Modern history

Aspects of European History 1494-1789

Aspects of European History 1494-1789

The most commonly encountered topics of nineteenth and twentieth century history, from the origins of the French Revolution, through the social and political reforms and upheavals of the last two centuries to the present.

Chapter 1. Renaissance Humanism

Chapter 2. The Background to the Reformation

Chapter 3. Political Factors in the Spread of Lutheranism in Germany Between 1517 and 1555

Chapter 4. The Spread and Significance of Calvinism

Chapter 5. Calvinism and the Jesuits

Chapter 6. The Counter Reformation

Chapter 7. The Political Development of Spain 1474–1598

Chapter 8. The Italian Wars and the Habsburg-Valois Struggle 1494–1559

Chapter 9. The Foreign Policy of Philip II

Chapter 10. The Development of the Ottoman Empire to 1566

Chapter 11. The Beginnings of Ottoman Decline 1566–1699

Chapter 12. European Population Growth 1500–1800

Chapter 13. The Holy Roman Empire 1493–1618

Chapter 14. Issues Involved in the Thirty Years’ War

Chapter 15. The Effects of the Thirty Years’ War on Germany

Chapter 16. The Significance of the Treaty of Westphalia

Chapter 17. The Spanish and Portuguese Empires

Chapter 18. The Impact of the Spanish Empire on Spain's Economy in the Sixteenth and Early Seventeenth Centuries

Chapter 19. Sweden as a Major Power 1611–1721

Chapter 20. The Dutch Republic in the Seventeenth Century

Chapter 21. France During the Administration of Cardinal Richelieu

Chapter 22. France Under Louis XIV

Chapter 23. French Foreign Policy in the Seventeenth Century

Chapter 24. The Reforms of the Great Elector

Chapter 25. The Growth of the Prussian Bureaucracy in the Eighteenth Century

Chapter 26. Prussian Foreign Policy 1740–1786

Chapter 27. The Reforms of Peter the Great

Chapter 28. Russia Under Catherine the Great

Chapter 29. Russian Foreign Policy in the Eighteenth Century

Chapter 30. Austria Under Maria Theresa

Chapter 31. Austria Under Joseph II

Chapter 32. The Age of Reason

Chapter 33. Enlightened Despotism: A General Survey

Chapter 34. France Under the Regency and Cardinal Fleury 1715–1743

Chapter 35. France Under Louis XV and Louis XVI

Chapter 36. French Foreign Policy in the Eighteenth Century

Chapter 37. The Origins of the French Revolution

Chapter Notes