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 359; Ruffin, Diary, II, 409–10; Charles E. Cauthen (ed.), Family Letters of the Three Wade Hamptons, 1782–1901 (Columbia, S.C., 1953), 102; Nordhoff, Freedmen of South Carolina, 12; Oscar O. Winther (ed.), With Sherman to the Sea: The Civil War Letters, Diaries & Reminiscences of Theodore F. Upson (Bloomington, Ind., 1958), 73; John W. Hanson, Historical Sketch of the Old Sixth Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteers (Boston, 1866), 162; John Beatty, The Citizen-Soldier; or Memoirs of a Volunteer (Cincinnati, 1879), 132; New York Times, June 13, 1861, Nov. 3, 1862, May 9, 11, 1863, March 7, 1864, March 16, 1865; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 76–77; Wish, “Slave Disloyalty under the Confederacy,” 446–47; Allan Nevins, The War for the Union: The Organized War, 1863–1864 (New York, 1971), 415. For blacks as Union spies, see, e.g., WPA, Negro in Virginia, 199–200, and McPherson, Negro’s Civil War, 147–49.

114. McPherson, Negro’s Civil War, 150–53; John V. Hadley, Seven Months a Prisoner; or Thirty-six Days in the Woods (Indianapolis, 1868), 84; Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 21.

115. James M. Guthrie, Camp-Fires of the Afro-American (Cincinnati [1899]), 306–16; Quarles, Negro in the Civil War, 71–74; Joel Williamson, After Slavery: The Negro in South Carolina During Reconstruction, 1861–1877 (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1965), 6–7; Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entry for May 14, 1862, Univ. of South Carolina. For the subsequent testimony of Smalls before the American Freedmen’s Inquiry Commission in 1863, see Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 373–79.

116. New York Times, June 2, 1861; Friends’ Central Committee for the Relief of the Emancipated Negroes, Letters from Joseph Simpson (London, 1865), 23.

117. Douglass’ Monthly, IV (July 1861), 487; New York Times, May 27, 1861; WPA, Negro in Virginia, 188–89; Willie Lee Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction (Indianapolis, 1964), 13–15; Louis S. Gerteis, From Contraband to Freedman: Federal Policy Toward Southern Blacks, 1861–1865 (West-port, Conn., 1973), 11–17; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 175–76; Nevins, War for the Union: The Organized War, 1863–1864, 421–23; C. Peter Ripley, Slaves and Freedmen in Civil War Louisiana (Baton Rouge, 1976), 25–39.

118. Simkins and Patton, Women of the Confederacy, 163; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 9–10; New York Times, Nov. 20, 1861, May 7, 1864; Bettersworth, Confederate Mississippi, 164; Bragg, Louisiana in the Confederacy, 210; Blassingame, Black New Orleans, 26, 28; Johns, Florida During the Civil War, 63; Douglass’ Monthly, IV (Dec. 1861), 565–66; Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 78.

119. Douglass’ Monthly, IV (Sep. 1861), 526; Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 178–80; Armstrong and Ludlow, Hampton and Its Students, 111; Haviland, A Woman’s Life-Work, 270; A. O. Howell, Jan. 19 and Feb. 6, 1864, American Missionary Assn. Archives; James E. Glazier to his parents, Feb. 28, 1862, Glazier Collection, Huntington Library, San Marino, Calif.; Ephraim M. Anderson, Memoirs: Historical and Personal (St. Louis, 1868), 364; Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 957, 959; J. H. Easterby (ed.), The South Carolina Rice Plantation: As Revealed in the Papers of Robert F. W. Allston (Chicago, 1945), 289–90; Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 449–54, 456, 545–46; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, V: Texas Narr. (Part 3), 276; VIII: Ark. Narr. (Part 1), 169; Williamson, After Slavery, 6; New York Times, June 15, Oct. 27, Dec. 18, 1861, Jan. 14, 19, Feb. 9, Oct. 26, Dec. 16, 1862, March 9, June 26, July 12, Aug. 8, Nov. 10, 1863, May 7, 1864, March 2, 1865.

120. Quarles, Negro in the Civil War, 62; New York Times, Dec. 20, 1861, Nov. 15, 1862, May 7, 1864; Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 545; Winters, Civil War in Louisiana, 163, Higginson, Army Life in a Black Regiment, 11–12.

121. Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 92–93; Letters from Joseph Simpson, 22; Higginson, Army Life in a Black Regiment, 71, 246; Haviland, A Woman’s Life-Work, 270–71; Stone, Brokenburn, 202; Swint (ed.), Dear Ones at Home, 251; Bryan, Confederate Georgia, 128; New York Times, Dec. 26, 1861, Jan. 21, Feb. 9, Oct. 19, Nov. 29, 1862, June 14, 17, July 3, 12, 1863, July 17, 1864, April 2, 17, 1865; Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 450–51.

122. Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 929–30, 934–35, 935, 939–40.

123. Rogers, History of Georgetown County, 406–07.

124. Easterby (ed.), South Carolina Rice Plantation, 199–200, 289–90, 291–92, 292–93. Having reached similar conclusions about defecting slaves, Edmund Ruffin could rationalize his son’s decision to sell twenty-nine of those who had remained. “These were the fragments of sundry families, of which the other members had gone off in the several previous elopements—& who were therein active participators, as all the adults who remained were passive, knowing well the intentions of the others, & keeping their secret.” Ruffin, Diary, II, 353.

125. Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 138–39, 140; New York Times, Dec. 12, 1862; Perdue et al. (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat, 64; Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 110. See also Ravenel, Private Journal, 115–16.

126. Higginson, Army Life in a Black Regiment, 247; Thompson, An Englishman in the American Civil War, 104; Ray Allen Billington (ed.), The Journal of Charlotte L. Forten (New York, 1953), 160.

127. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, V: Texas Narr. (Part 3), 83; Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts, 360–61.

128. John Eaton, Grant, Lincoln and the Freedmen: Reminiscences of the Civil War (New York, 1907; repr. 1969), 2; Emily Caroline Douglas, Ms. Autobiography, c. 1904, [167–68], Louisiana State Univ.; New York Times, Dec. 18, 1861. See also Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 173–74, 359.

129. Swint (ed.), Dear Ones at Home, 42; New York Times, June 16, 1861, Jan. 14, April 6, Dec. 16, 1862. See also Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 699–702, and Albert, House of Bondage, 114–15.

130. Towne, Letters and Diary, 24; Letters from Joseph Simpson, 26; P. J. Staudenraus (ed.), “A War Correspondent’s View of St. Augustine and Fernandina: 1863,” Florida Historical Quarterly, XLI (July 1962), 64; Julius Lester, To Be a Slave (New York, 1968), 29. See also Armstrong and Ludlow, Hampton and Its Students, 110–11; Haviland, A Woman’s Life-Work, 268; Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 139; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VIII: Ark. Narr. (Part 1), 169; XVIII: Unwritten History, 173.

131. New York Times, Dec. 18, 1861; Higginson, Army Life in a Black Regiment, 174; Albert, House of Bondage, 134–35.

132. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 450; Douglass’ Monthly, IV (Dec. 1861), 564.

133. Stone, Brokenburn, 28.

134. Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 138, 139–40, 145–48, 151–52, 154, 176, 264–65.

135. Wise, End of an Era, 74; Speech of James McDowell, Jr. (of Rockbridge) in the House of Delegates of Virginia, on the Slave Question (Richmond, 1832), reprinted in Eric Foner (ed.), Nat Turner (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1971), 113. On January 4, 1862, Edmund Ruffin confided his recollections of the Nat Turner insurrection to his diary. Diary, II, 207–09.

136. Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 38, 292–93.

137. Jones (ed.), Heroines of Dixie, 118.

138. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 189.

Chapter Two: Black Liberators

1. Report of the Proceedings of a Meeting Held at Concert Hall, Philadelphia, on Tuesday Evening, November 3, 1863, to Take into Consideration the Condition of the Freed People of the South (Philadelphia, 1863), 22.

2. George H. Hepworth, The Whip, Hoe, and Sword; or, The Gulf-Department in ’63 (Boston, 1864), 179.

3. W. E. B. Du Bois, Black Reconstruction (New York, 1935), 110.

4. Christian Recorder, April 23, May 28, 1864.

5. Douglass’ Monthly, III (May 1861), 451.

6. Wiley, Southern Negroes, 301; New York Times, Oct. 18, 1862.

7. Roy P. Basler (ed.), The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln (8 vols.; New Brunswick, N.J., 1953), V, 423; V. Jacque Voegeli, Free but Not Equal: The Midwest and the Negro During the Civil War (Chicago, 1967), 99; Bell I. Wiley, The Life of Billy Yank: The Common Soldier of the Union (Indianapolis, 1951), 120.

8. William C. Bryant II (ed.), “A Yankee Soldier Looks at the Negro,” Civil War History, VII (1961), 144.

9. Cornish, Sable Arm, 9–10, 31; Christian Recorder, July 25, 1863.

10. Christian Recorder, Jan. 31, 1863.

11. Herbert Aptheker, “The Negro in the Union Navy,” Journal of Negro History, XXXII (1947), 169–200 (for the experience of Robert Fitzgerald in the Union Navy, see Pauli Murray, Proud Shoes: The Story of an American Family (New York, 1956), 130–34); Cornish, Sable Arm, 33–58, 69–75; William F. Messner, “Black Violence and White Response: Louisiana, 1862,” Journal of Southern History, XLI (1975), 28–30; Douglass’ Monthly, V (Aug. 1862), 698–99; Wilson, Black Phalanx, 145–65; Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 144–48, 187–89; Towne, Letters and Diary, 41–54.

12. James M. McPherson, The Struggle for Equality: Abolitionists and the Negro in the Civil War and Reconstruction (Princeton, N.J., 1964), 197–202; Higginson, Army Life in a Black Regiment, 4.

13. Higginson, Army Life in a Black Regiment, 4–5, 10–11, 16–19, 25, 28–30.

14. E. Pershine Smith to Henry C. Carey, Jan. 5, 1863, Carey Papers, Edward Carey Gardiner Collection, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Winther (ed.), With Sherman to the Sea, 55.

15. Higginson, Army Life in a Black Regiment, 58–60; Higginson to Brig. Gen. Rufus Saxton, Feb. 1, 1863, in Guthrie, Camp-Fires of the Afro-American, 390–91.

16. Lary C. Rampp, “Negro Troop Activity in Indian Territory, 1863–1865,” Chronicles of Oklahoma, XLVII (Spring 1969), 534–36; New York Times, Nov. 20, 1862; Henry T. Johns, Life with the Forty-ninth Massachusetts Volunteers (Washington, D.C., 1890), 248, 281–83; McPherson (ed.), Negro’s Civil War, 185–87. See also New York Times, Feb. 23, April 1, Dec. 14, 1863; William Wells Brown, The Negro in the American Rebellion (Boston, 1880), 167–76; Albert, House of Bondage, 131–32.

17. Cornish, Sable Arm, 95, 114, 231, 251; Nevins, War for the Union: The Organized War, 1863–1864, 54n.; John W. Blassingame, “The Recruitment of Colored Troops in Kentucky, Maryland and Missouri, 1863–1865,” Historian, XXIX (1967), 533–45; Basler (ed.), Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, VII, 282; McPherson (ed.), Negro’s Civil War, 192. See also Christian Recorder, Oct. 31, 1863.

18. Cornish, Sable Arm, 229–31; Wilson, Black Phalanx, 163–64. For examples of changing attitudes toward the use of black troops, see also Basler (ed.), Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, V, 357, and VI, 149–50; John Mercer Langston, From the Virginia Plantation to the National Capitol (Hartford, 1894), 205–11; Voegeli, Free but Not Equal, 105.

19. Record of Action of the Convention Held at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., July 15th and 16th, 1863, for the Purpose of Facilitating the Introduction of Colored Troops into the Service of the United States (New York, 1863), 6, 7, 8; Douglass’ Monthly, V (March 1863), 801, (April 1863), 819; New York Times, Jan. 11, 1864. See also Christian Recorder, July 18, 1863; New York Times, Feb. 20, March 26, 1864; H. Ford Douglass to Frederick Douglass, Jan. 8, 1863, in Douglass’ Monthly, V (Feb. 1863), 786; Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 372.

20. Christian Recorder, June 20, 1863. See also ibid, June 27, July 11, 18, 1863; Douglass’ Monthly, V (April 1863), 818–19, (Aug. 1863), 852.

21. Douglass’ Monthly, V (Aug. 1863), 851, (April 1863), 818.

22. Wiley, Southern Negroes, 306; New York Times, July 27, 31, Aug. 2, 1863.

23. Wiley, Southern Negroes, 306–07; Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 269–70; George H. Gordon, A War Diary of Events in the War of the Great Rebellion, 1863–1866 (Boston, 1882), 275.

24. New York Times, April 4, 1864; Wilson, Black Phalanx, 130–32; John Hope Franklin (ed.), The Diary of James T. Ayers: Civil War Recruiter (Springfield, Ill., 1947), xvi, 5, 26–8; McPherson, Negro’s Civil War, 206.

25. Wilson, Black Phalanx, 130–32; Blassingame, “Recruitment of Colored Troops in Kentucky, Maryland and Missouri, 1863–1865,” 543–14; Henry G. Pearson, The Life of John A. Andrew: Governor of Massachusetts, 1861–1865 (2 vols.; Boston, 1904), II, 144–45; Cornish, Sable Arm, 182; Franklin (ed.), Diary of James T. Ayers, 46.

26. John A. Hedrick to Benjamin S. Hedrick, March 13, 1864, Benjamin S. Hedrick Papers, Duke Univ.; McPherson, Negro’s Civil War, 170; Blassingame, “Recruitment of Colored Troops in Kentucky, Maryland and Missouri, 1863–1865,” 539.

27. Elizabeth Ware Pearson (ed.), Letters from Port Royal (Boston, 1906), 177, 185–90, 239, 282–84; Towne, Letters and Diary, 107; Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 266–68, 269, 328–29; New York Times, Jan. 25, 1863, March 1, 1865; Bruce, The New Man, 107; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 309–10; Report of the Proceedings of a Meeting, Philadelphia, November 3, 1863, 22.

28. Pearson (ed.), Letters from Port Royal, 185; Salmon P. Chase to David Hunter, Feb. 14, 1863, Main File, Huntington Library.

29. New York Times, March 1, 1863; Christian Recorder, July 18, 1863.

30. Christian Recorder, Feb. 28, July 11, 1863. See also Record of Action of the Convention Held at Poughkeepsie, N. Y., July 15th and 16th, 1863, 11–12.

31. Pearson, Life of John Andrew, II, 71–84; Luis F. Emilio, History of the Fifty-fourth Regiment of Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, 1863–1865 (Boston, 1891), 1–18; Cornish, Sable Arm, 105–10; McPherson, Struggle for Equality, 202–06; Douglass’ Monthly, V (March 1863), 801.

32. Emilio, History of the Fifty-fourth Regiment, 19–34; Pearson, Life of John Andrew, II, 86–89; Cornish, Sable Arm, 147–48; McPherson, Struggle for Equality, 206; Quarles, Negro in the Civil War, 10–12; Frank A. Rollin, Life and Public Services of Martin R. Delany (Boston, 1883), 145; New York Times, May 29, 1863.

33. Emilio, History of the Fifty-fourth Regiment, 67–104; Brown, Negro in the American Rebellion, 198–211; McPherson, Struggle for Equality, 211–12; Lewis Douglass to Amelia Loguen, July 20, 1863, Carter G. Woodson Collection, Library of Congress.

34. New York Times, May 24, 1863.

35. McPherson, Negro’s Civil War, 143–44, 173; William H. Parham to Jacob C. White, Aug. 7, 1863, Jacob C. White, Jr., Papers, American Negro Historical Society Papers, Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

36. Christian Recorder, July 26, 1862.

37. Cornish, Sable Arm, 184–85; Christian Recorder, June 11, 1864; Douglass’ Monthly, V (March 1863), 801.

38. Christian Recorder, Aug. 13, April 2, 1864. See also ibid., March 5, June 11, July 23, 1864.

39. Ibid., Aug. 13, Feb. 13, March 5, 19, 1864; Rollin, Life and Public Services of Martin R. Delany, 146–54; Douglass’ Monthly, V (Aug. 1863), 849; Life and Times of Frederick Douglass (Hartford, 1882), 421.

40. Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, 421–25.

41. Christian Recorder, March 5, April 23, July 30, Aug. 27, 1864. For life in the camp and the grievances of black soldiers, as expressed in letters from the soldiers, see Christian Recorder for 1863 and 1864.

42. Ibid., Feb. 20, March 5, April 23, June 11, Aug. 13, 1864.

43. Ibid., July 23, June 11, 1864. See also the identical argument of a Pennsylvania black soldier in ibid., Aug. 13, 1864, and of a soldier from the 54th Mass. Rgt. in Brown, Negro in the American Rebellion, 250–51.

44. Christian Recorder, July 11, Aug. 27, 1864.

45. Ibid., May 28, July 23, 1864; Higginson, Army Life in a Black Regiment, 252. For the refusal to accept pay, see also Christian Recorder, June 11, July 23, 30, Aug. 13, 27, 1864.

46. Christian Recorder, Sept. 12, 1863, June 25, July 2, 1864; McPherson, Negro’s Civil War, 200–01; McPherson, Struggle for Equality, 217; Emilio, History of the Fifty-fourth Regiment, 190–91; Brown, Negro in the American Rebellion, 251–52; Higginson, Army Life in a Black Regiment, 280.

47. Douglass’ Monthly, V (Aug. 1863), 852; Christian Recorder, July 18, 1863; John S. Rock to the soldiers of the 5th Rgt. of U.S. Heavy Artillery, Natchez, Miss., May 30, 1864, Ms. address in George L. Ruffin Papers, Howard Univ., Washington, D.C.; McPherson, Negro’s Civil War, 175–76; Headquarters, Supervisory Committee on Colored Enlistments, “To Men of Color,” broadside, Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Similar sentiments may be found in Christian Recorder, July 11, 1863.

48. Christian Recorder, Sept. 17, 1864.

49. Ibid., Nov. 5, 1864.

50. McPherson, Struggle for Equality, 217–19; Higginson, Army Life in a Black Regiment, 287–89; Christian Recorder, Nov. 5, 1864; Emilio, History of the Fifty-fourth Regiment, 220–21, 227–28. On March 3, 1865, Congress enacted a law giving full retroactive pay to all black regiments that had been promised equal pay at the time of enlistment.

51. New York Times, June 14, 1864; William E. Farrison, William Wells Brown (Chicago, 1969), 382; Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 378, 384; Herbert Aptheker (ed.), A Documentary History of the Negro People in the United States (New York, 1951), 486–87. For similar sentiments, see Christian Recorder, April 23, June 11, July 23, 1864, and New Orleans Tribune, Aug. 25, 1864. On the appointment of black officers, see Cornish, Sable Arm, 214–17.

52. Rollin, Life and Public Services of Martin R. Delany, 141–43; Christian Recorder, Feb. 14, 1863.

53. Rollin, Life and Public Services of Martin R. Delany, 166–8, 200–02, 209–26.

54. Richmond Dispatch, Aug. 5, 1864, reprinted in New York Times, Aug. 12, 1864; Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entry for July 16, 1863, Univ. of South Carolina.

55. Colin Clarke to Maxwell Clarke, Feb. 10, 1864, Williams-Chesnut-Manning Papers, Univ. of South Carolina. For comparable sentiments, see House (ed.), “Deterioration of a Georgia Rice Plantation During Four Years of Civil War,” 107.

56. Cornish, Sable Arm, 160, 162–63, 167.

57. Ibid., 159–62; Wilson, Black Phalanx, 316–18.

58. Cornish, Sable Arm, 163, 169, 172–73, 177–78; New York Times, Dec. 2, 1863, Jan. 28, March 26, 1864; Aptheker (ed.), Documentary History, 487–88; Williamson, After Slavery, 21; Kerby, Kirby Smith’s Confederacy, 111.

59. Cornish, Sable Arm, 170–72. For reports of prisoner exchanges, see Christian Recorder, Feb. 25, 1865, and Williamson, After Slavery, 21.

60. Bell I. Wiley, The Life of Johnny Reb: The Common Soldier of the Confederacy (Indianapolis, 1943), 314–15; Cornish, Sable Arm, 164, 176–77.

61. Christian Recorder, July 26, 1862, Feb. 14, June 13, 1863, April 2, 1864; New York Times, May 20, 1863; Douglass’ Monthly, V (Aug. 1863), 849–50.

62. Basler (ed.), Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, VI, 357, VII, 302–03; Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, 423–24; Christian Recorder, April 23, 1864.

63. Christian Recorder, April 23, 1864; Cornish, Sable Arm, 173–75; Brown, Negro in the American Rebellion, 235–47; McPherson, Negro’s Civil War, 217–21.

64. Christian Recorder, June 11, April 30, 1864. See also “The Capture of Fort Pillow,” an editorial in ibid., April 23, 1864.

65. Farrison, William Wells Brown, 391–92.

66. McPherson, Negro’s Civil War, 225; Kerby, Kirby Smith’s Confederacy, 312; Cornish, Sable Arm, 176–77; Wilson, Black Phalanx, 347–48.

67. Christian Recorder, Aug. 13, 1864; McPherson, Negro’s Civil War, 222. See also New York Times, Aug. 26, 27, Oct. 1, 1864.

68. Higginson, Army Life in a Black Regiment, 173–74; Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 243–44; Sarah Bradford, Harriet Tubman: The Moses of Her People (2nd ed., 1886; repr. New York, 1961), 99–102.

69. Christian Recorder, April 9, June 18, 1864; March 18, April 1, 1865; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XVII: Fla. Narr., 161. See also “Letter from South Carolina,” in Christian Recorder, Feb. 25, 1865.

70. New York Times, Feb. 28, 1864; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XVII: Fla. Narr., 82; Christian Recorder, April 15, 1865.

71. Christian Recorder, May 28, June 25, 1864, April 15, 1865.

72. Ibid., May 28, 1864, March 25, April 15, 1865; Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entry for May 3, 1865, Univ. of South Carolina.

73. New York Tribune, March 2, 1865; Christian Recorder, April 15, 1865; Lt. Col. John S. Bogert, 103rd U.S. Colored Troops, to his parents, Feb. 24, 1865, Univ. of South Carolina; McPherson, Negro’s Civil War, 236–37; Rollin, Life and Public Services of Martin R. Delany, 197–98.

74. Maxwell Clarke to Mrs. John Laurence Manning, Oct. 12, 1863, Williams-Chesnut-Manning Papers, Univ. of South Carolina; Jervey and Ravenel, Two Diaries, 7; Christian Recorder, June 25, 1864; Reid, After the War, 213; Christian Recorder, May 27, 1865.

75. New York Times, Dec. 5, 1863; Eliza Frances Andrews, The War-Time Journal of a Georgia Girl, 1864–1865 (New York, 1908), 261–62; Johns, Life with the Forty-ninth Massachusetts Volunteers, 295–96; Simkins and Patton, Women of the Confederacy, 238. For similar views of native whites, see, e.g., Ravenel, Private Journal, 212–14; Jervey and Ravenel, Two Diaries, 7, 8–9, 11, 18, 31–33, 34; Stone, Brokenburn, 297–98.

76. Christian Recorder, May 6, 27, 1865.

77. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XVIII: Unwritten History, 253.

78. Cornish, Sable Arm, 287–88; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 341–44; McPherson, Negro’s Civil War, 143–47; Bryant (ed.), “A Yankee Soldier Looks at the Negro,” 147.

79. Cornish, Sable Arm, 288; Wiley, Life of Billy Yank, 124–25, 134–37.

80. McPherson, Negro’s Civil War, 183; Johns, Life with the Forty-ninth Massachusetts Volunteers, 154; Bryant (ed.), “A Yankee Soldier Looks at the Negro,” 141; Wilson, Black Phalanx, 280–83; Johns, Life with the Forty-ninth Massachusetts Volunteers, 167, 168; McPherson, Negro’s Civil War, 172; New York Times, June 14, 1864, May 17, 1863.

81. Wilson, Black Phalanx, 280, 282, 283; Gordon, War Diary of Events, 275; Higginson, Army Life in a Black Regiment, 29, 259.

82. Cornish, Sable Arm, 55, 261–64, 267, 288–89; Christian Recorder, Aug. 13, 1864.

83. McPherson, Negro’s Civil War, 237; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XVIII: Unwritten History, 150–51; IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 232; Hepworth, Whip, Hoe, and Sword, 187.

84. Johns, Life with the Forty-ninth Massachusetts Volunteers, 294–95; Lt. Col. John S. Bogert, 103rd U.S. Colored Troops, to his parents, Feb. 1, 17, 1865, Univ. of South Carolina.

85. New York Times, Aug. 21, 1863; George O. Jewett to Dexter Jewett, July 18, 1863, Main File, Henry E. Huntington Library; Wiley, Life of Billy Yank, 121. See also New York Times, April 16, 1863, Oct. 30, 1864, March 12, 1865; Joel Cook, The Siege of Richmond (Philadelphia, 1862), 75–76.

86. Cornish, Sable Arm, 147. See also New York Times, April 21, 1863; Bryant (ed.), “A Yankee Soldier Looks at the Negro,” 146; Wilson, Black Phalanx, 298, 310–11.

87. Towne, Letters and Diary, 94; New York Times, Oct. 3, 1862; Johns, Life with the Forty-ninth Massachusetts Volunteers, 169.

88. Quoted in introduction to Higginson, Army Life in a Black Regiment, Collier Books reprint edition (New York, 1962), 19–20. On self-pride and the postwar expectations of black soldiers, see also Christian Recorder, Aug. 13, 1864 (Sgt. John C. Brock and Cpl. Abram C. Simms), March 18 (Sgt. John C. Brock and Pvt. Henry C. Hoyle), April 8 (George A. Watkins), 15 (William Waters), May 13 (J. N. Drake), 27 (Cpl. William Gibson and Pvt. W. A. Freeman); New York Times, Feb. 20, 1864, and Brown, Negro in the American Rebellion, 280–81 (Cpl. Spencer McDowell).

89. New York Tribune, June 8, 1863, quoted in Guthrie, Camp-Fires of the Afro-American, 366; Du Bois, Black Reconstruction, 104, 110. For similar sentiments, see New York Times, Aug. 21, 1863, and New Era, July 28, 1870.

90. New York Times, Aug. 17, 1865; Haviland, A Woman’s Life-Work, 314–15. See also Ephraim McDowell Anderson, Memoirs: Historical and Personal (St. Louis, 1868), 400–01; Perdue et al. (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat, 179.

Chapter Three: Kingdom Comin’

1. Higginson, Army Life in a Black Regiment, 217–18.

2. Louis Manigault to “Mon Cher Pere” [Charles Manigault], Nov. 24, Dec. 5, 1861, Louis Manigault Letters, South Carolina Department of Archives and History, Columbia; Louis Manigault to Charles W. Henry, April 10, 1863, with enclosure containing description and cropped photograph of a runaway slave, Manigault Family Letters, South Caroliniana Library, Univ. of South Carolina; Louis Manigault, Memos on Overseers, Gowrie Plantation (Savannah River), Feb. 1, 1857, Dec. 20, 1858, and “Visit to ‘Gowrie’ and ‘East Hermitage’ Plantations,” March 1867, Manigault Plantation Records, Southern Historical Collection, Univ. of North Carolina; House (ed.), “Deterioration of a Georgia Rice Plantation During Four Years of Civil War,” 98–117; Ulrich B. Phillips (ed.), Plantation and Frontier: 1649–1863 (2 vols.; Cleveland, 1910), I, 138, 320–21, II, 32–33, in John R. Commons et al. (eds.), A Documentary History of American Industrial Society (10 vols.; Cleveland, 1910–11). See also James M. Clifton, “A Half-Century of a Georgia Rice Plantation,” North Carolina Historical Review, XLVII (1970), 388–415.

3. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 279; John Houston Bills, Ms. Diary, entry for Jan. 10, 1863, Univ. of North Carolina; New York Times, April 12, 1862 (the incident was related by “C.H.W.,” a Times correspondent writing from Centre-ville, Virginia).

4. Jervey and Ravenel, Two Diaries, 5; Washington, Up from Slavery, 19–20.

5. Heyward, Seed from Madagascar, 135; S. H. Boineau to Charles Heyward, Jan. 6, 1865, Univ. of South Carolina; Jones (ed.), Heroines of Dixie, 196–97; Catherine Barbara Broun, Ms. Diary, entry for Jan. 1, 1864, Univ. of North Carolina. See also Ravenel, Private Journal, 205; Susan Bradford Eppes, Through Some Eventful Years (Macon, 1926; repr. Gainesville, 1968), 168.

6. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VI: Ala. Narr., 270. For similar recollections, see III: S.C. Narr. (Part 4), 14, and XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 128. The song “Ol’ Gen’ral Bragg’s A-Mowin’ Down de Yankees” also captured much of this feeling. Newman Ivey White (ed.), North Carolina Folklore (7 vols.; Durham, N.C., 1952–64), II, 543–44.

7. See e.g., Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 86.

8. Macrae, Americans at Home, 133; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VI: Ala. Narr., 270–71.

9. Wiley, Southern Negroes, 19; New York Tribune, March 2, 1865; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, III: S.C. Narr. (Part 3), 202; V: Texas Narr. (Part 3), 158; XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 249–50.

10. John Houston Bills, Ms. Diary, entry for Jan. 14, 1863, Univ. of North Carolina; Perdue et al. (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat, 144. See also Stone, Brokenburn, 33, 35, and Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VII: Miss. Narr., 63–64.

11. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XII: Ga. Narr. (Part 2), 278; V: Texas Narr. (Part 3), 230; II: S.C. Narr. (Part 1), 118–19; Smedes, Memorials of a Southern Planter, 188–89. See also Rawick (ed.), American Slave, II and III: S. C. Narr. (Part 1), 72, 248, (Part 2), 19, 54, 325, (Part 3), 26, (Part 4), 225; VI: Ala. Narr., 49–50, 89, 99, 144, 225, 331, 373, 420; VII: Okla. Narr., 106; XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 419; Jacob Stroyer, “My Life in the South,” in Katz (ed.), Five Slave Narratives, 36; Washington, Up from Slavery, 19; Elizabeth W. Allston Pringle, Chronicles of Chicora Wood (New York, 1922), 221–24, 227–28; The Diary of Dolly Lunt Burge (ed. James I. Robertson; Athens, Ga., 1962), 91–92, 100; Matthew Page Andrews (ed.), The Women of the South in War Times (Baltimore, 1920), 237–38; Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 475; and Katharine M. Jones (ed.), When Sherman Came: Southern Women and the “GreatMarch”(Indianapolis, 1964), 116, 252.

12. When the World Ended: The Diary of Emma LeConte (ed. Earl S. Miers; New York, 1957), 31, 41; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 71; Jervey and Ravenel, Two Diaries, 10; Pringle, Chronicles of Chicora Wood, 234; Mrs. Mary Jones to Col. Charles C. Jones, Jr., May 19, 1863, in Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1062.

13. Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 306; Jones (ed.), Heroines of Dixie, 232; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 241.

14. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, II: S.C. Narr. (Part 1), 247, (Part 2), 20, 157; Stone, Brokenburn, 198, 203; Wise, End of an Era, 208, 210. See also Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 885–86.

15. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, X: Ark. Narr. (Part 5), 136; Black Republican (New Orleans), May 20, 1865. For different versions and some recollections of the song, see White (ed.), North Carolina Folklore, II, 541–43, and Rawick (ed.), American Slave, II: S.C. Narr. (Part 2), 197; IV: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 28–29; XVIII: Unwritten History, 232.

16. Douglass’ Monthly, IV (Jan. 1862), 580.

17. Stone, Brokenburn, 168–69; Nevins, War for the Union: The Organized War, 1863–1864, 417.

18. Towne, Letters and Diary, 27–29, 94–95; Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 17, 104–05, 108–09; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, III: S.C. Narr. (Part 3), 203. See also Forten, Journal, 144; New York Times, Dec. 1, 1861; Ruffin, Diary, II, 173; Isabella Middleton Leland (ed.), “Middleton Correspondence, 1861–1865,” South Carolina Historical Magazine, LXIII (1962), 38.

19. P. L. Rainwater (ed.), “Letters of James Lusk Alcorn,” Journal of Southern History, III (1937), 200–01; Ravenel, Private Journal, 210–11, 212.

20. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XV: N.C. Narr. (Part 2), 200; VI: Ala. Narr., 420; XVII: Fla. Narr., 45; XIII: Ga. Narr. (Part 4), 145; New York Times, May 10, 1864; Haviland, A Woman’s Life-Work, 274.

21. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XVIII: Unwritten History, 253; IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 279–80; XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 157. For a Unionist planter who freed his slaves and offered to pay them for their labor, as the Yankee troops approached, see Haviland, A Woman’s Life-Work, 315–16.

22. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VII: Okla. Narr., 275–77, 281. For a similar story, see III: S.C. Narr. (Part 4), 26–27.

23. Haviland, A Woman’s Life-Work, 274; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, II: S.C. Narr. (Part 2), 329.

24. Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entry for March 31, 1865, Univ. of South Carolina.

25. John Houston Bills, Ms. Diary, entry for July 11, 1864, Univ. of North Carolina; Sarah Morgan Dawson, A Confederate Girl’s Diary (Boston, 1913), 277–78.

26. Andrews, War-Time Journal of a Georgia Girl, 127–28, 355.

27. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XVII: Fla. Narr., 161–62. The song is also recalled in XVIII: Unwritten History, 32.

28. Ibid., XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 24–25.

29. Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 13. For comparable experiences, see Higginson, Army Life in a Black Regiment, 173–74; New York Times, April 16, June 19, 1863; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, III: S.C. Narr. (Part 3), 28.

30. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, II: S.C. Narr. (Part 2), 236, 335; VII: Miss. Narr., 131; XV: N.C. Narr. (Part 2), 428; New York Times, June 19, 1863.

31. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 178; XVIII: Unwritten History, 198; III: S.C. Narr. (Part 4), 23–24; Hitchcock, Marching with Sherman, 84; Fremantle, Three Months in the Southern States, 94; Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 55; Leland (ed.), “Middleton Correspondence, 1861–1865,” 101; Jervey and Ravenel, Two Diaries, 17–18; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 250.

32. Nichols, The Great March, 59; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XI: Mo. Narr., 54; IX: Ark. Narr. (Part 3), 198.

33. Armstrong, Old Massa’s People, 301–02; New York Times, June 14, 1863.

34. Nichols, The Great March, 59; Armstrong and Ludlow, Hampton and Its Students, 83; Dennett, The South As It Is, 320. For images of the Yankees, as imparted by masters and mistresses, and for the reactions of slaves, see also Towne, Letters and Diary, 27, 29; Wiley (ed.), Letters of Warren Akin, 21; Taylor, Reminiscences of My Life in Camp, 7–8; Dennett, The South As It Is, 174, 319; Haviland, A Woman’s Life-Work, 264; Swint (ed.), Dear Ones at Home, 42, 107, 252; Johns, Life with the Forty-ninth Massachusetts Volunteers, 179; James E. Glazier to his parents, Feb. 28, 1862, Glazier Collection, Huntington Library; New York Times, July 19, Aug. 8, Dec. 4, 1861, Jan. 20, April 12, Nov. 9, 1862; Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 383; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VII: Miss. Narr., 162; XIII: Ga. Narr. (Part 3), 162; XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 136, 192, 214, 277; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 12–13; Hitchcock, Marching with Sherman, 64, 70, 84.

35. Wiley, Southern Negroes, 14; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VIII and IX: Ark. Narr. (Part 2), 348, (Part 3), 173; VI: Ala. Narr., 15; Johns, Life with the Forty-ninth Massachusetts Volunteers, 141.

36. Hepworth, Whip, Hoe, and Sword, 141; M. Waterbury, Seven Years Among the Freedmen (3rd ed.; Chicago, 1893), 87; WPA, Negro in Virginia, 201–02; Perdue et al. (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat, 277. For the reactions of slaves to the arrival of the Yankees, see also Beatty, Citizen-Soldier, 119, 124–25; Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 525; George T. Stevens, Three Years in the Sixth Corps (Albany, N.Y., 1866), 59; New York Times, April 14, Nov. 23, 1862, May 19, June 7, 1863, Dec. 23, 1864, March 6, 1865; New York Tribune, March 2, 4, 6, 1865; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, II and III: S.C. Narr. (Part 1), 142, (Part 4), 196; IX: Ark. Narr. (Part 4), 241; XII: Ga. Narr. (Part 1), 159; Armstrong and Ludlow, Hampton and Its Students, 83.

37. New York Tribune, March 2, 1865; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, II: S.C. Narr. (Part 1), 151; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 15; Nichols, The Great March, 161–62; Swint (ed.), Dear Ones at Home, 186–87.

38. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, II: S.C. Narr. (Part 2), 210–11; VI; Ala. Narr., 53. For similar recollections, see II and III: S.C. Narr. (Part 1), 40, 43, 53, 105–06, 128, 235–36, 259, 264, (Part 2), 32, 290, (Part 3), 26, 91, 102, 144, 192–93, 195, (Part 4), 209, 257–58; VI: Ala. Narr., 79, 99–100, 162–63, 270, 405; XIV and XV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 406, 425, (Part 2), 149; XVI: Va. Narr., 19; Perdue et al. (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat, 55, 108, 311.

39. Jervey and Ravenel, Two Diaries, 32; Easterby (ed.), South Carolina Rice Plantation, 208–09; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XII: Ga. Narr. (Part 1), 248, (Part 2), 278, 282–83; VI: Ala. Narr., 190. For examples of these diverse reactions, see also Jervey and Ravenel, Two Diaries, 10–11; Ravenel, Private Journal, 213, 220; Smedes, Memorials of a Southern Planter, 193; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, II and III: S.C. Narr. (Part 2), 20, (Part 3), 91; V: Texas Narr. (Part 3), 228; VI: Ala. Narr., 190; VII: Miss. Narr., 14; VIII: Ark. Narr. (Part 2), 181; XIII: Ga. Narr. (Part 3), 256; XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 25; XVI: Va. Narr., 52; Perdue et al. (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat, 187.

40. Dawson, A Confederate Girl’s Diary, 193; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VI: Ala. Narr., 163, 373; II: S.C. Narr. (Part 1), 31; XII: Ga. Narr. (Part 1), 248. See also VI: Ala. Narr., 391–92, and IX: Ark. Narr. (Part 3), 198.

41. Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 64; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, II: S.C. Narr. (Part 1), 177; VIII: Ark. Narr. (Part 1), 312; VII: Miss. Narr., 39. See also III: S.C. Narr. (Part 3), 26, 252–53; V: Texas Narr. (Part 3), 270; VI: Ala. Narr., 50; VII: Okla. Narr., 167; X: Ark. Narr. (Part 5), 193; XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 293; Jones (ed.), When Sherman Came, 262.

42. Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entry for March 4, 1865, Univ. of South Carolina; Pringle, Chronicles of Chicora Wood, 233; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, II: S.C. Narr. (Part 1), 77; James W. Silver (ed.), Mississippi in the Confederacy: As Seen in Retrospect (Baton Rouge, 1961), 266. See also Burge, Diary, 102; Smedes, Memorials of a Southern Planter, 198; LeConte, When the World Ended, 51; Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1233, 1240; Jones (ed.), When Sherman Came, 7–8, 58, 232; Swint (ed.), Dear Ones at Home, 160; Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 539; Macrae, Americans at Home, 259; New York Times, Dec. 27, 1864; Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 455; Perdue et al. (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat, 121; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VII: Okla. Narr., 37; VII: Miss. Narr., 64; VIII: Ark. Narr. (Part 2), 10; XIV and XV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 256, (Part 2), 75.

43. Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entry for March 4, 1863, Univ. of South Carolina; Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1237.

44. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IX and XI: Ark. Narr. (Part 3), 21, (Part 7), 240.

45. Wiley, Life of Billy Yank, 40–41.

46. Bryant (ed.), “A Yankee Soldier Looks at the Negro,” 136; Wiley, Life of Billy Yank, 112–13.

47. New York Times, Nov. 14, 1861 (reprinted without comment in Douglass’ Monthly, IV [Dec. 1861], 566); Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 64–65.

48. Nordhoff, Freedmen of South Carolina, 24–25; Johns, Life with the Forty-ninth Massachusetts Volunteers, 165, 138.

49. Johns, Life with the Forty-ninth Massachusetts Volunteers, 140, 164–65. See also Hepworth, Whip, Hoe, and Sword, 159–60, 163–64.

50. Wiley, Life of Billy Yank, 109; Fremantle, Three Months in the Southern States, 89. See also Bryant (ed.), “A Yankee Soldier Looks at the Negro,” 134–35; Rev. Joel Grant to Prof. Henry Cowles, April 10, 1863, American Missionary Assn. Archives; Wiley, Life of Billy Yank, 42, 43, 112, 281.

51. Wiley, Life of Billy Yank, 109, 111–12; Henry A. Anderson to Miss Salina Saltsgiver, May 24, 1863, Henry Anderson Papers, Louisiana State Univ.

52. Wiley, Life of Billy Yank, 119; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 96, 251; II: S.C. Narr. (Part 1), 105; Bryant (ed.), “A Yankee Soldier Looks at the Negro,” 138–39. See also Facts Concerning the Freedmen (Boston: The Emancipation League, 1863), 9; John Oliver to Rev. S. S. Jocelyn, Aug. 5, 1862; C. P. Day to W. E. Whiting, Aug. 22, 1862; Rev. Joel Grant to Prof. Henry Cowles, April 10, 1863; Isaac S. Hubbs to Rev. S. S. Jocelyn and George Whipple, Jan. 8, 1864; A. O. Howell, Jan. 19, Feb. 6, 1864, American Missionary Assn. Archives; Christian Recorder, June 10, July 8, 1865; New York Times, Jan. 25, Feb. 5, July 20, 1863; Beatty, Citizen-Soldier, 132; John Beatty, Memoirs of a Volunteer, 1861–1863 (ed. Harvey S. Ford; New York, 1946), 115; George F. Noyes, The Bivouac and the Battlefield (New York, 1863), 44; Winters, Civil War in Louisiana, 175–76. For native white views of Yankee mistreatment of slaves, see, e.g., Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1244, and Andrews, War-Time Journal of a Georgia Girl, 287, 331–32.

53. Wiley, Life of Billy Yank, 114–15, 118; Myrta Lockett Avary, Dixie after the War (New York, 1906), 187; New York Times, Dec. 11, 1863.

54. Johns, Life with the Forty-ninth Massachusetts Volunteers, 139; Christian Recorder, Aug. 6, 1864; New York Times, Oct. 3, 1862; Wiley, Life of Billy Yank, 117; Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entry for Aug. 14, 1865, Univ. of South Carolina; South Carolina Leader (Charleston), Nov. 25, 1865.

55. Wiley, Life of Billy Yank, 114; George Whipple to Rev. S. S. Jocelyn, Aug. 1, 1862, American Missionary Assn. Archives; Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1230; Nevins, War for the Union: The Organized War, 1863–1864, 31; Perdue et al. (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat, 121; McPherson, Negro’s Civil War, 113.

56. Swint (ed.), Dear Ones at Home, 169, 61. For similar examples of black disillusionment and protest, see New Orleans Tribune, July 8, 16, 1865; Christian Recorder, April 30, 1864, June 10, July 8, 1865; Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 240–41.

57. Wiley, Life of Billy Yank, 41, 115–16; James E. Glazier to his parents, Feb. 28, 1862, Glazier Collection, Huntington Library. See also Andrew J. Bennett, The Story of the First Massachusetts Light Battery (Boston, 1886), 100–01; Stevens, Three Years in the Sixth Corps, 273–74; Nevins, War for the Union: The Organized War, 1863–1864, 416.

58. Wiley, Life of Billy Yank, 41, 43.

59. Johns, Life with the Forty-ninth Massachusetts Volunteers, 170–71; Henrietta Stratton Jaquette (ed.), South after Gettysburg: Letters of Cornelia Hancock, 1863–1868 (New York, 1956), 63–64. See also Bryant (ed.), “A Yankee Soldier Looks at the Negro,” 136.

60. Thomas J. Myers to his wife, Feb. 26, 1865, Thomas J. Myers Papers, Univ. of North Carolina; Conyngham, Sherman’s March Through the South, 275–78; Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 332; Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entry for May 3, 1865, Univ. of South Carolina; Pearson (ed.), Letters from Port Royal, 293–94; Towne, Letters and Diary, 148; Nichols, The Great March, 71; Winther (ed.), With Sherman to the Sea, 136, 138; Bryan, Confederate Georgia, 128; New York Tribune, Jan. 9, 1865. For slaves leaving with the Union forces, see also Beatty, Citizen-Soldier, 141; Bennett, Story of the First Massachusetts Light Battery, 153–54; Rev. Horace James, Annual Report of the Superintendent of Negro Affairs in North Carolina, 1864 (Boston, n.d.), 36–37; Bryant (ed.), “A Yankee Soldier Looks at the Negro,” 145–46; New York Times, Dec. 2, 1861, Dec. 18, 1862, April 6, 16, 18, May 9, June 5, 28, Aug. 8, 1863, Jan. 9, March 7, May 27, 1864, March 21, 1865; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VIII: Ark. Narr. (Part 2), 110; XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 171–72; Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 46–47; Williamson, After Slavery, 24–25; Bradford, Harriet Tubman, 99–101.

61. Black Republican, May 13, 1865; Eaton, Grant, Lincoln and the Freedmen, 2; Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 322, 332. See also Thompson, An Englishman in the American Civil War, 98; Elijah P. Burton, Diary of E. P. Burton, Surgeon, 7th Regiment, Illinois (Des Moines, 1939), 6, 8; Horace James, Report of the Superintendent of Negro Affairs in North Carolina, 1864, 57–58 (Appendix).

62. William F. Messner, “Black Violence and White Response: Louisiana, 1862,” Journal of Southern History, XLI (1975), 21; Francis G. Peabody, Education for Life: The Story of Hampton Institute (New York, 1922), 34. For conditions in the contraband camps, see also Hannibal Hamlin to the Freedman’s Relief Assn. of Philadelphia, June 6, 1862; Hamlin to Joseph M. Truman, Jr., June 13 and Sept. 9, 1862; George E. Baker to Truman, March 3, 1863; Lizzie MacLaurin to the Bethany Scholars, April 4, 1864, Papers of the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, Historical Society of Pennsylvania; Rev. Joel Grant to Prof. Henry Cowles, April 10, 1863; A. O. Howell (Superintendent of Freedmen Camp, Natchez), Jan. 19 and Feb. 6, 1864; L. A. Eberhart to Rev. C. H. Fowler, Feb. 1, 1864, American Missionary Assn. Archives; Burton, Diary, 8; Jaquette (ed.), South after Gettysburg, 33–50; New York Times, March 20, Oct. 27, 28, Dec. 9, 1862, Jan. 18, Aug. 9, Nov. 12, 1863, Feb. 26, 1865. For Federal policy toward the contrabands, see Gerteis, From Contraband to Freedman, and Wiley, Southern Negroes, 175–294.

63. Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 986, 1197–98; New York Times, Nov. 8, 1862, March 26, 1865; Stone, Brokenburn, 128; G. P. Whittington, (ed.), “Concerning the Loyalty of Slaves in North Louisiana in 1863: Letters from John H. Ransdell to Governor Thomas O. Moore, dated 1863,” Louisiana Historical Quarterly, XIV (1931), 492. “The contrabands are curious as to what shall be their fate. One or two told me that after working on our entrenchments it would go hard with them if their masters returned. One inquired suspiciously why his master’s name was taken down.” New York Times, July 20, 1861.

64. Nichols, The Great March, 62. See also ibid., 83; Mary Ames, From a New England Woman’s Diary in Dixie in 1865 (Springfield, Mass., 1906), 64; New York Times, Dec. 18, 1861.

65. Cornelia Phillips Spencer, The Last Ninety Days of the War in North Carolina (New York, 1866), 186–87; New York Times, Dec. 1, 1862.

66. Wilmer Shields to William Newton Mercer, Dec. 11, 1863, Jan. 25, 1864, June 10 (incl. enclosure: “List of Negroes who have remained, been absent and returned, and are now on the plantations”), Sept. 20, 1865, Dec. 4, 1866, W. N. Mercer Papers, Louisiana State Univ.

67. Alexander F. Pugh, Ms. Plantation Diary, entries for Oct. 27, 28, 30, 31, Nov. 1, 2, 5, 6, 1862, Nov. 3, 1863, A. F. Pugh Papers, Louisiana State Univ.; Annette Koch to [Christian D. Koch], June 27, 1863, Christian D. Koch Papers, Louisiana State Univ.; Okar to Gustave Lauve, June 26, 1863, Gustave Lauve Papers, Louisiana State Univ.

68. John H. Ransdell to Gov. Thomas O. Moore, May 24, 26, 31, 1863, in Whittington (ed.), “Concerning the Loyalty of Slaves in North Louisiana,” 491–93, 495, 497. For the rapid erosion of slavery in Louisiana and Mississippi, see also, e.g., Samuel A. Agnew (Miss.), Ms. Diary, entry for Oct. 29, 1862, Univ. of North Carolina; Bayside Plantation Record (Bayou Teche, La.), entries for April 10, May 1, 3, 4, 1863, Univ. of North Carolina; Louisa T. Lovell (Palmyra plantation, near Natchez) to Capt. Joseph Lovell, Feb. 7, 1864, Quitman Papers, Univ. of North Carolina; Emily Caroline Douglas (Adams Co., Miss.), Ms. Autobiography, 167–68, Louisiana State Univ.; New York Times, Dec. 1, 1862, Oct. 17, 1863; Sitterson, Sugar Country, 209–11; William K. Scarborough, The Overseer: Plantation Management in the Old South (Baton Rouge, 1966), 153–55; F. W. Smith (ed.), “The Yankees in New Albany: Letters of Elizabeth Jane Beach, July 29, 1864,” Journal of Mississippi History, II (Jan. 1940), 46; Ripley, Slaves and Freedmen in Civil War Louisiana, 14–23; James L. Roark, Masters Without Slaves: Southern Planters in the Civil War and Reconstruction (New York, 1977), 112–17.

69. Thompson, An Englishman in the American Civil War, 94; John Houston Bills, Ms. Diary, entries for Jan. 10, 14, May 18, 27, June 1, 3, 5, 8, 16, Aug. 21, 29, Oct. 8, 17, 1863 (incl. “Memoranda 1863: List of Servants Carried Off by Federal Army and Value”), Feb. 10, 11, July 11, 1864, Univ. of North Carolina.

70. Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1241, 1243, 1247.

71. Okar to Gustave Lauve, June 26, 1863, Gustave Lauve Papers, Louisiana State Univ.; Andrews, War-Time Journal of a Georgia Girl, 183. See also Wiley, Southern Negroes, 12; Bettersworth (ed.), Mississippi in the Confederacy, 240; Williamson, After Slavery, 24. For slaves who returned only to leave again, see, e.g., Wilmer Shields to William N. Mercer, June 10, 1865, Mercer Papers, Louisiana State Univ.; Sydnor, A Gentleman of the Old Natchez Region, 297; Sitterson, Sugar Country, 211.

72. Stone, Brokenburn, 185; John H. Bills, Ms. Diary, entries for Sept. 22, 24, 1863, Univ. of North Carolina; Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1263; WPA, Negro in Virginia, 202; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, II: S.C. Narr. (Part 2), 145; Ruffin, Diary, II, 409–10; Stone, Brokenburn, 179. See also Rainwater (ed.), “Letters of James Lusk Alcorn,” 201; Easterby (ed.), South Carolina Rice Plantation, 207; Whittington (ed.), “Concerning the Loyalty of Slaves in North Carolina in 1863,” 501. Edmund Ruffin, Jr., offered amnesty “for the past insubordination” to his returning slaves, “provided their future conduct should be good, as it had been generally previously.” Ruffin, Diary, II, 367–68.

73. Ravenel, Private Journal, 251; Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 16–17, 106–08; New York Times, Nov. 20, 1861; Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 11, 33–34; Christian Recorder, Nov. 30, 1861. Few towns were sacked as thoroughly as Beaufort. Although an estimated 3,000 slaves helped to level Jackson, Mississippi, that was a joint operation with Union troops; in nearby Yazoo City, however, the blacks themselves burned down fourteen houses and the courthouse, and the proliferation of arson attempts elsewhere, some of them spectacularly successful, gave rise to new fears of a general insurrection. Silver (ed.), Mississippi in the Confederacy, 268–69; Harvey Wish, “Slave Disloyalty under the Confederacy,” Journal of Negro History, XXIII (1938), 444; Williamson, After Slavery, 51.

74. Jervey and Ravenel, Two Diaries, 12; D. E. H. Smith (ed.), Mason Smith Family Letters, 193, 218; Easterby (ed.), South Carolina Rice Plantation, 208. See also Ruffin, Diary, II, 598; Ravenel, Private Journal, 216; Leland (ed.), “Middleton Correspondence, 1861–1865,” 106; Ada Sterling, A Belle of the Fifties: Memoirs of Mrs. Clay, of Alabama(New York, 1905), 182; Stone, Brokenburn, 210; D. E. H. Smith (ed.), Mason Smith Family Letters, 188, 189; Elias Horry Deas to Anne Deas, Aug. 12, 1865, Deas Papers, Univ. of South Carolina.

75. Ravenel, Private Journal, 217; Leland (ed.), “Middleton Correspondence, 1861–1865,” 107; Stone, Brokenburn, 193, 203; Williamson, After Slavery, 5–6. See also Jervey and Ravenel, Two Diaries, 11, 12, 33, 35, 37; Dawson, Confederate Girl’s Diary, 178; D. E. H. Smith (ed.), Mason Smith Family Letters, 187; New York Times, Dec. 21, 1862; Whittington (ed.), “Concerning the Loyalty of Slaves in North Louisiana in 1863,” 492; Jones (ed.), When Sherman Came, 268.

76. John H. Bills, Ms. Diary, entry for Feb. 11, 1864, Univ. of North Carolina; Easterby (ed.), South Carolina Rice Plantation, 208–10, 328; Pringle, Chronicles of Chicora Wood, 268–69. For comparable scenes, see, e.g., Elias Horry Deas to Anne Deas, May 5, 1865, Deas Papers, Univ. of South Carolina; Edward Lynch to Joseph Glover [June 1865], Glover-North Papers, Univ. of South Carolina; Avary, Dixie after the War, 341–42.

77. Towne, Letters and Diary, 34; New York Times, Nov. 20, 1861, Nov. 16, 20, Dec. 21, 1862; Pringle, Chronicles of Chicora Wood, 269; Sitterson, Sugar Country, 212.

78. Easterby (ed.), South Carolina Rice Plantation, 213; Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll, 605; New York Times, Dec. 29, 1863; Christian Recorder, Nov. 26, 1862. See also Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 163; XII: Ga. Narr. (Part 2), 119; XVI: Tenn. Narr., 12.

79. Samuel A. Agnew, Ms. Diary, entries for Oct. 31, Nov. 1, 1862, Univ. of North Carolina; Louisa T. Lovell to Capt. Joseph Lovell, Feb. 7, 1864, Quitman Papers, Univ. of North Carolina. See also Sitterson, Sugar Country, 214.

80. Sitterson, Sugar Country, 212; Nevins, War for the Union: The Organized War, 1863–1864, 376–77; Jones (ed.), Heroines of Dixie, 118; Emily Caroline Douglas, Ms. Autobiography, 168, Louisiana State Univ.

81. New York Times, Dec. 1, 1862, Oct. 30, 1864; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XVII: Fla. Narr., 246; Sitterson, Sugar Country, 220; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 74; Scarborough, The Overseer, 153–54. See also Clayton Jones, “Mississippi Agriculture,” Journal of Mississippi History, XXIV (April 1962), 138; Sitterson, “The McCollams: A Planter Family of the Old and New South,” in Miller and Genovese (eds.), Plantation, Town, and County, 296; Ruffin, Diary, II, 317, 320; Ravenel, Private Journal, 211–12; Jervey and Ravenel, Two Diaries, 36; Stone, Brokenburn, 175; Savannah Writers’ Project, Savannah River Plantations (Savannah, 1947), 324; John H. Bills, Ms. Diary, entries from Jan. 10, 1863, to Dec. 14, 1864, Univ. of North Carolina.

82. For a discussion of the overseer under slavery, see Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll, 12–21, and Scarborough, The Overseer.

83. Nevins, War for the Union: The Organized War, 1863–1864, 377; New York Times, Oct. 26, 1862 (the dispatch was written by the New Orleans correspondent of the Times on Oct. 16).

84. Pringle, Chronicles of Chicora Wood, 264–65.

85. Easterby (ed.), South Carolina Rice Plantation, 213, 218, 328–29. See also Scarborough, The Overseer, 163–64.

86. Joseph LeConte, ’Ware Sherman: A Journal of Three Months’ Personal Experience in the Last Days of the Confederacy (Berkeley, Calif., 1938), 133–34; Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entry for June 15, 1865, Univ. of South Carolina; Leland (ed.), “Middleton Correspondence, 1861–1865,” 100–01; Jervey and Ravenel, Two Diaries, 53.

87. Wish, “Slave Disloyalty under the Confederacy,” 444; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 81; Christian Recorder, May 28, 1864; Perdue et al. (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat, 162; Dawson, Confederate Girl’s Diary, 185. For other examples, see Stone, Brokenburn, 205; Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entry for End of May 1865, Univ. of South Carolina; Gerteis, From Contraband to Freedman, 114.

88. Jervey and Ravenel, Two Diaries, 36; LeGrand, Journal, 130; Scarborough, The Overseer, 154–55; Sitterson, Sugar Country, 209–10.

89. Ruffin, Diary, II, 318; New York Times, Oct. 17, 1863; Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1248; Gerteis, From Contraband to Freedman, 114; Rogers, History of Georgetown County, 422; Bragg, Louisiana in the Confederacy, 216; Williamson, After Slavery, 46, 51–52.

90. Alexander F. Pugh, Ms. Plantation Diary, entry for Nov. 5, 1862, A. F. Pugh Papers, Louisiana State Univ.; Scarborough, The Overseer, 153; Williamson, After Slavery, 52; Messner, “Black Violence and White Response: Louisiana, 1862,” 22.

91. Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 532; Ravenel, Private Journal, 218, 223.

92. W. McKee Evans, Ballots and Fence Rails: Reconstruction on the Lower Cape Fear (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1966), 76; Stone, Brokenburn, 197.

93. Typical examples may be found in Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entries for March 4, 11, 1865, Univ. of South Carolina; Everard Green Baker, Ms. Diary, entry for Dec. 26, 1862, Univ. of North Carolina; Jervey and Ravenel, Two Diaries, 22; Stone, Brokenburn, 298; LeConte, ’Ware Sherman, 32; Avary, Dixie after the War, 196; Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1218–19; Easterby (ed.), South Carolina Rice Plantation, 207–08; New York Tribune, March 23, 1865; Simkins and Patton, Women of the Confederacy, 164–65; Jones (ed.), When Sherman Came, 68, 134.

94. Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 528.

95. Wiley, Southern Negroes, 70; Nevins, War for the Union: The Organized War to Victory, 1864–1865, 296–97; Smedes, Memorials of a Southern Planter, 194–95; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 11–12. For other examples, see Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entry for March 4, 1865, Univ. of South Carolina; Jones (ed.), When Sherman Came, 21; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XTV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 250.

96. Washington, Up from Slavery, 19; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, III: S.C. Narr. (Part 3), 170; VII: Okla. Narr., 337–38; Trowbridge, The South, 391; Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entry for March 31, 1865, Univ. of South Carolina.

97. Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entry for End of May, 1865, Univ. of South Carolina; Dawson, Confederate Girl’s Diary, 212; Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 544. Two months earlier, on May 2, 1865, Mary Chesnut had noted in her diary: “The fidelity of the Negroes is the principal topic everywhere. There seems not a single case of a Negro who betrayed his master …” Ibid., 527–28.

98. Ravenel, Private Journal, 221. See also LeConte, ’Ware Sherman, 105–06, 125.

99. Andrews (ed.), Women of the South in War Times, 239; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, III: S.C. Narr. (Part 3), 26. For similar examples of slave “betrayal,” see Ella Gertrude (Clanton) Thomas, Ms. Journal, entry for Dec. 12, 1864, Duke Univ.; Robert Philip Howell, Ms. Memoirs [17], Univ. of North Carolina; Jervey and Ravenel, Two Diaries, 35; Smedes, Memorials of a Southern Planter, 194; Andrews (ed.), Women of the South in War Times, 263–64; Jones (ed.), When Sherman Came, 21–22, 235, 243; Bettersworth (ed.), Mississippi in the Confederacy, 210; Johns, Life with the Forty-ninth Massachusetts Volunteers, 191; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, II: S. C. Narr. (Part 1), 69, (Part 2), 329–30; V: Texas Narr. (Part 3), 245; VI: Ala. Narr., 78–79; VII: Okla. Narr., 211; XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 76; Hepworth, Whip, Hoe, and Sword, 142–44.

100. New York Times, July 29, 1863, Dec. 12, 1861; Catherine Barbara Broun, Ms. Diary, entry for May 1, 1864, Univ. of North Carolina.

101. Hepworth, Whip, Hoe, and Sword, 144–45; Stone, Brokenburn, 209.

102. Smedes, Memorials of a Southern Planter, 197; House (ed.), “Deterioration of a Georgia Rice Plantation During Four Years of Civil War,” 107; Ella Gertrude (Clanton) Thomas, Ms. Journal, entry for Dec. 12, 1864, Duke Univ.

103. Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 503; Pringle, Chronicles of Chicora Wood, 236; Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entry for End of May 1865, Univ. of South Carolina. See also Jervey and Ravenel, Two Diaries, 35.

104. Bell I. Wiley, The Plain People of the Confederacy (Baton Rouge, 1944), 83; Robert Philip Howell, Ms. Memoirs [17–18], Univ. of North Carolina; Bryant (ed.), “A Yankee Soldier Looks at the Negro,” 145; John H. Bills, Ms. Diary, entry for May 18, 1865; House (ed.), “Deterioration of a Georgia Rice Plantation During Four Years of Civil War,” 102; “Visit to ‘Gowrie’ and ‘East Hermitage’ Plantations,” March 1867, Manigault Plantation Records, Univ. of North Carolina. See also Easterby (ed.), South Carolina Rice Plantation, 190, and Stone, Brokenburn, 193, 195, 198, 199, 203, 208–09, 363.

105. Mrs. Elizabeth Jane Beach to her parents, July 29, 1864, in Smith (ed.), “The Yankees in New Albany,” 46; Andrews, War-Time Journal of a Georgia Girl, 321–22.

106. Avary, Dixie after the War, 190; Lillian A. Pereyra, James Lusk Alcorn: Persistent Whig (Baton Rouge, 1966), 79.

107. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XVIII: Unwritten History, 221; II: S.C. Narr. (Part 1), 225. For a discussion of the house servant in slavery, see Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll, 328–65.

108. Smedes, Memorials of a Southern Planter, 198; Pringle, Chronicles of Chicora Wood, 253; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 73. For house servants who “behaved outrageously,” see also Okar to Gustave Lauve, June 26, 1863, Gustave Lauve Papers, Louisiana State Univ.; John H. Bills, Ms. Diary, entry for Aug. 21, 29, 1865, Univ. of North Carolina; Louisa T. Lovell to Capt. Joseph Lovell, Feb. 7, 1864, Quitman Papers, Univ. of North Carolina; Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1248; D. E. H. Smith (ed.), Mason Smith Family Letters, 192; Stone, Brokenburn, 173, 176; Easterby (ed.), South Carolina Rice Plantation, 207; Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 354; Jones (ed.), When Sherman Came, 130.

109. Richmond Examiner, quoted in Frank Moore (ed.), The Rebellion Record (11 vols.; New York, 1861–68), IV, Part IV, 101–02; Andrews, War-Time Journal of a Georgia Girl, 344. See also Ravenel, Private Journal, 218, 221, 251, 269–70, and Leland (ed.), “Middleton Correspondence,” 100.

110. House (ed.), “Deterioration of a Georgia Rice Plantation During Four Years of Civil War,” 102; LeGrand, Journal, 263; Dennett, The South As It Is, 261–63. On June 19, 1862, Edmund Ruffin made this entry in his diary: “Why this property & Marlbourne should be especially losers of slaves, cannot be understood, for nowhere were they better cared for, or better managed & treated, according to their condition of slavery.” Diary, II, 346.

111. Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 427; Du Bois, Black Reconstruction, 9.

112. Murray, Proud Shoes, 159–60.

113. “Narrative of William Wells Brown,” in Osofsky (ed.), Puttin’ On Ole Massa, 212; Philip S. Foner (ed.), The Life and Writings of Frederick Douglass (4 vols.; New York, 1950–55), 1, 157; Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave (3rd English ed.; Wortley, 1846), 40, 99.

114. Scarborough, The Overseer, 16–19, 82–84, 93–94; Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll, 365–88; E. L. Pierce, The Negroes at Port Royal (Boston, 1862), 8–10; Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 132–33; S. H. Boineau to Charles Heyward, Nov. 24, 1864, Univ. of South Carolina.

115. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VI: Ala. Narr., 66; Higginson, Army Life in a Black Regiment, 219. For the fate of the driver in the postwar period, see below, Chapter 8.

116. Jesse Belflowers to Adele Petigru Allston, Oct. 19, 1864, in Easterby (ed.), South Carolina Rice Plantation, 310; Jervey and Ravenel, Two Diaries, 17–18; Hitchcock, Marching with Sherman, 69–70; D. E. K. Smith (ed.), Mason Smith Family Letters, 237; Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll, 387; Ruffin, Diary, II, 317.

117. John H. Ransdell to Gov. Thomas O. Moore, May 24, 1863, in Whittington (ed.), “Concerning the Loyalty of Slaves in North Louisiana in 1863,” 493; Louis Manigault to Charles Manigault, Nov. 24, 1861, South Carolina Dept. of Archives and History, Columbia; Pierce, Negroes at Port Royal, 8–10; Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 20, 80–81.

118. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VII: Okla. Narr., 251, 253–55.

119. Stone, Brokenburn, 171; Grace B. Elmore, Ms. Diary, entry for March 4, 1865, Univ. of North Carolina.

120. Wiley, Southern Negroes, 143n.; New York Times, April 2, 1865; Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll, 99; Hitchcock, Marching with Sherman, 121–23.

121. Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll, 112.

122. “Visit to ‘Gowrie’ and ‘East Hermitage’ Plantations,” March 23, 1867, Manigault Plantation Records, Univ. of North Carolina.

123. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VI: Ala. Narr., 81–82.

124. Ibid., II: S.C. Narr. (Part 1), 151.

Chapter Four: Slaves No More

1. Irwin Silber (ed.), Soldier Songs and Home-Front Ballads of the Civil War (New York, 1964), 41; WPA, Negro in Virginia, 212; Perdue et al. (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat, 117.

2. WPA, Negro in Virginia, 164–65, 201.

3. John B. Jones, A Rebel War Clerk’s Diary at the Confederate States Capital (2 vols.; Philadelphia, 1866; repr. in one volume, ed. Earl Schenck Miers, 1958), 528–30; Nevins, War for the Union: The Organized War to Victory, 1864–1866, 294; Swint (ed.), Dear Ones at Home, 90; Rembert W. Patrick, The Fall of Richmond (Baton Rouge, 1960), 41–58; Jones (ed.), Heroines of Dixie, 398; Putnam, Richmond During the Confederacy, 363–64.

4. Christian Recorder, April 8, 15, 22, 1865; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XVI: Va. Narr., 35–37; Perdue et al. (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat, 103, 145–46. See also New York Tribune, April 6, 1865.

5. Christian Recorder, April 22, 1865. See also Black Republican, May 20, 1865; WPA, Negro in Virginia, 212; Jones, Rebel War Clerk’s Diary, 530.

6. Putnam, Richmond During the Confederacy, 367; Patrick, Fall of Richmond, 68–69; Phoebe Yates Pember, A Southern Woman’s Story: Life in Confederate Richmond (Jackson, Tenn., 1959), 135.

7. New York Times, April 11, 1865; McPherson, Negro’s Civil War, 67–68; Patrick, Fall of Richmond, 115. See also Christian Recorder, April 22, 1865.

8. Hope R. Daggett to Rev. George Whipple, April 1865; Mary E. Watson to Rev. George Whipple, May 1, 1865; Miss Frances Littlefield to Rev. George Whipple, May 1, 1865, American Missionary Assn. Archives.

9. Haviland, A Woman’s Life-Work, 414–15.

10. WPA, Negro in Virginia, 205, 210; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XVI: Va. Narr., 3, 5–6; Perdue et al. (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat, 36–39.

11. Patrick, Fall of Richmond, 117–18; New York Times, April 30, 1865.

12. WPA, Negro in Virginia, 266.

13. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XVII: Fla. Narr., 103. See also XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 97–98. For a description of a plantation near Huntsville, Alabama, where both slaves and the master disclaimed any knowledge of emancipation, see Franklin (ed.), Diary of James T. Ayers, 26–29. The Emancipation Proclamation, formally declared on January 1, 1863, applied only to those states (or portions thereof) “this day in rebellion against the United States.” The loyal border slave states (Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland, and Delaware) and Tennessee were thereby excluded from its provisions, along with thirteen Federal-occupied parishes in Louisiana (including New Orleans), forty-eight counties in West Virginia, and seven counties in Virginia which were “for the present, left precisely as if this proclamation were not issued.” Wherever Union troops were in command, however, slaves generally assumed they were free.

14. Grace B. Elmore, Ms. Diary, entry for March 4, 1865, Univ. of North Carolina; New York Times, Dec. 30, 1861; Christian Recorder, May 6, 1865.

15. New York Times, June 2, 1863; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, II: S. C. Narr. (Part 2), 329–30; Jones (ed.), When Sherman Came, 235–36.

16. “Look to the Future,” Louisiana Democrat (Alexandria), June 3, 1863, quoted in Whittington (ed.), “Concerning the Loyalty of Slaves in North Louisiana in 1863,” 489–90.

17. Whittington (ed.), “Concerning the Loyalty of Slaves in North Louisiana in 1863,” 494, 500, 501; Rainwater (ed.), “Letters of James Lusk Alcorn,” 201, 202.

18. New York Times, April 14, 1864.

19. Jervey and Ravenel, Two Diaries, 41; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 97; Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 541; Scarborough, The Overseer, 149. See also Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XV: N.C. Narr. (Part 2), 310–11.

20. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VII: Okla. Narr., 95–96.

21. Ibid, XII: Ga. Narr. (Part 1), 248. See also VI: Ala. Narr., 225.

22. Ibid., XVII: Fla. Narr., 103; VII: Miss. Narr., 81; XIII: Ga. Narr. (Part 3), 64. See also III: S.C. Narr. (Part 3), 136; V: Texas Narr. (Part 3), 204; WPA, Negro in Virginia, 208.

23. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XII: Ga. Narr. (Part 1), 262. See also VI: Ala. Narr., 239–40.

24. New York Times, March 30, April 4, 1865; New York Tribune, April 4, 1865; Williamson, After Slavery, 47–48. For other post-emancipation celebrations, see New York Times, Jan. 3, 1864 (Norfolk), Jan. 23 and Aug. 1 (Savannah), July 12 (Louisville), 14 (Raleigh), 1865; New York Tribune, Jan. 13 (Key West), July 8 (Mobile), 12 (Raleigh and Columbia), 1865.

25. Rollin, Life and Public Services of Martin R. Delany, 193–95; Williamson, After Slavery, 43–49.

26. Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 520–21; Trowbridge, The South, 291; Andrews, War-Time Journal of a Georgia Girl, 308. For similar reactions, see D. E. H. Smith (ed.), Mason Smith Family Letters, 232; LeConte, When the World Ended, 85–86.

27. Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1273–74.

28. Smedes, Memorials of a Southern Planter, 216–17; Ella Gertrude (Clanton) Thomas, Ms. Journal, entry for May 8, 1865, Duke Univ.; Williamson, After Slavery, 34.

29. Avary, Dixie after the War, 152; Haviland, A Woman’s Life-Work, 256; Burge, Diary, 112–113.

30. Grace B. Elmore, Ms. Diary, entry for May 24, 30, 1865, Univ. of North Carolina; Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entry for End of May, June 15, Aug. 25, 1865, Univ. of South Carolina.

31. Ravenel, Private Journal, 231, 232, 238, 239–40.

32. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, V: Texas Narr. (Part 4), 133; Williamson, After Slavery, 33.

33. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XII: Ga. Narr. (Part 2), 326; IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 264, (Part 2), 168.

34. Ibid., IX: Ark. Narr. (Part 3), 115, 29; VII: Okla. Narr., 114; V: Texas Narr. (Part 4), 22; Macrae, Americans at Home, 211.

35. Mrs. Laura E. Buttolph to Mrs. Mary Jones, June 30, 1865, in Myers (ed.) Children of Pride, 1279. See also Burge, Diary, 113.

36. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VIII: Ark. Narr. (Part 2), 128; XIII: Ga. Narr. (Part 4), 348–49. See also XII: Ga. Narr. (Part 2), 133; XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 60.

37. Col. J. L. Haynes to Capt. B. F. Henry, July 8, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (hereafter cited as Freedmen’s Bureau), National Archives, Washington, D.C. See also Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 48, and Joe M. Richardson, The Negro in the Reconstruction of Florida, 1866–1877 (Tallahassee, 1965), 13–14.

38. 39 Cong., 1 Sess., House Exec. Doc. 70, Freedmen’s Bureau (Washington, D.C., 1866), 9–10, 99, 154. For recollections of such meetings by ex-slaves, see Rawick (ed.), American Slave, III: S.C. Narr. (Part 3), 178; VIII: Ark. Narr. (Part 1), 37–38; XIII: Ga. Narr. (Part 4), 34.

39. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV and V: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 45–46, (Part 3), 70; Ravenel, Private Journal, 213–14.

40. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, II: S.C Narr. (Part 1), 225; Macrae, Americans at Home, 209; Black Republican, April 29, 1865; Christian Recorder, Aug. 19, 1865. See also Christian Recorder, July 1, 1865; Dennett, The South As It Is, 26; Perdue et al. (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat, 94; Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 47; Williamson, After Slavery, 33.

41. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV and V: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 179, (Part 3), 12, 78. For similar recollections, see IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 115, 164, (Part 2), 8, 248; VIII and IX: Ark. Narr. (Part 1), 334, (Part 3), 156. For the concern of Federal officials, see 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part IV, 37; House Exec. Doc. 70, Freedmen’s Bureau, 146; Senate Exec. Doc. 27, Reports of the Assistant Commissioners of the Freedmen’s Bureau made since December 1, 1865 (Washington, D.C., 1866), 83.

42. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VII: Okla. Narr., 293–94; E. Merton Coulter, “Slavery and Freedom in Athens, Georgia, 1860–66,” in Miller and Genovese (eds.), Plantation, Town, and County, 361; Christian Recorder, Aug. 19, 1865, Jan. 20, 1866; Dennett, The South As It Is, 121–22.

43. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 60.

44. WPA, Negro in Virginia, 209.

45. Kathryn L. Morgan, “Caddy Buffers: Legends of a Middle Class Negro Family in Philadelphia,” Keystone Folklore Quarterly, XI (Summer 1966), 75.

46. Washington, Up from Slavery, 20; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, TV and V: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 78, (Part 4), 82; XIII: Ga. Narr. (Part 3), 256, 85.

47. Ibid., VII: Okla. Narr., 282; XVI: Tenn. Narr., 15.

48. Ibid., III: S.C. Narr. (Part 4), 119; V: Texas Narr. (Part 4), 138; Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 586. Nearly all of the ex-slaves interviewed by the WPA had a vivid and often detailed recollection of the master’s announcement of freedom. See, e.g., Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV and V: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 82, 161–62, 208, (Part 2), 78, 199, (Part 3), 33, 36, 216, 234, (Part 4), 60, 124; VII: Okla. Narr., 150–51, 169; X: Ark. Narr. (Part 5), 18, (Part 6), 27; XII: Ga. Narr. (Part 1), 111; XV: N.C. Narr. (Part 2), 85–86; XVI: Tenn. Narr., 15.

49. Ibid., IV and V: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 208, (Part 2), 78, (Part 3), 33; Francis W. Dawson to [Joseph A. Reeks], June 13, 1865, F. W. Dawson Papers, Duke Univ.

50. Ravenel, Private Journal, 219; New Orleans Picayune, as reprinted in Semi-Weekly Louisianian (New Orleans), June 18, 1871; Loyal Georgian (Augusta), March 17, 1866. See also Burge, Diary, 98.

51. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VII: Okla. Narr., 299; IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 255; XIII: Ga. Narr. (Part 3), 256; VI: Ala. Narr., 41. See also XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 280–81.

52. Ibid., IV and V: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 122, (Part 3), 66; XV: N.C. Narr. (Part 2), 85–86.

53. Ibid., VIII: Ark. Narr. (Part 2), 14; IV and V: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 139, (Part 3), 192. See also II: S.C. Narr. (Part 1), 314; IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 110, 167; XII: Ga. Narr. (Part 1), 102; XVI: Ky. Narr., 108.

54. Ravenel, Private Journal, 240; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VIII: Ark. Narr. (Part 2), 186; V: Texas Narr. (Part 3), 228. See also IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 71, 162; VIII: Ark. Narr. (Part 1), 349; XII: Ga. Narr. (Part 2), 236; Evans, Ballots and Fence Rails, 74–75; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 226; John William De Forest, A Union Officer in the Reconstruction (eds. James H. Croushore and David M. Potter; New Haven, 1948), 112–13; Perdue et al (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat, 3–4.

55. Avary, Dixie after the War, 183–85.

56. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XVII: Fla. Narr., 130.

57. Ibid., IV: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 6–8; XI: Mo. Narr., 313–16; III: S. C. Narr. (Part 3), 278; XII: Ga. Narr. (Part 2), 278. See also XVIII: Unwritten History, 62, and IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 142.

58. Perdue et al. (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat, 294; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV and V: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 52, (Part 3), 53, 261; X: Ark. Narr. (Part 6), 27A. See also XVI: Tenn. Narr., 15, and Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 59.

59. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VII: Okla. Narr., 283; Heyward, Seed from Madagascar, 141.

60. Josiah Gorgas, Ms. Journal, entry for June 15, 1865, Univ. of North Carolina.

61. Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll, 79, 103; Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, 48; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 296.

62. Avary, Dixie after the War, 181; Chamberlain, Old Days in Chapel Hill, 130; A. A. Taylor, The Negro in the Reconstruction of Virginia (Washington, D.C., 1926), 73; Sidney Andrews, The South since the War: As Shown by Fourteen Weeks of Travel and Observation in Georgia and the Carolinas (Boston, 1866), 25; Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entry for June 15, 1865, Univ. of South Carolina; Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1278.

63. Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 532, 529. For the attempts of former slaveholding families to perform the house labor themselves, see below, Chapter 7.

64. Trowbridge, The South, 187; Elias Horry Deas to Anne Deas, July 15, 1865, Deas Papers, Univ. of South Carolina.

65. Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1294, 1296; Charles S. Johnson, Shadow of the Plantation (Chicago, 1934), 131; Trowbridge, The South, 155–56.

66. Elias Horry Deas to Anne Deas, Aug. 12, 1865, Deas Papers, Univ. of South Carolina; Edward Lynch to Joseph Glover [c. June 1865], Glover-North Papers, Univ. of South Carolina.

67. Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 233. For white families who preferred to retain their former slaves, see, e.g., Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1323; Colored Tennessean (Nashville), Oct. 14, 1865; WPA, Negro in Virginia, 221.

68. New York Tribune, Dec. 8, 1865; Edward Lynch to Joseph Glover [c. June 1865], Univ. of South Carolina. For a discussion of the insurrection panic of 1865, see below, Chapter 8.

69. Higginson, Army Life in a Black Regiment, 249–50.

70. Towne, Letters and Diary, 34–35; Nordhoff, Freedmen of South Carolina, 7.

71. Eaton, Grant, Lincoln, and the Freedmen, 35; Ella Gertrude (Clanton) Thomas, Ms. Journal, entry for May 17, 1865, Duke Univ.; Colored People to the Governor of Mississippi, Dec. 3, 1865, Petition of the Freedmen of Claiborne County, Miss., filed in the Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Elizabeth Keckley, Behind the Scenes: Or, Thirty Years a Slave, and Four Years in the White House (New York, 1868), 73–74.

72. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, II: S.C. Narr. (Part 1), 69; Edward Lynch to Joseph Glover [c. June 1865], Univ. of South Carolina; Spencer, Last Ninety Days of the War in North Carolina, 187; Chamberlain, Old Days in Chapel Hill, 123.

73. Macrae, Americans at Home, 348. See also Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 142.

74. W. E. Towne to Bvt. Maj. Gen. Rufus Saxton, Aug. 17, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VI: Ala. Narr., 80.

75. De Forest, Union Officer in the Reconstruction, 65.

76. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VII: Okla. Narr., 131, 133; W. E. Towne to Bvt. Maj. Gen. Rufus Saxton, Aug. 17, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Dennett, The South As It Is, 199–200.

77. Armstrong and Ludlow, Hampton and Its Students, 105; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 189; Macrae, Americans at Home, 317. See also Forten, Journal, 134.

78. Armstrong and Ludlow, Hampton and Its Students, 109–14.

79. Reid, After the War, 478; Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entry for June 15, 1865, Univ. of South Carolina. For the similar experience of Pierce Butler and his daughter, Frances Leigh, as they returned to their extensive rice plantations in Georgia, see Frances B. Leigh, Ten Years on a Georgia Plantation since the War (London, 1883), 14–15, 21–22.

80. Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 540. A similar experience may be found in Edward Lynch to Joseph Glover [c. June 1865], Univ. of South Carolina.

81. Edward Barnwell Heyward to “Tat” [Catherine Maria Clinch Heyward] [c. 1867], Heyward Family Papers, Univ. of South Carolina; Heyward, Seed from Madagascar, 154–55.

82. Avary, Dixie after the War, 341–45.

83. Easterby (ed.), South Carolina Rice Plantation, 209–11, 328–29; Pringle, Chronicles of Chicora Wood, 260–75.

84. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, III: S.C. Narr. (Part 4), 54; Eppes, Through Some Eventful Years, 272; Heyward, Seed from Madagascar, 138, 147; Jervey and Ravenel, Two Diaries (entry for Feb. 27, 1865), 6; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VII: Okla. Narr., 273; V: Texas Narr. (Part 3), 216; VII: Miss Narr., 94; Lyle Saxon, Edward Dreyer, and Robert Tallant (eds.), Gumbo Ya-Ya: A Collection of Louisiana Folk Tales (Cambridge, 1945), 256.

85. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, X: Ark. Narr. (Part 6), 65–66. See also XIII: Ga. Narr. (Part 4), 170; XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 335; WPA, Negro in Virginia, 209.

86. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VIII: Ark. Narr. (Part 2), 50; XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 145.

87. Ibid., V: Texas Narr. (Part 4), 109; VI: Ala. Narr., 381; III: S.C. Narr. (Part 3), 141. See also II: S.C. Narr. (Part 2), 340, and V: Texas Narr. (Part 3), 16.

88. Ibid., II: S.C. Narr. (Part 1), 142; Andrews (ed.), Women of the South in War Times, 192–93; Eppes, Negro of the Old South, 119. For other examples, see Rawick (ed.), American Slave, V: Texas Narr. (Part 4), 144–46: VI: Ala. Narr., 219; VIII: Ark. Narr. (Part 1), 65, 147, (Part 2), 75–76; XIII: Ga. Narr. (Part 4), 347.

89. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 78; III: S.C. Narr. (Part 4), 119; Armstrong, Old Massa’s People, 315; Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 492.

90. Avary, Dixie after the War, 183; Caroline R. Ravenel to D. E. Huger Smith, July 26 [1865], in D. E. H. Smith (ed.), Mason Smith Family Letters, 225. For similar sentiments, see Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VIII: Ark. Narr. (Part 2), 76, and Pringle, Chronicles of Chicora Wood, 283–84.

91. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XVIII: Unwritten History, 202; IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 234; Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll, 29–30. For a classic example of such testimony, see Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VII: Okla. Narr., 71–72.

92. W. L. DeRosset to Louis Henry DeRosset, June 20, 1866, DeRosset Family Papers, Univ. of North Carolina.

93. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 200, (Part 2), 133; Washington, Up from Slavery, 21. For other examples, see Heyward, Seed from Madagascar, 129; WPA, Negro in Virginia, 211; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, III: S.C. Narr. (Part 3), 178; IV and V: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 241, (Part 2), 211, (Part 3), 257, (Part 4), 82, 172–73; VII: Okla. Narr., 133; VIII: Ark. Narr. (Part 1), 9, 38, (Part 2), 153; XII and XIII: Ga. Narr. (Part 1), 50, 181–82, 271, (Part 4), 112; Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 661.

94. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 133; XVII: Fla. Narr., 160–61; WPA, Negro in Virginia, 211.

95. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VII: Okla. Narr., 301; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 22; WPA, Negro in Virginia, 209–10.

96. New York Tribune, April 6, 1865; New York Times, Jan. 17, 1864.

97. Grace B. Elmore, Ms. Diary, entry for May 30, 1865, Univ. of North Carolina; Josiah Gorgas, Ms. Journal, entry for June 15, 1865, Univ. of North Carolina; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VII: Okla. Narr., 133.

98. Grace B. Elmore, Ms. Diary, entry for May 30, 1865, Univ. of North Carolina; D. E. H. Smith (ed.), Mason Smith Family Letters, 192; Williamson, After Slavery, 37.

99. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VII: Okla. Narr., 151. See also IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 277.

100. “Narrative of William Wells Brown,” in Osofsky (ed.), Puttin’ On Ole Massa, 220; “Extracts from Letters from Mississippi,” in American Freedman, III (July 1869), 20.

101. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VII: Okla. Narr., 29.

Chapter Five: How Free Is Free?

1. William Francis Allen, Charles Pickard Ware, and Lucy McKim Garrison (eds.), Slave Songs of the United States (New York, 1867; repr. 1965), 94; Higginson, Army Life in a Black Regiment, 218.

2. Andrews, The South since the War, 188.

3. Eppes, Negro of the Old South, 121–22, 130, 138–39.

4. Trowbridge, The South, 68; Avary, Dixie after the War, 190. For the same imagery, see also Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VIII: Ark. Narr. (Part 1), 227.

5. Coulter, “Slavery and Freedom in Athens, Georgia, 1860–66,” in Miller and Genovese (eds.), Plantation, Town, and County, 360; Cincinnati Enquirer, as quoted in Cleveland Leader, May 22, 1865.

6. Avary, Dixie after the War, 193. For an ex-slave who thought staying with her “white folks” after emancipation would help to turn her white, see Rawick (ed.), American Slave, V: Texas Narr. (Part 3), 6.

7. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VII: Okla. Narr., 165–67.

8. Eppes, Negro of the Old South, 143, 133; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, II: S.C. Narr. (Part 2), 329; William W. Ball, The State That Forgot: South Carolina’s Surrender to Democracy (Indianapolis, 1932), 129.

9. WPA, Negro in Virginia, 212; Pearson (ed.), Letters from Port Royal, 181; H. G. Spaulding, “Under the Palmetto,” as reprinted in Bruce Jackson (ed.), The Negro and His Folklore in Nineteenth-Century Periodicals (Austin, 1967), 71; Higginson, Army Life in a Black Regiment, 218; Waterbury, Seven Years Among the Freedmen, 76.

10. Nevins, War for the Union: The Organized War, 1863–1864, 414; New York Times, Nov. 12, 1865; Richardson, Negro in the Reconstruction of Florida, 10–11; Grace B. Elmore, Ms. Diary, entry for May 24, 1865, Univ. of North Carolina.

11. Reid, After the War, 370; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VIII: Ark. Narr. (Part 1), 170; Williamson, After Slavery, 8; New York Times, Oct. 13, 1862. For similar expressions, see National Freedman, II (Jan. 15, 1866), 22; Miss Emma B. Eveleth to Rev. Samuel Hunt, May 2, 1866, American Missionary Assn. Archives; Perdue et al. (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat, 44.

12. H. R. Brinkerhoff to Maj. Gen. O. O. Howard, July 8, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 286–89.

13. Reid, After the War, 419–20; Taylor, Negro in the Reconstruction of Virginia, 82. See also Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XVIII: Unwritten Historv. 267.

14. Forten, Journal, 139; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VII: Okla. Narr., 209.

15. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IX: Ark. Narr. (Part 3), 78; Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 532.

16. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, V: Texas Narr. (Part 3), 153.

17. Ibid., XIV and XV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 76, (Part 2), 351; VII: Okla. Narr., 51. See also National Freedman, II (Jan. 15, 1866), 23.

18. Haviland, A Woman’s Life-Work, 468; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XVIII: Unwritten History, 274; Swint (ed.), Dear Ones at Home, 99. See also Haviland, A Woman’s Life-Work, 266–67.

19. 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Senate Exec. Doc. 27, Reports of the Assistant Commissioners of the Freedmen’s Bureau made since December 1, 1865, 151; 38 Cong., 1 Sess., Senate Exec. Doc. 53, Preliminary Report Touching the Condition and Management of Emancipated Refugees, Made to the Secretary of War by the American Freedmen’s Inquiry Commission, June 30, 1863(Washington, D.C., 1864), 3–4; De Forest, Union Officer in the Reconstruction, 36; Dennett, The South As It Is, 130. See also National Freedman, I (Sept. 15, 1865), 255–56, III (July 1869), 20; New York Tribune, Dec. 2, 1865.

20. Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll, 451; Herbert G. Gutman, The Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 1750–1925 (New York, 1976), 264–65.

21. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IX: Ark. Narr. (Part 4), 183; Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 593; Perdue et al. (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat, 264–65; National Anti-Slavery Standard, Aug. 19, 1865, as quoted in Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 144n.

22. Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 163–64. See also Reid, After the War, 220–21.

23. Waterbury, Seven Years Among the Freedmen, 74–75, 76.

24. Colored Tennessean, Aug. 12, Oct. 14, 1865. For other examples, see Christian Recorder, April 13, 1863; Black Republican, April 15, 22, 29, May 13, 20, 1865; Colored American (Augusta, Ga.), Dec. 30, 1865, Jan. 13, 1866; Colored Tennessean, March 24, 31, 1866; Tennessean, July 18, 1866; New Era (Washington, D.C.), July 28, 1870.

25. Swint (ed.), Dear Ones at Home, 242–43. See also ibid., 56–57, and Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 154–56.

26. New York Times, Sept. 8, 1865; Fanny Smart to Adam Smart, Feb. 13, 1866, filed with the Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

27. Albert, House of Bondage, 102–17.

28. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, II: S.C. Narr. (Part 1), 231, 39. For post-emancipation “reunions” of married partners living on separate places, see, e.g., II and III: S.C. Narr. (Part 2), 82, (Part 4), 111; IV: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 158; XIII: Ga. Narr. (Part 3), 117, 212; XIV and XV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 286–89, (Part 2), 369; Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 661. The question of where a couple would settle sometimes proved difficult to resolve, with the husband or wife not always willing to leave a “secure” plantation for the uncertainty of the road or the place where the other spouse worked. See, e.g., Rawick (ed.), American Slave, V: Texas Narr. (Part 3), 131, and XIII: Ga. Narr. (Part 4), 165, 166.

29. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 213; VII: Miss. Narr., 53–54; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Senate Exec. Doc. 27, Reports of the Assistant Commissioners of the Freedmen’s Bureau [1865–66], 151–52.

30. Rawick, (ed.), American Slave, XVI: Tenn. Narr., 19–21; VII: Miss. Narr., 13–15.

31. Ibid., XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 248–52. See also XIII: Ga. Narr. (Part 3), 117, and Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 533.

32. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VII: Miss. Narr., 151–55; VI: Ala. Narr., 176–77; V: Texas Narr. (Part 4), 118–20. See also VI: Ala. Narr., 102.

33. For a discussion of the critical role of kinship and familial patterns in the culture of the slaves, see Gutman, Black Family in Slavery and Freedom.

34. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 28–29. On the impact of the various apprenticeship or “binding out” arrangements, see, e.g., Affidavit of Caroline Johnson, April 10, 1866, Freedmen’s Bureau, Georgia, Registers of Letters Received; Wm. H. Beadle to Col. E. Whittlesey, March 10, 1866, and George S. Hawley to Lt. Fred H. Beecher, May 18, 1866, in Records of the Assistant Commissioners, North Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; William Daniel to John A. Needles, May 6, 1865, Papers of the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, XI: 1839–1868, Historical Society of Pennsylvania; De Forest, Union Officer in the Reconstruction, 112–13; Gutman, Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 207–09.

35. Macrae, Americans at Home, 318. For a discussion of how slaveholders tended to regard marital and family ties, see Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll, 452–58, 475–76, and Stampp, The Peculiar Institution, 341–43.

36. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XVIII: Unwritten History, 2.

37. Ibid., XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 423; Swint (ed.), Dear Ones at Home, 217. For wartime disruptions of families, see Rawick (ed.), American Slave, II: S.C. Narr. (Part 2), 84; XVI: Va. Narr., 14; Gutman, Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 22–23, 371–75, 583–84; C. Peter Ripley, “The Black Family in Transition: Louisiana, 1860–1865,” Journal of Southern History, XLI (1975), 369–80.

38. WPA, Negro in Virginia, 80; Stampp, The Peculiar Institution, 344; Perdue et al. (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat, 118; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, II: S.C. Narr. (Part 2), 235–36.

39. National Freedman, II (May 1866), 143; WPA, Negro in Virginia, 82–63. See also Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 157–58; New York Tribune, April 4, 1865; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XVIII: Unwritten History, 58; Reid, After the War, 126–27; Gutman, Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 415.

40. 38 Cong., 1 Sess., Senate Exec. Doc. 53, Preliminary Report Touching the Condition and Management of Emancipated Refugees … by the American Freedmen’s Inquiry Commission, 3–4; Rev. Joseph Warren, Extracts from Reports of Superintendents of Freedmen …, First Series, May, 1864 (Vicksburg, 1864), 38, 40–41; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XVIII: Unwritten History, 124; New York Tribune, Sept. 8, 1865; Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 158. For other examples of mass marriages, see Haviland, A Woman’s Life-Work, 267; New Orleans Tribune, Oct. 5, 1864; Swint (ed.), Dear Ones at Home, 33n., 121.

41. Grace B. Elmore, Ms. Diary, entry for March 4, 1865, Univ. of North Carolina; New York Times, March 2, 1867.

42. Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 160–61; Williamson, After Slavery, 307–08; Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 44; De Forest, Union Officer in the Reconstruction, 56n.; New York Times, June 3, 1865; Gutman, Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 414, 417–18, 420.

43. Gutman, Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 421; Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 154–56 (see also 162–63).

44. New York Times, Nov. 28, 1863. See also Nordhoff, Freedmen of South Carolina, 23; Swint (ed.), Dear Ones at Home, 33–34; Andrews, War-Time Journal of a Georgia Girl, 320.

45. Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 228; Reid, After the War, 282n.; Gutman, Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 389.

46. Leigh, Ten Years on a Georgia Plantation, 164; Clinton B. Fisk, Plain Counsels for Freedmen: In Sixteen Brief Lectures (Boston, 1866), 28–35 (serialized in Free Man’s Press, Austin, Texas, Aug. 15, 22, Sept. 5, 12, 1868); Armstrong and Ludlow, Hampton and Its Students, 85.

47. George Parliss, Vicksburg, Miss., to Lt. Stuart Eldridge, April 9, 1866; Thomas H. Norton, Meridian, Miss., to Maj. A. W. Preston, Aug. 3, 1867; James DeGrey, Clinton, La., to William H. Webster, Sept. 10, 1867; and James DeGrey, Ms. Tri-Monthly Report, Dec. 31, 1867, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi and Louisiana (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; De Forest, Union Officer in the Reconstruction, 102; Swint (ed.), Dear Ones at Home, 121–22.

48. F. W. Loring and C. F. Atkinson, Cotton Culture and the South Considered with Reference to Emigration (Boston, 1869), 13, 136; Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1370. See also Loring and Atkinson, Cotton Culture and the South, 4, 15, 20, 137. See below, Chapter 8, for female labor and contract negotiations.

49. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XIX: God Struck Me Dead, 135; Towne, Letters and Diary, 183–84.

50. Samuel A. Agnew, Ms. Diary, entry for Jan. 8, 1867, Univ. of North Carolina; A. Marshall to “My Dear Niece,” Jan. 20, 1867, Joseph Belknap Smith Papers, Duke Univ. See also Avary, Dixie after the War, 192; Richardson, Negro in the Reconstruction of Florida, 63; New York Times, April 29, 1867.

51. Fisk, Plain Counsels for Freedmen, 25–35. For women employed in the cotton barns, see, e.g., Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 235–36.

52. Avary, Dixie after the War, 362.

53. Swint (ed.), Dear Ones at Home, 123–24. See also The Bulletin (Louisville), Sept. 24, 1881.

54. Ellison, Shadow and Act, 147–48.

55. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VIII: Ark. Narr. (Part 2), 52; “Narrative of William Wells Brown,” in Osofsky (ed.), Puttin’ On Ole Massa, 217–18.

56. Stroyer, “My Life in the South,” in Katz (ed.), Five Slave Narratives, 14; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 177; Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 45–46. See also Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 27, and XVIII: Unwritten History, 46.

57. Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 374; Heyward, Seed from Madagascar, 97–98; Smedes, Memorials of a Southern Planter, 71. For other examples, see Stroyer, “My Life in the South,” in Katz (ed.), Five Slave Narratives, 14, and D. E. H. Smith (ed.), Mason Smith Family Letters, 226n.

58. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VIII: Ark. Narr. (Part 1), 105; Swint (ed.), Dear Ones at Home, 37; Reid, After the War, 532; Lester, To Be a Slave, 147.

59. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IX: Ark. Narr. (Part 3), 120. For other examples of ex-slaves who chose to take their former master’s surname, see II: S.C. Narr. (Part 1), 327; IV and V: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 192, (Part 3), 5; XI: Ark. Narr. (Part 7), 245.

60. Ibid., IV: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 192.

61. Ibid, IX: Ark. Narr. (Part 3), 105; II: S.C. Narr. (Part 2), 117, 238, 266; IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 54. For other examples, see II and III: S.C. Narr. (Part 1), 14, (Part 3), 59–60; IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 137, (Part 2), 237; VIII: Ark. Narr. (Part 1), 296.

62. Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 49; Quarles, Negro in the Civil War, 288; National Freedman, II (May 1866), 144. For a discussion of naming practices, both in slavery and in freedom, see also Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll, 443–50; Gutman, Black Family in Slavery and Freedom, 185–201, 230–56, and Williamson, After Slavery, 310–11.

63. D. E. H. Smith (ed.), Mason Smith Family Letters, 226; Andrews, War-Time Journal of a Georgia Girl, 346–47.

64. Rawick, (ed.), American Slave, XII: Ga. Narr. (Part 1), 351; Rainwater (ed.), “Letters of James Lusk Alcorn,” 207.

65. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, V: Texas Narr. (Part 4), 149; Christian Recorder, March 17, 1866. See also Friends’ Central Committee for the Relief of the Emancipated Negroes, Letters from Joseph Simpson (London, 1865), 23.

66. Bertram W. Doyle, The Etiquette of Race Relations in the South: A Study in Social Control (Chicago, 1937), 2, 3, 15, 53, 191; Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 488; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 22, 26; X: Ark. Narr. (Part 5), 286; II: S.C. Narr. (Part 2), 95; XVIII: Unwritten History, 43, 44; Swint (ed.), Dear Ones at Home, 28; WPA, Negro in Virginia, 216.

67. Louis Manigault, “Visit to ‘Gowrie’ and ‘East Hermitage’ Plantations,” March 1867, Manigault Plantation Records, Univ. of North Carolina; Smedes, Memorials of a Southern Planter, 217; Reid, After the War, 568–69.

68. Christian Recorder, Nov. 18, 1865; Swint (ed.), Dear Ones at Home, 73; Higginson, Army Life in a Black Regiment, 28–29; Macrae, Americans at Home, 311; Andrews, The South since the War, 229. See also Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 48.

69. New York Times, June 26, 1864; Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 486; Dr. Ethelred Philips to Dr. James J. Philips, Oct. 24, 1865, Nov. 8, 1866, James J. Philips Collection, Univ. of North Carolina.

70. Swint (ed.), Dear Ones at Home,

71. “Carleton” to. Boston Journal, Feb. 13, 1865, reprinted in National Freedman, I (April 1, 1865), 83.

72. Dennett, The South As It Is, 168–69; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 108.

73. Trowbridge, The South, 238–39.

74. Evans, Ballots and Fence Rails, 79; Dennett, The South As It Is, 42. See also Reid, After the War, 419–20.

75. Reid, After the War, 84, 152; Dennett, The South As It Is, 116.

76. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, 79.

77. Reid, After the War, 386–37, 387n.-88n.; Andrews, War-Time Journal of a Georgia Girl, 251, 282, 322–23, 351; Taylor, Negro in the Reconstruction of Virginia, 79–80; Grace B. Elmore, Ms. Diary, entry for July 13, 1865, Univ. of North Carolina; Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entry for March 31, 1865, Univ. of South Carolina; Andrews, The South since the War, 186–87; New York Times, Nov. 28, 1863; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XII: Ga. Narr. (Part 1), 325; Elias Horry Deas to Anne Deas, July 15, 1865, Deas Papers, Univ. of South Carolina; Francis W. Dawson to [Joseph A. Reeks], June 13, 1865, F. W. Dawson Papers, Duke Univ.; Francis D. Richardson to Gen. St. John R. Liddell, July 31, 1866, John R. Liddell and Family Papers, Louisiana State Univ.

78. Dennett, The South As It Is, 137; Henry W. Ravenel to [Augustin Louis] Taveau, June 27, 1865, A. L. Taveau Papers, Duke Univ.

79. Andrews, War-Time Journal of a Georgia Girl, 351; Reid, After the War, 410n.-lln. See also Dennett, The South As It Is, 183.

80. John Hammond Moore (ed.), The Juhl Letters to the Charleston Courier: A View of the South, 1865–1871 (Athens, Ga., 1974) (Aug. 24, 1865, and Jan. 26, 1866), 29–30, 72; Samuel A. Agnew, Ms. Diary, entry for July 20, 1865, Univ. of North Carolina; Dr. Ethelred Philips to Dr. James J. Philips, Nov. 8, 1866, James J. Philips Collection, Univ. of North Carolina.

81. J. H. Young to James W. White, Aug. 5, 1867, White Papers, Univ. of North Carolina.

82. Gilbert Thomas Stephenson, Race Distinctions in American Law (New York, 1911), 209; Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 230; Workingman’s Advocate, July 21, 1866.

83. Avary, Dixie after the War, 194.

84. New Orleans Tribune, Jan. 13, Feb. 28, June 25, Aug. 8, 1865; Loyal Georgian, July 6, 1867; Freedman’s Press, July 18, 1868; New York Times, Aug. 17, 1865, March 22, June 2, 1866, April 29, May 18, June 19, 1867; New York Tribune, July 21, Aug. 22, 1865; Reid, After the War, 386n., 421; Andrews, The South since the War, 11; Dennett, The South As It Is, 293; Trowbridge, The South, 352; Alrutheus A. Taylor, The Negro in Tennessee, 1865–1880 (Washington, D.C., 1941), 226–27; Taylor, Negro in the Reconstruction of Virginia, 52. For an example of integrated travel preceding black agitation on the subject, see the protest of a white Virginian after traveling by rail from Pittsburgh to Richmond, as quoted in New York Times, April 16, 1866.

85. Stephenson, Race Distinctions in American Law, 208–09; American Freedman, I (July 1866), 59; William H. Dixon, New America (2 vols.; London, 1867), II, 330–32; Reid, After the War, 386n., 421; Dennett, The South As It Is, 293; Richmond Enquirer, Sept. 7, 1867, as quoted in Taylor, Negro in the Reconstruction of Virginia, 52–53.

86. New Orleans Tribune, May 16, 1867; New York Times, Feb. 25, March 5, 1866; Taylor, Negro in the Reconstruction of Virginia, 53–54; Colored American, Dec. 30, 1865.

87. Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 232–33; The Confederate Records of the State of Georgia (5 vols.; Atlanta, 1909), IV, 568; Trowbridge, The South, 161. For a denial of discrimination in “lunatic asylums” in New Orleans, see New Orleans Tribune, Oct. 19, 1866.

88. Loyal Georgian, July 6, 1867; New Orleans Tribune, Aug. 8, 1865; Williamson, After Slavery, 275–76.

89. New Orleans Tribune, May 5, 1867. For agitation in other cities, see, e.g., Loyal Georgian, July 6, 1867 (Savannah); Christian Recorder, June 2, 1866 (Baltimore); New York Times, July 9, 1867 (Mobile), May 27, 1867 (Nashville).

90. S. W. Ramsay, Office of the Charleston City Railway Company, Report of the Board of Directors, April 29, 1867, and John S. Riggs to R. K. Scott, May 3, 1867, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; New Orleans Tribune, May 5, 28, 1867; New York Times, Jan. 7, March 27, 28, April 2, 5, May 27, 1867; Swint (ed.), Dear Ones at Home, 221, 225; Williamson, After Slavery, 281–63.

91. WPA, Negro in Virginia, 241–42; Taylor, Negro in the Reconstruction of Virginia, 52; New York Times, May 1, 4, 8, 1867; New Orleans Tribune, July 8, 1867. For litigation and rulings by Union officers, see New Orleans Tribune, May 8, July 7, 1867; Freedman’s Press, July 18, 1868; National Freedman, I (Dec. 15, 1865), 362; New York Times, April 21, 22, May 18, June 19, July 10, Aug. 21, Sept. 8, 21, 1867.

92. New Orleans Tribune, Jan. 13, Feb. 28, May 21, June 25, Aug. 8, 20, 25, 29, 31, Sept. 1, 1865, April 30, May 1, 4, 7, 8, 9, 1867; New York Times, Nov. 5, 20, 1862, May 8, 16, 1867; J. C. Reid, Superintendent of the New Orleans and Carrollton Railroad Company, New Orleans, to Hon. E. Heath, Mayor of New Orleans, May 5, 1867, Pierre G. T. Beauregard Papers, Louisiana State Univ.

93. Macrae, Americans at Home, 297.

94. Trowbridge, The South, 352–53.

95. Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 21–22.

96. New York Times, Sept. 17, 1865; New Orleans Tribune, Aug. 15, 1865; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 56.

97. De Forest, Union Officer in the Reconstruction, 132; Christian Recorder, Feb. 24, 1866. Turner’s remarks were also printed in Colored American, Jan. 13, 1866. For similar sentiments, see Christian Recorder, Aug. 27, 1864, Feb. 18, 1865.

98. Colored American, Jan. 6, 1866.

99. Avary, Dixie after the War, 377; New York Times, Feb. 4, 1866; Edmund Rhett to Maj. Gen. Scott, Aug. 12, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

100. Andrews, War-Time Journal of a Georgia Girl, 223; Ravenel, Private Journal, 246. For similar expressions of alarm over the stationing of black troops in their vicinity, see Dennett, The South As It Is, 32–33; National Freedman, I (Sept. 15, 1865), 264; Swint (ed.), Dear Ones at Home, 170; Andrews, War-Time Journal of a Georgia Girl, 231–32, 263–64, 338; D. E. H. Smith (ed.), Mason Smith Family Letters, 170; Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entry for April 7, 1865, Univ. of South Carolina; Grace B. Elmore, Ms. Diary, entry for July 13, 1865, Univ. of North Carolina; Dr. Ethelred Philips to Dr. James J. Philips, Aug. 2, 1865, James J. Philips Collection, Univ. of North Carolina.

101. Reid, After the War, 422n., 279. For other examples of conflict between returning Confederate soldiers and black troops, see Charles E. Cauthen (ed.), Family Letters of the Three Wade Hamptons, 1782–1901 (Columbia, S.C., 1953), 129–30; Andrews, The South since the War, 28; New York Times, May 23, 26, 28, 1865.

102. D. E. H. Smith (ed.), Mason Smith Family Letters, 181; Ravenel, Private Journal, 245, 251; Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entry for March 31, 1865, Univ. of South Carolina; Petition of 18 Planters, Pineville, Charleston District, Sept. 1, 1865, Trenholm Papers, Univ. of North Carolina; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 178; New York Times, Oct. 11, 1865; Evans, Ballots and Fence Rails, 79–80, 81; J. G. De Roulhac Hamilton, Reconstruction in North Carolina (New York, 1914), 158–61; Jack D. L. Holmes, “The Underlying Causes of the Memphis Race Riot of 1866,” Tennessee Historical Review, XVII (1958), 217.

103. Evans, Ballots and Fence Rails, 79n.; Charles W. Ramsdell, Reconstruction in Texas (New York, 1910), 130–31; Andrews, The South since the War, 221.

104. Ravenel, Private Journal, 245–46, 247, 251; Andrews, War-Time Journal of a Georgia Girl, 362–63; Rev. John Hamilton Cornish, Ms. Diary, entry for June 18, 1865, Univ. of North Carolina.

105. John W. Burbidge to Joseph Glover, July 28, 1865, Glover-North Papers, Univ. of South Carolina; E. M. Jenkins and other citizens to Bvt. Maj. Gen. R. K. Scott, June 13, 1866, with endorsement by Maj. J. E. Cornelius; Frederick Reed to Bvt. Maj. Gen. R. K. Scott, June 13, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Lettere Received), Freedmen’s Bureau. See also Maj. George D. Reynolds to Lt. Stuart Eldridge, Oct. 5, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Senate Exec. Doc. 27, Reports of the Assistant Commissioners of the Freedmen’s Bureau [1865–1866], 126.

106. Christian Recorder, Sept. 9, Oct. 21, 1865. For racial clashes among Union soldiers, see John C. Chavis to James Red-path [June 16, 1865], Univ. of South Carolina; New York Times, July 24, 1865, May 17, 1866; Williamson, After Slavery, 258; Evans, Ballots and Fence Rails, 63–64; Ravenel, Private Journal, 246; Dennett, The South As It Is, 193–94, 255.

107. Christian Recorder, Sept. 9, 1865; Evans, Ballots and Fence Rails, 65.

108. Christian Recorder, Sept. 9, 1865; Christian A. Fleetwood to Dr. James Hall, June 8, 1865, Carter G. Woodson Collection, Library of Congress.

109. Ravenel, Private Journal, 274, 288–89; Nevins, War for the Union: The Organized War to Victory, 1864–1865, 367; New York Times, Oct. 17, 1866.

110. Dennett, The South As It Is, 319; Christian Recorder, Dec. 2, 1865; D. E. H. Smith (ed.), Mason Smith Family Letters, 232–33; A. R. Salley to “My Dear Aunt,” Nov. 13, 1865, Bruce, Jones, Murchison Papers, Univ. of South Carolina.

111. Christian Recorder, Sept. 9, Aug. 19, 1865; A. H. Haines to President Andrew Johnson, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XVIII: Unwritten History, 173. For assaults on discharged black soldiers, see New Orleans Tribune, July 26, 28, Aug. 31, 1865; New York Times, June 21, 1866; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., House Exec. Doc. 70, Freedmen’s Bureau, 203, 236, 237, 238; Senate Exec. Doc. 27, Reports of the Assistant Commissioners of the Freedmen’s Bureau [1865–1866], 6.

112. Rawick, (ed.), American Slave, XVIII: Unwritten History, 127; South Carolina Leader (Charleston), March 31, 1866. For black Union veterans who returned to the old plantations, see Rawick (ed.), American Slave, V: Texas Narr. (Part 3), 155; VII: Okla. Narr., 253; XVI: Kansas Narr., 9.

113. Reid, After the War, 558–62.

114. New Orleans Tribune, Aug. 31, 1865. “When de war ended, I goes back to my mastah and he treated me like his brother. Guess he wuz scared of me ’cause I had so much ammunition on me.” Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XVI: Va. Narr., 43.

115. Andrews, War-Time Journal of a Georgia Girl, 341–43.

116. Reid, After the War, 352.

117. Trowbridge, The South, 314; Dennett, The South As It Is, 194.

118. Andrews, The South since the War, 100; Trowbridge, The South, 429–30.

119. 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part III, 146; House Exec. Doc. 70, Freedmen’s Bureau, 201–07. The reports of assaults and murders are voluminous, not all of them easily verifiable. See, e.g., 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part III, 8–9, 146; House Exec. Doc. 70, Freedmen’s Bureau, 201–07, 236–38, 248–49; George L. Childs, Office of the Provost Court, Charlottesville, Va., Sept. 20, 1865, Brock Collection, Henry E. Huntington Library; Bvt. Col. A. E. Niles, Kingstree, S.C., to Bvt. Maj. Gen. R. K. Scott, Dec. 10, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Letters from Anonymous (colored), Macon, Ga., April 13, 1866, Rebecca Lightfoot (freedwoman), Augusta, Ga., March 24, 1866, Freedmen’s Bureau, Georgia (Registers of Letters Received); Trowbridge, The South, 463, 581; Dennett, The South As It Is, 125–26, 195–96, 221–22; New Orleans Tribune, July 14, Aug. 3, 1865; New York Times, Oct. 22, 1865, Jan. 8, Feb. 12, 27, Oct. 31, 1866, Jan. 12, Feb. 4, Aug. 5, 22, 30, Dec. 26, 1867. For reports of whites committing rape on black women, see Loyal Georgian, Jan. 27, Oct. 13, 1866; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., House Exec. Doc. 70, Freedmen’s Bureau, 204, 207.

120. Dennett, The South As It Is, 110; Loyal Georgian, Oct. 13, 1866. For other expressions of concern by native whites, see R. W. Flournoy, New Albany, Miss., to Rep. Thaddeus Stevens, Nov. 20, 1865, Stevens Papers, Library of Congress; Trowbridge, The South, 499–500.

121. Trowbridge, The South, 314, 576; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 127, Part III, 8; House Exec. Doc. 70, Freedmen’s Bureau, 248–49; Williamson, After Slavery, 97.

122. Christian Recorder, June 23, 1866; Albert, House of Bondage, 139–40. For examples of organized violence, see Lt. Col. H. R. Brinkerhoff, Clinton, Miss., to Maj. Gen. O. O. Howard, July 8, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., House Exec. Doc. 70, Freedmen’s Bureau, 201–06, 237–38; Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part III, 146; Andrews, War-Time Journal of a Georgia Girl, 343; Andrews, The South since the War, 118, 220; Williamson, After Slavery, 97; Richardson, Negro in the Reconstruction of Florida, 164; New York Times, May 10, July 6, Aug. 29, 1866, Jan. 4, May 16, 1867.

123. Cornelia P. Spencer to Eliza North, March 10, 1866, in Chamberlain, Old Days in Chapel Hill, 131; Trowbridge, The South, 572; Moore (ed.), The Juhl Letters (July 22, 1865), 23.

124. Dennett, The South As It Is, 261; Loyal Georgian, Oct. 13, 1865; Trowbridge, The South, 499–500.

125. Swint (ed.), Dear Ones at Home, 165–69; Ravenel, Private Journal, 287–89; Williamson, After Slavery, 258–59; Taylor, Negro in the Reconstruction of Virginia, 83; New Orleans Tribune, May 10, 12, 14, 1867; New York Times, July 24, 1865, April 3, 17, May 3, June 26, July 25, Aug. 20, 1866.

126. 39 Cong., 1 Sess., House Report 101, Memphis Riots and Massacres (Washington, D.C., 1866); William S. McFeely, Yankee Stepfather: General O. O. Howard and the Freedmen (New Haven, 1968), 274–82; Holmes, “The Underlying Causes of the Memphis Race Riot of 1866,” 195–221; American Freedman, I (July 1866), 50–51; New York Times, May 3, 4, 7, 10, 11, 17, June 29, July 26, 1866; Taylor, Negro in Tennessee, 85–87.

127. 39 Cong., 2 Sess., House Report 16, New Orleans Riots (Washington, D.C., 1866); McFeely, Yankee Stepfather, 282–87; New York Times, July 29, 31, Aug. 1, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 16, 17, 24, Oct. 14, 1866.

128. Dennett, The South As It Is, 150–51.

129. On March 22, 1865, the New Orleans Tribune concluded that during the last twenty years of slavery, colored residents had fared better before the courts than at the present time. For the legal system and slaves, see Stampp, The Peculiar Institution, 217–31.

130. New York Times, July 29, 1866; David Humphreys to Bvt. Maj. Gen. Swayne, Nov. 25, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Alabama (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Coulter, “Slavery and Freedom in Athens, Georgia, 1860–66,” in Miller and Genovese (eds.), Plantation, Town, and County, 361.

131. New York Times, Oct. 28, 1866; Julius J. Fleming to Gen. Scott, Sept. 15, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

132. De Forest, Union Officer in the Reconstruction, 1–14. For the varied record of the provost courts and the Freedmen’s Bureau in meting out equal justice, see Capt. George R. Hurlbut to Capt. George L. Childs, Sept. 30, 1865, and Col. Orlando Brown to Capt. Frank P. Crandon, Aug. 31, 1865, Brock Collection, Henry E. Huntington Library; Henry Crocheron et al. to Gen Swayne, Nov. 24, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Alabama; Julius J. Fleming to Gen. Scott, Sept. 15, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina; Bvt. Maj. Thomas H. Norton to Maj. A. W. Preston, Aug. 3, 1867, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; New Orleans Tribune, Aug. 14, 1865; Trowbridge, The South, 446; Dennett, The South As It Is, 223; William W. Rogers, Thomas County, 1865–1900 (Tallahassee, 1973), 407; Williamson, After Slavery, 327; Richardson, Negro in the Reconstruction of Florida, 41–42, 51–52; Martin Abbott, The Freedmen’s Bureau in South Carolina, 1865–1872 (Chapel Hill, N.C., 1967), 100–02; McFeely, Yankee Stepfather, 267–73; George R. Bentley, A History of the Freedmen’s Bureau (Philadelphia, 1955), 152–68.

133. William Daniel to John A. Needles, May 6, 1865, Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, Historical Society of Pennsylvania; John Baker to Maj. Gen. Thomas J. Woods, May 20, 1866, and Bvt. Maj. Thomas H. Norton to Maj. A. W. Preston, Aug. 3, 1867, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi; Julius J. Fleming to Gen. Scott, Sept. 15, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; 39 Cong., 2 Sess., Senate Exec. Doc. 6, Reports of the Assistant Commissioners of Freedmen (Washington, D.C., 1867), 32, 60, 123; Freedmen’s Affairs in Kentucky and Tennessee, Report of Brevet Major General Carlin … (Washington, D.C., 1868), 30; Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part III, 8; New Orleans Tribune, Nov. 29, 1865; Loyal Georgian, Feb, 24, 1866; New York Times, Sept. 26, 1866, April 14, 1867; Richardson, Negro in the Reconstruction of Florida, 40, 44–46, 47–48; Taylor, Negro in Tennessee, 41.

134. Trowbridge, The South, 435–36; Macrae, Americans at Home, 139.

135. New York Times, July 29, 1866; Trowbridge, The South, 464, 446–47.

136. New York Times, Aug. 30, 1867; Dennett, The South As It Is, 221; Trowbridge, The South, 463; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part III, 8; House Exec. Doc. 70, Freedmen’s Bureau, 201; Richardson, Negro in the Reconstruction of Florida, 164; Bvt. Col. A. E. Niles to Bvt. Maj. Gen. R. K. Scott, Dec. 10, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina; Capt. W. G. Wedemeyer to Bvt. Maj. S. G. Greene, July 25, 1868, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

137. Richardson, Negro in the Reconstruction of Florida, 40–41, 44; Trowbridge, The South, 499; Stampp, The Peculiar Institution, 220.

138. New Orleans Tribune, July 14, Nov. 29, 1865; Dennett, The South As It Is, 128; Reid, After the War, 51n.-52n.; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 213. See also Ira Pettibone to “Bro. Whitney,” Feb. 22, 1865, American Missionary Assn. Archives.

139. Andrews, The South since the War, 189; Dennett, The South As It Is, 75. See also Dennett, The South As It Is, 111, 157, 168, 181; New York Times, Sept. 10, Oct. 1, 1865; Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 134–35.

140. Dennett, The South As It Is, 54, 132.

141. Convention of the Freedmen of North Carolina (Raleigh, 1865), 5; Thomas W. Knox, Camp-fire and Cotton Field: Southern Adventure in Time of War (New York, 1865), 337. For examples of black jurymen, see Colored American, Dec. 30, 1865; New Orleans Tribune, July 4, 1867; New York Times, Aug. 25, 30, Sept. 1, Oct. 20, 1867; Williamson, After Slavery, 329; Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 137.

142. William V. Turner to Gen. Wager Swayne, Nov. 17, 1865, and Prince Murell et al. to Gen. Wager Swayne, Dec. 17, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Alabama (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; New Orleans Tribune, Nov. 11, Dec. 27, 1865, Sept. 2, 1866; Christian Recorder, Sept. 22, 1866. For protests of police abuses, see also C. P. Head et al., Vicksburg, to Brig. Gen. Samuel Thomas, April 17, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received); New Orleans Tribune, May 10, 1865; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 185. For examples of black police, see New Orleans Tribune, June 4, 6, 11, July 3, 1867; New York Times, Aug. 3, 10, Oct. 28, 1867. On the need for black police, see New Orleans Tribune, May 10, 1867.

143. Loyal Georgian, Feb. 24, 1866; New Orleans Tribune, July 14, 1865.

144. Swint (ed.), Dear Ones at Home, 169; New Orleans Tribune, March 22, June 7, July 18, 26, Aug. 31, 1865, Aug. 31, Sept. 1, 1866.

145. William Johnson to his parents, July 12, 1867, Main File, Henry E. Huntington Library; Letter from L. J. Leavy, July 4, 1866, Freedmen’s Bureau, Georgia (Registers of Letters Received); New York Times, April 2, 1866; “Report of the Commissioner of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands, November 1, 1866,” in Report of the Secretary of War (Washington, D.C., 1867), Appendix, 733; Rev. Horace James, Annual Report of the Superintendent of Negro Affairs in North Carolina, 1864 … (Boston, n.d.), 21. See also New York Times, May 27, July 1, 1866.

146. James McMahon, City Clerk, Columbia, to Col. Mansfield, May 29, 1866; Col. Mansfield to Col. H. W. Smith, May 30, 1866; Letter from “a colored woman,” May 16, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

Chapter Six: The Feel of Freedom: Moving About

1. Eppes, Negro of the Old South, 134.

2. Perdue et al. (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat, 213.

3. Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1292–93.

4. Ella Gertrude (Clanton) Thomas, Ms. Journal, entries for Dec. 12, 1864, May 7 to Oct. 9, 1865, Sept. 17, 1866, Duke Univ.

5. A. R. Salley to “My Dear Aunt,” Nov. 13, 1865, Bruce, Jones, Murchison Papers, Univ. of South Carolina.

6. Eppes, Negro of the Old South, 134.

7. Dr. Ethelred Philips to Dr. James J. Philips, Jan. 21, 1866, James J. Philips Collection, Univ. of North Carolina; Ball, The State That Forgot, 128; Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entry for June 15, 1865, Univ. of South Carolina. For freed slaves who equated departure with freedom, see also Duncan McLaurin to Gov. E. Hawley, May 23, 1866, McLaurin Papers, Duke Univ.; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 99, 187, Part III, 118, 173; National Freedman, I (Nov. 15, 1865), 327; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XVII: Fla. Narr., 103.

8. Mrs. Edward Smith Tennent to “My Dear Aunt” [Hattie Taylor], July 2, 1865, Dr. Edward Smith Tennent Papers, Univ. of South Carolina. For similar laments, see Hope L. Jones to “Aunt,” Feb. 28, 1866, Bruce, Jones, Murchison Papers, and Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, Aug. 22, 1865, Univ. of South Carolina; Chamberlain, Old Days in Chapel Hill, 88; Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1248, 1274; Ravenel, Private Journal, 244; D. E. H. Smith (ed.), Mason Smith Family Letters, 205; New York Times, March 9, 1865; Peter Kolchin, First Freedom: The Responses of Alabama’s Blacks to Emancipation and Reconstruction (Westport, Conn., 1972), 6.

9. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VIII: Ark. Narr. (Part 2), 14. See also II: S.C. Narr. (Part 1), 142; IV and V: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 162, 209, (Part 3), 192, (Part 4), 1.

10. Ibid., IV: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 81–85; Armstrong, Old Massa’s People, 319. See also Haviland, A Woman’s Life-Work, 266; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 215.

11. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XIII: Ga. Narr. (Part 3), 293; Sarah M. Payne to Mary M. Clendenin, Sept. 30, 1865, Historical Society of Pennsylvania; Dennett, The South As It Is, 13–14.

12. Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 538; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XV: N.C. Narr. (Part 2), 290; XIII: Ga. Narr. (Part 3), 162. See also II: S.C. Narr. (Part 2), 84; VII: Miss. Narr., 28, 29–30.

13. Trowbridge, The South, 209; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IX: Ark. Narr. (Part 4), 183–84.

14. Andrews, The South since the War, 25–26.

15. New Orleans Tribune, Nov. 12, 1865.

16. Eppes, Through Some Eventful Years, 284–85; Avary, Dixie after the War, 188.

17. Simkins and Patton, Women of the Confederacy, 251; LeConte, When the World Ended, 41, 112.

18. Grace B. Elmore, Ms. Diary, entry for May 30, 1865, Univ. of North Carolina; Mrs. Mary Jones to Mrs. Mary S. Mallard, Nov. 17, 1865, in Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1308.

19. Eppes, Through Some Eventful Years, 279–80, 285–86.

20. See, e.g., Dennett, The South As It Is, 127–28; National Freedman, I (July 15, 1865), 182; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 60.

21. Dennett, The South As It Is, 223; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., House Exec. Doc. 70, Freedmen’s Bureau, 388–89; New York Times, Aug. 2, 1865.

22. New York Times, Aug. 31, 1865, April 9, 1866. See also 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on ReconstructionPart III, 142. On the role of the Union Army and the Freedmen’s Bureau, see below, Chapters 7 and 8.

23. Ella Gertrude (Clanton) Thomas, Ms. Journal, entry for May 1865, Duke Univ.

24. H. R. Brinkerhoff to Maj. Gen. O. O. Howard, July 8, 1865, John L. Barnett to “Colonel,” June 27, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi and North Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau. See also Trowbridge, The South, 332, 461.

25. Dennett, The South As It Is, 364.

26. Ibid., 226–27, 364–65. See also Andrews, The South since the War, 207, 221; Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 209–10.

27. 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Senate Exec. Doc. 27, Reports of the Assistant Commissioners of the Freedmen’s Bureau [1865–1866], 85; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 159; New York Tribune, July 25, 1865.

28. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VI: Ala. Narr., 102; VII: Miss. Narr., 154–55; IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 14–16. See also Leigh, Ten Years on a Georgia Plantation, 14, 33–35.

29. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 6–7; XIII: Ga. Narr. (Part 3), 207–08; De Forest, Union Officer in the Reconstruction, 36–37. See also Dennett, The South As It Is, 229, and Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 209–10.

30. New York Times, Nov. 28, 1863; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, X: Ark. Narr. (Part 5), 17, 18; C. W. Clarke to Col. Samuel Thomas, June 29, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

31. Higginson, Army Life in a Black Regiment, 266; New York Tribune, Nov. 10, 1865. See also New York Times, Aug. 5, 1864, Sept. 29, 1865.

32. Williamson, After Slavery, 110; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 56. See also Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 384. On the postwar black conventions, see below, Chapter 10.

33. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 300; Richardson, Negro in the Reconstruction of Florida, 75–78; Trowbridge, The South, 460. On interstate migration patterns, see Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 107; Williamson, After Slavery, 108–09; Richardson, Negro in the Reconstruction of Florida, 75–76; Kolchin, First Freedom, 20–21; De Forest, Union Officer in the Reconstruction, 130–31; Moore (ed.), The Juhl Letters, 143. In mid-1866, Oliver O. Howard, head of the Freedmen’s Bureau, authorized transportation for delegates elected by the freedmen of Roanoke Island to visit plantations in Texas and explore employment opportunities there. If the investigation justified migration, freedmen in “the large and destitute settlements” would then be induced to move. O. O. Howard to Bvt. Maj. Gen. J. Robinson, Aug. 22, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, North Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

34. Reid, After the War, 562–63; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XI: Mo. Narr., 117; XIII: Ga. Narr. (Part 4), 90–91.

35. Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 109; Kolchin, First Freedom, 12–19, 22–23.

36. Andrews, The South since the War, 350–62.

37. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 133. See also Macrae, Americans at Home, 324.

38. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 124; V: Texas Narr. (Part 4), 39; Trowbridge, The South, 155–56; Weymouth T. Jordan, Hugh Davis and His Alabama Plantation (University, Ala., 1948), 160; Ephraim M. Anderson, Memoirs: Historical and Personal (St. Louis, 1868), 364; George Parliss to Stuart Eldridge, April 9, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau. See also National Freedman, I (Nov. 15, 1865), 327; Perdue et al. (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat, 262.

39. Loyal Georgian, March 3, 1866; Reid, After the War, 69; New York Times, Sept. 2, 1865.

40. New York Times, Dec. 10, 1865.

41. Loring and Atkinson, Cotton Culture and the South, 9, 13–14; Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 126–27, 128; Williamson, After Slavery, 38, 159–62; Taylor, Negro in Tennessee, 141–42; The Union (New Orleans), July 14, 1863.

42. Dew, Ironmaker to the Confederacy, 313–14. With the end of the war, the need to reconstruct shattered railroad tracks and build new lines produced immediate opportunities for freedmen to leave the fields for work that would be more remunerative. See, e.g., Loring and Atkinson, Cotton Culture and the South, 13–14, 17; New York Times, Feb. 24, 1867; Reid, After the War, 331; Capt. J. H. Weber to Col. Samuel Thomas, July 1, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Taylor, Negro in the Reconstruction of Virginia, 114; Taylor, Negro in Tennessee, 152–53; Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 125.

43. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XVI: Va. Narr., 7–8, 55–56.

44. Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 106–07; Kolchin, First Freedom, 10; Taylor, Negro in the Reconstruction of Virginia, 32–34; Williamson, After Slavery, 108; Nevins, War for the Union: The Organized War, 1863–1864, 363–64; New York Times, Aug. 6, 1865.

45. Josiah Gorgas, Ms. Journal, entry for June 2, 1865, Univ. of North Carolina; Kolchin, First Freedom, 10.

46. Ravenel, Private Journal, 244; Margaret L. Montgomery (ed.), “Alabama Freedmen: Some Reconstruction Documents,” Phylon, XIII (3rd Quarter 1952), 145; Kolchin, First Freedom, 7; Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1263, 1292; New York Times, July 17, 1865; Elias Horry Deas to Anne Deas, Aug. 12, 1865, Deas Papers, Univ. of South Carolina; Capt. William A. Poillon to Brig. Gen. Wager Swayne, Nov. 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Alabama (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

47. Baton Rouge Advocate, Feb. 21, 1866, quoted in Dennett, The South As It Is, 343–44; Memphis Daily Avalanche, March 15, 1866, quoted in Holmes, “The Underlying Causes of the Memphis Race Riot of 1866,” 203n. See also New York Times, Sept. 1, 1865; Elias Horry Deas to Anne Deas, Aug. 12, 1865, Deas Papers, Univ. of South Carolina; Edward Lynch to Joseph Glover [c. June 1865], Glover-North Papers, Univ. of South Carolina; Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 53; Richardson, Negro in the Reconstruction of Florida, 33–34.

48. Elias Horry Deas to Anne Deas, Aug. 12, 1865, Deas Papers, Univ. of South Carolina; New York Times, Sept. 2, 1865; Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entry for June 15, 1865, Univ. of South Carolina.

49. Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entry for End of May 1865, Univ. of South Carolina; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XIII: Ga. Narr. (Part 4), 235.

50. Elias Horry Deas to Anne Deas, July, Aug. 12, 1865, Deas Papers, Univ. of South Carolina.

51. 39 Cong., 1 Sess., House Exec. Doc. 70, Freedmen’s Bureau, 231.

52. Loyal Georgian, April 10, 1867; Christian Recorder, Dec. 16, 1865; Black Republican, April 29, 1865. For similar advice, see Colored Tennessean, Oct. 14, 1865.

53. New York Tribune, June 12, 17, 27, July 16, Aug. 8, 1865; New York Times, June 15, 1865; New Orleans Tribune, Aug. 26, 1865.

54. Christian Recorder, July 21, 1866. See also, e.g., ibid., June 10, July 8, 1865; New Orleans Tribune, July 8, 1865; New York Times, June 11, 1865, July 29, 1866; The Union, April 9, 1864.

55. New York Times, July 7, 1865; Henry Crocheron et al. to Gen. Swayne, Nov. 24, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Alabama (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Christian Recorder, June 10, 1865. For a black protest meeting in Selma, Ala., see New York Times, Nov. 12, 1865.

56. Kolchin, First Freedom, 7; New Orleans Tribune, July 22, 26, 29, 1865; 39 Cong., 2 Sess., Senate Exec. Doc. 6, Reports of the Assistant Commissioners of Freedmen, 129; New York Times, Oct. 28, 1865.

57. The Union, April 9, 1864; New Orleans Tribune, Aug. 18, 1864, July 16, 26, 1865; New York Times, Feb. 2, 1863, Sept. 28, Nov. 13, 1865; New York Tribune, June 12, 1865; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Senate Exec. Doc. 27, Reports of the Assistant Commissioners of the Freedmen’s Bureau [1865–1866], 51; 39 Cong., 2 Sess., Senate Exec. Doc. 6, Reports of the Assistant Commissioners of Freedmen, 129.

58. Christian Recorder, July 1, 1865; National Freedman, I (Aug. 15, 1865), 200; New York Times, June 25, July 16, 1865; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Senate Exec. Doc. 27, Reports of the Assistant Commissioners of the Freedmen’s Bureau [1865–1866], 8; New Orleans Tribune, Oct. 12, 1865.

59. Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 53; Kolchin, First Freedom, 7.

60. Seleg G. Wright to Rev. George Whipple, April 1, 7, 1864; “An Officer of the U.S.A.” [apparently S. G. Wright], April 4, 1864, Ms. article intended for release to newspaper, American Missionary Assn. Archives; Christian Recorder, July 1, 1865. See also “Abstract of a Report of a Visit to Natchez,” in Warren, Extracts from Reports of Superintendents of Freedmen.

61. New Orleans Tribune, Aug. 8, 1865.

62. Prince Murell et al., Tuscaloosa, Ala., Dec. 17, 1865; C. P. Head et al., Vicksburg, to Brig. Gen. Samuel Thomas, April 17, 1866; Jim Leigh et al., Tuscumbia, Ala., Nov. 27, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Alabama and Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

63. Trowbridge, The South, 453–54; New York Times, Aug. 6, 1865 (quoting the Petersburg Daily Index). See also New York Times, June 16, Aug. 6, 1865, Dec. 4, 1866; Ravenel, Private Journal, 238–39; Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 127; Williamson, After Slavery, 162; Charles H. Wesley, Negro Labor in the United States, 1850–1925 (New York, 1927), 218.

64. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 277.

65. See, e.g., ibid., IV and V: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 280, (Part 2), 142, (Part 4), 77; VI: Ala. Narr., 280–81, 420; VIII: Ark. Narr. (Part 2), 63–64; XIII: Ga. Narr. (Part 3), 177, (Part 4), 172; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 99.

66. 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Senate Exec. Doc. 27, Reports of the Assistant Commissioners of the Freedmen’s Bureau [1865–1866], 65.

67. Lt. Col. H. R. Brinkerhoff to Maj. Gen. O. O. Howard, July 8, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., House Exec. Doc. 70, Freedmen’s Bureau, 288; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XV: N.C. Narr. (Part 2), 41.

68. Walter L. Fleming, Civil War and Reconstruction in Alabama (New York, 1905), 272; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 407; III: S.C. Narr. (Part 3), 265–66. For movement back to the plantations, see also Trowbridge, The South, 251–52; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Senate Exec. Doc. 27, Reports of the Assistant Commissioners of the Freedmen’s Bureau [1865–1866], 13; Capt. J. H. Weber to Col. Samuel Thomas, July 1, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1296; Williamson, After Slavery, 40–41.

69. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 407; Trowbridge, The South, 537–68.

70. Leigh, Ten Years on a Georgia Plantation, 22; Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 531; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 80. See also Avary, Dixie after the War, 185–86; Easterby (ed.), South Carolina Rice Plantation, 216; Trowbridge, The South, 491–92.

71. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 26.

72. Andrews, The South since the War, 25; Perdue et al. (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat, 213.

73. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 105; XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 178. See also V: Texas Narr. (Part 4), 32.

74. Ibid., VII: Miss. Narr., 173; IV: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 88; Perdue et al. (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat, 228–29.

75. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 300; XIII: Ga. Narr. (Part 3), 64. For similar recollections, see, e.g., II and III: S.C. Narr. (Part 1), 334–35, (Part 2), 263, (Part 3), 236–37, (Part 4), 80; IV and V: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 3, (Part 2), 128, 161–62, (Part 3), 130, (Part 4), 72; VII: Okla. Narr., 340; Miss. Narr., 154; XII and XIII: Ga. Narr. (Part 2), 263, (Part 3), 39; XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 172, 239; XVII: Fla. Narr., 376.

76. Ibid., VIII: Ark. Narr. (Part 1), 14, 189; IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 65.

77. Ibid., II: S.C. Narr. (Part 2), 216. For variations of this theme, see also IV and V: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 64–65, (Part 2), 128, (Part 3), 161, 164, (Part 4), 25; XII and XIII: Ga. Narr. (Part 2), 70–71, (Part 3), 301; XIV and XV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 136–37, 294, (Part 2), 103.

78. Ibid., II: S.C. Narr. (Part 1), 5–6.

79. Ibid., III: S.C. Narr. (Part 3), 51. For recollections of “hard times,” especially in the first winter of freedom, see also VI: Ala. Narr., 226; VII: Okla. Narr., 294; VIII and X: Ark. Narr. (Part 2), 6, 161, (Part 5), 124; XIV and XV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 186, (Part 2), 268.

80. Ibid., XVI: Tenn. Narr., 6; VII: Okla. Narr., 202.

81. Ibid., VII: Miss. Narr., 39–41.

82. Ibid., XII and XIII: Ga. Narr. (Part 3), 29, (Part 2), 8; VII: Miss. Narr., 41.

83. Ibid., VI: Ala. Narr., 405–06; IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 82–63, VII: Okla. Narr., 51.

84. Williamson, After Slavery, 36–37; Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entry for End of May 1865, Univ. of South Carolina; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VI: Ala. Narr., 167.

85. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 335–38.

86. Mrs. William Mason Smith to Mrs. Edward L. Cottenet, July 12, 1865, in D. E. H. Smith (ed.), Mason Smith Family Letters, 221.

87. Isabella A. Soustan to “Master Man” [probably George C. Taylor], July 10, 1865, George C. Taylor Collection, Univ. of North Carolina.

88. Alice Dabney to “My Dear Old Master” [Thomas Dabney], Feb. 10, 1867, in Smedes, Memorials of a Southern Planter, 234–35. Susan Dabney Smedes, the daughter of Thomas Dabney, added that the letter had been written “with Alice’s own hand.”

89. Jake to “Mas William” [William D. Simpson], Feb. 5, 1867, Simpson Papers, Univ. of North Carolina.

90. Cincinnati Commercial, reprinted in New York Tribune, Aug. 22, 1865, as a “letter dictated by a servant.” For other reprints of the letter, see “Letter from a Freedman to His Old Master: Written just as he dictated it,” in Lydia Maria Child (ed.), The Freedmen’s Book (Boston, 1865), 265–67, and Carter G. Woodson (ed.), The Mind of the Negro as Reflected in Letters Written During the Crisis 1800–1860 (Washington, D.C., 1926), 537–39.

Chapter Seven: Back to Work: The Old Compulsions

1. South Carolina Leader, Dec. 16, 1865.

2. W. L. DeRosset to Louis Henry DeRosset, June 20, 1866, DeRosset Family Papers, Univ. of North Carolina.

3. Dr. Ethelred Philips to Dr. James J. Philips, Aug. 2, 1865, James J. Philips Collection, Univ. of North Carolina; Trowbridge, The South, 390–91.

4. Ravenel, Private Journal, 269; William Henry Stiles to Elizabeth Anne Mackay, Sept. 22, 1865, Mackay-Stiles Collection, Univ. of North Carolina; Kolchin, First Freedom, 23.

5. Donald MacRae to Julia MacRae, Sept. 4, 1865, MacRae Papers, Duke Univ.; Dennett, The South As It Is, 83–84

6. Ibid., 26.

7. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, V: Texas Narr. (Part 4), 50; IX: Ark. Narr. (Part 3), 156; Abraham to “My Dear Master” [Joseph Glover], May 15, 1865, and John W. Burbidge to Joseph Glover, June 26, 1865, Glover-North Papers, Univ. of South Carolina; Knox, Camp-fire and Cotton Field, 374.

8. Rev. John Hamilton Cornish, Ms. Diary, entry for June 19, 1865, Univ. of North Carolina. See also Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XI: Mo. Narr., 272–73.

9. Knox, Camp-fire and Cotton Field, 337; New York Times, Feb. 12, 1865; Bell I. Wiley, “Vicissitudes of Early Reconstruction Farming in the Lower Mississippi Valley,” Journal of Southern History, III (1937), 451–52.

10. Loring and Atkinson, Cotton Culture and the South, 5, 6, 9, 11, 22, 106, 109–10; Trowbridge, The South, 391, 392; Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1309; New York Times, April 12, 1867; Kolchin, First Freedom, 9; Easterby (ed.), South Carolina Rice Plantation, 330. Most of the volume by Loring and Atkinson consists of responses by cotton planters to a circular asking for “detailed facts and opinions relative to the labor, the methods of cotton culture, and the general condition and capacities of the South.”

11. Loring and Atkinson, Cotton Culture and the South, 10.

12. Ibid, 8; Edward Barnwell Heyward to “Tat” [Catherine Maria Clinch Heyward], May 5, 1867, Heyward Family Papers, Univ. of South Carolina; William E. Bayley to Commanding Officer, July 3, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

13. Loring and Atkinson, Cotton Culture and the South, 4, 110. See also William Henry Stiles to Elizabeth Anne Mackay, Sept. 22, 1865, Mackay-Stiles Collection, and Samuel A. Agnew, Ms. Diary, entry for July 24, 1865, Univ. of North Carolina; George Parliss to Lt. Stuart Eldridge, April 9, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Wilmer Shields to William Newton Mercer, July 10, 1866, Mercer Papers, Louisiana State Univ.

14. Leigh, Ten Years on a Georgia Plantation, 24–26, 57.

15. Wiley, “Vicissitudes of Early Reconstruction Farming in the Lower Mississippi Valley,” 449–50; Avary, Dixie after the War, 189–90. See also Wilmer Shields to William Newton Mercer, Sept. 20, 1865, Mercer Papers, Louisiana State Univ.

16. Reid, After the War, 460–64.

17. Jordan, Hugh Davis and His Alabama Plantation, 151–62. Similar frustrations are described in Elias Horry Deas to Anne Deas, Oct. 20, 1866, Deas Papers, Univ. of South Carolina.

18. Andrews, The South since the War, 22; Mary C. Simms Oliphant, Alfred Taylor Odell, and T. C. Duncan Eaves (eds.), The Letters of William Gilmore Simms (5 vols.; Columbia, S.C., 1952–56), IV, 557, 567, 602; W. W. Bateman to John L. Manning, Aug. 2, 1865, Williams-Chesnut-Manning Papers, Univ. of South Carolina; Grace B. Elmore, Ms. Diary, entry for March 4, 1865, Univ. of North Carolina; John Moore to Mrs. Joseph R. Snyder, Oct. 11, 1866, Kean-Prescott Papers, Univ. of North Carolina; Trowbridge, The South, 118–19; Dennett, The South As It Is, 42, 78, 191; Reid, After the War, 164–65, 186, 298, 318; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Senate Exec. Doc. 2, “Report of Carl Schurz on the States of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana,” in Message of the President of the United States, 16–17, 27; National Freedman, I (Aug. 15, 1865), 224; De Forest, Union Officer in the Reconstruction, 100–01.

19. Loring and Atkinson, Cotton Culture and the South, 4, 6, 13.

20. New York Times, Dec 31, 1861; Christian Recorder, June 17, 1865; Macrae, Americans at Home, 324.

21. Dennett, The South As It Is, 191; Leigh, Ten Years on a Georgia Plantation, 55.

22. Waterbury, Seven Years Among the Freedmen, 71.

23. Charles Stearns, The Black Man of the South, and the Rebels (New York, 1872), 43–46.

24. Williamson, After Slavery, 51; Eppes, Negro of the Old South, 115–17; Eppes, Through Some Eventful Years, 282–83.

25. William Henry Stiles to Elizabeth Anne Mackay, Sept. 22, 1865, Mackay-Stiles Collection, Univ. of North Carolina; Leigh, Ten Years on a Georgia Plantation, 52; Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entry for July 17, 1865, Univ. of South Carolina.

26. Easterby (ed.), South Carolina Rice Plantation, 212, 215; D. E. H. Smith (ed.), Mason Smith Family Letters, 248; Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1280, 1287, 1308–09.

27. Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1280; Williamson, After Slavery, 40; Leigh, Ten Years on a Georgia Plantation, 38; Jones (ed.), Heroines of Dixie, 268–69.

28. S. D. G. Niles to Maj. Gen. T. J. Wood, June 13, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VI: Ala. Narr., 176–77; VII: Miss. Narr., 54.

29. Ella Gertrude (Clanton) Thomas, Ms. Journal, entries for May 27, 29, 1865, Duke Univ.

30. Dr. Ethelred Philips to Dr. James J. Philips, Oct. 24, 1865, James J. Philips Collection, Univ. of North Carolina; LeGrand, Journal, 263–64; D. E. H. Smith (ed.), Mason Smith Family Letters, 223; Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entries for Aug. 22, Oct. 1, 1865, Univ. of South Carolina; James C. Bonner, “Plantation Experiences of a New York Woman,” North Carolina Historical Review, XXIII (1956), 546.

31. Grace B. Elmore, Ms. Diary, entries for March 4, May 24, 30, 1865, Univ. of North Carolina.

32. Donald MacRae to Julia MacRae, Sept. 4, 1865, MacRae Papers, Duke Univ.

33. Dr. Ethelred Philips to Dr. James J. Philips, June 17, 1867, James J. Philips Collection, Univ. of North Carolina. See also Eppes, Through Some Eventful Years, 311.

34. William Heyward to James Gregorie, June 4, 1868, Gregorie-Elliott Collection, Univ. of North Carolina; Loring and Atkinson, Cotton Culture and the South, 5 (see also 11, 85, 87, 93).

35. Richardson, Negro in the Reconstruction of Florida, 54; New York Times, Oct. 8, 1865; 39 Cong., 2 Sess., Senate Exec. Doc. 6, Reports of the Assistant Commissioners of Freedmen [Jan. 3, 1867], 159; Loring and Atkinson, Cotton Culture and the South, 84, 87, 94; Claude H. Nolen, The Negro’s Image in the South: The Anatomy of White Supremacy (Lexington, Ky., 1967), 173–77; Reid, After the War, 397.

36. C. W. Clarke to Col. Samuel Thomas, June 29, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Theodore B. Wilson, The Black Codes of the South (University, Ala., 1965), 45; 39 Cong., 2 Sess., Senate Exec. Doc. 6, Reports of the Assistant Commissioners of Freedmen [Jan. 3, 1867], 159; Taylor, Negro in the Reconstruction of Virginia, 109; Williamson, After Slavery, 117.

37. Moore (ed.), The Juhl Letters (Aug. 7, 1866), 108; Reid, After the War, 276; Taylor, Negro in the Reconstruction of Virginia, 122; Edward Barnwell Heyward to Allen C. Izard, July 16, 1866, Heyward Family Papers, Univ. of South Carolina.

38. Loring and Atkinson, Cotton Culture and the South, 71; Taylor, Negro in the Reconstruction of Virginia, 74–75; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 109.

39. Richardson, Negro in the Reconstruction of Florida, 53.

40. Mrs. McKenzie Parker to Mrs. William Mason Smith, Nov. 6, 1865, in D. E. H. Smith (ed.), Mason Smith Family Letters, 246; Grace B. Elmore, Ms. Diary, entry for July 13, 1865, Univ. of North Carolina. See also Eppes, Through Some Eventful Years, 309–10.

41. Bryant (ed.), “A Yankee Soldier Looks at the Negro,” 145; Sarah M. Payne to Mary M. Clendenin, Sept. 30, 1865, Historical Society of Pennsylvania; Ella Gertrude (Clanton) Thomas, Ms. Journal, entries for May [26], 29, 1865, Duke Univ.

42. Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entry for May 3, 1865, Univ. of South Carolina; Avary, Dixie after the War, 188–89; Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1280.

43. Jervey and Ravenel, Two Diaries, 36; Simkins and Patton, Women of the Confederacy, 255; William Heyward to James Gregorie, June 4, 1868, Gregorie-Elliott Collection, Univ. of North Carolina. See also LeConte, When the World Ended, 54.

44. Andrews, War-Time Journal of a Georgia Girl, 373–74, 375.

45. Ibid., 374–75.

46. LeGrand, Journal, 99–100; Andrews, War-Time Journal of a Georgia Girl, 375–76, 378–80.

47. Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entries for End of May, June 15, Aug. 14, 25, 1865, Univ. of South Carolina.

48. Andrews, War-Time Journal of a Georgia Girl, 374; Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 488; Stone, Brokenburn, 7–9. For the daily tasks of a housemaid under slavery, as recalled by an ex-slave who had assisted her mother, see Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VI: Ala. Narr., 416–17.

49. Eppes, Through Some Eventful Years, 310; Eppes, Negro of the Old South, 137, 139–40.

50. Trowbridge, The South, 328–29.

51. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, II: S.C. Narr. (Part 1), 22; Waterbury, Seven Years Among the Freedmen, 40.

52. D. E. H. Smith (ed.), Mason Smith Family Letters, 222; Hope L. Jones to “My Dear Aunt,” Feb. 28, 1866, Bruce-Jones-Murchison Papers, Univ. of South Carolina.

53. Trowbridge, The South, 291.

54. Dennett, The South As It Is, 15; Williamson, After Slavery, 73. See also Moore (ed.), The Juhl Letters (Aug. 31, 1865), 34.

55. Charles L. Wagandt, The Mighty Revolution: Negro Emancipation in Maryland, 1862–1864 (Baltimore, 1964), 42; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part IV, 16.

56. Andrews, The South since the War, 364; Fleming, Civil War and Reconstruction in Alabama, 386; Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1338. See also Moore (ed.), The Juhl Letters (Dec. 31, 1865), 59.

57. Andrews, War-Time Journal of a Georgia Girl, 340; Trowbridge, The South, 491.

58. Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 54; Dennett, The South As It Is, 6, 15, 102–03; Reid, After the War, 337; Trowbridge, The South, 78–79; Macrae, Americans at Home, 132, 294–95; Haviland, A Woman’s Life-Work, 306; Loring and Atkinson, Cotton Culture and the South, 6–7, 11; Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1244; Moore (ed.), The Juhl Letters(Jan. 26, 1866), 71; Selma Mirror, as quoted in New Orleans Tribune, Dec. 19, 1865; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 109.

59. Dennett, The South As It Is, 290; Grace B. Elmore, Ms. Diary, entry for March 4, 1865, Univ. of North Carolina. For similar predictions, see, e.g., Loring and Atkinson, Cotton Culture and the South, 6–7, 20; Trowbridge, The South, 78; Macrae, Americans at Home, 295; Duncan McLaurin to Gov. E. Hawley, May 23, 1866, McLaurin Papers, Duke Univ.; Roark, Masters Without Slaves, 138.

60. Loring and Atkinson, Cotton Culture and the South, 9; Hepworth, Whip, Hoe, and Sword, 49–50; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 130; Dennett, The South As It Is, 15; Reid, After the War, 164–65. Planters would use this argument repeatedly to explain violations of labor contracts by blacks and the folly of monthly wage payments in cash.

61. Andrews, The South since the War, 364.

62. Macrae, Americans at Home, 321; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part III, 136; Moore (ed.), The Juhl Letters (July 22, 1865), 20; Dennett, The South As It Is, 15. On Dec. 2, 1866, the New Orleans Tribune reprinted this lament from the Brandon (Miss.) Republican: “Alas! he [the freedman] cannot sing and dance with the same zest now. He has no old master to furnish him food and raiment; no kind mistress to take care of him when he gets sick; no comfortable cabin to live in; no thick clothing to shield him from the storms; no banjo to pick, and his heart is so heavy he can’t sing and dance. Candidly, we have not seen or heard of a real old fashioned negro frolic since the poor darkey was set free.”

63. Trowbridge, The South, 136, 332.

64. Reid, After the War, 218.

65. Dennett, The South As It Is, 65.

66. Col. Samuel Thomas, Asst. Commissioner, Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands for Mississippi and N.E. Louisiana, to Gen. Carl Schurz, Sept. 28, 1865, in 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Senate Exec. Doc. 2, “Report of Carl Schurz on the States of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana,” in Message of the President of the United States, 81.

67. Andrews, The South since the War, 398.

68. Reid, After the War, 25, 44, 291, 337; Andrews, The South since the War, 398; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Senate Exec. Doc. 2, “Report of Carl Schurz,” 16–17; Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 83; New York Times, Sept. 17, 1865.

69. Macon Telegraph, May 16, 1865, quoted in New York Times, June 16, 1865; Trowbridge, The South, 573; Reid, After the War, 343–44.

70. Ravenel, Private Journal, 256; Walter L. Fleming (ed.), Documentary History of Reconstruction (2 vols.; Cleveland, 1906–07), I, 282–83; Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 84–85, 91–92; Wilson, Black Codes of the South, 74.

71. Andrews, The South since the War, 157–58; Dennett, The South As It Is, 161–62; Reid, After the War, 361.

72. New York Times, June 17, 1865; Dennett, The South As It Is, 133; Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 84; Otto H. Olsen, Carpetbagger’s Crusade: The Life of Albion Winegar Tourgee (Baltimore, 1965), 34.

73. New Orleans Daily South, Nov. 19, 1865, quoted in Reid, After the War, 411; Edgefield (S.C.) Advertiser, Oct. 25, 1865, quoted in Wilson, Black Codes of the South, 145; Fleming (ed.), Documentary History of Reconstruction, I, 298–99.

74. The discussion of the Black Codes is based on the enactments compiled in “Laws in Relation to Freedmen,” 39 Cong., 2 Sess., Senate Exec. Doc. 6, Freedmen’s Affairs, 170–230; Edward McPherson, The Political History of the United States of America During the Period of Reconstruction (Washington, D.C., 1880), 29–44; and Fleming (ed.), Documentary History of Reconstruction, I, 273–312. See also Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 83–89; Williamson, After Slavery, 72–76; Stampp, Era of Reconstruction, 79–80; and Wilson, Black Codes of the South, 65–80, 96–116. In examining the state legislation regarding the freedmen, care must be taken not to confuse laws proposed with those actually enacted; the northern press was not always clear on this point.

75. New Orleans Tribune, July 15, 19, 30, Aug. 20, 1865. For the Louisiana parish laws, see also 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Senate Exec. Doc. 2, “Report of Carl Schurz,” 92–96.

76. Trowbridge, The South, 373; Wilson, Black Codes of the South, 143; Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 83.

77. Colored People to the Governor of Mississippi, Petition of the Freedmen of Claiborne County, Miss., Dec. 3, 1865, in Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

78. South Carolina Leader, Dec. 16, 1865; Loyal Georgian, Feb 17, 1866. For black protest, see also Colored American, Jan. 6, 13, 1866; Loyal Georgian, Feb. 3, 1866; South Carolina Leader, Dec. 23, 1865.

79. McPherson, Political History of the United States of America During the Period of Reconstruction, 36–38, 41–42; Williamson, After Slavery, 77–79; Fleming, Civil War and Reconstruction in Alabama, 378–79, 382–83; Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 90–93; Taylor, Negro in the Reconstruction of Virginia, 18; Richardson, Negro in the Reconstruction of Florida, 43; Wilson, Black Codes of the South, 96–115.

80. Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 91, 92; New Orleans Tribune, Aug. 20, 1865.

81. Sitterson, Sugar Country, 235; Stampp, The Peculiar Institution, 146; Andrews, The South since the War, 25. For similar sentiments, see also Jordan, Hugh Davis and His Alabama Plantation, 161; Trowbridge, The South, 390–91, 393; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part III, 5, 24–25.

82. Dennett, The South As It Is, 53. See also ibid., 77–82; Trowbridge, The South, 389; C. W. Clarke to Col. Samuel Thomas, June 29, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

83. Dennett, The South As It Is, 129, 261, 252.

84. Andrews, The South since the War, 205, 362.

85. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV and V: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 280, (Part 3), 83–84. See also XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 72.

86. Ibid., VIII: Ark. Narr. (Part 2), 284; Trowbridge, The South, 291–92.

87. Andrews, The South since the War, 26; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part III, 3; Stone, Brokenburn, 368–69.

88. Trowbridge, The South, 427–28; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XVIII: Unwritten History, 138. See also V: Texas Narr. (Part 3), 261.

89. Williamson, After Slavery, 88; John W. Burbidge to Joseph Glover, July 28, 1865, Glover-North Papers, Univ. of South Carolina; Rev. John Jones to Mrs. Jones, July 26, 1865, in Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1282–83. See also Dr. Ethelred Philips to Dr. James J. Philips, Aug. 2, 1865, James J. Philips Collection, Univ. of North Carolina; H. A. Johnson to “Dear Friend Samuel,” July 14, 1865, Univ. of North Carolina; Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entry for June 15, 1865, Univ. of South Carolina; Easterby (ed.), South Carolina Rice Plantation, 210–211; Oliphant et al. (eds.), Letters of William Gilmore Simms, IV, 505; LeConte, When the World Ended, 105, 115–16.

90. For the Union Army and the expulsion of freed slaves from the cities and towns, see above, Chapter 6. For the military role in imposing order on the plantations, se•, e.g., Petition of 18 Planters, Pine ville, Charleston District, Sept. 1, 1865, Trenholm Papers, Univ. of North Carolina; Ravenel, Private Journal, 223; Richardson, Negro in the Reconstruction of Florida, 56; New York Times, June 16, 1865.

91. Col. William E. Bayley to Commanding Officer, Vicksburg, Miss., July 3, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; New Orleans Tribune, April 11, 1865.

92. Eppes, Negro of the Old South, 125; Ball, The State That Forgot, 128; Reid, After the War, 419. See also Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1292–93.

93. Towne, Letters and Diary, 20; Knox, Camp-fire and Cotton Field, 316–17.

94. On wartime Federal labor policies in the South, see Gerteis, From Contraband to Freedman; Eaton, Grant, Lincoln, and the Freedmen; and Wiley, Southern Negroes, esp. 230–59. On white and black lessees, see Christian Recorder, July 16, 1864; New Orleans Tribune, July 11, 1865; Report of the General Superintendent of Freedmen, Department of the Tennessee and State of Arkansas for 1864 (Memphis, 1865), 14–15, 50; Knox, Camp-fire and Cotton Field, 320–21; National Freedman, I (Feb. 1, May 1, July 15, 1865), 16–17, 121, 187; New York Times, Nov. 13, 28, 1863, Aug. 2, Sept. 26, 1865; and the experience of Isaac Shoemaker in Roark, Masters Without Slaves, 118–19. On the Davis Bend project, see Col. Samuel Thomas, “Report of a Trip to Davis Bend, Waterproof and Natchez,” in Warren, Extracts from Reports of Superintendents of Freedmen; Reid, After the War, 279–87; Trowbridge, The South, 383–84; Knox, Camp-fire and Cotton Field, 353; National Freedman, I (Feb. 1, 1865), 25; New Orleans Tribune, July 9, 29, 1865; New York Times, Oct. 2, 1864, Aug. 22, 1865; Joseph E. Davis and Benjamin F. Montgomery, Article of Agreement, Oct. 31, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Semi-Weekly Louisianian, May 14, 1871; New National Era, April 20, 1871; and Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 38–42. After the war, Davis leased two plantations to Benjamin T. Montgomery, his former slave and plantation manager, who subsequently purchased the plantations and became a successful planter.

95. Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entry for June 15, 1865, Univ. of South Carolina.

96. Knox, Camp-fire and Cotton Field, 364–69; Black Republican, April 15, 1865; New York Times, Dec. 22, 1862, Jan. 16, March 5, April 17, 1863, Sept. 25, 1864; Sitterson, Sugar Country, 220–23; Gerteis, From Contraband to Freedman, 65–82; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 210–21; Messner, “Black Violence and White Response: Louisiana, 1862,” 31–37.

97. New Orleans Tribune, Aug. 13, Dec. 8, 1864, Jan. 28, Feb. 7, 18, March 14, 19, April 1, 9, July 29, 1865. See also ibid, Oct. 16, 1864, March 16, April 13, 1865. For a meeting to protest the labor system and the reaction of Federal authorities, see ibid., March 18, 19, 28, 29, 30, 1865.

98. New Orleans Tribune, Oct. 12, 1864; Gerteis, From Contraband to Freedman, 90, 113–14.

99. Messner, “Black Violence and White Response: Louisiana, 1862,” 36–37.

100. Ruffin, Diary, II, 601–03, 670–72.

101. Thomas Smith to Capt. J. H. Weber, Nov. 3, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

102. Free Man’s Press, Sept. 12, 1868; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., House Exec. Doc. 70, Freedmen’s Bureau, 263–64.

103. Lt. George Parliss to Lt. Stuart Eldridge, April 9, 1866; Capt. A. Preston to Eldridge, June 7, 1866; R. H. Willoughby to Bvt. Maj. A. M. Crawford, July 27, 1867; Capt. William A. Poillon to Brig. Gen. Wager Swayne, Nov. 1865; Capt. J. H. Weber to Col. Samuel Thomas, July 1, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Parliss, Preston, Weber), South Carolina (Willoughby), Alabama (Poillon) (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., House Exec. Doc. 70, Freedmen’s Bureau, 2–3. For advice to freedmen, see also ibid., 2–3, 34–35, 92–93, 124–25, 231–32, 263–64, 309, 395, and 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 230–31; Colored Tennessean, Oct. 14, 1865; and Dennett, The South As It Is, 250.

104. S. D. G. Niles to Maj. Gen. T. J. Wood, June 13, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Dennett, The South As It Is, 251–52. For native white praise of the Bureau, see also David Humphreys to Bvt. Maj. Gen. Swayne, Nov. 25, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Alabama (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Moore (ed.), The Juhl Letters (Sept. 4, 1865), 37–38; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Senate Exec. Doc. 27, Reports of the Assistant Commissioners of the Freedmen’s Bureau [1865–1866], 81; Dennett, The South As It Is, 291–92; New York Times, Sept. 13, 1865; Taylor, Negro in Tennessee, 14–15; and Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 78. For hostile white views, see Leigh, Ten Years on a Georgia Plantation, 33–34; Reid, After the War, 577–78; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 113, 123; Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 78.

105. 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 230; House Exec. Doc. 70, Freedmen’s Bureau, 231; Fisk, Plain Counsels for Freedmen, 12. See also O. O. Howard in National Freedman, I (Aug. 15, 1865), 234–35, and Col. J. L. Haynes to Capt. B. F. Henry, July 8, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

106. 39 Cong., 1 Sess., House Exec. Doc. 70, Freedmen’s Bureau, 219–20. See also Capt. William A. Poillon to Brig. Gen. Wager Swayne, Nov. 1865, and Lt. George Parliss to Lt. Stuart Eldridge, April 9, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Alabama and Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

107. Williamson, After Slavery, 87, 91; Richardson, Negro in the Reconstruction of Florida, 57–58, 62; Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 74–77; Horace James to the Secretaries of the American Missionary Association, Oct. 20, 1865, American Missionary Assn. Archives. For the work of the Bureau, see also Autobiography of Oliver Otis Howard (2 vols.; New York, 1907); “Of the Dawn of Freedom,” in W. E. B. Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folk (Chicago, 1903), 13–40; Bentley, A History of the Freedmen’s Bureau; McFeely, Yankee Stepfather; Abbott, The Freedmen’s Bureau in South Carolina; Howard A. White, The Freedmen’s Bureau in Louisiana (Baton Rouge, 1970).

108. Andrews, The South since the War, 23–24; Christian Recorder, Dec. 1, 1866. For critical observations of Bureau personnel and their treatment of the freedmen, see letters and affidavits from Bacchus Brinson (colored), Augusta, Ga., March 21, 1866, Berry Chalman (freedman), Augusta, Ga., May 24, 1866, William Davis and others (freedmen), March 31, 1866, Margaret J. McMurry (white), Marietta, Ga., Oct. 25, 1866, and M. V. Jordan, Miller Co., Ga., Oct. 27, 1866, in Freedmen’s Bureau (Registers of Letters Received), Georgia. See also black testimony on the Bureau in Christian Recorder, Aug. 12, 1865, May 26, June 9, 1866, and Trowbridge, The South, 465.

109. On black Bureau agents, see, e.g., the letters and reports of Martin R. Delany and B. F. Randolph, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), and of J. J. Wright, Records of the Subdivision of Beaufort, South Carolina, Freedmen’s Bureau.

110. New Orleans Tribune, Dec. 14, 23, 1865.

111. De Forest, Union Officer in the Reconstruction, 39, 41–42. See also Dennett, The South As It Is, 109–10, 221.

112. New Orleans Tribune, Oct. 31, 1867; De Forest, Union Officer in the Reconstruction, 29–30. For typical cases handled by a Bureau agent, see, e.g., Reports of J. J. Wright, Records of the Subdivision of Beaufort, South Carolina, and the Tri-Monthly Reports of James DeGrey, as submitted to William H. Webster, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Louisiana (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Dennett, The South As It Is, 125–26; and De Forest, Union Officer in the Reconstruction, 28–36.

113. Dennett, The South As It Is, 73–74. See also the testimony of Lorenzo Ivy in Armstrong and Ludlow, Hampton and Its Students, 80.

114. Christian Recorder, June 23, 1866; Affidavit of Bacchus Brinson, Augusta, Ga., March 21, 1866, Freedmen’s Bureau (Registers of Letters Received), Georgia; Amos McCollough to Gen. O. O. Howard, May 6, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, North Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

115. 39 Cong., 2 Sess., Senate Exec. Doc. 6, Reports of the Assistant Commissioners of Freedmen [Jan. 3, 1867], 113, 116; Capt. Randolph Stoops to Capt. George L. Childs, July 15, 1865, and Statement of Frederick Nicholas and Miner Poindexter of Columbia, Fluvanna Co., Virginia, June 28, 1865, Brock Collection, Henry E. Huntington Library.

116. Lt. George Parliss to Lt. Stuart Eldridge, April 9, 1866, Capt. J. H. Weber to Col. Samuel Thomas, July 1, 1865, Maj. George D. Reynolds to Lt. Stuart Eldridge, Oct. 5, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

117. New Orleans Tribune, Oct. 31, 1867; Lt. C. W. Clarke to Col. Samuel Thomas, June 29, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

118. New Orleans Tribune, Aug. 31, Oct. 22, 1865.

Chapter Eight: Back to Work: The New Dependency

1. Henry Lee Swint, The Northern Teacher in the South, 1862–1870 (Nashville, 1941), 89.

2. Christian Recorder, Sept. 30, 1865.

3. Nordhoff, Freedmen of South Carolina, 7–8.

4. Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 237; Towne, Letters and Diary, 31; New Orleans Tribune, Oct. 11, Nov. 21, 1865.

5. Lt. Edward M. Stoeber to Bvt. Maj. Taylor, July 24, 1865; “Memorandum of Extracts from Speech by Major Delany, African, at the Brick Church, St. Helena Island, South Carolina, Sunday, July 23, 1865,” submitted by Lt. Alexander Whyte, Jr., to Col. Charles H. Howard, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau. For the speech’s repercussions, see also W. E. Towne to Bvt. Maj. Gen. Saxton, Aug. 17, 1865, in the same records.

6. Loyal Georgian, Jan. 20, 1866.

7. New York Times, April 30, 1865; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Senate Exec. Doc. 53, Preliminary Report … by the American Freedmen’s Inquiry Commission, June 30, 1863, 6–7. For favorable views of black labor, see also, e.g., W. E. Towne to Bvt. Maj. Gen. Saxton, Aug. 17, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; A. C. Voris to Maj. George A. Hicks, Oct. 21, 1865, Brock Collection, Henry E. Huntington Library; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part 1, 117–18, Part II, 5, 13, 42, 43, 182, 247; Loring and Atkinson, Cotton Culture and the South, 8–9, 10; Reid, After the War, 569–70; Trowbridge, The South, 138, 162, 581; Colored Tennessean, March 24, 1866; Christian Recorder, Aug. 19, Sept. 30, 1865; New York Times, April 8, Oct. 1, Nov. 12, 1865.

8. Trowbridge, The South, 150. See also ibid., 288; Reid, After the War, 385; and New York Times, Oct. 6, 1866.

9. Reid, After the War, 385; Trowbridge, The South, 230n.-31n.; Swint (ed.), Dear Ones at Home, 233.

10. New Orleans Tribune, July 16, 1865.

11. Williamson, After Slavery, 102.

12. Scarborough, The Overseer, 153; New York Times, June 21, 1863. See also Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VIII: Ark. Narr. (Part 1), 71.

13. New York Times, March 19, 1864. For wartime articulation of demands by black laborers, see also Towne, Letters and Diary, 24; New York Times, Oct. 14, 1862, June 21, 1863; Annette Koch to Christian D. Koch, June 27, 1863, Koch Papers, Louisiana State Univ.; Sitterson, Sugar Country, 209; Scarborough, The Overseer, 155; LeConte, ’Ware Sherman, 56; Ravenel, Private Journal, 215, 216; Knox, Camp-fire and Cotton Field, 374.

14. Hepworth, Whip, Hoe, and Sword, 29–30. For a similar incident, resulting in the dismissal of the overseer, see New York Times, Oct. 17, 1863.

15. Towne, Letters and Diary, 24; Pearson (ed.), Letters from Port Royal, 250, 300–01, 303–04.

16. Patrick, Fall of Richmond, 118–19; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XI: Mo. Narr., 115; VII: Okla. Narr., 184–85.

17. Jones, Heroines of Dixie, 119–20; Jervey and Ravenel, Two Diaries, 13.

18. Ravenel, Private Journal, 212, 214–18; Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1284.

19. Trowbridge, The South, 428.

20. 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 109; Jonathan Worth to Col. Whittlesey, Nov. 23, 1865, in J. G. De Roulhac Hamilton (ed.), The Correspondence of Jonathan Worth (2 vols.; Raleigh, 1909), I, 451; Letters from Joseph Simpson (May 16, 1865), 12. See also Margaret L. Montgomery, “Alabama Freedmen: Some Reconstruction Documents,” Phylon, XIII (1952), 245; Trowbridge, The South, 495; National Freedman, I (Aug. 15, 1865), 226.

21. Dr. Ethelred Philips to Dr. James J. Philips, Aug. 2, 1865, James J. Philips Collection, Univ. of North Carolina; Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1241, 1371, 1405, 1412.

22. For examples of these concerns, see 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 54, 56; Loyal Georgian, Jan. 27, 1866; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 231–33; Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 79, 82; Dennett, The South As It Is, 254–55.

23. New Orleans Tribune, Nov. 30, 1864, Jan. 28, 29, Feb. 2, March 1, 8, July 16, 1865. See also Richard H. Cain in Christian Recorder, June 17, 1865.

24. Christian Recorder, March 25, 1865; Evans, Ballots and Fence Rails, 68–69.

25. Patrick, Fall of Richmond, 125.

26. McPherson, Negro’s Civil War, 294; Maj. George D. Reynolds to Lt. Stuart Eldridge, Oct. 5, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau. For additional evidence of freedmen’s land expectations, see Capt. William A. Poillon to Brig. Gen. Wager Swayne, Nov. 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Alabama (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Bvt. Brig. Gen. Alvin C. Voris to Maj. George A. Hicks, Oct. 7, 1865, Brock Collection, Henry E. Huntington Library; 39 Cong., 2 Sess., Senate Exec. Doc. 6, Reports of the Assistant Commissioners of Freedmen [Jan. 3, 1867], 4; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., House Exec. Doc. 70, Freedmen’s Bureau, 394; J. S. Fullerton, Report of the Administration of Freedmen’s Affairs in Louisiana (Washington, D.C., 1865), 2; Dennett, The South As It Is, 188–89.

27. Andrews, The South since the War, 97–98; Thomas Smith to Capt. J. H. Weber, Nov. 3, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Letters from Joseph Simpson (May 29, 1865), 13; Manuel Gottlieb, “The Land Question in Georgia During Reconstruction,” Science and Society, III (1939), 360.

28. D. E. H. Smith (ed.), Mason Smith Family Letters, 234; Elias Horry Deas to Anne Deas, Aug. 12, 1865, Deas Papers, Univ. of South Carolina; Josiah Gorgas, Ms. Journal, entry for Aug. 30, 1865, Univ. of North Carolina; Samuel A. Agnew, Ms. Diary, entry for Nov. 3, 1865, Univ. of North Carolina; Petition of 18 Planters, Pineville, Charleston District, Sept. 1, 1865, Trenholm Papers, Univ. of North Carolina; Donald MacRae to Julia MacRae, Sept. 4, 1865, MacRae Papers, Duke Univ.; Ravenel, Private Journal, 258; Oliphant et al. (eds.), Letters of William Gilmore Simms, IV, 528, 560; Leigh, Ten Years on a Georgia Plantation, 27–28; Gottlieb, “The Land Question in Georgia During Reconstruction,” 359; Savannah Writers’ Project, Savannah River Plantations (Savannah, 1947), 324; Heyward, Seed from Madagascar, 150–51; Easterby (ed.), South Carolina Rice Plantation, 207; Andrews, The South since the War, 232–33.

29. The text of the meeting with the black ministers may be found in National Freedman, I (April 1, 1865), 98–101, and in New York Tribune, Feb. 13, 1865. On Sherman’s Order No. 15 and the land policy of the Freedmen’s Bureau, see Williamson, After Slavery, 59–63; McFeely, Yankee Stepfather, 104–05; and the testimony of Gen. Rufus Saxton in 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 221.

30. Trowbridge, The South, 151; Edward Barnwell Heyward to Catherine Maria Clinch Heyward, May 5, 1867, Heyward Family Papers, Univ. of South Carolina; Reid, After the War, 564, 59. For similar sentiments, see Dennett, The South As It Is, 341–42, and 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part III, 77.

31. 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 191, Part III, 31; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV and V: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 179, (Part 3), 78; XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 219; Perdue et al. (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat, 291.

32. Bradford, Harriet Tubman, 102; Eppes, Negro of the Old South, 133.

33. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VI: Ala. Narr., 314–15; Maj. George D. Reynolds to Lt. Stuart Eldridge, Oct. 5, 1865, and Capt. William A. Poillon to Brig. Gen. Wager Swayne, Nov. 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi and Alabama (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., House Exec. Doc. 70, Freedmen’s Bureau, 4–5; WPA, Negro in Virginia, 218. For instructions to Bureau agents regarding the land expectations of blacks, see also Freedmen’s Bureau, 34, 95, 135, 147, 162–63, 309, 367–68.

34. Black Republican, April 15, 1865; Christian Recorder, Aug. 26, 1865. See also Colored Tennessean, Oct. 14, 1865.

35. W. E. Towne to Bvt. Maj. Gen. Saxton, Aug. 17, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Armstrong, Old Massa’s People, 334–35; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, III: S.C. Narr. (Part 3), 45; Williamson, After Slavery, 166; Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 200–01, 214–15; Richardson, Negro in the Reconstruction of Florida, 73, 75–76, 79–81.

36. New York Times, May 12, 1867; WPA, Negro in Virginia, 219–20; Fleming, Civil War and Reconstruction in Alabama, 447–48; Richardson, Negro in the Reconstruction of Florida, 74–75.

37. 39 Cong., 2 Sess., Senate Exec. Doc. 6, Reports of the Assistant Commissioners of Freedmen [Jan. 3, 1867], 120; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VII: Miss. Narr., 97–98, 147; Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 60; Richardson, Negro in the Reconstruction of Florida, 76; Dennett, The South As It Is, 73.

38. E. Merton Coulter, The South During Reconstruction, 1865–1877 (Baton Rouge, 1947), 109; Gottlieb, “The Land Question in Georgia During Reconstruction,” 364; New Orleans Tribune, April 19, May 6, 1865; McFeely, Yankee Stepfather, 95, 203; “Petition from Colored Citizens of Roanoke Island,” enclosed in Bvt. Maj. Daniel Hart to Commanding Officer, Post of Goldsboro, N.C., Dec. 28, 1867, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, North Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

39. Dennett, The South As It Is, 248–51; Gottlieb, “The Land Question in Georgia During Reconstruction,” 364.

40. Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 195–99; Armstrong and Ludlow, Hampton and Its Students, 181; Autobiography of Oliver Otis Howard, II, 238–39; Andrews, The South since the War, 212; Ames, From a New England Woman’s Diary in Dixie, 95–103.

41. Ames, From a New England Woman’s Diary in Dixie, 98, 99–103; McFeely, Yankee Stepfather, 156–57.

42. New York Times, Oct. 10, 12, 13, 19, 1867; New Era, July 7, 1870; WPA, Negro in Virginia, 218. For a similar confrontation in Hampton, Virginia, see National Freedman, I (Sept. 15, 1865), 267–68, and New York Tribune, Aug. 25, 1865.

43. Avary, Dixie after the War, 345; Lt. Erastus W. Everson to Bvt. Maj. Henry W. Smith, Jan. 30, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Ravenel, Private Journal, 271–72; New York Times, Feb. 5, 1866; Trowbridge, The South, 539–40. See also Williamson, After Slavery, 82–85.

44. Dennett, The South As It Is, 291; William Heyward to James Gregorie, June 4, 1868, Gregorie-Elliott Collection, Univ. of North Carolina; Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1308–09; Trowbridge, The South, 393. For agreements among planters not to sell or rent lands to blacks, see Douglas G. Manning to Mrs. John L. Manning, Dec. 25, 1865, Williams-Chesnut-Manning Papers, Univ. of South Carolina; South Carolina Leader, Dec. 16, 1865; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., House Exec. Doc. 70, Freedmen’s Bureau, 371; Andrews, The South since the War, 206; New York Times, Jan. 27, 29, 1866; Taylor, Negro in the Reconstruction of Virginia, 106–07. See also Dennett, The South As It Is, 344–45, and Reid, After the War, 564–65.

45. Allen S. Izard to Mrs. William Mason Smith, Sept. 15, 1865, in D. E. H. Smith (ed.), Mason Smith Family Letters, 231.

46. 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Senate Exec. Doc. 27, Reports of the Assistant Commissioners of the Freedmen’s Bureau [1865–1866], 36–37.

47. Heyward, Seed from Madagascar, 140. See also the contracts cited in note 49.

48. Williamson, After Slavery, 97; H. A. Moore, Jr., to Maj. Gen Scott, April 19, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

49. Contracts between Joseph Glover and freedmen, Aug. 13, 1865, to Jan. 1, 1866, and Jan. 1, 1866, to Jan. 1, 1867, Glover-North Papers, Univ. of South Carolina; Contracts between Elias Horry Deas and freedmen, Sept. 7, 1865, and March 3, 1866, Deas Papers, Univ. of South Carolina; Felix Shank to Capt. M. Whalen (Freedmen’s Bureau agent), July 14, 1868, including contract with freedman, Feb. 5, 1868, and Contracts between A. J. and J. W. Shank and Enos (freedman) and Augustus (freedman), Jan. 5, 1867, Joseph Belknap Smith Papers, Duke Univ.; “Form of Contracts between planters and freedmen, as substantially adopted by the Darlington meeting, revised and adopted by the mass meeting of Sumter, Kershaw and Clarendon planters, Dec. 21, 1865, and approved by Maj. Gen. Saxton, of the Freedmen’s Bureau,” in 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 241–42; “A Freedmen’s Contract, 1865,” in Easterby (ed.), South Carolina Rice Plantation, 354–55; “Terms of Agreement between Charles and E. B. Heyward, Esqrs., and certain labourers,” June 5, 1865, in Heyward, Seed from Madagascar, 139–40; Dennett, The South As It Is, 281–83; Lt. C. W. Clarke to Col. Samuel Thomas, June 29, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Rogers, Thomas County, 1865–1900, 30–31; Bryan, Confederate Georgia, 136; Loring and Atkinson, Cotton Culture and the South, 28.

50. H. A. Moore, Jr., to Maj. Gen Scott, April 19, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Rollin, Martin R. Delany, 261–62.

51. Trowbridge, The South, 386. On hours of labor, see contracts cited in note 49.

52. Trowbridge, The South, 367–68; Lt. George Parliss to Lt. Stuart Eldridge, April 9, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

53. Leigh, Ten Years on a Georgia Plantation, 33, 56; Trowbridge, The South, 430; Dennett, The South As It Is, 291; Pierce, The Negroes at Port Royal, 9; Heyward, Seed from Madagascar, 157; “Visit to ‘Gowrie’ and ‘East Hermitage’ Plantations,” March 1867, Manigault Plantation Records, Univ. of North Carolina. For contract provisions regarding the driver or black foreman, see also Elias H. Deas contract with freedmen, March 3, 1866, Deas Papers, Univ. of South Carolina, and 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 241–42.

54. Trowbridge, The South, 391; Reid, After the War, 490. The estimates of compensation rates are based on the archival records and published reports of the Freedmen’s Bureau, the accounts of postwar travelers in the South (especially Sidney Andrews, John R. Dennett, J. T. Trowbridge, and Whitelaw Reid), and the black press.

55. Dennett, The South As It Is, 321–22; Reid, After the War, 526; Report of the General Superintendent of Freedmen, Department of the Tennessee and State of Arkansas for 1864, 31. On compensation by shares, see, e.g., the Glover and Deas contracts with freedmen cited in note 49; John H. Bills, Ms. Diary, entry for Dec. 31, 1866, Univ. of North Carolina; Dr. Ethelred Philips to Dr. James J. Philips, Jan. 21, 1866, James J. Philips Collection, Univ. of North Carolina; Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1363; Easterby (ed.), South Carolina Rice Plantation, 210, 216; D. E. H. Smith (ed.), Mason Smith Family Letters, 264; Heyward, Seed from Madagascar, 139; and the archival records and published reports of the Freedmen’s Bureau. Although domestic servants were often paid on a daily or weekly basis, some contracts compensated them with a share of the proceeds from sale of the crop. See, e.g., Williamson, After Slavery, 159, and Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 126–27.

56. Trowbridge, The South, 392; Reid, After the War, 343; Dennett, The South As It Is, 82; Leigh, Ten Years on a Georgia Plantation, 26; New York Times, Oct. 2, 1866; Moore (ed.), The Juhl Letters (Aug. 11, 1866), 113. For the experience of a planter in South Carolina who tried both systems, see William M. Hazzard to Gen. R. K. Scott, March 11, 1868, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

57. J. W. Alvord, Report on Schools and Finances of Freedmen, for January, 1866, 24; New National Era, April 13, 1871; De Forest, Union Officer in the Reconstruction, 28; Trowbridge, The South, 424; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Senate Exec. Doc. 27, Reports of the Assistant Commissioners of the Freedmen’s Bureau [1865–1866], 36–37. For the pervasiveness of these fears and the grounds on which they were based, see ibid., 21, 25; John P. Bardwell to Rev. M. E. Strieby, Nov. 20, 1865, American Missionary Assn. Archives; New York Times, Aug. 20, Oct. 14, 1865; Dennett, The South As It Is, 73; Leigh, Ten Years on a Georgia Plantation, 84.

58. Trowbridge, The South, 565.

59. Richardson, Negro in the Reconstruction of Florida, 63; New Orleans Tribune, Dec. 8, 1864.

60. Reid, After the War, 291n.

61. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XIII: Ga. Narr. (Part 4), 170–71.

62. Bvt. Brig. Gen. Alvin C. Voris to Maj. George A. Hicks, Oct. 7, 1865, Brock Collection, Henry E. Huntington Library; Thomas Smith to Capt. J. H. Weber, Nov. 3, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., House Exec. Doc. 70, Freedmen’s Bureau, 252; Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 238. See also ibid., 247; H. A. Johnson to “Dear Friend Samuel,” July 14, 1865, Univ. of North Carolina; and Williamson, After Slavery, 38.

63. Williamson, After Slavery, 66; H. W. Ravenel to Augustin L. Taveau, June 27, 1865, Taveau Papers, Duke Univ. On the Freedmen’s Bureau and rations, see also Botume, First Years Amongst the Contrabands, 260; Rev. Horace James, Annual Report of the Superintendent of Negro Affairs in North Carolina [1864–1865], Appendix, 57; “Report of the Commissioner of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen and Abandoned Lands, November 1, 1866,” in Report of the Secretary of War (Washington, D.C., 1867), Appendix, 712; Avary, Dixie after the War, 211–12.

64. New York Times, June 27, 1865; Douglas G. Manning to Mrs. John L. Manning, Dec. 25, 1865, Williams-Chesnut-Manning Papers, Univ. of South Carolina. See also South Carolina Leader, Dec. 16, 1865; New Orleans Tribune, July 4, 1865; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., House Exec. Doc. 70, Freedmen’s Bureau, 371; Trowbridge, The South, 229; Andrews, The South since the War, 206; Taylor, Negro in the Reconstruction of Virginia, 106.

65. Trowbridge, The South, 427.

66. Lorenzo James to Brig. Gen. Wager Swayne, Nov. 20, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Alabama (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Ravenel, Private Journal, 222; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 55, 228; Williamson, After Slavery, 97.

67. William E. Bayley to Commanding Officer, Vicksburg, July 3, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Heyward, Seed from Madagascar, 142; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part III, 167; New York Times, Aug. 22, 1865; Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1323; B. F. Blow vs. Jerry Marvast and Abram Marvast (freedmen), Lowndes County, before J. A. Pruitt, Justice of the Peace (acting as agent of the Freedmen’s Bureau), Sept. 12, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Alabama (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Stearns, Black Man of the South, and The Rebels, 170–71.

68. 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 229; Rogers, History of Georgetown County, 433.

69. Felix Shank to Capt. M. Whalen, July 14, 1868, including contract with freedman, Feb. 5, 1868, Joseph Belknap Smith Papers, Duke Univ.; Andrews, The South since the War, 206; New York Times, Aug. 20, 1865. On Saturday and Sunday work, see also S. D. G. Niles to Maj. Gen. T. J. Wood, June 13, 1866, James DeGrey to William H. Webster, Sept. 10, 1867, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi and Louisiana (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Loring and Atkinson, Cotton Culture and the South, 12; Stearns, Black Man of the South, and The Rebels, 46; Dennett, The South As It Is, 222.

70. William H. Stiles to his wife [Elizabeth A. Mackay], Sept. 22, 1865, Mackay-Stiles Collection, Univ. of North Carolina; Reid, After the War, 530.

71. Andrews, The South since the War, 203; R. H. Willoughby to Bvt. Maj. A. M. Crawford, July 27, 1867, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Reid, After the War, 572–73.

72. Andrews, The South since the War, 204; Lt. George Parliss to Lt. Stuart Eldridge, April 9, 1866, Maj. M. R. Delany to Bvt. Lt. Col. H. W. Smith, Aug. 1, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi and South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; 39 Cong., 2 Sess., Senate Exec. Doc. 6, Reports of the Assistant Commissioners of Freedmen [Jan. 3, 1867], 51–52; New York Times, Sept. 12, 1866; De Forest, Union Officer in the Reconstruction, 29.

73. McFeely, Yankee Stepfather, 157; Col. J. L. Haynes to Capt. B. F. Henry, July 8, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Richardson, Negro in the Reconstruction of Florida, 64; Bvt. Maj. Thomas H. Norton to Maj. A. W. Preston, Aug. 3, 1867, B. F. Blow vs. Jerry Marvast and Abram Marvast (freedmen), Lowndes County, before J. A. Pruitt, Justice of the Peace (acting as agent of the Freedmen’s Bureau), Sept. 12, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi and Alabama (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

74. McFeely, Yankee Stepfather, 121; S. D. G. Niles to Maj. Gen. T. J. Wood, June 16, 1866, Lorenzo James to Brig. Gen. Wager Swayne, Aug. 16, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi and Alabama (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

75. Dennett, The South As It Is, 56.

76. Armstrong and Ludlow, Hampton and Its Students, 79–80.

77. 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 191; Trowbridge, The South, 363–64. For additional examples of freedmen defrauded of their pay or shares, see Rawick (ed.), American Slave, III: S.C. Narr. (Part 3), 15; V: Texas Narr. (Part 4), 117; XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 49, 420; Bvt. Brig. Gen. Alvin C. Voris to Maj. George A. Hicks, Oct. 2, 1865, Brock Collection, Henry E. Huntington Library; Maj. M. R. Delany to Bvt. Lt. Col. H. W. Smith, Aug. 1, 1866, H. S. Van Eaton to Bvt. Maj. Gen. A. C. Gillem, Nov. 24, 1867, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina and Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Andrews, The South since the War, 322–23, 368; Trowbridge, The South, 362–64; Loyal Georgian, Jan. 27, 1866; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 52, 222, 225, 259.

78. Christian Recorder, March 31, 1866. See also Dennett, The South As It Is, 331–32, 338–39.

79. Wiley, “Vicissitudes of Early Reconstruction Farming in the Lower Mississippi Valley,” 448; Wilmer Shields to William Newton Mercer, Dec. 19, 1865, Mercer Papers, Louisiana State Univ.; Rogers, History of Georgetown County, 432.

80. Eppes, Negro of the Old South, 128–29; Reid, After the War, 527; Andrews, The South since the War, 322; Leigh, Ten Years on a Georgia Plantation, 76.

81. Reid, After the War, 527–28.

82. Trowbridge, The South, 366; Richardson, Negro in the Reconstruction of Florida, 60; 40 Cong., 2 Sess., House Exec. Doc. 1, Report of the Commissioner of the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, November 1, 1867, 681; Colored Tennessean, Oct. 4, 1865.

83. Leigh, Ten Years on a Georgia Plantation, 76–77; Bvt. Maj. Thomas H. Norton to Maj. A. W. Preston, Aug. 3, 1867, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau. See also Dennett, The South As It Is, 332, 338.

84. De Forest, Union Officer in the Reconstruction, 73–75. See also Capt. A. Preston to Lt. Stuart Eldridge, June 7, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

85. Trowbridge, The South, 363; Macrae, Americans at Home, 323–24; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VII: Okla. Narr., 283; Maj. and Bvt. Lt. Col. J. E. Cornelius to Bvt. Maj. Edward L. Deane, Dec. 22, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau. See also Ames, From a New England Woman’s Diary in Dixie, 120, and WPA, Negro in Virginia, 221.

86. Donald MacRae to Julia MacRae, Sept. 4, 1865, MacRae Papers, Duke Univ.; Dr. Ethelred Philips to Dr. James J. Philips, Aug. 2, 1865, James J. Philips Collection, Univ. of North Carolina. For fears and expectations of an “emancipation insurrection,” see also Edward Lynch to Joseph Glover [c. June 1865], John W. Burbidge to Joseph Glover, July 28, 1865, Glover-North Papers, Univ. of South Carolina; A. R. Salley to “My Dear Aunt,” Nov. 13, 1865, Bruce-Jones-Murchison Papers, Univ. of South Carolina; Samuel A. Agnew, Ms. Diary, entries for Nov. 3, 21, 22, 1865, Univ. of North Carolina; Jabez Curry to Gov. Lewis Parsons, Sept. 29, 1865, John Swanson to Gov. Parsons, Oct. 3, 1865, Thomas Smith to Capt. J. H. Weber, Nov. 3, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Alabama (Curry and Swanson) and Mississippi (Smith) (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; South Carolina Leader, Dec. 23, 1865; New Orleans Tribune, Oct. 21, 1865; New York Times, Nov. 12, 1865; Dennett, The South As It Is, 190, 275; Andrews, The South since the War, 27; Reid, After the War, 386–87; Williamson, After Slavery, 249–52; Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 59, 218–19.

87. Sebastian Kraft to President Andrew Johnson, Aug. [April?] 28, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Reid, After the War, 386; Dennett, The South As It Is, 190.

88. Williamson, After Slavery, 249–50, 250–51; Reid, After the War, 387n.-89n.

89. 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part III, 30; John P. Bardwell to Rev. M. E. Strieby, Nov. 4, 1865, American Missionary Assn. Archives; Moore (ed.), The Juhl Letters (Oct. 28, 1865), 51; South Carolina Leader, Dec. 9, 1865; Dennett, The South As It Is, 240–41; Col. James C. Beecher to Maj. Kinsman, Oct. 7, 1865, W. E. Towne to Bvt. Maj. Gen. Saxton, Aug. 17, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

90. Andrews, War-Time Journal of a Georgia Girl, 315–16; Leigh, Ten Years on a Georgia Plantation, 35–37; D. E. H. Smith (ed.), Mason Smith Family Letters, 232–33, 237; Ella Gertrude (Clanton) Thomas, Ms. Journal, entry for July 23, 1865, Duke Univ.; Williamson, After Slavery, 250–51, and the sources cited in note 86.

91. Samuel A. Agnew, Ms. Diary, entries for Nov. 3, 24, 1865, Univ. of North Carolina; W. E. Towne to Bvt. Maj. Gen. Saxton, Aug. 17, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau. See also Wilmer Shields to William N. Mercer, Dec. 19, 1865, Mercer Papers, Louisiana State Univ.; Dennett, The South As It Is, 240; Andrews, The South since the War, 27; New Orleans Tribune, Oct. 21, 1865; D. E. H. Smith (ed.), Mason Smith Family Letters, 232; Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 532; Thomas Smith to Capt. J. H. Weber, Nov. 3, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

92. 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part III, 142; South Carolina Leader, Dec. 16, 1865; Dennett, The South As It Is, 193; New York Times, Sept. 7, Dec. 1, 1865; Williamson, After Slavery, 251–52; Wharton, Negro in Reconstruction, 59, 218; Evans, Ballots and Fence Rails, 130.

93. New Orleans Tribune, Oct. 21, Dec. 27, 1865, Dec. 19, 1867; South Carolina Leader, Dec. 23, 1865; Christian Recorder, Dec. 30, 1865, Feb. 24, 1866; New York Times, Dec. 31, 1865.

94. New Orleans Tribune, Oct. 21, 1865; Andrews, The South since the War, 207.

95. Bürge, Diary, 114; Dennett, The South As It Is, 275; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 192, Part III, 30, 31; New York Times, Dec. 27, 28, 29, 1865; Moore (ed.), The Juhl Letters (Dec. 25, 1865), 57; Evans, Ballots and Fence Rails, 131; Samuel A. Agnew, Ms. Diary, entry for Nov. 26, 1865, Univ. of North Carolina.

96. Easterby (ed.), South Carolina Rice Plantation, 224–25; Leigh, Ten Years on a Georgia Plantation, 131–32. See also New Orleans Tribune, Dec. 19, 1867.

97. Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 204–06. See also Christian Recorder, Feb. 24, 1866. The Emancipation Day celebration in Richmond is described in Haviland, A Woman’s Life-Work, 401–02.

98. Samuel A. Agnew, Ms. Diary, entries for Dec. 5, 25, 1865, Univ. of North Carolina; Wilmer Shields to William N. Mercer, Dec. 19, 1865, Mercer Papers, Louisiana State Univ.; Easterby (ed.), South Carolina Rice Plantation, 215–16; Capt. D. Corbin to H. W. Smith, Feb. 1, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau. See also Dennett, The South As It Is, 188.

99. E. W. Everson to Bvt. Maj. Edward Deane, Jan. 17, 1867, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Moore (ed.), The Juhl Letters (Jan. 29, 1866), 73–74; Montgomery, “Alabama Freedmen: Some Reconstruction Documents,” 250; New York Times, Jan. 8, 1866; Kolchin, First Freedom, 9–10; Williamson, After Slavery, 39, 105–06.

100. Ravenel, Private Journal, 272; Eppes, Negro of the Old South, 128, 130–31.

101. New York Times, Feb. 28, 1868; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part III, 167; Reid, After the War, 446–47. See also 39 Cong., 1 Sess., House Exec. Doc. 70, Freedmen’s Bureau, 273; Sarah M. Payne to Mary Clenden-in, Dec. 14, 1867, Historical Society of Pennsylvania; and Reid, After the War, 455.

102. Leigh, Ten Years on a Georgia Plantation, 87–91.

103. Bragg, Louisiana in the Confederacy, 213–14; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 236–37; Allen S. Izard to Mrs. William Mason Smith, Sept. 26, 1865, in D. E. H. Smith (ed.), Mason Smith Family Letters, 236.

104. South Carolina Leader, Dec. 9, 1865; Dennett, The South As It Is, 203. For black views on the respective merits of the share and wage systems, see also Maj. M. R. Delany to Bvt. Lt. Col. H. W. Smith, Aug. 1, 1866, and B. F. Randolph to Bvt. Maj. Gen. R. K. Scott, Aug. 6, 1867, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

105. Leigh, Ten Years on a Georgia Plantation, 90–91; Reid, After the War, 507; Williamson, After Slavery, 93–94; Contract between Elias H. Deas and freedmen, March 3, 1866, Deas Papers, Univ. of South Carolina; Contract between Felix Shank and freedman, Feb. 5, 1868, and between A. J. and J. W. Shank and Enos, Jan. 5, 1867, Joseph Belknap Smith Papers, Duke Univ.; Reid, After the War, 464; Lt. George Parliss to Lt. Stuart Eldridge, April 9, 1866, James DeGrey to Lt. J. M. Lee, Nov. 10, 1867, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi and Louisiana (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau. The demand for a five-day workweek (which no working class, white or black, enjoyed in 1865) may also be found in John H. Bills, Ms. Diary, entry for Sept. 9, 1865, Univ. of North Carolina; Wilmer Shields to William N. Mercer, Dec. 12, 1866, Mercer Papars, Louisiana State Univ.; S. D. G. Niles to Maj. Gen. T. J. Wood, June 13, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Loring and Atkinson, Cotton Culture and the South, 12; Williamson, After Slavery, 91–92.

106. Emma E. Holmes, Ms. Diary, entry for Jan. 15, 1866, Univ. of South Carolina; Rogers, History of Georgetown County, 431–32; Williamson, After Slavery, 104–05.

107. Wilmer Shields to William N. Mercer, Sept. 21, Nov. 18, 21, Dec. 1, 12, 26, 1866, Jan. 1, 6, 9, 16, Feb. 6, 13, May 22, 1867, Mercer Papers, Louisiana State Univ.

108. John H. Bills, Ms. Diary, entry for July 29, 1865, Univ. of North Carolina; Easterby (ed.), South Carolina Rice Plantation, 223; Williamson, After Slavery, 100; Samuel A. Agnew, Ms. Diary, entries for Jan. 1, 3, 1867, Univ. of North Carolina; Reid, After the War, 446–47.

109. Joe M. Richardson (ed.), “A Northerner Reports on Florida: 1866,” Florida Historical Quarterly, XL (1962), 383; Esther W. Douglass to Rev. Samuel Hunt, Feb. 1, 1866, American Missionary Assn. Archives.

110. Lt. George Parliss to Lt. Stuart Eldridge, April 9, 1866, Bvt. Lt. Col. B. F. Smith to Bvt. Maj. H. W. Smith, Jan. 21, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi and South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau. See also New York Times, Nov. 30, 1866, and Stearns, Black Man of the South, and The Rebels, 47–48.

111. Bvt. Maj. Thomas H. Norton to Maj. A. W. Preston, Aug. 3, 1867, Lt. George Parliss to Lt. Stuart Eldridge, April 9, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau. See also, in the South Carolina records, Bvt. Maj. Erastus Everson to Bvt. Lt. Col. H. W. Smith, June 15, 1866, and M. J. Kirk to Maj. M. R. Delany, May 24, 1866.

112. Edmund Rhett to Maj. Gen. Scott, Aug. 12, 1866, James DeGrey to William H. Webster, Sept. 10, 1867, Bvt. Lt. Col. B. F. Smith to Bvt. Maj. H. W. Smith, Feb. 21, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Rhett and Smith) and Louisiana (DeGrey) (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; New York Times, Sept. 5, 1867; Stearns, Black Man of the South, and The Rebels, 47–48.

113. Moore (ed.), The Juhl Letters (Nov. 17, 1866), 134–37; New York Times, June 22, Aug. 16, 1866. See also New Orleans Tribune, Sept. 27, 1865; New York Times, Aug. 17, Dec. 5, 1866; and, for a joint white-black protest in Raleigh on rents, Fisk P. Brewer to George Whipple, May 27, 1867, American Missionary Assn. Archives.

114. Lt. James M. Johnston to Bvt. Maj. A. M. Crawford, Dec. 17, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau. See also New York Times, Dec. 30, 1866; J. R. Grady (sheriff, Lillington, Harnett Co.) to Post Commander, Aug. 27, 1867, E. W. Everson to Bvt. Maj. Edward Deane, Jan. 17, 18, 1867, Everson to Lt. Crawford, June 19, 1867, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, North Carolina and South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

115. [name deleted] to Gov. Jonathan Worth, Nov. 29, 1866, in Gov. Worth to Col. Bomford, Dec. 3, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, North Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

116. J.J. Pringle Smith to Mrs. Robert Smith, Jan. 13, 1867, in D. E. H. Smith (ed.), Mason Smith Family Letters, 273; Rogers, History of Georgetown County, 433; James DeGrey to Lt. J. M. Lee, Nov. 15, 1867, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Louisiana (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

117. Reid, After the War, 546–50.

118. Lt. Erastus Everson to Bvt. Maj. Henry W. Smith, Jan. 30, 1866, R. H. Willoughby to Bvt. Maj. A. M. Crawford, July 27, 1867, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), and J. J. Wright to Bvt. Gen. Gile, June 3, 1867, Records of the Subdivision of Beaufort, S.C., Freedmen’s Bureau.

119. McFeely, Yankee Stepfather, 202–03; Lt. and Bvt. Brig. Gen. H. Neide to Bvt. Maj. Edward L. Deane, Feb. 9, 1867, Bvt. Maj. Gen. R. K. Scott to Maj. Gen. O. O. Howard, Feb. 14, 1867, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

120. Workingman’s Advocate, April 28, June 2, 1866; New York Times, April 18, May 24, Dec. 6, 1866, Feb. 10, May 15, June 15, 1867; Taylor, Negro in the Reconstruction of Virginia, 120.

121. New Orleans Tribune, May 17, 1867; Trowbridge, The South, 405.

122. Christian Recorder, Dec. 2, 1865; New Orleans Tribune, Dec. 20, 22, 23, 24, 25, 1865.

123. Williamson, After Slavery, 92–93. For the action of a Bureau officer in the South Carolina low country when faced with a “combination” among the blacks on several plantations, see Capt. D. Corbin to H. W. Smith, Feb. 1, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

124. South Carolina Leader, Dec. 16, 1865; Reid, After the War, 464. See also Dennett, The South As It Is, 247.

125. Dennett, The South As It Is, 15, 114–15, 276–77; Colored American, Jan. 6, 1866; Moore (ed.), The Juhl Letters (July 4, 1866), 103; Bvt. Lt. Col. B. F. Smith to Bvt. Maj. H. W. Smith, Jan. 21, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

126. Everard Green Baker, Ms. Diary, entries for Dec. 26, 1862, May 31, 1865, Jan. 13, July 17, 1866, May 29, 1867, Univ. of North Carolina; Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll, 90.

127. Easterby (ed.), South Carolina Rice Plantation, 18–19; Dr. Ethelred Philips to Dr. James J. Philips, Aug. 2, Oct. 24, 1865, Nov. 8, 1866, June 17, Dec. 1, 1867, James J. Philips Collection, Univ. of North Carolina.

128. Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1340–41, 1366, 1369, 1374, 1376, 1403, 1429.

129. Moore, (ed.), The Juhl Letters (Oct. 7, 1866), 125; Trowbridge, The South, 545.

130. Lt. Erastus Eversori to Bvt. Maj. Henry W. Smith, Jan. 30, 1866, Bvt. Lt. Col. B. F. Smith to Bvt. Maj. Henry W. Smith, Jan. 21, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; Autobiography of Oliver Otis Howard, II, 239; Andrews, The South since the War, 212.

131. Loring and Atkinson, Cotton Culture and the South, 4; Reid, After the War, 463; Leigh, Ten Years on a Georgia Plantation, 57–58, 78–79. For other examples of the yearning for landownership and the movement toward tenantry, see Loring and Atkinson, Cotton Culture and the South, 5, 14, 121, 145; Ravenel, Private Journal, 272; Reid, After the War, 533; Trowbridge, The South, 362; Macrae, Americans at Home, 210; Christian Recorder, Dec. 30, 1865; National Freedman, I (Nov. 15, 1865), 337.

132. For examples of “tenantry” contracts, see Dennett, The South As It Is, 282–83. See also ibid, 108–09.

133. Loring and Atkinson, Cotton Culture and the South, 13.

134. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, VIII: Ark. Narr. (Part 2), 63–64.

135. Andrews, The South since the War, 370 (also reprinted in New York Times, Jan. 7, 1866). For a similar assessment, see Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 197.

136. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 134.

137. Ibid., XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 361–62.

Chapter Nine: The Gospel and the Primer

1. Christian Recorder, May 26, 1866.

2. Reid, After the War, 510.

3. Christian Recorder, Jan. 31, 1863, Feb. 25, Aug. 5, Dec. 30, 1865, Jan. 20, 1866.

4. B. F. Randolph to Bvt. Maj. Gen. Rufus Saxton, Aug. 31, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

5. Christian Recorder, April 15, 1865 (editorial); Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 217; James M. McPherson, “The New Puritanism: Values and Goals of Freedmen’s Education in America,” in Lawrence Stone (ed.), The University in Society (2 vols.; Princeton, 1974), II, 615; Daniel A. Payne, Recollections of Seventy Years (Nashville, 1888; repr. New York, 1969), 163n.

6. Swint (ed.), Dear Ones at Home, 24; American Freedman, III (April 1868), 400. On the problems missionaries encountered with black speech, see also Swint (ed.), Dear Ones at Home, 62; Pearson (ed.), Letters from Port Royal, 34–35, 90; Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 277.

7. Christian Recorder, Sept. 29, 1866.

8. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, V: Texas Narr. (Part 4), 184.

9. Thomas W. Cardozo to Samuel Hunt, June 23, 1865, Thomas D. S. Tucker to “Dear Friends of the Association,” Nov. 27, 1862, Tucker to George Whipple, Dec. 24, 1862, American Missionary Assn. Archives.

10. Ralph Ellison, Invisible Man (New York, 1952), 3.

11. Christian Recorder, Sept. 7, 1861, June 27, 1863.

12. Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll, 234; Christian Recorder, July 25, 1863.

13. Christian Recorder, May 27, 1865.

14. J. W. C. Pennington to “My Esteemed Friend,” May 25, 1870, American Missionary Assn. Archives; Christian Recorder, June 29, 1867. See also Amos Gerry Beman to Rev. George Whipple, Feb. 25, 1867, in “Documents,” Journal of Negro History, XXII (1937), 222–26.

15. Christian Recorder, June 16, 1866 (H. M. Turner and A. Waddell letters).

16. Marcia Colton to Rev. George Whipple, May 19, June 14, July 9, Oct. 7, Nov. 1, 1864, American Missionary Assn. Archives.

17. Christian Recorder, July 1, March 18, 1865; Thomas W. Cardozo to Samuel Hunt, June 23, 1865, American Missionary Assn. Archives; Elizabeth Kilham, “Sketches in Color: IV,” in Jackson (ed.), The Negro and His Folklore, 133. For the reactions of white missionaries to black religious worship in the South, see the sources cited in notes 19 and 20.

18. Christian Recorder, July 14, 1866 (editorial); Timothy Lyman to Rev. M. E. Strieby, Feb, 27, 1865, American Missionary Assn. Archives.

19. Rev. Joel Grant to Prof. Henry Cowles, April 10, 1863, H. S. Beals to Rev. S. S. Jocelyn, April 28, 1863, Martha L. Kellogg to Rev. S. S. Jocelyn, Sept. 3, 1863, American Missionary Assn. Archives; National Freedman, I (Sept. 15, 1865), 264 (Rev. Henry J. Fox); New York Times, Nov. 28, 1863. See also Waterbury, Seven Years Among the Freedmen, 18–19, and Macrae, Americans at Home, 353–75.

20. H. S. Beals to Rev. S. S. Jocelyn, April 28, Aug. 18, 1863, William G. Kephart to Lewis Tappan, May 9, 1864, Augustus C. Stickle to Jacob R. Shipherd, July 9, 1867, Timothy Lyman to Rev. M. E. Strieby, Feb. 27, 1865, Rev. W. T. Richardson to Rev. George Whipple, July 3, 1863, Mary E. Bur-dick to Rev. George Whipple, March 8, 1864, American Missionary Assn. Archives; National Freedman, I (Oct. 15, 1865), 285 (M. J. Ringler); Towne, Letters and Diary, 20; Swint (ed.), Dear Ones at Home, 21–22, 58. See also Pearson (ed.), Letters from Port Royal, 26–28; Ames, From a New England Woman’s Diary in Dixie, 81–82; Higginson, Army Life in a Black Regiment, 17–18.

21. Rawick (ed.), American Slave, III: S.C. Narr. (Part 3), 5; Higginson, Army Life in a Black Regiment, 253.

22. Swint, The Northern Teacher in the South, 42; Timothy Lyman to Rev. M. E. Strieby, Feb. 27, 1865, H. S. Beals to Rev. S. S. Jocelyn, April 28, 1863, William G. Kephart to Lewis Tappan, May 9, 1864, Louise A. Woodbury to Rev. S. S. Jocelyn, Sept. 7, 1863, American Missionary Assn. Archives.

23. Kilham, “Sketches in Color: IV,” in Jackson (ed.), The Negro and His Folklore, 125–31.

24. Christian Recorder, Aug. 5, 1865. On the “peculiar fitness” of blacks for missionary and teaching positions in the South, see also, e.g., ibid., Nov. 28, 1863 (editorial), Feb. 6, 1864 (R. H. Cain and T. H. C. Hinton), Feb. 11 (J. Lynch), March 18 (“Junius”), April 15 (editorial), Sept. 9 (J. Lynch), Sept. 23. (A. Crummell), 1865, Feb. 24, 1866, and June 29, 1867 (R. H. Cain).

25. Sella Martin to M. E. Strieby, March 20, 1866, American Missionary Assn. Archives; Christian Recorder, Feb. 11, 1865 (James H. Payne).

26. Towne, Letters and Diary, 55; Christian Recorder, June 16, 1866 (A. Waddell), Dec. 30 and Aug. 5, 1865 (H. M. Turner). For commendation of the work of the white benevolent societies, especially the American Missionary Assn. and the National Freedmen’s Relief Assn., see, e.g., Christian Recorder, June 3, 1865 (Meeting of the South Carolina Conference), and Feb. 27, 1864 (J. Lynch).

27. Edward P. Smith to M. E. Strieby, July 21, 1865, American Missionary Assn. Archives; Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 495, 420; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 198, (Part 2), 167; Perdue et al. (eds.), Weevils in the Wheat, 322. On ex-slave recollections of white preachers, see also, e.g., Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 420, 538, 642; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, V: Texas Narr. (Part 3), 213, (Part 4), 7; VIII and X: Ark. Narr. (Part 1), 35, (Part 2), 294, (Part 5), 36–37; XVIII: Unwritten History, 45, 76, 98, 310.

28. Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 643; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, II: S.C. Narr. (Part 1), 241; IV: Texas Narr. (Part 1), 199; Haviland, A Woman’s Life-Work, 321.

29. Rev. L. S. Burkhead, “History of the Difficulties of the Pastorate of the Front Street Methodist Church, Wilmington, N.C., for the Year 1865,” in An Annual Publication of Historical Papers Published by the Historical Society of Trinity College, Durham, N.C., Series VIII (1906–09), 35–118. For a black view of the “difficulties,” see Christian Recorder, April 15, 1865 (“Arnold”).

30. Christian Recorder, Feb. 24, 1866 (R. H. Cain), Jan. 21 and Feb. 4, 1865 (J. Lynch), March 24, 1866 (H. M. Turner). See also ibid., Jan. 29, 1870 (“Our Record”).

31. Ibid., Oct. 14, 1865, Sept. 8, 1866; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, II: S.C. Narr. (Part 1), 35–36.

32. H. Shelton Smith, In His Image, But …: Racism in Southern Religion, 1780–1910 (Durham, N.C., 1972), 229–31; Ralph E. Morrow, Northern Methodism and Reconstruction (East Lansing, Mich, 1956), 129; Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 260–61; Williamson, After Slavery, 196–97; Kolchin, First Freedom, 111–13.

33. Morrow, Northern Methodism and Reconstruction, 136; Christian Recorder, March 5, 1870 (“Separate Churches”), March 26, 1864 (J. D. S. Hall), June 17, 1865 (R. H. Cain). For the struggle between the AME and the Methodist Episcopal Church, including the conflicts over church property, see also Christian Recorder, March 12 (J. D. S. Hall), June 25 (J. Lynch), 1864, April 15 (“Arnold”), May 13 (H. M. Turner), June 3 (S.C. Conference), Aug. 5 and Oct. 7 (H. R. Revels), Oct. 21 (J. Lynch), 1865, Sept. 21, 1867 (“True Position of AME Church”); Coppin, Unwritten History, 117–18; Morrow, Northern Methodism and Reconstruction, 139–40; and Williamson, After Slavery, 181–91.

34. Reid, After the War, 519–20; Rev. A. G. Smith to “Dear Sir,” Sept. 25, 1867, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, North Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

35. Avary, Dixie after the War, 203–04.

36. Mobile News, reprinted in New Orleans Tribune, Sept. 9, 1865. See also Kolchin, First Freedom, 118–19.

37. New York Times, July 1, 1867; Christian Recorder, June 16, 1866. The war had exacerbated the sectional split in the national churches, prompting some southern whites to prefer that black congregations affiliate with the independent black churches rather than with the MEC (North). Christian Recorder, Oct. 21, 1865 (J. Lynch), Sept. 21, 1867 (“True Position of the AME Church”).

38. New York Times, Nov. 28, 1863.

39. Missionary Record, reprinted in Semi-Weekly Louisianian, April 21, 1872; Christian Recorder, May 26, 1866 (Address of the Bishops). For criticism of ministers in politics, see Christian Recorder, Feb. 1, 1868, and Louisianian, Feb. 16, 1871.

40. Christian Recorder, Jan. 29, 1870 (“Our Record”). On the activities of H. M. Turner, see ibid, June 9, 1866, Aug. 17, 1867, Feb. 1, 1868, March 6, 1869; on R. H. Cain, ibid., Sept. 8, 1866, and Williamson, After Slavery, 206–07; on J. C. Gibbs, Christian Recorder, Sept. 16, 1865, Sept. 8, 1866, and Richardson, Negro in the Reconstruction of Florida, 94; on J. Lynch, Christian Recorder, June 8, 22, 1867, Weekly Louisianian, Jan. 4, 1873, and Wharton, Negro in Mississippi, 154–55.

41. Macrae, Americans at Home, 368.

42. Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 598; Missionary Record (Charleston), July 5, 1873; J. W. Alvord, Eighth Semi-Annual Report on Schools for Freedmen, July 1, 1869 (Washington, D.C., 1869), 46.

43. Genovese, Roll, Jordan, Roll, 562; Reid, After the War, 145.

44. Louis R. Harlan, Booker T. Washington: The Making of a Black Leader, 1856–1901 (New York, 1972), 14; Washington, Up from Slavery, 6–7, 26–32, 37.

45. Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 259; Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 174.

46. Dennett, The South As It Is, 322; Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 46. On the theme of “knowledge is power,” see also, e.g., “State Convention of the Colored People of South Carolina,” in South Carolina Leader, Nov. 25, 1865; Loyal Georgian, Jan. 20, 1866; and 39 Cong., 1 Sess., House Exec. Doc. 70, Freedmen’s Bureau, 334.

47. National Freedman, I (Aug. 15, 1865), 217 (W. T. Briggs); (Dec. 15, 1865), 350 (S. K. Whiting); Quarles, Negro in the Civil War, 292; Waterbury, Seven Years Among the Freedmen, 81. For the intensity of the freedmen’s commitment to education, see also, e.g., Esther W. Douglass to Rev. Samuel Hunt, Dec. 27, 1865, American Missionary Assn. Archives; South Carolina Leader, Dec. 9, 1865; National Freedman, I (Dec. 15, 1865), 351–52 (H. C. Fisher); American Freedman, I (June 1866), 46 (G. H. Allan); Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 57; Trowbridge, The South, 251; 39 Cong., 2 Sess., Senate Exec. Doc. 6, Reports of the Assistant Commissioners of Freedmen [Jan. 3, 1867], 105; Alvord, Eighth Semi-Annual Report on Schools for Freedmen, July 1, 1869, 45.

48. Murray, Proud Shoes, 182; Mrs. William L. Coan to M. E. Strieby, Sept. 23, 1864, American Missionary Assn. Archives; Waterbury, Seven Years Among the Freedmen, 19; Asa B. Whitfield to Julia A. Shearman, April 17, 1867, American Missionary Assn. Archives. For the appeals of two black teachers for assistance, see Jonathan J. Wright to Rev. Samuel Hunt, Dec. 4, 1865, Feb. 5, 1866, and T. G. Steward to John A. Rockwell, Nov. 6, 1867, American Missionary Assn. Archives.

49. Trowbridge, The South, 466; National Freedman, I (April 1, 1865), 93 (M. E. Jones and N. J. McCullough); Harriet B. Greeley to Rev. George Whipple, April 29, 1865, American Missionary Assn. Archives. On the difficulty of adjusting work schedules to schooling, see also Rawick (ed.), American Slave, XIII: Ga. Narr. (Part 3), 117; XIV: N.C. Narr. (Part 1), 277; XVI: Tenn. Narr., 29; American Freedman, III (June 1868), 431 (L. M. Towne); and Helen M. Jones to S. G. Wright, Jan. 13, 1866, American Missionary Assn. Archives.

50. J. W. Alvord, Report on Schools and Finances of Freedmen for July, 1866 (Washington, D.C., 1866), 16 (Helena, Ark.); Ames, From a New England Woman’s Diary in Dixie, 108–09 (Seabrook); New York Times, Jan. 13, 19, 1862 (Lawrence); Williamson, After Slavery, 211 (Charleston); Reid, After the War, 246 (New Orleans); W. T. Richardson to M. E. Strieby, Jan. 2, 1865 (Savannah), and Rev. W. F. Eaton to Rev. George Whipple, May 26, 1865 (King plantation, St. Simon’s Island), American Missionary Assn. Archives; Colored Tennessean, March 24, 1866 (Douglass school); National Freedman, I (Feb. 1, 1865), 11–12 (Savannah); Trowbridge, The South, 490 (Augusta), 509–10 (Savannah). See also Swint, Northern Teacher in the South, 79–80 (Richmond); Wiley, Southern Negroes, 271 (La.); Trowbridge, The South, 337 (Tenn.); Haviland, A Woman’s Life-Work, 321–22 (New Orleans); New York Tribune, July 7, 1865 (Richmond).

51. Colored Tennessean, Oct. 14, 1865; J. W. Alvord, Fourth Semi-Annual Report on Schools for Freedmen, July 1, 1867 (Washington, D.C., 1867), 83, and Ninth Semi-Annual Report on Schools for Freedmen, January 1, 1870 (Washington, D.C., 1870), 46; Rawick (ed.), American Slave, IV: Texas Narr. (Part 2), 48. On the plantation schools, see also J. W. Alvord, Third Semi-Annual Report on Schools for Freedmen, January 1, 1867 (Washington, D.C., 1867), 25–26; Colored Tennessean, March 24, 1866; B. F. Randolph to Bvt. Maj. Gen. R. K. Scott, March 15, 1867, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; S. S. Ashley to Rev. Samuel Hunt, March 7, 1866, American Missionary Assn. Archives; National Freedman, II (April 1866), 118 (F. A. Fiske); Waterbury, Seven Years Among the Freedmen, 18; Stearns, Black Man of the South, and The Rebels, 196–99; Trowbridge, The South, 289; Reid, After the War, 511; New York Times, Oct. 17, 1865, May 27, 1867.

52. Chesnut, Diary from Dixie, 199–200; Mary E. Burdick to George Whipple, March 8, 1864, American Missionary Assn. Archives.

53. McPherson, “The New Puritanism: Values and Goals of Freedmen’s Education in America,” 624–25. On the educational work of the Freedmen’s Bureau, see, in addition to the archival records and official reports, Abbott, Freedmen’s Bureau in South Carolina, 82–98; White, Freedmen’s Bureau in Louisiana, 166–200; and Bentley, History of the Freedmen’s Bureau, 169–84.

54. Marcia Colton to Rev. George Whipple, June 14, 1864, American Missionary Assn. Archives; Lydia Maria Child to Sarah S. Shaw, April 8, 1866, Shaw Family Papers, New York Public Library; American Freedman, I (April 1866), 3 (editorial). See also National Freedman, I (March 1, 1865), 44 (annual report).

55. Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 31–32; Josiah Beardsley, Feb. 15, 1865, Marcia Colton to Rev. George Whipple, June 14, 1864, American Missionary Assn. Archives; Ames, From a New England Woman’s Diary in Dixie, 25–26; Rose, Rehearsal for Reconstruction, 58. On missionary comparisons of the blacks and the Irish, see also Towne, Letters and Diary, 6; Pearson (ed.), Letters from Port Royal, 11, 15, 18, 75.

56. George N. Greene to George Whipple, May 15, 1865, H. S. Beals to Rev. Samuel Hunt, Dec. 30, 1865, Frank H. Green to George Whipple, July 7, 1864, American Missionary Assn. Archives; Swint, Northern Teacher in the South, 41; National Freedman, I (Feb. 1, 1865), 14 (Juliet B. Smith); American Freedman, III (April 1869), 7 (Lucy Eastman).

57. National Freedman, I (April 1, 1865), 92 (Fannie Graves and Annie P. Merriam); S. S. Ashley to Col. N. A. McLean, Feb. 7, 1866, American Missionary Assn. Archives.

58. Towne, Letters and Diary, 26; New National Era, April 13, 1871. On the respective merits of practical and classical education, see also New Era, May 5, 1870 (“Genius and Its Exactions”).

59. Christian Recorder, Aug. 5, 1865; Quarles, Negro in the Civil War, 291; Wiley, Southern Negroes, 287. On the content of instruction, see also, e.g., Swint, Northern Teacher in the South, 80–90; Towne, Letters and Diary, 163; Extracts from Letters of Teachers and Superintendents of the New England Educational Commission for Freedmen (4th Series, Jan. 1, 1864; Boston, 1864), 8–10; Stearns, Black Man in the South, and The Rebels, 59–64; Christian Recorder, Sept. 29, 1866 (“Impressions of Charleston”); New York Tribune, June 2, 1865; New Era, Feb. 24, 1870 (J. W. Alvord).

60. A. L. Etheridge to William T. Briggs, June 7, 1864, Edwin S. Williams to S. S. Jocelyn, April 26, 1863, American Missionary Assn. Archives; Forten, Journal, 131.

61. Sarah J. Foster to E. P. Smith, Jan. 3, 1868, W. L. Coan to George Whipple, Oct. 6, 1864, American Missionary Assn. Archives; Reid, After the War, 249–50; Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 257; New York Tribune, Dec. 2, 1865.

62. National Freedman, II (April 1866), 115 (Chloe Merrick); American Freedman, III (May 1868), 412.

63. Mary E. Burdick to George Whipple, March 8, 1864, American Missionary Assn. Archives. On comparisons of white and black students and the aptness of blacks for various fields of study, see Josiah Beardsley, Feb. 15, 1865 (Ms. apparently intended for publication in The American Missionary), G. H. Hyde to W. E. Whiting, Feb. 26, 1862, William G. Kephart to Lewis Tappan, May 9, 1864, John Silsby to Rev. George Whipple, Sept. 14, 1866, Elliot Whipple to Rev. E. P. Smith, June 17, 1867, American Missionary Assn. Archives; National Freedman, I (April 1, 1865), 92, (July 15, 1865), 191–92, (Aug. 15, 1865), 217; Extracts from Letters of Teachers and Superintendents of the New England Educational Commission for Freedmen (4th series, Jan. 1, 1864), 3, 7, 9; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 91, 256; Dennett, The South As It Is, 207; Trowbridge, The South, 337; Reid, After the War, 255; Macrae, Americans at Home, 342–45; New York Times, Aug. 6, 17, 1865; New York Tribune, July 7, 1865. On comparisons of black and mulatto students, see Loyal Georgian, March 17, 1866; National Freedman, I (Aug. 15, 1865), 218; Nordhoff, Freedmen of South Carolina, 9.

64. Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 107–09; National Freedman, I (Sept. 15, 1865), 251; Christian Recorder, July 1, 1865; Reid, After the War, 15–17, 246–53; Dennett, The South As It Is, 206–08, 211, 304.

65. Freedom’s Journal, June 1, 1827; Frank H. Green to Rev. George Whipple, Aug. 12, 1864, American Missionary Assn. Archives; Christian Recorder, May 6, 1865 (J. C. Gibbs).

66. Rev. W. T. Richardson to Mrs. E. A. Lane, April 29, 1865, American Missionary Assn. Archives; Christian Recorder, July 8, 1865 (G.N.Y.).

67. Asa B. Whitfield to Julia A. Shearman, April 17, 1867, American Missionary Assn. Archives.

68. 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 247; Moore (ed.), The Juhl Letters (Sept. 18, 1866), 120.

69. Richardson, Negro in the Reconstruction of Florida, 100; N. A. McLean to Rev. S. S. Ashley, Feb. 20, 1866, American Missionary Assn. Archives; J. W. Alvord, Eighth Semi-Annual Report on Schools for Freedmen, July 1, 1869, 54. See also John Silsby to Rev. George Whipple, Sept. 14, 1866, American Missionary Assn. Archives; National Freedman, I (Nov. 15, 1865), 316 (B. W. Pond).

70. Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 4; [Prof. Bennett Puryear], The Public School in Its Relation to the Negro (Richmond, 1877), 11. See also 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Senate Exec. Doc. 2, “Report of Carl Schurz,” 25; Evans, Ballots and Fence Rails, 226–27.

71. Nolen, Negro’s Image in the South, 127–28.

72. 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 55, 86, 143, 183, 252; B. F. Whittemore to Bvt. Maj. H. W. Smith, Dec. 30, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; D. C. Jencks to Rev. Samuel Hunt, Dec. 21, 1865, American Missionary Assn. Archives.

73. D. T. Allen to Rev. C. H. Fowler, Jan. 1, 1864, American Missionary Assn. Archives; Amos McCollough et al. to Gen. O. O. Howard, May 6, 1866, Charles F. Mayerhoff to Col. Samuel Thomas, April 2, 1866, R. F. Campbell to Col. Samuel Thomas, April 5, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, North Carolina and Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau. On native white reaction to black schools and the reception accorded teachers of freedmen, see also John P. Bardwell to George Whipple, April 28, May 4, 1866, William L. Clark to Rev. E. P. Smith, Nov. 19, 1867, Rev. George W. Honey to Rev. M. E. Strieby, Feb. 21, 1866, Addie Warren to John P. Bardwell, May 6, 1866, American Missionary Assn. Archives; National Freedman, I (Nov. 15, 1865), 324 (M. Anderson), (Dec. 15, 1865), 347 (A. B. Corliss), 360 (W. J. Albert), II (May 1866), 149; American Freedman, III (June 1868), 427; Waterbury, Seven Years Among the Freedmen, 19; Office of the Board of Education for Freedmen, Dept. of the Gulf, Report(Feb. 28, 1865), 8–9; Trowbridge, The South, 188, 228, 490; Loyal Georgian, May 9, 1867; Swint, Northern Teacher in the South, 94–142.

74. Christian Recorder, June 16, 1866; New Orleans Tribune, Dec. 29, 1865, Sept. 5, 1866; John P. Bardwell to George Whipple, April 28, 1866, American Missionary Assn. Archives; National Freedman, I (Nov. 15, 1865), 328 (C. Kennedy).

75. 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 253; Towne, Letters and Diary, 178. See also J. W. Alvord, Eighth Semi-Annual Report on Schools for Freedmen, July 1, 1869, 23; Loyal Georgian, July 6, 1867 (G. L. Eberhart); New York Tribune, Dec. 2, 1865.

76. Sallie Coit to Emily, April 15, 1868, William N. Tillinghast Papers, Duke Univ.; A. W. Moore to E. H. Dabbs, April 30, 1870, A. L. Burt Papers, Duke Univ.

77. Reid, After the War, 152; Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 257–58. For examples of racial mixing in the freedmen’s schools, see Rev. Fisk P. Brewer to Rev. George Whipple, Nov. 8, 1866 (“I would not have it made too public till we can show more decided results”), American Missionary Assn. Archives; American Freedman, I (June 1866), 43 (F. P. Brewer), 44 (E. B. Adams), (July 1866), 80; Swint (ed.), Dear Ones at Home, 204; Richardson, Negro in the Reconstruction of Florida, 108–09. On the fate of the “experiment” in Raleigh, see Fisk P. Brewer to George Whipple, Feb. 6, 1867, American Missionary Assn. Archives.

78. American Freedman, I (April 1866), 5–6, (May 1866), 23–24; H. S. Beals to Rev. E. P. Smith, Feb. 15, 1867, Rev. S. J. Whiton to Rev. E. P. Smith, Feb. 16, 1867, Rev. S. J. Whiton to Rev. George Whipple, Feb. 28, 1867, Rev. S. J. Whiton to Rev. E. P. Smith, March 4, 1867, John Scott to Rev. E. P. Smith, March 6, 1867, Hyman Thompson to Rev. George Whipple, March 1867, American Missionary Assn. Archives.

79. New York Times, Dec. 15, 1867.

80. New Orleans Tribune, April 26, 1867, Jan. 22, 1869. See also ibid., Feb. 17, 23, 1865, July 24, Oct. 24, 29, 1867; William T. Nicholls to “Cousin Tom,” Col. W. W. Pugh Papers, Louisiana State Univ.; J. W. Alvord, Tenth Semi-Annual Report on Schools for Freedmen, July 1, 1870, 48.

81. Avary, Dixie after the War, 312; Mary to Missouria Stokes, June 1868, Missouria Stokes Papers, Duke Univ.; Miss. S. W. Stansbury to Rev. E. P. Smith, May 21, 1867, American Missionary Assn. Archives.

82. G. L. Eberhart to Rev. Samuel Hunt, May 23, June 4, 1866, American Missionary Assn. Archives. See also J. E. Bryant to Rev. George Whipple, June 12, 1866, Davis Tillson to Rev. Whipple, July 4, 1866.

83. American Freedman, I (Nov. 1866), 114 (editorial); Martha L. Kellogg to Rev. George Whipple, Dec. 17, 1866, American Missionary Assn. Archives.

84. On the question of racial mixing in the abolitionist movement, see, e.g., Leon F. Litwack, North of Slavery: The Negro in the Free States, 1790–1860 (Chicago, 1961), 216–23.

85. Lewis Tappan, Caste: A Letter to a Teacher Among the Freedmen (New York [1867]), 9; Christian Recorder, Jan. 7, 1865.

86. Christian Recorder, April 23, 1864, June 29, 1867, Jan. 7, 1865. See also the sources cited in note 24.

87. New York Times, Dec. 8, 1861; WPA, Negro in Virginia, 263.

88. Forten, Journal, 133; Virginia C. Green to A. W. Preston, Oct. 24, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau. See also Jonathan J. Wright to Rev. Samuel Hunt, Feb. 5, 1866, T. G. Steward to John A. Rockwell, Nov. 6, 1867, American Missionary Assn. Archives.

89. Francis L. Cardozo to Rev. George Whipple, July 5, 1865, Cardozo to Rev. M. E. Strieby, Aug. 13, 1866, Cardozo to Rev. Samuel Hunt, Dec. 2, 1865, Jan. 13 [1866]. On the progress of his school, see Cardozo to Hunt, Oct. 10, Nov. 7, 22, Dec. 2, 15, 1865, Cardozo to Whipple, Oct. 21, 1865, Jan. 27, 1866, American Missionary Assn. Archives.

90. Francis L. Cardozo, School Report for November 1867, Sarah W. Stansbury to E. P. Smith, Jan. 30, 1867, Cardozo to E. P. Smith, Dec. 24, 1866, Jane A. Van Allen to E. P. Smith, Feb. 16, 1867, Cardozo to E. P. Smith, April 9, 1867, American Missionary Assn. Archives. For visits to Cardozo’s school, see Dennett, The South As It Is, 217–18; Macrae, Americans at Home, 266–69; Cardozo to Rev. Samuel Hunt, March 10, 1866, Jonathan J. Wright to Hunt, Dec. 4, 1865, American Missionary Assn. Archives.

91. Francis L. Cardozo to Rev. George Whipple, Oct. 21, 1865, Cardozo to E. P. Smith, Nov. 4, 1867, American Missionary Assn. Archives. On his preparations for the constitutional convention and the prospect of his candidacy for secretary of state of South Carolina, see Cardozo to E. P. Smith, Dec. 7, 1867, Jan. 2, March 9, 1868, American Missionary Assn. Archives.

92. C. W. Buckley to Rev. George Whipple, March 13, 1866, G. L. Eberhart to Ira Pettibone, Oct. 19, 1866, American Missionary Assn. Archives. On the preference for black teachers in the “interior,” see J. W. Alvord, Seventh Semi-Annual Report on Schools for Freedmen, January 1, 1869, 24.

93. S. S. Ashley to Rev. Samuel Hunt, Jan. 22, 1866, American Missionary Assn. Archives. On the preference for white teachers, see also American Freedman, I (Oct. 1866), 106 (W. D. Newsome); Reid, After the War, 511. On the objections of free-born “colored people” to “a teacher born in bondage, unless of a very light complexion,” see J. W. Alvord, Ninth Semi-Annual Report on Schools for Freedmen, January 1, 1870, 15–16.

94. Blanche Harris to Rev. George Whipple, Jan. 23, March 10, 1866, John P. Bardwell to Whipple, March 20, April 2, 1866, Rev. Palmer Litts to Whipple, April 27, 1866, Addie Warren to John P. Bardwell, May 6, 1866, John P. Bardwell to Rev. Samuel Hunt, June 22, 1866, Mary Still to Hunt, Feb. 19, 1866, American Missionary Assn. Archives.

95. Christian Recorder, Sept. 8, 1866 (T.W.C.); Blanche Harris to Rev. George Whipple, March 10, 1866, American Missionary Assn. Archives.

96. Christian Recorder, Dec. 2, 1865 (“Editorial Correspondence”).

97. Washington, Up from Slavery, 28; John P. Bardwell to Rev. M. E. Strieby, Nov. 20, 1865, American Missionary Assn. Archives; New York Times, June 22, 1866, Aug. 21, 863. On black support of schools and teachers and independent educational efforts, see also, e.g., B. F. Randolph to Bvt. Maj. Gen. R. K. Scott, March 15, 1867, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; De Forest, Union Officer in the Reconstruction, 118–21; Trowbridge, The South, 228, 251; 39 Cong., 1 Sess., Report of the Joint Committee on Reconstruction, Part II, 251, 254, 256, 257; Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 386; Loyal Georgian, July 6, 1867; New York Times, Sept. 2, 10, 1865.

98. Christian Recorder, Jan. 21, 1865 (J. Lynch); W. T. Richardson to Rev. M. E. Strieby, Jan. 2, 1865, Richardson to Rev. George Whipple, Jan. 10, 1865, Rev. S. W. Magill to Whipple, Feb. 3, 6, 26, 1865, American Missionary Assn. Archives.

99. Christian Recorder, Aug. 27, 1864 (“Junius”).

100. T. K. Noble to Rev. George Whipple, Sept. 29, 1865, American Missionary Assn. Archives.

Chapter Ten: Becoming a People

1. A. H. Haines to President Andrew Johnson, Oct. 19, 1865, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

2. Christian Recorder, Jan. 20, 1866.

3. Discussion of the Freedmen’s Convention of North Carolina and the political activity among blacks which preceded and immediately followed it is based on Convention of the Freedmen of North Carolina: Official Proceedings [Raleigh, 1865]; Christian Recorder, Oct. 28, 1865 (same as official proceedings, except for additional speech by James Harris; also includes a report of a mass meeting in Edgecombe Co.); National Freedman, I (Oct. 15, 1865), 289, 301–02; New York Times, May 19 and Sept. 17 (New Bern), Oct. 7 and 9 (state conv), 1865; New York Tribune, Oct. 7 (state conv.), 24 (Edgecombe Co.), 1865; New Orleans Tribune, Sept. 24 (Robeson Co., N.C.), Oct. 19 (Wilmington), 1865; Dennett, The South As It Is, 148–54, 156, 175–77; Andrews, The South since the War, 119–31, 162, 188; Evans, Ballots and Fence Rails, 87–93, 110–12; Perrin Busbee to Benjamin S. Hedrick, Jan. 8, 1866, B. S. Hedrick Papers, Duke Univ.; James H. Harris Papers, 1850 to 1873, State Dept. of Archives and History, Raleigh, N.C; Proceedings of the First Annual Meeting of the National Equal Rights League, Held in Cleveland, Ohio, October 19, 20, and 21, 1865 (Philadelphia, 1865), 4.

4. New York Times, Oct. 11, 1866; New Orleans Tribune, Oct. 27, 1866.

5. Christian Recorder, Oct. 28, 1865; Rogers, Thomas County, 1865–1900, 8, 13.

6. Andrews, The South since the War, 131, 188; Dennett, The South As It Is, 149, 175; New York Times, Oct. 24, 1865, Nov. 19, 1866; Proceedings of the Convention of the Colored People of Virginia, Held in the City of Alexandria, Aug. 2, 3, 4, 5, 1865 (Alexandria, 1865), 4, 11.

7. New Orleans Tribune, Jan. 15, 1865.

8. Christian Recorder, April 21, 1866.

9. See, e.g., Loyal Georgian, July 6, 1867 (H. M. Turner); Christian Recorder, Sept. 30 (R. H. Cain), Nov. 25 (T. G. Campbell), 1865, April 21, 1866 (R. H. Cain), May 4 (J. J. Wright), 11 (H. M. Turner), Aug. 17 (H. M. Turner), Oct. 12 (M. R. Delany), 1867, Feb. 1, 1868 (H. M. Turner), June 26, 1869 (M. R. Delany); Cardozo to Rev. George Whipple, Oct. 21, 1865, Cardozo to Rev. E. P. Smith, Nov. 4, 1867, March 9, 1868, Wright to Rev. Samuel Hunt, Dec. 4, 1865, American Missionary Assn. Archives; T. G. Campbell, Sufferings of the Rev. T. G. Campbell and His Family, in Georgia (Washington, D.C., 1877); H. M. Turner, “Speech on the Eligibility of Colored Members to Seats in the Georgia Legislature … September 3d, 1868,” in George A. Singleton, The Romance of African Methodism: A Study of the African Methodist Episcopal Church (New York, 1952), Appendix B, 1–16.

10. Williamson, After Slavery, 26–30; Higginson, Army Life in a Black Regiment, 57–58.

11. Dennett, The South As It Is, 150; Andrews, The South since the War, 123, 131.

12. Dennett, The South As It Is, 150–51; New Orleans Tribune, May 7, 1867 (Letter from Mobile); “Proceedings of the State Convention of the Colored People of Tennessee,” in Colored Tennessean, Aug. 12, 1865.

13. Convention of the Colored People of Virginia (Aug. 1865), 10; New Orleans Tribune, March 15, 1865. For Horace Greeley’s message, see Convention of the Freedmen of North Carolina (Sept.-Oct. 1865), 9–11.

14. Proceedings of the Freedmen’s Convention of Georgia, Assembled at Augusta, January 10th, 1866 (Augusta, 1866), 21, 23; New Orleans Tribune, July 18, 1865 (Letter from Mobile).

15. New Orleans Tribune, Jan. 20, Feb. 1, 1865. Similar editorial advice may be found in the issues of March 7, April 25, 1865, May 1, 19, June 12, 1867.

16. Dennett, The South As It Is, 152–53; J. W. Alvord, Seventh Semi-Annual Report on Schools for Freedmen, January 1, 1869, 50.

17. On free-born “colored society,” see Berlin, Slaves Without Masters; Marina Wikramanayake, A World in Shadow: The Free Black in Antebellum South Carolina (Columbia, S.C., 1973); Constance McLaughlin Green, The Secret City: A History of Race Relations in the Nation’s Capital (Princeton, 1967); and Blassingame, Black New Orleans.

18. Bruce, The New Man, 79; W. L. Tilden, Washington, D.C., Feb. 12, 1866 (Ms. report), American Missionary Assn. Archives; John E. Bruce, Washington’s Colored Society (n.p., 1877; typewritten copy in Schomburg Collection, New York Public Library).

19. Williamson, After Slavery, 314. For an examination of “colored society,” as “moulded by outside forces,” see Rev. T. G. Steward, “Colored Society,” Christian Recorder, Nov. 9, 16, 23, Dec. 14, 28, 1876, Jan. 11, 18, 1877.

20. New Orleans Tribune, Feb. 19, 1869. For similar sentiments, see the issues of Dec. 6, 29, 1864, March 28, June 30, 1865. But for the persistence of divisiveness, see, e.g., Semi-Weekly Louisianian, May 25, 1871.

21. Christian Recorder, April 21, 1866.

22. New York Tribune, Nov. 29, 1865 (Convention of Colored People, South Carolina).

23. Freedmen’s Convention of Georgia (Jan. 1866), 19. See also Convention of the Freedmen of North Carolina (Sept.-Oct. 1865), 14.

24. Colored American, Jan. 6, 1866. See also New York Tribune, Nov. 29, 1865 (Convention of Colored People, South Carolina); Freedmen’s Convention of Georgia (Jan. 1866), 18.

25. Convention of the Freedmen of North Carolina (Sept.-Oct. 1865), 13; Convention of the Colored People of Virginia (Aug. 1865), 9.

26. National Freedman, I (Dec. 15, 1865), 364 (Convention of Colored People, Alabama); New Orleans Tribune, Sept. 24, 1865 (Address of Freedmen of Robeson Co., N.C); Freedmen’s Convention of Georgia (Jan. 1866), 19. More than a hundred years later, at the peak of the civil rights struggle in the South, Malcolm X would make a similar pronouncement on the limits of black forbearance: “It’s simply not possible to love a man whose chief purpose in life is to humiliate you, and still be what is considered a normal human being.”

27. Colored Tennessean, March 31, 1866 (Kentucky Colored People’s Convention); New York Tribune, Nov. 29, 1865 (Convention of Colored People, South Carolina); Convention of the Colored People of Virginia (Aug. 1865), 9, 21; Proceedings of the Convention of Colored Citizens of the State of Arkansas Held in Little Rock … Nov. 30, Dec. 1 and 2(Helena, 1866), 3–4.

28. Convention of the Freedmen of North Carolina (Sept.-Oct. 1865), 13; Colored Tennessean, March 31, 1866 (Kentucky Colored People’s Convention); Convention of the Colored People of Virginia (Aug. 1865), 9, 10, 12.

29. Montgomery, “Alabama Freedmen: Some Reconstruction Documents,” 248; New York Times, Nov. 12, 1865 (Selma, Ala.).

30. New York Times, June 20, 1866; American Freedman, I (Sept. 1866), 87 (Georgia Equal Rights Assn. meeting); Proceedings of the Convention of the Equal Rights and Educational Association of Georgia, Assembled at Macon, October 29th, 1866 (Augusta, 1866), 17; S. W. Laidler to Thaddeus Stevens, May 7, 1866, Stevens Papers, Library of Congress (New Bern freedmen’s meeting). Praise for the work of the Freedmen’s Bureau was voiced by conventions in Alabama (1865), Georgia (1866), Kentucky (1867), North Carolina (1865), South Carolina (1865), Tennessee (1865), and Virginia (1865).

31. [State Exec. Comm. for Equal Political Rights in Missouri], An Address by the Colored People of Missouri to the Friends of Equal Rights (St. Louis, 1865), 3; South Carolina Leader, Nov. 25, 1865 (Convention of Colored People); “Our Wrongs and Rights,” Convention of the Colored People of Virginia (Aug. 1865), 12–13.

32. American Freedman, I (Sept. 1866), 87–88 (Georgia Equal Rights Assn. meeting); Freedmen’s Convention of Georgia (Jan. 1866), 16–17; Proceedings of the State Convention of Colored Men, Held at Lexington, Kentucky, in the A.M.E. Church, November 26th, 27th, and 28th, 1867 (Frankfort, 1867), 5–6; Convention of the Colored People of Virginia (Aug. 1865), 12.

33. Colored Tennessean, Aug. 12, 1865 (Convention of the Colored People); New York Tribune, Nov. 29, 1865 (Convention of Colored People, South Carolina).

34. Freedmen’s Convention of Georgia (Jan. 1866), 30. The address drawn up by the freedmen of North Carolina to the Constitutional Convention did complain of “unscrupulous and avaricious employers” who expelled blacks from the plantations and refused adequate compensation (Convention of the Freedmen of North Carolina, Sept.-Oct. 1865), and Tennessee and Georgia blacks demanded “just compensation” for labor performed (Colored Tennessean, Aug. 12, 1865; Freedmen’s Convention of Georgia, Jan. 1866, 29).

35. National Freedman, I (Dec. 15, 1865), 364 (Convention of Colored People, Alabama); Freedmen’s Convention of Georgia (Jan. 1866), 30; St. Landry Progress (Opelousas, La.), Sept. 7, 1867. For opposition to confiscation, see also New Orleans Tribune, June 12, 1867 (Radical Republican convention, Louisiana, June 1867), and New York Times, May 26, 1867 (James Harris of N.C.). The Alabama convention of 1867 called for the confiscation of property of employers who discharged blacks for exercising their civil rights (New Orleans Tribune, May 4, 1867), and Beverly Nash, a South Carolina black leader, thought the confiscation question should be settled by Congress and “we should make no expression of opinion about it” (New York Times, Aug. 9, 1867). For proconfiscation sentiment, see New Orleans Tribune, Sept. 10, 24, 1864, April 19, May 6, 1865, and New National Era, Jan. 26, 1871.

36. See, e.g., Montgomery, “Alabama Freedmen: Some Reconstruction Documents,” 247, 249 (Colored People’s Convention, 1865); New York Tribune, Dec. 30, 1865 (Colored Convention of Maryland); Colored Tennessean, March 31, 1866 (Kentucky Colored People’s Convention); Freedmen’s Convention of Georgia (Jan. 1866), 30.

37. Christian Recorder Feb. 3, 1866. For similar sentiments, see, e.g., Christian Recorder, April 8 (“What Shall We Do to Be Respected?”), Aug. 26 (Charleston Corr.), Sept. 30 (H. H. Garnet), Dec. 9, 16, 23 (Advice to Freedmen), 1865; March 10 (“Trying Moment”), 17 (“The Jew and the Black Gentile”), 24 (Emigration), April 21 (S.C. Corr.), May 19 (“Get Land”), Aug. 18 (“Colored Conventions”), 25 (J. M. Langston), Sept. 22 (“Our Great Need”), 1866; Sept. 14 (J. M. Langston), Nov. 30 (“Self-Reliance the Key to Success”), 1867; Colored American, Jan. 6, 1866; Black Republican, April 15, 1865; Free Man’s Press, Aug. 1 (“Learn a Trade”), Sept. 5, 1868.

38. Address by the Colored People of Missouri, 3; Colored Tennessean, March 31, 1866 (Kentucky Colored People’s Convention); Freedmen’s Convention of Georgia (Jan. 1866), 29–30; Christian Recorder, Feb. 24, 1866 (H. M. Turner); Convention of Colored Men, Kentucky (Nov. 1867), 7. On equal access to public facilities, see, e.g., the Georgia (Jan. and Oct. 1866) and Kentucky (1867) conventions.

39. Convention of Colored Men, Kentucky (Nov. 1867), 8–9; Convention of the Freedmen of North Carolina (Sept.-Oct. 1865), 5; Freedmen’s Convention of Georgia (Jan. 1866), 19–20, 29.

40. Convention of the Colored People of Virginia (Aug. 1865), 11; New Orleans Tribune, May 30, 1865 (Memorial of the Colored Men of Mississippi); Montgomery, “Alabama Freedmen: Some Reconstruction Documents,” 248, 249 (Colored People’s Convention, 1865).

41. Freedmen’s Convention of Georgia (Jan. 1866), 29; New Orleans Tribune, May 30, 1865 (Memorial of the Colored Men of Mississippi); Colored Tennessean, Aug. 12, 1865 (Convention of the Colored People); Convention of the Colored People of Virginia (Aug. 1865), 20; S. W. Laidler to Thaddeus Stevens, May 7, 1866, Stevens Papers, Library of Congress (New Bern freedmen’s meeting); Convention of Colored Men, Kentucky (Nov. 1867), 7; New York Tribune, Nov. 29, 1865 (Convention of Colored People, South Carolina).

42. New Orleans Tribune, Aug. 9, 1864, April 6, 1865. See also the issues of Jan. 3, April 28, and July 23, 1865.

43. Ibid., Jan. 14, 15, Feb. 5, 9, 14, 18, 19, 1865.

44. Convention of the Colored People of Virginia (Aug. 1865), 21; New Orleans Tribune, March 25, May 28, 1865.

45. New Orleans Tribune, April 19, 1865. See also the issue of Nov. 25, 1866, which urged the election of “colored” judges and legislators. “But we want to fight that political contest squarely and fairly, under the banner of suffrage to all, and not by attempting the impracticable and impossible work of suppressing the minority.”

46. Ibid, June 4, 1865.

47. Black Republican, April 22, 1865; New Orleans Tribune, April 20, 1865; Proceedings of the Forty-eighth Annual Session of the Baltimore Conference of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, April 13th, 1865 (Baltimore, 1865), 8; Christian Recorder, April 22, 1865. See also Christian Recorder, June 3, 1865 (S.C. Conference), May 5, 1865 (J. C. Brock).

48. Towne, Letters and Diary, 159–60, 162; Black Republican, April 22, 1865.

49. New York Times, May 13, 1865; Pearson (ed.), Letters from Port Royal, 310–11; Botume, First Days Amongst the Contrabands, 173–75, 178; Harriet B. Greeley to Rev. George Whipple, April 29, 1865, American Missionary Assn. Archives; Black Republican, April 29, 1865.

50. New Orleans Tribune, April 22, 28, 21, 1865; Proceedings of the Forty-eighth Session of the Baltimore Conf. of the AME Church, April 13, 1865, 9–10.

51. Martin Abbott, “Freedom’s Cry: Negroes and Their Meetings in South Carolina, 1865–1869,” Phylon, XX (Fall 1959), 264 (Charleston Mutual Aid Society); New Orleans Tribune, May 2, 6, April 22, July 27, 1865; Black Republican, April 22, 1865.

52. Towne, Letters and Diary, 167.

53. New Orleans Tribune, July 27, 30, Aug. 3, Sept. 9, Oct. 27, Dec. 9, 30, 1865. For a more hopeful view of Johnson, see South Carolina Leader, Oct. 21, Dec. 9, 1865.

54. McPherson, The Political History of the United States of America During the Period of Reconstruction, 52–55; LaWanda and John H. Cox, Politics, Principle, & Prejudice, 1865–66 (Glencoe, Ill., 1963), 163. For black response to the interview, see New York Times, Feb. 9, 1866; Christian Recorder, Feb. 17, 1866.

55. Christian Recorder, March 3, April 14, Sept. 8, 1866; Loyal Georgian, March 3, 1866. For black disillusionment with Johnson, see also New Orleans Tribune, Sept. 11, 15, 1866; Christian Recorder, Jan. 19, March 9, 1867; Loyal Georgian, March 17, Oct. 13, 1866.

56. Convention of the Colored People of Virginia (Aug. 1865), 21.

57. Reid, After the War, 52. For the “taxation without representation is tyranny” argument, see Convention of Colored Citizens of Arkansas (1866), 6; Freedmen’s Convention of Georgia (Jan. 1866), 18; Convention of Colored Men, Kentucky (Nov. 1867), 7; Christian Recorder, Oct. 28, 1865 (Edgecombe, Co., N.C.); New York Times, Oct. 11, 1866 (Convention of Freedmen, North Carolina); New York Tribune, Nov. 29, 1865 (Convention of Colored People, South Carolina); Loyal Georgian, Oct. 13, 1866; New Orleans Tribune, Nov. 16, 1865; Black Republican, April 29, 1865.

58. Address by the Colored People of Missouri (1865); New York Times, Sept. 17, 1865 (A. H. Galloway at the Convention of Freedmen, N.C); The Union (New Orleans), Dec. 1, 1863 (P. B. S. Pinchback); Freedmen’s Convention of Georgia (Jan. 1866), 29; Equal Suffrage. Address from the Colored Citizens of Norfolk, Virginia, to the People of the United States (New Bedford, Mass., 1865); Christian Recorder, Oct. 28, 1865 (Edgecombe Co., N.C), May 19, 1866.

59. Christian Recorder, July 14, 1866; Colored American, Jan. 13, 1866.

60. Herbert Aptheker, “South Carolina Negro Conventions, 1865,” Journal of Negro History, XXXI (1946), 94; Loyal Georgian, Feb. 17, 1866; Colored Tennessean, Oct. 7, 1865; New Orleans Tribune, Nov. 18, 1864, Dec. 15, 1866; Freedmen’s Convention of Georgia (Jan. 1866), 19; Proceedings of the Council of the Georgia Equal Rights Association, Assembled at Augusta, Ga., April 4th, 1866 (Augusta, 1866), 13; New York Times, Sept. 17, 1865 (A. H. Galloway at the Convention of Freedmen, N.C); Dennett, The South As It Is, 27.

61. New Orleans Tribune, Nov. 18, 1864.

62. Ibid., Aug. 1, 1865.

63. Convention of the Colored People of Virginia (Aug. 1865), 21–22; Reid, After the War, 144.

64. Convention of the Colored People of Virginia (Aug. 1865), 22.

65. New Orleans Tribune, Dec. 9, Nov. 18, 1864. See also the issue of May 4, 1865 (“Fallacy of ‘Preparation’ ”).

66. National Freedman, I (Aug. 15, 1865), 220; New York Times, June 4, 1865; Equal Suffrage. Address from the Colored Citizens of Norfolk, Va. (1865), 9–15.

67. On the “election” in Beaufort, see The Mission of the United States Republic: An Oration Delivered by Rev. James Lynch … July 4, 1865 (Augusta, 1865), 10; on a mayoralty election in Fernandina, see Reid, After the War, 160; on the registration and voting in New Orleans, see New Orleans Tribune, June 17, 23, 24, 30, July 12, 21, 28, Aug. 4, 18, 22, Sept. 2, 10, 17, 19, Nov. 7, 8, 10, 15, 1865.

68. Blassingame, Black New Orleans, 1–22.

69. New Orleans Tribune, Nov. 15, 16, 1864.

70. Ibid, Sept. 2, 26, 1865.

71. Christian Recorder, May 19, 1866.

72. New Orleans Tribune, Nov. 11, Oct. 23, 1866.

73. Colored Tennessean, Aug. 12, 1865 (Convention of the Colored People); New York Times, April 25, 1865 (Petition from “the colored men of East Tennessee”). See also New Orleans Tribune, April 4, July 25, 1865, Sept. 13, 1866.

74. Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folk, 3–4.

75. Christian Recorder, Aug. 25, 1866. See also “The Negro an Inferior Race,” in ibid., Nov. 20, 1869 (D. A. Straker)

76. Ibid., Oct. 4, 1877 (“Race Characteristics”).

77. Ibid., Nov. 21, 1868 (“The American Negro”).

78. Blassingame (ed.), Slave Testimony, 381; Colored Tennessean, Aug. 12, 1865 (Convention of the Colored People); Christian Recorder, Jan. 23, 1864 (H. M. Turner); Weekly Louisianian, Dec. 7, 1878 (“Spell It with a Capital”). On objections to “negro,” see also New Era, Aug. 18, 1870; nevertheless, the editor of Weekly Louisianian (Dec. 12, 1874) thought few if any “intelligent colored citizens” objected to the term, “though they very properly resent the contemptuous one when spelt with two gs.” On gradations of color, see New Orleans Tribune, May 23, 1865. For the debate over whether to strike “African” from the name of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, see Christian Recorder, Nov. 21, Dec. 19, 1863, April 9, 1864, March 25, April 1, 8, May 6, 1865; New Orleans Tribune, June 9, 1865.

79. Loyal Georgian, April 10, 1867; New Era, Feb. 3, 1870.

80. Christian Recorder, June 16, 1866; Semi-Weekly Louisianian, June 15, 1871.

81. Semi-Weekly Louisianian, March 10, 1872 (H. H. Garnet); Christian Recorder, May 13, 1865.

82. Christian Recorder, March 25 (J. Lynch), April 8 (G. Rue), 1865.

83. New Orleans Tribune, Aug. 13, 1865, Feb. 18, 1869; Evans, Ballots and Fence Rails, 90; Christian Recorder, Nov. 27, 1869.

84. Christian Recorder, June 30, 1866, Oct. 21, 1865.

85. New Orleans Tribune, April 13, 1867 (Savannah meeting); Christian Recorder, Jan. 5, 1867; Josiah Gorgas, Ms. Journal, entry for July 9, 1867, Univ. of North Carolina.

86. William S. Basinger to George W. J. DeRenne, Aug. 12, 1867, DeRenne Papers, Duke Univ.

87. Loyal Georgian, July 6, 1867.

88. B. F. Randolph to Bvt. Maj. Gen. R. K. Scott, Aug. 6, 1867, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau (Randolph’s assassination was announced in Christian Recorder, Oct. 31, 1868); New Orleans Tribune, May 12, 1867. See also Loyal Georgian, July 6, 1867 (“A Word on Registration”).

89. New Orleans Tribune, May 24, 1867. On the demands voiced by black political rallies, see, e.g., Christian Recorder, May 4, 1867 (Beaufort, S.C.); New Orleans Tribune, May 4 (Mobile), 10 (St. Louis), 1867; New York Times, Jan. 27 (Georgetown, D.C.), March 19 (Savannah), 27 (Charleston), April 2 (Savannah), 19 (Mobile), 24 (Petersburg, Va.), May 4 (Mobile), 8 (Talladega, Ala.), 9 (Jefferson Co, Fla.), 1867.

90. New York Times, Oct. 28, Aug. 9, 31, 1867.

91. Loyal Georgian, Aug. 10, 1867; New York Times, June 30, May 20, Sept. 25, 1867; Loyal Georgian, April 10, 1867. But Thomas W. Stringer, a black political leader in Mississippi, thought his people “more or less mistrustful” of all the candidates. “They know that there are but few southerners that will do altogether right by them in making the laws, and that northerners with a few exceptions, that are eligible, are no better.” Christian Recorder, May 11, 1867.

92. Towne, Letters and Diary, 182–83; St. Landry Progress, Nov. 16, 1867.

93. New York Times, May 28, 1867; Christian Recorder, Oct. 11, 1867 (M. R. Delany); Free Press (Charleston), April 5, 1868. On black political aspirations, see also Christian Recorder, Aug. 10 (“A Colored Man for Vice-President of the United States” and “Who Are Our Friends?”), Nov. 30 (J. C. Sampson), 1867; New York Times, Aug. 6, 9, Oct. 22, 1867.

94. Christian Recorder, June 26, 1869 (M. R. Delany); New Orleans Tribune, June 12, 13, 14, 18, June 25, 29, July 11, 12, 31, 1867.

95. New Orleans Tribune, May 17, June 12, May 19, Dec. 24, June 9, April 21, May 1, July 31, 1867.

96. Macon Telegraph, reprinted in St. Landry Progress, Oct. 5, 1867.

97. Edward Deane, Asst. Commissioner, Freedmen’s Bureau, Charleston, S.C., to Headquarters, Sub-Asst. Commissioner, Darlington, S.C., Aug. 24, 1867, with a newspaper clipping on the Rev. Nick Williams from Charleston Mercury, Aug. 24, 1867, instructions to investigate “the truth of the statements contained therein,” and an endorsement by the commanding officer in Darlington that he had already dispatched troops to arrest Williams. Records of the Assistant Commissioners, South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau. The arrest is also reported in New York Times, Sept. 9, 1867.

98. F. W. Pickens to Adele Petigru Allston, Nov. 22, 1867, in Easterby (ed.), South Carolina Rice Plantation, 237; Josiah Gorgas, Ms. Journal, entries for March 9, July 14, Aug. 25, 1867, Univ. of North Carolina; Abner S. Williams, Mayor of Williamston, North Carolina, to Hon. Jonathan Worth, Sept. 8, 1866, Lt. C. W. Dodge to Lt. Col. Stephen Moore, Sept. 28, 1866, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, North Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau. See H. S. Van Eaton to Bvt. Maj. Gen. A. Gillem, Nov. 24, 1867, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau.

99. Loyal Georgian, Aug. 10, 1867; John H. Bills, Ms. Diary, entries for July 16, 17, 29, 1867, Univ. of North Carolina; Edward Barnwell Heyward to “Tat” [Catherine Maria Clinch Heyward], May 5, 1867, Heyward Family Papers, Univ. of South Carolina.

100. Lt. H. R. Williams to Lt. Merritt Barber, Feb. 10, 1868, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; New York Times, Jan. 30, 1868 (Bureau circular, Albany, Ga.). For reports that the impending elections had revived hopes among freedmen of land redistribution, see Fisk P. Brewer to Rev. George Whipple, May 27, 1867, American Missionary Assn. Archives; Sarah M. Payne to Mary Clendenin, Dec. 14, 1867, Historical Society of Pennsylvania; Robert Philip Howell, Ms. Memoirs, 24, Univ. of North Carolina; Mrs. Mary Jones to Mrs. Mary S. Mallard, May 15, 1867, in Myers (ed.), Children of Pride, 1382; New York Times, May 18, June 14, July 23, Aug. 13, Oct. 11, 1867, Feb. 28, 1868.

101. Ravenel, Private Journal, 306; Theodore G. Barker to Benjamin Allston, Oct. 10, 1867, in Easterby (ed.), South Carolina Rice Plantation, 235; William Heyward to James Gregorie, June 4, 1868, Gregorie-Elliott Collection, Univ. of North Carolina. The same suggestion was made in a Macon newspaper, as quoted in New York Times, Aug. 13, 1867.

102. Henry Middleton to Mr. and Mrs. J. Francis Fisher, May 29, 1867, Cadwalader Collection (J. F. Fisher section), Historical Society of Pennsylvania; W. E. B. Du Bois, “Reconstruction and Its Benefits,” American Historical Review, XV (1910), 795; Pur-year, The Public School in Its Relation to the Negro, 14.

103. Walter K. Steele to W. W. Lenoir, Jan. 5, 1868, Lenoir Papers, Univ. of North Carolina; G. I. Crafts to William Porcher Miles, April 13, 1867, William P. Miles Collection, Univ. of North Carolina. Similar sentiments are expressed in John C. MacRae to Donald MacRae, March 17, 1867, MacRae Papers, Duke Univ., and in Dr. Ethelred Philips to Dr. James J. Philips, Dec. 1, 1867, James J. Philips Collection, Univ. of North Carolina.

104. Augusta (Ga.) Chronicle, as quoted in New Orleans Tribune, Nov. 22, 1865; Free Press, April 11, 1868; New Orleans Tribune, April 9, 17, 1867. For white appeals to black voters, see also Jacob R. Davis, “To the Colored Voters of the 18th District of Georgia” [1868?], Joseph Belknap Smith Papers, Duke Univ.; New York Times, March 21, April 8, June 19, Aug. 25, 1867. For black response to these appeals, see New Orleans Tribune, April 9 (“The Enemy’s Plan”), Nov. 27, Dec. 14, 21, 1867; New York Times, May 25, 1867.

105. New Orleans Tribune, Dec. 13, 1867; Paul L. De Clouet, Ms. Diary, entry for Nov. 3, 1868, Alexandre E. De Clouet Papers, Louisiana State Univ. For reports of the activities of “conservative” blacks, see New Orleans Tribune, April 9, Dec. 14, 1867; New York Times, April 2, 15, 21, Sept. 1, Nov. 21, 22, 26, 1867. For black response, including alleged threats of violence, see “Conservative Negroes,” in Charles N. Hunter scrapbook, Nov. 30, 1867, Duke Univ.; J. N. Huske to “Dear Joe,” Aug. 17, 1868, William N. Tillinghast Papers, Duke Univ.; New Orleans Tribune, April 13, 1867; New York Times, Oct. 23, 1867.

106. E. W. Demus to Capt. William C. Sterling, April 24, 1867, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Louisiana (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; George R. Ghiselin to Dr. Thomas J. McKie, Nov. 2, 1868, T. J. McKie Papers, Duke Univ.; Jacob Black, Chairman of Board of Registration, Eufala, Ala, to Hon. Albert Griffin, Feb. 22, 1868, Thaddeus Stevens Papers, Library of Congress. For reports of violence, intimidation, and economic coercion, see also Thad K. Pruess, Oxford, Miss, to Maj. A. W. Preston, July 31, 1867, William E. Dove, Georgetown, S.C., to Bvt. Maj. H. C. Egbert, June 6, 1868, Lt. W. G. Sprague, Aberdeen, Miss, to Maj. John Tyler, July 2, 1868, Emanuel Handy [freedman candidate for the legislature], Hazlehurst, Miss, to Gen. A. C. Gillem, July 5, 1868, Records of the Assistant Commissioners, Mississippi and South Carolina (Letters Received), Freedmen’s Bureau; A. Y. Sharpe to Mrs. Lucy M. Young, Aug. 31, 1868, William D. Simpson Papers, Univ. of North Carolina; Moore (ed.), The Juhl Letters (May 7, 1867), 155–56: New York Times, April 7, Oct. 3, Dec. 14, 20, 1867.

107. New York Times, Feb. 15, 1868 (Montgomery, Ala.). See also Christian Recorder, Nov. 16, 1867 (Norfolk); New York Times, June 4 (Washington, D.C.), Aug. 2 (Knoxville and Memphis), Oct. 29 (Augusta and Richmond), 30 (Macon and Savannah), 1867.

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