Notes

CHAPTER 1

1 Oration of Celtis in L.W.SPITZ (ed.): The Northern Renaissance.

2 K.H.DANNENFELDT (ed.): Problems in European Civilisation: The Renaissance, p. vii.

3 W.DURANT: The Story of Civilisation: The Renaissance, Ch. XVII, Part III.

4 E.F.RICE: The Foundations of Early Modern Europe 1460–1559, Ch. 3.

5 ERASMUS:Praise of Folly, trans. B.Radice (Penguin edition), p. 153.

6 LEONARDO DA VINCI: Treatise on Painting, trans. A.P.McMahon, Part II, Section 248.

7 N.PEVSNER: An Outline of European Architecture, Ch. 5.

8 MACHIAVELLI:The Prince, trans. G.Bull (Penguin edition), XIV.

9 MACHIAVELLI:The Discourses, trans. B. Crick (Penguin edition), II, 2.

10 Ibid., I, 9.

11 The Prince, Letter to Lorenzo de’ Medici.

12 Ibid., XXI.

13 Ibid., XXVI.

CHAPTER 2

1 W.DURANT: The Story of Civilisation: The Reformation, Ch. XIV.

2 G.R.ELTON:Reformation Europe, Ch. VII.

3 P.JANELLE: in W.STANFORD REID (ed.): The Reformation.

4 G.STRAUSS: Manifestations of Discontent in Germany on the Eve of the Reformation, extracts from Martin Mair's letter.

5 R.H.BAINTON:Here I Stand, Ch. 4.

CHAPTER 3

1 LUTHER: Friendly Admonition to Peace Concerning the Twelve Articles of the Swabian Peasants, in H.H.HILLERBRAND (ed.): The Protestant Reformation: Selected Documents.

2 W.DURANT: The Story of Civilisation: The Reformation, Ch. XX.

3 E.F.RICE: The Foundations of Early Modern Europe, Ch. 6.

4 G.RUPP: ‘Luther and Government’, in H.G. KOENIGSBERGER (ed.): Luther: A Profile.

5 H.HOLBORN: A History of Modern Germany, Vol. 1, The Reformation, Ch. 9.

6 A.J.GRANT: A History of Europe 1494–1610, Ch. IV.

CHAPTER 4

1 H.J.HILLERBRAND (ed.): The Protestant Reformation’, from CALVIN: Institutes of the Christian Religion.

2 R.W.GREEN (ed.): Problems in European Civilisation: Protestantism and Capitalism, p. 30.

3 L.W.SPITZ (ed.): Problems in European Civilisation: The Reformation, p. 31.

CHAPTER 5

1 H.J.HILLERBRAND (ed.): The Protestant Reformation; from Calvin's reply to Sadoleto.

2 E.M.BURNS: The Counter Reformation; from Loyola: Spiritual Exercises.

3 H.J.HILLERBRAND (ed.): op. cit.; from Calvin: Institutes of the Christian Religion.

4 W.DURANT: The Story of Civilisation: The Reformation, Ch. XXXVIII.

CHAPTER 6

1 E.M.BURNS: The Counter Reformation; from The Propositions of Wycliffe.

2 W.DURANT: The Story of Civilisation: the Reformation, Ch. XXVIII.

3 E.M.BURNS: op. cit.; from Decree Frequens (1417).

4 Ibid.; from: Council of Constance (1415).

5 Ibid.; from: Bull Execrabilis.

6 W.DURANT: op. cit., Ch. XXXIX.

7 E.F.RICE: The Foundations of Early Modern Europe 1460–1559, Ch. 1.

CHAPTER 7

1 A.J.GRANT: A History of Europe 1494–1610, Ch. 1.

2 J.H.ELLIOTT: Imperial Spain 1469–1716, Ch. 3.

3 New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. I, p. 332.

4 W.C.ATKINSON: A History of Spain and Portugal, Ch. 7.

5 J.H.ELLIOTT: op. cit., Ch. 5.

CHAPTER 8

1 GUICCIARDINI:The History of Italy (1561), Book I, Prologue.

2 MACHIAVELLI:The Prince, XXVI.

CHAPTER 9

1 J.C.RULE and J.J.TE PASKE (eds): Problems in European Civilisation: the Character of Philip II; ‘Apologia’.

2 J.LYNCH: Spain under the Habsburgs, p. 216.

3 J.LYNCH: op. cit., p. 271.

4 P.PIERSON:Philip II of Spain, p. 167.

5 C.PETRIE: Philip II of Spain, p. 195.

6 J.LYNCH: op. cit, p. 322.

CHAPTER 11

1 W.YALE: The Near East: A Modern History, p. 23.

2 D.W.MILLER and C.D.MOORE (eds): The Middle East Yesterday and Today, Part III.

3 W.YALE: op. cit., p. 24.

CHAPTER 12

1 W.H.MCNEILL:Plagues and Peoples, Ch. 4.

2 Cambridge Economic History of Europe, Vol. IV, Ch. 1, Part II.

3 Ibid., Ch.1, Part III.

4 C.M.CIPOLLA (ed.): The Fontana History of Europe, Vol. 2, The Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, Ch. 1.

5 H.G.KOENIGSBERGER and G.L.MOSSE: Europe in the Sixteenth Century, Ch. III.

6 Cambridge Economic History of Europe, Vol. IV, Ch. 1, Part IV.

7 W.DURANT: The Story of Civilisation: The Age of Reason Begins, Ch. XXI.

8 Cambridge Economic History of Europe, Vol. IV, tables (pp. 63–7).

9 Ibid., Ch. 1, Part VI.

10 M.S.ANDERSON: Europe in the Eighteenth Century, Ch. IV.

11 J.GODECHOT: France and the Atlantic Revolution of the Eighteenth Century, Ch. 1.

12 New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. III, Ch. 1, table on p. 19.

13 D.OGG: Europe in the Seventeenth Century, Ch. XI.

14 W.H.MCNEILL: op. cit., Ch. V.

15 J.D.FAGE: An Introduction to the History of West Africa, Ch. V.

CHAPTER 13

1 H.HOLBORN: A History of Modern Germany: The Reformation, Ch. 3.

CHAPTER 14

1 C.V.WEDGWOOD: Richelieu and the French Monarchy, Ch. 5.

2 L.BATTIFOL in T.K.RABB (ed.): Problems in European Civilisation: The Thirty Years’ War.

3 Ibid.; from Statements of Intent by Gustavus Adolphus and Axel Oxenstierna.

4 D.OGG: Europe in the Seventeenth Century, Ch. IV.

5 C.J.FRIEDRICH: The Age of the Baroque 1610–1660.

CHAPTER 15

1 T.K.RABB (ed.): Problems in European Civilisation: The Thirty Years’ War, extract by G.Freytag.

2 S.H.STEINBERG in History, Vol. XXXII, 1947.

3 W.DURANT: The Story of Civilisation: The Age of Reason Begins, Ch. XXI.

4 C.V.WEDGWOOD:The Thirty Years’ War, Ch. 12.

5 Ibid., Ch. 8.

6 New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. V, Ch. XVIII.

7 D.OGG: Europe in the Seventeenth Century, Ch. IV.

CHAPTER 16

1 H.HOLBORN: A History of Modern Germany, Vol. 1, Ch. 14.

2 C.V.WEDGWOOD:The Thirty Years’ War, Ch. 12.

3 G.PAGES: The Thirty Years’ War 1618–1648, Ch. I.

CHAPTER 17

1 H.G.KOENIGSBERGER and G.L.MOSSE: Europe in the Sixteenth Century, Ch. IX.

CHAPTER 18

1 J.H.PARRY: The Spanish Seaborne Empire, Ch. 12.

2 J.H.ELLIOTT: Imperial Spain 1469–1716, Ch. 5.

3 C.M.CIPOLLA (ed.): The Fontana Economic History of Europe, Vol. 2, Ch. 5.

4 V.H.H.GREEN: Renaissance and Reformation, Ch. XIII.

5 L.W.COWIE: Seventeenth Century Europe, Ch. IX.

6 H.G.KOENIGSBERGER and G.L. MOSSE: Europe in the Sixteenth Century, Ch. III.

7 L.W.COWIE: op. cit., Ch. IX.

CHAPTER 19

1 M.ROBERTS: Sweden as a Great Power 1611–1697, Document XVII.

2 Cambridge Economic History of Europe, Vol. IV, tables (pp. 63–7).

3 M.ROBERTS: op. cit., Document XXIX.

4 Ibid., Document XXXIX.

CHAPTER 20

1 E.N.WILLIAMS: The Ancien Régime in Europe,Ch. 2.

2 H.H.ROWEN (ed.): The Low Countries in Early Modern Times, Document 32.

3 C.WILSON: The Dutch Republic, Ch. 1.

4 H.H.ROWEN: op. cit., Document 16.

5 Ibid., Document 46.

6 Ibid., Document 40.

CHAPTER 21

1 W.F.CHURCH : Richelieu and Reason of State, p. 26.

2 C.V.WEDGWOOD: Richelieu and the French Monarchy, Ch. 3.

3 M.PRESTWICH: The Making of Absolute Monarchy (1559–1683), in J.M. WALLACE HADRILL and J.MCMANNERS: France: Government and Society.

4 W.E.BROWN: The First Bourbon Century in France, Part II.

5 W.F.CHURCH: op. cit., p. 189.

6 Ibid., p. 487.

7 W.F.CHURCH: Richelieu and Reason of State, p. 178.

8 C.V.WEDGWOOD: op. cit., Ch. 8.

9 W.F.CHURCH: Richelieu and Reason of State, p. 339.

CHAPTER 22

1 W.F.CHURCH (ed.): Problems in European Civilisation: The Greatness of Louis XIV, from Bossuet.

2 J.B.WOLF: ‘Formation of a King’, in J.B.WOLF: Louis XIV: a Profile.

3 LOUIS XIV: Memoires, 1661.

4 W.E.BROWN: The First Bourbon Century in France, Part IV.

5 W.F.CHURCH (ed.): Problems in European Civilisation: The Greatness of Louis XIV, from Voltaire.

6 F.NUSSBAUM: The Triumph of Science and Reason 1660–1685, Ch. 3.

7 New Cambridge Modern History, Vol. V, Ch. 10.

8 G.N.CLARK: The Seventeenth Century, Ch. V.

CHAPTER 23

1 C.V.WEDGWOOD: Richelieu and the French Monarchy, Ch. 5.

2 L.BATIFFOL in T.K.RABB (ed.): Problems in European Civilisation: The Thirty Years’ War.

3 LOUIS XIV: Memoires.

4 G.R.R.TREASURE : Seventeenth Century France, Ch. 16.

5 VOLTAIRE:Age of Louis XIV, Ch. XXVIII.

6 G.R.R.TREASURE: op. cit., Ch. 22.

7 Ibid., Ch. 27.

CHAPTER 24

1 Much of the information in this chapter is derived from the works of F.L. CARSTEN, listed in the Bibliography.

2 C.A.MACARTNEY (ed.): The Habsburg and Hohenzollern Dynasties, Part II, Document 3, The Brandenburg Recess’.

CHAPTER 25

1 E.N.WILLIAMS: The Ancien Régime in Europe, Ch. 14.

2 P.GAXOTTE: Frederick the Great, Ch. XI.

3 W.HUBATSCH: Frederick the Great: Absolutism and Administration, Ch.V.

4 H.C.JOHNSON: Frederick the Great and His Officials, Ch. II.

5 W.HUBATSCH: op. cit., Ch. II.

6 W.L.DORN in P.PARET (ed.): Frederick the Great: A Profile, p. 69.

7 W.HUBATSCH: op. cit., Ch. VI.

CHAPTER 26

1 J.MARRIOTT and C.G.ROBERTSON: The Evolution of Prussia, Ch. III.

2 G.A.MACARTNEY (ed.): The Habsburg and Hohenzollern Dynasties, Part II, Document 18, ‘Political Testament (1752)’.

3 G.P.GOOCH:Frederick the Great, Ch. XIII.

4 Ibid., Ch.I.

5 Ibid., Ch.II.

6 P.GAXOTTE: Frederick the Great, Ch. X.

7 E.J.FEUCHTWANGER:Prussia: Myth and Reality, Ch. III.

8 W.DURANT: The Story of Civilisation: Rousseau and Revolution, Ch. II.

CHAPTER 27

1 N.BERDYAEV: The Origin of Russian Communism, Introduction.

2 M.RAEFF (ed.): Problems of European Civilisation: Peter the Great, from Soloviev.

3 Ibid., p. xvii.

4 POBEDONOSTSEV: in Problems in European Civilisation: Imperial Russia after 1861.

CHAPTER 28

1 Extract from Herzen in JAY OLIVA (ed.): Catherine the Great: Great Lives Observed.

2 E.N.WILLIAMS: The Ancien Régime in Europe, Ch. 10.

3 Extracts from the Nakaz of Catherine II in B.DMYTRYSHYN (ed.): Imperial Russia: A Source Book 1700–1917, Document 10.

4 Interview with Diderot; extract in JAY OLIVA: op. cit.

5 B.DMYTRYSHYN: op. cit., Document 14.

6 G.P.GOOCH:Catherine the Great, Ch. VII.

7 A.RADISHCHEV: Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow, trans. Leo Werner. Empress Catherine's notes.

CHAPTER 29

1 D.OGG: Europe in the Seventeenth Century, Ch. XI.

2 A.LENTIN: Russia in the Eighteenth Century, Ch. I.

3 S.V.BAKRUSHIN AKRUSHIN and s. D. SKAZKIN: ‘Diplomacy’ in M.RAEFF: Catherine the Great: A Profile, Part III.

4 G.P.GOOCH : Catherine the Great, Ch. VII.

CHAPTER 30

1 C.A.MACARTNEY (ed.): The Habsburg and Hohenzollern Dynasties, Part I, Document 12.

2 Ibid., Document 13B.

3 L.GERSHOY: From Despotism to Revolution, Ch. IV.

4 E.N.WILLIAMS; op. cit., Ch. 18.

5 T.C.W.BLANNING: Joseph II and Enlightened Despotism, Ch. 2.

6 Ibid., Document 1.

7 C.A.MACARTNEY: op. cit., Document 14.

8 K.ROIDER:Maria Theresa, p. 115.

9 W.DURANT: The Story of Civilisation: Rousseau and Revolution, Ch. XIII.

CHAPTER 31

1 R.W.HARRIS: Absolutism and Enlightenment, Ch. 8.

2 T.C.W.BLANNING: Joseph II and Enlightened Despotism, Document 7.

3 Ibid., Ch. 5.

4 Ibid. Ch. 3.; E.N.WILLIAMS: The Ancien Régime in Europe, Ch. 19.

5 C.A.MACARTNEY:The Habsburg Empire 1790–1918, p. 127; E.N. WILLIAMS: op. cit., Ch. 5.

6 T.C.W.BLANNING: op. cit, Ch. 3.

7 C.A.MACARTNEY: The Habsburg and Hohenzollern Dynasties, Part I, Document 15B.

8 W.DURANT: The Story of Civilisation: Rousseau and Revolution, Ch. XIII.

9 E.WANGERMANN:From Joseph II to the Jacobin Trials.

10 T.C.W.BLANNING: op. cit., Document 17.

CHAPTER 32

1 R.DESCARTES: in A.D.LINDSAY (ed.), Discourse on Method, Part II.

2 J.LOCKE: in R.K.LIBANSKY (ed.), Epistola de Tolerantia, p. 65.

3 Ibid., p. 91.

4 D.OGG: Europe of the Ancien Régime 1715–1783, Ch. XII.

5 W.DURANT: The Story of Civilisation: The Age of Voltaire, Ch. XXI.

6 S.POLLARD: The Idea of Progress, Ch. 3.

7 W.DURANT: The Story of Civilisation: Rousseau and Revolution, Ch. XXXV.

8 W.DURANT: The Age of Voltaire, Ch. XIX.

9 VOLTAIRE: Philosophical Dictionary.

10 MONTESQUIEU:The Spirit of the Laws, trans. T.Nugent; Ch. I, Part i.

11 J.BOWLE: Western Political Thought, Ch. VIII.

12 D.HUME: On Human Nature and Understanding, ed. A.FLEW; ‘An Essay Concerning Human Understanding’, Section 4.

13 HUME:Treatise of Human Nature, ed. L.A.SELBY BIGGS, Book II, Part III, Section III.

14 W.DURANT: Rousseau and Revolution, Ch. I.

15 J.J.ROUSSEAU:The Social Contract, ed. E.BARKER, Ch. I.

16 J.J.ROUSSEAU:Emile, Book I, Ch. VII.

17 C.PARKIN: The Moral Basis of Burke's Political Thought, Ch. II.

18 Ibid., Ch.VI.

19 Ibid., Ch.V.

CHAPTER 33

1 M.RAEFF (ed.): Catherine the Great: A Profile, from Miliukov.

2 R.WINES (ed.): Problems in European Civilisation: Enlightened Despotism, from Voltaire.

3 G.P.GOOCH:Frederick the Great, Ch. VII.

4 C.A.MACARTNEY (ed.): The Habsburg and Hohenzollern Dynasties, Part II, Document 18, ‘Political Testament’ (1752).

5 G.P.GOOCH: Catherine the Great, Ch. 7.

6 W.DURANT: The Story of Civilisation: Rousseau and Revolution, Ch. XIII.

7 T.C.W.BLANNING : Joseph II and Enlightened Despotism, Ch. 6.

8 G.P.GOOCH: Frederick the Great, Ch. 8.

9 L.GERSHOY: From Despotism to Revolution.

10 W.DURANT: op. cit., Ch. XVIII.

11 L.KRIEGER: Kings and Philosophers, Ch. 9.

CHAPTER 34

1 J.B.PERKINS: France Under the Regency, Ch. XVI.

2 J.LOUGH: An Introduction to Eighteenth Century France, Ch. IV.

3 P.ROBERTS: The Quest for Security 1715–1740, Ch. III.

4 J.B.PERKINS: op. cit., Ch. X.

5 Ibid., Ch. XIII.

6 P.ROBERTS: op. cit., Ch. VIII.

7 G.P.GOOCH:Louis XV, Ch. 3.

8 A.SOREL: Europe and the French Revolution, Book II, Ch. 1.

CHAPTER 35

1 W.DURANT: The Story of Civilisation: Rousseau and Revolution, Ch. XXXIV.

2 J.LOUGH: An Introduction to Eighteenth–Century France, Ch. I.

3 E.N.WILLIAMS: The Ancien Régime in Europe, Ch. 8.

4 J.LOUGH: op. cit., Ch. V.

5 G.P.GOOCH:Louis XV, Ch. 12.

6 A.SOREL: Europe and the French Revolution, trans. in G.P.GOOCH: Louis XV, Ch. 4.

7 G.P.GOOCH: op. cit., Ch. 11.

8 J.LOUGH: op. cit., Ch. VI.

CHAPTER 37

1 A.DE TOCQUEVILLE: The Ancien Régime.

2 J.C.DAVIES: ‘Toward a Theory of Revolution’, in J.C.DAVIES (ed.), When Men Revolt and Why.

3 J.LOUGH: An Introduction to Eighteenth–Century France, Ch. III.

4 E.N.WILLIAMS: The Ancien Régime in Europe, Ch. 8.

5 P.GOUBERT:The Ancien Régime, Ch. I, Part 2.

6 K.KUMAR:Revolution, Introduction, Part 6.

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