Modern history

NOTES

Introduction

1. David R. Slavitt, ed. and trans., Ovid’s Poetry of Exile (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1990), 122.

2. Susan L. Einbinder, No Place of Rest: Jewish Literature, Expulsion, and the Memory of Medieval France (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009), 54.

3. On population removals from antiquity through the present, see Andrew Bell-Fialkoff, Ethnic Cleansing (New York: St. Martin’s, 1996).

4. Historians and social scientists have engaged in a lively debate over the definition of diaspora. Some favor breadth, envisioning diaspora as a category that encompasses multiple models of dispersal, while others seek more rigor, classifying subsequent diasporas in relation to the original Jewish case or, alternatively, insisting on diaspora as a modern “stance” or “idiom” rather than a category of analysis good for all times and places. On this controversy, see Rogers Brubaker, “The ‘Diaspora’ Diaspora,” Ethnic and Racial Studies 28, no. 1 (January 2005): 1–19. Like the historian Maya Jasanoff, who has written eloquently of the “loyalist diaspora” in the wake of the American Revolution, I envision diaspora as a general notion flexible enough to accommodate diverse instances of dispossession and migration. See Jasanoff, Liberty’s Exiles: American Loyalists in the Revolutionary World (New York: Knopf, 2011), 8.

5. On the Acadian population during the eighteenth century, see especially Stephen A. White, “The True Number of the Acadians,” in Ronnie-Gilles LeBlanc, ed., Du Grand Dérangement à la Déportation: Nouvelles perspectives historiques (Moncton, NB: Chaire d’études acadiennes, Université de Moncton, 2005), 21–56.

6. On Acadian neutrality in comparative perspective, see Jon Parmenter and Mark Power Robison, “The Perils and Possibilities of Wartime Neutrality on the Edges of Empire: Iroquois and Acadians Between the French and British in North America, 1744–1760,”Diplomatic History 31 (April 2007): 167–206.

7. “Journal of Abijah Willard of Lancaster, Mass., An Officer in the Expedition Which Captured Fort Beauséjour in 1755,” ed. J. C. Webster, Collections of the New Brunswick Historical Society 13 (1930): 41–42.

8. Thomas Hutchinson, The History of the Colony and Province of Massachusetts-Bay (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1936), 30. The best recent accounts of the 1755 expulsion are John Mack Faragher, A Great and Noble Scheme: The Tragic Story of the Expulsion of the French Acadians from Their American Homeland (New York: W. W. Norton, 2005), and Geoffrey Plank, An Unsettled Conquest: The British Campaign Against the Peoples of Acadia (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001).

9. Scholarly treatments of the Acadian diaspora include Emile Lauvrière, La tragédie d’un peuple: Histoire du peuple acadien de ses origines à nos jours, 2 vols. (Paris: Editions Bossard, 1923); Oscar William Winzerling, Acadian Odyssey (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1955); Carl A. Brasseaux, The Founding of New Acadia: The Beginnings of Acadian Life in Louisiana, 1764–1803 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1987); Carl A. Brasseaux, scattered to the Wind: Dispersal and Wanderings of the Acadians, 1755–1809 (Lafayette, LA: Center for Louisiana Studies, 1991).

10. Yves-Joseph de Kerguelen-Trémarec, “Réflexions sur les avantages que peut procurer la France Australe,” in Kerguelen-Trémarec, Rélation de deux voyages dans les mers australes et des Indes, faits en 1771, 1772, 1773, et 1774 (Paris: Serpent de Mer, 2000), 95.

11. Acadians to Pierre-Etienne Bourgeois de Boynes, n.d., ANOM, AC, série F2A 14, 221–22.

12. Faragher, A Great and Noble Scheme, 434–35.

13. On Acadians in Louisiana, see Brasseaux, Founding of New Acadia; Carl A. Brasseaux, Acadian to Cajun: Transformation of a People, 1803–1877 (Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 1992). On Acadians in the late eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century Maritime Provinces, see especially Mason Wade, “After the Grand Dérangement: The Acadians’ Return to the Gulf of St. Lawrence and to Nova Scotia,” American Review of Canadian Studies 5 (1975): 42–65.

14. The most prominent histories of the Acadians and the grand dérangement have followed this line of thinking. Naomi E. S. Griffiths frames her interpretation by arguing that before 1755, Acadians “considered themselves to be first and foremost Acadians rather than members of any other group,” and that after the expulsion they “once more asserted their identity as a separate and distinct people.” See Griffiths, From Migrant to Acadian: A North American Border People, 1604–1755 (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2005), xv–xvi. John Mack Faragher, whose work focuses more on the origins and execution of the 1755 expulsion, describes the “transplantation of a way of life from the meadows of l’Acadie to the prairies of Louisiana,” and argues that “the reunification of their extended families was foremost in the minds of the Acadian exiles.” See Faragher, A Great and Noble Scheme, 429, 388.

15. For quote, see David A. Bell, The Cult of the Nation in France: Inventing Nationalism, 1680–1800 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001), 84. On French imperialism after the Seven Years’ War, see, for example, Kenneth Banks, Chasing Empire Across the Seas: Communication and the State in the French Atlantic (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2002), 7, for the argument that empire was, after 1763, “defined universally and overwhelmingly in negative terms.” Gilles Havard and Cécile Vidal, two of the most accomplished historians of the early modern French Atlantic, conclude that “the French Empire ended in 1763.” See Havard and Vidal, “Making New France New Again,” Common-Place 7 (July 2007), www.common-place.org/vol-07/no-04/harvard. In his fine survey of eighteenth-century France, Gwynne Lewis argues that in the wake of the Treaty of Paris, French politicians and thinkers “concentrate[d] more on the countryside than on the colonies.” See Lewis, France, 1715–1804: Power and the People (New York: Longman, 2004), 184. On the historiography of French imperialism in this period and more generally, see Christopher Hodson and Brett Rushforth, “Absolutely Atlantic: Colonialism and the Early Modern French State in Recent Historiography,” History Compass 7 (2009): 1–17.

16. The best single-volume history of the Seven Years’ War remains Fred Anderson, Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America (New York: Knopf, 2000). Anderson eloquently advocates resistance to “the subtler tyranny of a hindsight that suggests that the creation of the American republic was somehow foreordained” by the events of the 1750s and 1760s (xxv). For a sweeping, transnational account of the war’s origins, see Paul A. Mapp, The Elusive West and the Contest for Empire, 1713–1763 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2010).

17. See Robert Darnton, The Literary Underground of the Old Regime (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982), 78, for some of eighteenth-century France’s other hommes à projets.

18. See Christopher L. Brown, Moral Capital: Foundations of British Abolitionism (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006).

19. See Michael Craton, Testing the Chains: Resistance to Slavery in the British West Indies (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1982), 125–39; Vincent Brown, The Reapers’ Garden: Death and Power in the World of Atlantic Slavery (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2008), 148–49.

20. [Sébastien-Jacques] Courtin, “Mémoire sommaire sur les prétendues pratiques magiques et empoisonnements,” 1758, ANOM, AC, série F3, vol. 88, 209. On Makandal, see Pierre Pluchon, Vaudou, sorciers, empoisonneurs de Saint Domingue à Haiti (Paris: Karthala, 1987); Karol Weaver, Medical Revolutionaries: The Enslaved Healers of Eighteenth-Century Saint-Domingue (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2006); John Garrigus, “The Cultural Construction of Resistance: The Legend of Makandal the Poisoner,” paper presented to the Rocky Mountain Seminar in Early American History, February 27, 2010.

21. Craton, Testing the Chains, 138; Relation d’une conspiration tramée par les nègres dans l’Isle de St.-Domingue (Paris, 1758), 8.

22. Abbé Raynal, cited in John D. Garrigus, Before Haiti: Race and Citizenship in French Saint-Domingue (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006), 112.

23. Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, “Mémoire sur différents objets relatifs à l’expédition des Navires l’Aigle et le Sphinx, actuellement en armement à St. Mâlo,” n.d., ANOM, AC, série F2A, vol. 14, 1.

24. This account of Evangeline’s origins is culled primarily from Manning Hawthorne and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Dana, The Origin and Development of Longfellow’s “Evangeline” (Portland, ME: Anthoensen Press, 1947), 12–13; see also Naomi E. S. Griffiths, “Longfellow’s Evangeline: The Birth and Acceptance of a Legend,” Acadiensis 11 (1982): 28–41.

25. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Evangeline: A Tale of Acadie (London: David Bogue, 1854), 48.

26. On Longfellow’s Evangeline and its varied receptions, see also Patricia Lockhart Fleming and Yvan Lamonde, eds., The History of the Book in Canada, vol. 2: 1840–1918 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004), 60–61; M. Brook Taylor, “The Poetry and Prose of History: Evangeline and the Historians of Nova Scotia,” Journal of Canadian Studies/Révue d’études canadiennes 23 (Spring/Summer 1988): 54.

27. On this point, see Plank, Unsettled Conquest, 165–67.

28. This précis of Achille Gotrot’s final voyage is drawn from Yves Boyer-Vidal, Le retour des Acadiens: Errances terrestres et maritimes, 1750–1850 (Paris: Editions du Gerfaut, 2005), 173–93. My deepest thanks to Mr. Boyer-Vidal for sharing his insights on this subject with me. For the circulation of the Jean Bart’s story in Conolly and Longfellow’s Boston, see New Bedford Mercury, March 29, 1839, August 2, 1839, and June 12, 1840.

29. See Stephen A. White, Dictionnaire généalogique des familles acadiennes (Moncton, New Brunswick, 1999), 2:698.

30. Marquis de Pérusse to l’Evêque de Tagaste, May 18, 1774, Montoiron, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 98.

31. See Bruno Haffreingue, “Mon ancêtre d’Acadie, Firmin Aucoin (1754–1802),” Cahiers de la société historique acadienne 33 (2002): 88–105.

32. Boyer-Vidal, Le retour des acadiens, 149–50.

33. On de Thierry, see J. D. Raeside, Sovereign Chief: A Biography of the Baron de Thierry (Christchurch, NZ: Caxton Press, 1977); Muriel Proust de la Gironière, La France en Nouvelle Zélande, 1840–1846: Un vaudeville coloniale (Paris: Editions de Gerfaut, 2002).

Chapter 1: The Expulsion

1. Chevalier de la Hossaye to Surlaville, August 2, 1753, Fort Gaspereaux, in J. C. Webster, The Forts of Chignecto (Shediac, NB, 1930), 132.

2. The entire story of the death of André Boudin dit Blondain is recounted by Pichon in Fonds Thomas Pichon, MG 18, vol. F-12, vol. 1, 116–17, LAC.

3. Pichon to Mme. [de Beaumont], Fonds Thomas Pichon, 11, LAC.

4. John Mack Faragher, A Great and Noble Scheme: The Tragic Story of the Expulsion of the French Acadians from Their American Homeland (New York: W. W. Norton, 2005), 310.

5. On Pichon, see especially Lawrence Henry Gipson, The Great War for Empire: The Years of Defeat, 1754–1757, vol. 6 of The British Empire Before the American Revolution (New York: Knopf, 1942), 212–42.

6. Philipps to the Secretary of State, undated letter, in SPD, 55.

7. On the history of population removals worldwide, see Andrew Bell-Fialkoff, Ethnic Cleansing (New York: St. Martin’s, 1996). On Ireland, see especially Nicholas Canny, Making Ireland British, 1580–1650 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001); on Native Americans, see, for example, Colin Calloway, New Worlds for All: Indians, Europeans, and the Remaking of Early America (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998); on the Highland Scots, see Geoffrey Plank, Rebellion and Savagery: The Jacobite Rising of 1745 and the British Empire (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006) and Colin Calloway, White People, Indians, and Highlanders: Tribal Peoples and Colonial Encounters in Scotland and America (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008).

8. On the reducciones, see Steve J. Stern, Peru’s Indian Peoples and the Challenge of Spanish Conquest: Huamanga to 1640 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1982), 76–77.

9. On the Huguenots, see Bertrand van Ruymbeke and Randy Sparks, eds., Memory and Identity: The Huguenots in France and the Atlantic Diaspora (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2003).

10. See, for example, Herbert S. Klein, The Atlantic Slave Trade (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999) or, more evocatively, Marcus Rediker, The Slave Ship: A Human History (New York: Viking, 2007).

11. William Shirley to the Duke of Newcastle, Boston, July 28, 1746, in Charles Henry Lincoln, ed., The Correspondence of William Shirley (New York: Macmillan, 1912), 1:335.

12. On forts and imperial competition in the midcentury backcountry, see Eric Hinderaker, Elusive Empires: Constructing Colonialism in the Ohio Valley, 1673–1800 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997); for a more general narrative, see Fred Anderson,Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America (New York: Knopf, 2000).

13. John Clarence Webster, Sir Brook Watson, Friend of the Loyalists, First Agent of New Brunswick in London (Sackville, NB: Reprinted from the Argosy, Mount Allison University, 1924), 7.

14. On the 1750s, see John G. Reid, Six Crucial Decades: Times of Change in the History of the Maritimes (Halifax: Nimbus, 1987).

15. Jacau de Fiedmont, The Siege of Fort Beauséjour in 1755: A Journal of the Attack on Beauséjour written by Jacau de Fiedmont, ed. J. C. Webster (Sackville, NB: Tribune Press, 1936), 11.

16. J. C. Webster, The Life of Thomas Pichon, “The Spy of Beauséjour” (Halifax: PANS, 1937), 32.

17. De la Houssaye to Surlaville, May 12, 1753, and M. de Saint-Ours de Chaillon to M. des Herbiers and M. de Raymond, July 30, 1751 in Webster, The Forts of Chignecto, 130, 123.

18. Augustin Doucet to Madame Languedoc, August 5, 1750, Port-la-Joie, Colonial Office 42, vol. 23, 1, PRO, microfilm copy at LAC.

19. Pichon to Mme. [de Beaumont], n.d., Fonds Thomas Pichon, 12, LAC.

20. Mi’kmaq subsistence patterns prior to European contact are a source of debate among ethnohistorians and anthropologists. For a good overview, see David V. Burley, “Proto-Historic Ecological Effects of the Fur Trade on Micmac Culture in Northeastern New Brunswick,” Ethnohistory 28 (Summer 1981), 203–16.

21. Patricia Nietfeld, “Determinants of Aboriginal Micmac Political Structure,” PhD. diss., University of New Mexico, 1981, 252–53.

22. D. B. Quinn, “The Voyage of Etienne Bellenger to the Maritimes in 1583: A New Document,” Canadian Historical Review 43 (1962): 340–41.

23. On disease among the Mi’kmaq, see William Wicken, “Encounters with Tall Sails and Tall Tales: Mi’kmaq Society, 1500–1760,” Ph.D. Diss., McGill University, 1994), 190–203.

24. Pierre Biard, “Relation of 1616,” in Reuben Gold Thwaites, ed., Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents (Cleveland: Burrows, 1896–1901), 3:89. On the Holy Gathering, see Wicken, “Encounters with Tall Sails,” 134–38.

25. Saint-Ovide to Minister of the Marine, November 3, 1728, ANOM, AC, série C11B, vol. 10, f. 67.

26. Andrew Hill Clark, Acadia: The Geography of Early Nova Scotia to 1760 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1968), 58. On the Mi’kmaq generally, see L. F. S. Upton, Micmacs and Colonists: Indian-White Relations in the Maritimes, 1713–1867(Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press, 1979).

27. Naomi E. S. Griffiths, From Migrant to Acadian: A North American Border People, 1604–1755 (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2005), 4.

28. On the Parisian hatters and the Canadian/Acadian fur trade, see Michael Sonenscher, The Hatters of Eighteenth-Century France (Berkeley: University of Calofirnia Press, 1987)

29. Clark, Acadia, 86; Griffiths, From Migrant to Acadian, 17.

30. See Naomi E. S. Griffiths and John G. Reid, “New Evidence from New Scotland, 1629,” William and Mary Quarterly 49 (July 1992): 492–508.

31. “Convention avecle Sr. de Razilly pour aller recevoir la restitution du Port Royal de l’Acadie des mains des Anglais, et en mettre en possession la Compagnie de la Nouvelle France,” March 27, 1632, ANOM, AC, série C11A, vol. 1, 47.

32. Griffiths, From Migrant to Acadian, 48.

33. “Lettre du Rev. Père Ignace, Capucin, Senlis, ce 6e Aoust 1653,” in Collection de manuscrits contenant lettres, mémoires, et autres documents historiques relatifs à la Nouvelle-France (Québec: A. Coté, 1888), 1:137.

34. Faragher, A Great and Noble Scheme, 57.

35. Griffiths, From Migrant to Acadian, 61–63.

36. François de la Noue, Discours politiques et militaires (Geneva: Droz, 1967), 190; noble cahier from the diocese of Castres, cited in Davis Bitton, The French Nobility in Crisis, 1560–1640 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1969), 64. Generally, see Mack Holt, The French Wars of Religion, 1562–1629 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005).

37. Lettre du roy à Monseigneur d’Halincourt, avec le veritable discours de ce qui s’est passé au voyage de sa Majesté, & de la deffaicte des Rebelles de Poictou (Lyon: Nicolas Jullieron & Claude Largot, 1622), 5.

38. J. Russell Major, From Renaissance Monarchy to Absolute Monarchy: French Kings, Nobles, and Estates (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994), 125–26.

39. See Geneviève Massignon, “La seigneurie de Charles de Menou d’Aulnay, gouverneur de l’Acadie, 1635–1650,” Revue d’histoire de l’amérique française 16 (1963): 469–501.

40. Sherman Bleakney, Sods, Soil, and Spades: The Acadians at Grand Pré and Their Dykeland Legacy (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2004), 5.

41. Marc Lescarbot, Histoire de la Nouvelle France (Paris, 1611), 577.

42. “Account of the Voyage of Monsieur de Meulles to Acadie, 1685–1686,” in William Inglis Morse, ed., Acadiensia Nova (1598–1779) (London: Bernard Quatrich, 1935), 1:107.

43. Clark, Acadia, 52.

44. William Lawson Grant, ed., Voyages of Samuel de Champlain, 1604–1616 (New York, 1907), 79.

45. See Karl L. Butzer, “French Wetland Agriculture in Atlantic Canada and Its European Roots: Different Avenues to Historical Diffusion,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 92 (September 2002): 454.

46. Ibid., 459.

47. Ibid., 461.

48. Cited in Clark, Acadia, 103.

49. “Lettre du Rev. Père Ignace, Capucin, Senlis, ce 6e Aoust 1653,” in Collection de manuscrits, 138.

50. Bleakney, Sods, Soil, and Spades, 46.

51. Ibid., 50–51.

52. Dièreville, cited in Butzer, “French Wetland Agriculture,” 456.

53. Marc Lescarbot, Histoire de la Nouvelle-France (Paris, 1866), 2:530; Bleakney, Sods, Soil, and Spades, 24–25.

54. Bleakney, Sods, Soil, and Spades, 25.

55. Ibid., 25–32.

56. Butzer, “French Wetland Agriculture,” 459.

57. Jean-Baptiste de le Croix Chevrières de Saint-Vallier, Estat present de l’eglise et de la colonie françoise dans la Nouvelle-France (Paris, 1688), 94.

58. “Sojourn of Gargas in Acadie, 1687–1688,” in Morse, ed., Acadiensia Nova, 1:181.

59. See Con Desplanque and David Mossman, “Storm Tides of the Fundy,” Geographical Review 98 (January 1999): 23–33.

60. Bleakney, Sods, Soil, and Spades, 130.

61. “Sojourn of Gargas in Acadie, 1687–1688,” in Morse, ed., Acadiensia Nova, 1:179–80.

62. John Clarence Webster, ed., Acadia at the End of the Seventeenth Century: Letters, Journals and Memoirs of Joseph Robineau de Villebon (Saint John, NB: New Brunswick Museum, 1934), 132–33.

63. The geographer Matthew Hatvany explains that “tidal salt marshes have one of the highest productivity rates of any ecosystem in the world. On average, southern and northern salt marshes illustrate production rates of up to 10 tons of organic matter annually per acre, in contrast to the best hay lands in North America, which produce about 4 tons per acre.” See Hatvany, “The Origins of the Acadian Aboiteau: An Environmental-Historical Geography of the Northeast,” Historical Geography 30 (2002): 128–29.

64. These population statistics, based on a French census of Acadia taken in 1701, hint at the rapid growth of Minas relative to Port Royal, Beaubassin, and the other Acadian settlements. In 1686, Port Royal’s inhabitants numbered 583, Minas’s 57, and Beaubassin’s 127; in 1707, the last census undertaken by the French régime listed Minas’s population as 570, Beaubassin’s as 270, and Minas’s as 585. See Clark, Acadia, 123–29.

65. Sieur de Diereville, Relation du voyage du Port Royal de l’Acadie ou de la Nouvelle France (Rouen, 1708), 71.

66. “Exposition de l’état ou j’ay trouvé l’Eglise du Canada,” ANOM, AC, série F5A, vol. 3, 24.

67. Saint-Vallier, Estat present de l’eglise et de la colonie françoise dans la Nouvelle-France, 96–97.

68. George Rawlyk, Nova Scotia’s Massachusetts: A Study of Massachusetts–Nova Scotia Relations, 1630 to 1784 (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1973), 23–24.

69. Griffiths, From Migrant to Acadian, 82.

70. Ibid., 83.

71. Joshua Scottow, Old Men’s Tears, for Their Own Declensions (Boston, 1691), 44–45; A Narrative of the Planting of the Massachusetts Bay Colony Anno 1628 (Boston, 1694), 39.

72. [Jacques de Meulles], “Mémoire concernant Beaubassin ou Chignitou et la Baye Verte,” 1686, ANOM, AC, série C11D, vol. 8, f. 49.

73. Nelson himself kept a warehouse at Port Royal into the 1690s. See Richard Johnson, John Nelson: Merchant Adventurer (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991), 25–26; Griffiths, From Migrant to Acadian, 120–21; Donald F. Chard, “John Nelson,”Dictionary of Canadian Biography, http://www.biographi.ca/index-e.html; Clément Cormier, “Jacques Bourgeois,” Dictionary of Canadian Biography, http://www.biographi.ca/index-e.html.

74. “Mémoire concernant l’Acadie par le chevalier de Grandfontaine,” 1671, ANOM, AC, série C11D, vol. 2, f. 139.

75. On this noyau dur, or “hard core,” of Port Royal society, see Jacques Vanderlinden, Se marier en Acadie française XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles (Moncton, NB: Université de Moncton, 1997), 92–111.

76. Wicken, “Encounters with Tall Sails,” 389.

77. Jacques Vanderlinden, Le lieutenant civil et criminal: Mathieu de Goutin en Acadie française, 1688–1710 (Moncton, NB: Chaire d’études acadiennes, 2004), 187>; “Mémoire sur le Port Royal,” 1686, ANOM, AC, série C11D, vol. 8, f. 54.

78. Pierre Chiron to Monsieur don Miguel Henry, September 8, 1713, ANOM, AC, série G3, notariat de Terre-Neuve, f. 56A.

79. Clarence J. d’Entremont, “Claude Petitpas,” Dictionary of Canadian Biography, http://www.biographi.ca/index-e.html.

80. “Arret du conseil sur une lettre de monsieur de Saint-Ovide,” November 21, 1719, ANOM, AC, série C11B. vol. 4, 64.

81. Ibid., 64v, 65.

82. D’Entremont, “Claude Petitpas.”

83. Vaudreuil and Bégon to the Minister of the Marine, October 17, 1722, ANOM, AC, série F2C, vol. 3, 556v; Petitpas dossier, ANOM, AC, série E, vol. 335, 1.

84. Vaudreuil and Bégon to the Minister of the Marine, October 17, 1722, ANOM, AC, série F2C, vol. 3, 557–58.

85. Ibid., 556–556v.

86. Petitpas dossier, ANOM, AC, série E, vol. 335, 2–3.

87. Saint-Ovide to Minister of the Marine, November 3, 1728, ANOM, AC, série C11B, vol. 10, f. 68–68v.

88. On the Phips expedition, see Griffiths, From Migrant to Acadian, 150–60.

89. For Benjamin Church’s raids in 1696 and 1704, see Geoffrey Plank, An Unsettled Conquest: The British Campaign Against the Peoples of Acadia (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001), 33–38.

90. Fred L. Israel, ed., Major Peace Treaties of Modern History, 1648–1967 (New York: Chelsea House, 1967–80), 1:210.

91. Richard Philipps to Secretary Craggs, September 27, 1720, Annapolis Royal, in SPD, 52.

92. Rales à Vaudreuil, September 9, 1713, in Bulletin des recherches historiques 37 (1931): 290, cited in Wicken, “Tall Tales and Tall Sails,” 389.

93. Habitans de Port Royal to Vaudreuil, November 13, 1710, ANOM, AC, série C11D, vol. 7, 98–99.

94. Griffiths, From Migrant to Acadian, 263.

95. NSA III, 63.

96. Barry Moody, “Making a British Nova Scotia,” in John G. Reid et al., The “Conquest” of Acadia, 1710: Imperial, Colonial, and Aboriginal Constructions (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2004), 129.

97. Acadians of Port Royal, Mines, Beaubassin to Saint-Ovide, 1718, in Henri-Raymond Casgrain, ed., Collection de documents inédits sur le Canada et l’Amérique publiés par le Canada-Français (Québec: L. J. Demers & Frère, 1888–90), 1:128.

98. NSA III, 130.

99. Ibid., 47, 100–101. On Robichaud, see Plank, An Unsettled Conquest, 94–96.

100. Paul Mascarene, “Description of Nova Scotia,” in SPD, 46.

101. [William Douglass], A Discourse Concerning the Currencies of the British Plantations in America (Boston, 1740), 55; cited in T. H. Breen, The Marketplace of Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American Independence (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004), 75.

102. NSA II, 24–25.

103. [Thomas Pichon], “Réprésentations des habitants de l’Acadie, 40 ans après le traité d’Utrecht soit 1753,” in Fonds Thomas Pichon, 240, LAC.

104. NSA III, 2.

105. Ibid., 239–40.

106. NSA II, 205–6.

107. Ibid., 208.

108. Ibid., 214–15.

109. Ibid., 55–56.

110. Paul Mascarene, “Description of Nova Scotia,” SPD, 46.

111. Thomas Garden Barnes, “‘The Dayly Cry for Justice’: The Juridical Failure of the Annapolis Royal Regime, 1713–1749,” in Philip Girard and Jim Phillips, eds., Essays in the History of Canadian Law, vol. III: Nova Scotia (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1990), 18; NSA II, 177–78.

112. NSA III, 303–4.

113. Council Minutes, September 19, 1734, in ibid., 305. Spelling modernized.

114. NSA III, 173.

115. The Trials of Five Persons for Piracy, Felony and Robbery (Boston, 1726), 5.

116. Charles Bruce Fergusson, ed., Nova Scotia Archives IV: Minutes of His Majesty’s Council at Annapolis Royal, 1736–1749 (Halifax: PANS, 1967), 14–17.

117. Sieur l’Hermitte to M. de la Ronde, July 12, 1714, Louisbourg, ANOM, AC, série C11B, vol. 1, 114.

118. “Mémoire sur les habitans de Plaisance et de l’Acadie,” n.d., AMAE, Correspondance Politique, Angleterre, v. 284, 235; on this episode, see especially Plank, Unsettled Conquest, 62.

119. D. C. Harvey, The French Régime in Prince Edward Island (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1926), 35.

120. Gotteville de Belile, “Description de l’île Saint-Jean,” January 28 1721, ANOM, AC, série C11A, vol. 43, 134–36.

121. Saint-Ovide to Minister, December 18, 1725, Ile Royale, ANOM, AC, série, C11B, vol. 7, 201v.

122. Saint-Ovide to Minister, November 10, 1727, Ile Royale, ANOM, AC, série C11B, vol. 9, 52v.

123. Saint-Ovide to Minister, November 3, 1728, Ile Royale, ANOM, AC, série C11B, vol. 10, 80.

124. Duquesne to Machault, October 13, 1754, in DRCHNY, 264.

125. Habitans de Mines to de Gannes, October 13, 1744, ANOM, AC, série C11D, vol. 8, 114.

126. Mascarene to M. de St. Poncy, April 22, 1739, Annapolis Royal, Papers of Paul Mascarene of Nova Scotia, 1728–1745, in Sparks Manuscripts, MS Am 813F, HL.

127. [Paul Mascarene], “Representation of the State of His Majesties Province of Nova Scotia and Fort and Garrison of Annapolis Royal,” November 8, 1745, in NSA IV, 84; Mascarene to Ladeveze, November 1752, in Gay Papers, vol. 1, 88, MHS.

128. NSA IV, 80–84.

129. Ibid., 84.

130. A copy of a letter from Quebeck in Canada, to a Pr——e M——e in France, dated October 11, 1747 (Boston, 1747), 1.

131. Ibid., 1.

132. The preliminaries productive of a premunire [sic]: or, Old England caught in a trap (London, 1748), 18.

133. Mascarene to Ladeveze, November 1752, Gay Papers, vol. 1, 88, MHS; on Cornwallis, the Scots uprising, and Nova Scotia, see Plank, Rebellion and Savagery.

134. Otis Little, The State of Trade in the Northern Colonies Considered; with an Account of their Produce, and a particular Description of Nova Scotia (Boston, 1749), 33; Clark, Acadia, 357.

135. Boston Gazette, January 16, 1750, August 22, 1749; “Satire on Halifax in Nova Scotia,” Du Simitière Papers 1411.Q.15.a, LCP. Many thanks to Yvie Fabella for leading me to this source.

136. “Lettre lue au roi,” August 29, 1749, ANOM, AC, série C11A, vol. 94, 77.

137. Beauharnois and Hocquart to Maurepas, in DRCHNY, 3.

138. “Lettre lue au roi,” August 29, 1749, ANOM, AC, série C11A, vol. 94, 77.

139. Fonds Thomas Pichon, 194–96, LAC.

140. Mascarene to Davidson, in Gay Papers, vol. 5, 122, MHS.

141. Fonds Thomas Pichon, 194, LAC.

142. Webster, Forts of Chignecto, 104–5.

143. Earl of Albemarle to M. Puysieulx, July 7, 1750, Compiègne, in DRCHNY, 216; Puysieulx to Earl of Albemarle, July 15, 1750, in ibid., 218.

144. On this boundary dispute, see especially The Memorials of the English and French Commissaries Concerning the Limits of Nova Scotia or Acadia (London, 1755).

145. Harvey, French Regime, 139, 166.

146. Le Loutre, “Autobiography,” 46–47.

147. Ibid., 46.

148. Genesis 41:46–57.

149. Rousseau de Villejoin, “Projet d’un établissement dans LaBrador,” July 1751, Fonds Thomas Pichon, 211, LAC.

150. Pichon to [Governor-General], February 1, 1754, in Fonds Thomas Pichon, 293–95, LAC.

151. Pichon to Rouillé, n.d., Fonds Thomas Pichon, 179–93, LAC.

152. Faragher, A Great and Noble Scheme, 472.

153. Ibid., 288, 290, 328.

154. Correspondence of William Shirley, 1:137, 220.

155. Lawrence to Monckton, July 31, 1755, in SPD, 267–69.

156. The Journal of Abijah Willard, 1755–1758, ed. J. C. Webster (St. John, NB, 1930), 28, 34–35, 41–42.

157. J. C. Webster, Journals of Beauséjour (Sackville, NB: Tribune Press, 1937), 25.

158. Lotbinière to Minister, November 2, 1756, in DRCHNY, 496.

159. Gorham to Boscawen, December 6, 1758, Halifax, Chatham Papers, vol. 6, 144–50, LAC.

160. “Deuxième suite de l’extrait de la lettre de M. l’évêque de Québec à l’abbé de l’Isle-Dieu,” October 30, 1757, ANOM, AC, série C11A, vol. 102, 303.

Chapter 2: The Pariahs

1. Connecticut Archives, War, 1675–1774, series 1, vol. 6, document 179, Connecticut State Library, Hartford CT. I am very grateful to the staff of the Acadian History Museum in West Pubnico, Nova Scotia, for leading me to this document.

2. For the Acadians’ removal from Woodbury to New Milford and Litchfield, see Connecticut Archives, War, 1675–1774, series 1, vol. 6, document 180; for Paul Landry’s petition to the Connecticut General Assembly, see Connecticut Archives, War, 1675–1774, series 1, vol. 6, document 236.

3. John Williams, The Redeemed Captive Returning to Zion (Boston, 1707), title page, 35.

4. On Eunice Williams in Massachusetts and Connecticut, see John Demos, The Unredeemed Captive: A Family Story from Early America (New York: Vintage, 1995), 201–2.

5. On Edwards’s influence on the transatlantic revivals of the 1730s and 1740s, see Avihu Zakai, “Jonathan Edwards, the Enlightenment, and the Formation of Protestant Tradition in America,” in Elizabeth Mancke and Carole Shammas, The Creation of the British Atlantic World (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2005), 186–87.

6. Jonathan Edwards, The Justice of God in the Damnation of Sinners (Boston, 1773), 23.

7. Lawrence to Provincial Governors, August 11, 1755, in Collections of the Nova Scotia Historical Society 3 (1883): 82.

8. Corinne LaPlante, “Bastarache, dit Basque, Michel,” Dictionary of Canadian Biography, http://www.biographi.ca/index-e.html; John Mack Faragher, A Great and Noble Scheme: The Tragic Story of the Expulsion of the French Acadians from Their American Homeland (New York: W. W. Norton, 2005), 388.

9. Boston Gazette, March 1, 1756.

10. Joseph Leblanc to Charles Leblanc, September 21, 1757, Liverpool, Admiralty 97/122, Medical Department In-Letters (Miscellaneous), PRO, copy at LAC.

11. Geoffrey Plank, An Unsettled Conquest: The British Campaign Against the Peoples of Acadia (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001), 141; Carl A. Brasseaux, The Founding of New Acadia: The Beginnings of Acadian Life in Louisiana, 1764–1803 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1987), 47.

12. Naomi E. S. Griffiths, From Migrant to Acadian: A North American Border People, 1604–1755 (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2005), 464.

13. Considerations on the exchange of seamen, prisoners of war (London, 1758), 13–15.

14. Proceedings of the Committee appointed to manage the contributions begun at Londonfor cloathing French prisoners of war (London, 1760); George Whitefield, A Short Address, to Persons of all Denominations, Occasioned by the Alarm of an Intended Invasion (Boston, 1756), 12.

15. George Whitefield, A Short Address, 11. For rising anti-French sentiment in mid-century New England, see Ann M. Little, Abraham in Arms: War and Gender in Colonial New England (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2006), 166–204.

16. Boston Evening-Post, October 13, 1755.

17. Boston Gazette, August 23, 1756.

18. Charles Carroll, Dear Papa, Dear Charlie: The Papers of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 1748–1782, ed. Ronald Hoffman and Sally Mason (Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2001), 1:30, 104, 143.

19. The Papers of Henry Laurens, vol. 2: November 1, 1755—December 31, 1758, ed. Philip M. Hamer and George C. Rogers (Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1970), 61, 76. Rice prices had fallen to thirty shillings per hundredweight by January 1756, down from eighty shillings per hundredweight two years earlier. See David R. Chestnutt, South Carolina’s Expansion into Colonial Georgia, 1720–1765 (New York: Garland, 1989), 232.

20. Papers of Henry Laurens, 2:77.

21. Ibid., 2:105.

22. Ibid., 2:112.

23. Ibid., 2:157.

24. Ibid., 2:143.

25. Glen to Commons House, January 15, 1756, JCHA vol. 14, 31.

26. For population figures, see Peter Coclanis, The Shadow of a Dream: Economic Life and Death in the South Carolina Low Country, 1670–1920 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1989), 171–72. I estimate Charleston’s midcentury population at five thousand based on Coclanis’s data from the 1730s and the 1770s. Coclanis writes, “The black population in Charleston was roughly equal to the permanent white population of the town through much of the eighteenth century.”

27. John Reynolds to Board of Trade, April 17, 1758, CRSG, vol. 28, pt. 1, 138. On Savannah’s proportions, see Edward J. Cashin, Governor Henry Ellis and the Transformation of British North America (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1994), 88.

28. Walter L. Robbins and John Tobler, “John Tobler’s Description of South Carolina (1753),” South Carolina Historical Magazine 71 (July 1970): 161.

29. Reynolds to Board of Trade, April 17, 1758, CRSG, vol. 28, pt. 1, 143.

30. Faragher, A Great and Noble Scheme, 383–84.

31. See Gregory E. Dowd, “The Panic of 1751: The Significance of Rumor on the South Carolina-Cherokee Frontier,” William and Mary Quarterly 53 (July 1996): 547.

32. South Carolina Gazette, June 24, 1751.

33. South Carolina Gazette, April 29 and June 24, 1751.

34. See South Carolina Gazette, October 23, 1751, for Indians using Acadian dikes as cover. Silvanus Conant, The Art of War, the Gift of GOD (Boston, 1759), 5; cited in Little, Abraham in Arms, 184.

35. See JCHA, vol. 14, 18–20.

36. Chapman J. Milling, Exile Without an End (Columbia, SC: Bostick and Thornley, 1943), 25; see also Clarence J. d’Entremont, “Brossard (Broussard), dit Beausoleil, Joseph,” Dictionary of Canadian Biography, http://www.biographi.ca/index-e.html.

37. James H. Merrell, “‘Their Very Bones Shall Fight’: The Catawba-Iroquois Wars,” in James H. Merrell and Daniel K. Richter, eds., Beyond the Covenant Chain: The Iroquois and their Neighbors in Indian North America, 1600–1800 (Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1987), 115.

38. Tom Hatley, The Dividing Paths: Cherokees and South Carolinians Through the Era of Revolutions (New York: Oxford University Press, 1993), 72.

39. Merrell, “Their Very Bones Shall Fight,” 125.

40. Ibid., 130.

41. See Daniel K. Richter, Facing East from Indian Country: A Native History of North America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001), 169.

42. CRSG, vol. 7, 173.

43. David H. Corkran, The Creek Frontier, 1540–1783 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1967), 167.

44. Julie Ann Sweet, Negotiating for Georgia: British-Creek Relations in the Trustee Era, 1733–1752 (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2005), 162–63.

45. DRIA, vol. II, 85.

46. Ibid., vol. I, 211. For a remarkable interpretation of the Acorn Whistler affair, see Joshua Piker, “Lying Together: The Imperial Implications of Cross-Cultural Untruths,” American Historical Review 116 (October 2011): 964–86.

47. Ibid., vol. I, 453.

48. Hatley, The Dividing Paths, 98.

49. DRIA, vol. I, 525.

50. Hatley, The Dividing Paths, 72.

51. DRIA, vol. II, 68.

52. Ibid., vol. II, 79.

53. JCHA, vol. 14, 11.

54. JCHA, vol. 14, 22, 33.

55. JCHA, vol. 14, 10.

56. Ruth Allison Hudnut and Hayes Baker-Crothers, “Acadian Transients in South Carolina,” American Historical Review 43 (April 1938): 502.

57. South Carolina Gazette, February 12, 1756.

58. JCHA, vol. 14, 82.

59. Ibid, vol. 14, 16–17.

60. New York Mercury, April 26, 1756.

61. JCHA., vol. 14, 39.

62. Ibid., vol. 14, 42, 40.

63. Ibid,. vol. 14, 57–60. Deriding the interpreter, identified only as “Monsieur St. Martin,” as a “little man [who] thinks it criminal in [the Acadians] to breathe a sigh,” Glen declared himself “apt to think that if Monsieur St. Martin had been in that Person’s place, his Groans wou’d have been a little louder.”

64. Ibid., vol. 14, 55–56.

65. CRSG, vol. 7, 136–42.

66. Plank, Unsettled Conquest, 113.

67. Jonquière to Minister, May 1, 1751, ANOM, AC, série F3, vol. 50, 467.

68. Plank, Unsettled Conquest, 143; J. C. Webster, Journals of Beauséjour (Sackville, NB: Tribune Press, 1937), 19.

69. CRSG, vol. 28, pt. 1, 143.

70. On Vigneau, see especially Plank, Unsettled Conquest, 152–57.

71. CRSG, vol. 18, 188–91.

72. Letter to the Rev. Dr. Hales, F.R.S., from Captain Henry Ellis, F.R.S., dated January 7, 1750–51 at Cape Monte, Africa, Ship Earl of Halifax,” Philosophical Transactions 47 (1752): 213. My thanks to Michael Guenther for this source on Ellis.

73. Henry Ellis, Considerations on the Great Advantages which would arise from the Discovery of the North West Passage (London: 1750, 3; Ellis, A voyage to Hudson’s-Bay, by the Dobbs Galley and California, in the years 1746 and 1747, for discovering a north-west passage (Dublin, 1749), vi.

74. Harold E. Davis, The Fledgling Province: Social and Cultural Life in Colonial Georgia, 1733–1776 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1976), 98.

75. Arthur Dobbs, An Essay on the Trade and Improvement of Ireland (Dublin, 1729), 1:16.

76. CRSG, vol. 28, pt. 1, 7.

77. CRSG, vol. 7, 506.

78. Edward J. Cashin, Governor Henry Ellis and the Transformation of British North America (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1994), 99.

79. CRSG, vol. 13, 492–93.

80. Dinwiddie to the Earl of Halifax, November 15, 1755, in R. A. Brock, ed., The Official Records of Robert Dinwiddie (Richmond: Virginia Historical Society, 1884), 2:273. I have modernized Dinwiddie’s spelling.

81. Dinwiddie to the Earl of Granville, November 15, 1755, in ibid., 275.

82. Dinwiddie to Sir Thomas Robinson, November 24, 1755, in ibid., 283.

83. Dinwiddie to Sir Thomas Robinson, December 24, 1755, in ibid., 306.

84. Dinwiddie to Henry Fox, May 10, 1756, in ibid., 408.

85. Dinwiddie to the Lords of Trade, November 15, 1755, in ibid., 268.

86. See Dinwiddie to Charles Lawrence, August 17, 1756, in ibid, 479.

87. Dinwiddie to Henry Fox, November 9, 1756, in ibid., 537–38.

88. Honoré LeBlanc to Commissioner of Sick and Hurt Board, September 20, 1757, in Admiralty 97:122, PRO, copy at LAC.

89. Claude Pitré to Commissioner of Sick and Hurt Board, May 27, 1757, in Admiralty Papers 97:121, PRO, copy at LAC. Pitré’s affection for the British government does not seem to have been a passing fancy of 1755. In 1744, with Nova Scotia in the throes of King George’s War, Pitré informed the garrison government at Annapolis Royal of the illegal movement of black cattle and sheep from the village of Mines to Louisbourg by French partisans Joseph Leblanc dit le Maigre and Joseph Dugas; see Charles Bruce Ferguson, ed., Nova Scotia Archives IV, Minutes of His Majesty’s Council at Annapolis Royal, 1736–1749 (Halifax: Public Archives of Nova Scotia, 1967), 52.

90. Edward Lloyd to James Hollyday, December 9, 1755, cited in William D. Hoyt Jr., “A Contemporary View of the Acadian Arrival in Maryland, 1755,” William and Mary Quarterly 5, no. 4 (October 1948): 575.

91. J. Thomas Scharf, A History of Maryland from the Earliest Period to the Present Day (Hatboro, PA: Tradition Press, 1967), 476.

92. Belcher to Morris, November 25, 1755, Elizabethtown, NJ, PA, series I, vol. 2, 513–14.

93. Morris to Jonathan Belcher, November 22, 1755, Philadelphia, PA, series I, vol. 2, 509.

94. Otis Little, The State of Trade in the Northern Colonies Considered; with an Account of their Produce, and a particular Description of Nova Scotia (Boston, 1749), 25s.

95. Morris to Governor Sharpe, January 5, 1756, in Minutes of the Provincial Council of Pennsylvania, from the Organization to the Termination of the Proprietary Government (Harrisburg, PA, 1852), 7:14–15.

96. Jean-Baptiste Galerne, The relation of the French Neutrals (Philadelphia, 1756), 1; see also PA, series 1, vol. 3, 565–68.

97. Acadians of Pennsylvania to George II, cited in Robert Walsh, An Appeal from the Judgments of Great Britain respecting the United States of America (New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969), 437–42.

98. The lawfulness of defensive war (Philadelphia, 1756), 3.

99. Ibid., 16.

100. An Address to those Quakers, who perversely refused to pay any regard to the late provincial fast (Philadelphia, 1756), 1.

101. For a brief summary, see Fred Anderson, Crucible of War: The Seven Years’ War and the Fate of Empire in British North America (New York: Knopf, 2000), 160–62.

102. Anthony Benezet, Observations on the inslaving, importing, and purchasing of Negroes (Germantown, PA, 1759), 1, 10.

103. Anthony Benezet, Thoughts on the nature of war, and its repugnancy to the Christian life (Philadelphia, 1766), 9. This was the published version of a sermon given by Benezet in 1759. On Benezet, see especially Maurice Jackson, Let This Voice Be Heard: Anthony Benezet, Father of Atlantic Abolitionism (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009).

104. Petition of Alexis Tibaudeau et al., August 27, 1756, in PA, series 8, vol. 5, 4293–95.

105. See petition of Pierre Doucet et al., September 2, 1756, in PA, vol. 7, 239–40; for Denny’s response, see 240–41.

106. JCHA, vol. 14, 17.

107. Petition of Oliver Tibaudat et al. to the Assembly of Pennsylvania, February 8, 1757, in PA, series 8, vol. 6, 4509–10.

108. Ibid., 4510–12.

109. Cited in Anderson, Crucible of War, 210.

110. Loudon to William Pitt, April 25, 1757, Loudon Papers, LO 3467, Huntington Library, San Marino, CA.

111. Minutes of the Provincial Council of Pennsylvania, 7:446.

112. See Christopher Hodson, “Exile on Spruce Street: An Acadian History,” William and Mary Quarterly 67, no. 2 (April 2010): 249–78.

113. William Griffitts to Richard Peters, January 22, 1757, in PA, series 1, vol. 3, 92–93. The provincial government decided that “that the Governor, since the late Law has passed requiring the Overseers of the Poor to take care and maintain these Neutrals, cannot concern himself in this Matter, or give any Directions therein.” See Minutes of the Provincial Council, January 24, 1757, in PA, vol. 7, 393.

114. Hodson, “Exile on Spruce Street,” 269.

115. “Extracts From the Diplomatic Correspondence of Conrad Alexander Gérard, First Minister Plenipotentiary to the United States, July, 1778 to October, 1779,” Records of the American Catholic Historical Society 31 (1920): 228.

116. Paul Loiron, Joseph Bourg, Bruneau Trahan, Pierre Landry to Nivernais, June 20, 1763, Philadelphia, AMAE, Correspondence Politique, Angleterre, vol. 450, 415.

117. Boston Gazette, April 12, 1756.

118. A Specimen of the Unrelenting Cruelty of Papists in France (Boston, 1756), 3, 10.

119. Massachusetts House of Representatives, April 20, 1756, in Placide Gaudet, ed., Rapport concernant les archives canadiennes pour l’année 1905 (Ottawa: National Archives of Canada, 1906), 145; see also Massachusetts Archives, Number 25, French Neutrals, vol. 23, 1755–1758, n.p., MSA.

120. See Lawrence Henry Gipson, The Great War for Empire: The Years of Defeat, 1754–1757, vol. 6 of The British Empire Before the American Revolution (New York: Knopf, 1942), 327.

121. Petition of Amot Fuller et al., December 20, 1757, in Gaudet, Rapport, 174–75.

122. Massachusetts Archives, Number 25, French Neutrals, vol. 23, 1755–1758, n.p., MSA.

123. “An account of the charge the Town of Newton,” May 31, 1756, Massachusetts Archives, Number 25, French Neutrals, vol. 23, 1755–1758, n.p., MSA.

124. Daniel Vickers, Farmers and Fishermen: Two Centuries of Work in Essex County, Massachusetts, 1630–1850 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1994), 219.

125. An Address to Farmers, Salem, Massachusetts, 1796, cited in Vickers, Farmers and Fishermen, p. 238.

126. A Protestant’s Resolution: shewing his reasons why he will not be a papist (Boston, 1746), 27–28, 26.

127. Petition of Claude Bourgeois, in Gaudet, Rapport, 161.

128. Petition of Charles and Nicholas Breau, in ibid., 160–61.

129. Petition of Lawrence Mieuse, January 1757, in ibid., 173–74.

130. Petition of Augustin Hebert, October 7, 1756, in ibid., 64.

131. Petition of Francis Miuse, November 18, 1757, in ibid., 172.>

132. Petition of John Labardor, December 26, 1757, in ibid., 175.

133. Petition of Jacques LeBlanc, n.d., in ibid., 177.

134. Petition of Jacques Mireau and Joseph D’Entremont, n.d., in ibid., 162.

135. Petition of Joseph Mitchell, March 30, 1756, in ibid., 158–59.

136. Petition of Belloni Melançon, February, 1757, in ibid., 166–67.

137. Selectmen of Marblehead to Spencer Phips, October 6, 1756, Massachusetts Archives, Number 25, French Neutrals, vol. 23, 1755–1758, n.p., MSA.

138. Council Minutes, February 24, 1757, in Gaudet, Rapport, 167.

139. Ebenezer Parkman, Reformers and Intercessors sought by GOD: Who grieves, when they are hard to be found (Boston: S. Kneeland, 1757), 15.

140. Entry for October 16, 1756, Diary of Ebenezer Parkman, AAS. I have modernized some of Parkman’s spelling and punctuation.

141. Ibid., entry for October 19, 1756. Other sources from Westborough describe the family as follows: “Simon Le Blank his Wife and two sons and two daughters the old man sixty eight and his wife sixty nine. Both very infirm and not able to support them selfs.” See Massachusetts Archives, number 26, French Neutrals, vol. 24, 1758–1769.

142. Parkman was pleased, and perhaps a bit taken aback, that Leblanc’s wife managed to prepare tea “properly.” See Parkman Journal, entry for December 22, 1756.

143. Ibid., entry for November 27, 1756.

144. Ibid., entry for December 10, 1756.

145. Ibid., entry for December 22, 1756.

146. Ibid., entry for January 6, 1757.

147. Ibid., entry for January 26, 1757.

148. Ibid., entry for December 22, 1757.

149. Ibid., entry for January 26, 1757.

150. See Gaudet, Rapport, 172.

151. Parkman Journal, entries for December 27, 1757, and April 27, 1758.

152. Ibid., entry for January 21, 1757; Joel 2:1, 6, 20.

153. Parkman Journal, entries for January 26, April 18, April 19, May 18, June 8, June 15, July 22, and August 29, 1757.

154. Ibid., entries for November 16 and December 1, 1757.

155. Ibid., entries for September 4, 1758, and March 1, 1759.

156. Parkman, Reformers and Intercessors, 42.

157. Francis Parkman, A Half-Century of Conflict: France and England in North America (Boston: Little, Brown, 1933), 173–74,.

158. Parkman Journal, entry for January 12, 1757.

159. Ibid., entries for May 18 and May 31, 1757.

Chapter 3: The Tropics

1. Colin Jones, The Great Nation: France from Louis XV to Napoleon (New York: Penguin, 2003), 236.

2. Edmond-Jean-François Barbier, Journal historique et anecdotique du règne de Louis XV (Paris, 1856), 4:447; Jones, Great Nation, 236.

3. Jean-Baptiste-Christophe Fusée Aublet, Histoire des plantes de la Guiane françoise, rangees suivant la méthode sexuelle (Paris, 1775), 1:i–v.

4. Ibid., vi, x–xi; on Malagasy slaves on Ile de France, see Megan Vaughan, Creating the Creole Island: Slavery in Eighteenth-Century Mauritius (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2005), 46, 104–5. The Malagasy had a double-edged reputation as the most “advanced” Africans and as those most likely to rebel against masters, become maroons, and commit infanticide.

5. On this episode, in which Aublet argued that Poivre had misled authorities by misidentifying “true nutmeg,” see E. D. Spary, “Of Nutmegs and Botanists: The Colonial Cultivation of Botanical Identity,” in Londa Schiebinger and Claudia Swan, eds., Colonial Botany: Science, Commerce, and Politics (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004), 187–203.

6. This colony was known by multiple names. Strictly speaking, Cayenne referred to an small, fortified island just off the South American mainland, but seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Frenchmen often used that name to refer to the entire colony, which (theoretically) stretched from the Brazilian border in the south to Dutch Surinam in the north, reaching deep into the South American interior. The colony was also called la France équinoxiale or Guiana, and is now the département known as French Guiana.

7. For Aublet’s role, see Marion F. Godfroy-Tayart de Borms, “La guerre de sept ans et ses conséquences atlantiques: Kourou ou l’apparition d’un nouveau système colonial,” French Historical Studies 32 (April 2009): 180.

8. Aublet, Histoire des plantes, 1:xvii.

9. On bioprospecting and empire, see Londa Schiebinger, Plants and Empire: Colonial Bioprospecting in the Atlantic World (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004), 10–11. For Aublet’s plan, see “Réponse à la lettre du Sr. Aublet dattée de Cayenne du 16 Mars 1763,” n.d., ANOM, AC, série C14, régistre 26, 349.

10. Henry Pouillard, “Sommaire,” 1761, ANOM, AC, série F3 21, f. 260.

11. Charles Becker and Victor Martin, “Mémoires d’Adanson sur le Sénégal et l’île de Gorée,” Bulletin d’IFAN 42 (1980): 727, 760.

12. Aublet, Histoire des plantes, 2:111, 117, 119–20.

13. Schiebinger, Plants and Empire, 55, 139.

14. “Voyage fait par le Sieur Aublet de Cayenne à la crique Galibi,” ANOM, AC, série C14, régistre 27, 213.

15. Aublet to Accaron, July 18, 1763, ANOM, AC, série C14, carton 88, no. 7.

16. D’Orvilliers and Morisse to Accaron, March 27, 1763, ANOM, AC, série C14, régistre 26, 149.

17. “Réponse à la lettre du Sr. Aublet dattée de Cayenne du 16 Mars 1763,” n.d., ANOM, AC, série C14, régistre 26, 349.

18. For recent scholarship on the Kourou colony, see Emma Rothschild, “A Horrible Tragedy in the French Atlantic,” Past and Present 192 (Spring 2006): 67–108; Christopher Hodson, “‘A Bondage So Harsh’: Acadian Labor in the French Caribbean, 1763–1766,”Early American Studies 5 (Spring 2007): 95–131; Godfroy-Tayart de Borms, “La guerre de Sept ans et ses consequences atlantiques,” 167–92. See also David M. Epstein, “The Kourou Expedition to Guiana: The Genesis of a Black Legend,” Boletin de Estudios Latonoamericanos y del Caribe 37 (December 1984): 85–97; Jacques Michel, La Guyane sous l’Ancien Régime: Le désastre Kourou et ses scandaleuses suites judiciaries (Paris: Harmattan, 1989).

19. Henry Pouillard, “Sommaire,” 1761, ANOM, AC, série F3, vol. 21, f. 260.

20. See E. P. Panagopoulos, New Smyrna: An Eighteenth-Century Greek Odyssey (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1966).

21. On Russia, see Roger Bartlett, Human Capital: The Settlement of Foreigners in Russia, 1762–1804 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979); on the Banat, see Dominic G. Kosary, A History of Hungary (New York: Arno Press, 1971), 150–55.

22. Naomi E. S. Griffiths, “Acadians in Exile: The Experiences of the Acadians in British Seaports,” Acadiensis 4 (1974): 74.

23. [Duc de Nivernais], “Mémoire sur les Acadiens,” AMAE, Correspondance Politique, Angleterre, vol. 449, 71–72, 75.

24. “Porté au Roy,” January 15, 1757, ANOM, AC, série C11A, vol. 102, 229.

25. Vaudreuil to Minister, April 19, 1757, Montréal, ANOM, AC, série C11A, vol. 102, 46.

26. Amherst to Belcher, April 28, 1761, New York, Colonial Office 5, 61, 138, PRO, copy at LAC.

27. Abbé Maillard to Sieur Leblanc, December 31, 1759, ANOM, AC, série C11A, vol. 105, 140.

28. Jacques Girard to the marquis de Pérusse, December 13, 1774, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 124.

29. Vaudreuil to Minister, April 18, 175, ANOM, AC, série C11A, vol. 102, 10.

30. Andrew Rollo to Boscawen, October 10, 1758, Fort Amherst, Chatham Papers, vol. 6, 95, LAC.

31. On the 1758 deportation from Ile Saint-Jean, see especially Earle Lockerby, “The Deportation of the Acadians from Ile St.-Jean, 1758,” Acadiensis 27 (Spring 1998): 45–94.

32. Ibid., 62–63.

33. Tobias Smollett, Travels Through France and Italy, ed. Frank Felsenstein (New York: Oxford University Press, 1979), 40.

34. See La Rochette to Nivernois, May 18, 1763, Southampton, in Fonds Monseigneur de la Rochette, vol. 1, 388, LAC.

35. The essential source on Acadians in France is Jean-François Mouhot, Les réfugiés Acadiens en France, 1758–1785: L’impossible réintégration? (Montréal: Septentrion, 2009).

36. Plan for the Abolition of Slavery in the West Indies (London, 1772), 4; Choiseul to Nivernais, Versailles, March 11, 1763, ANOM, AC, série B, vol. 117, 183.

37. “Mémoire touchant la religion et les moeurs de la colonie de Cayenne,” 1687, ANOM, AC, série F3, vol. 21, 65–65v.

38. Régis Burrone[t?] to Minister, “Cayenne de 6 mars 1739,” ANOM, AC, série F3, vol. 21, 186–88.

39. Pierre Barrère, Nouvelle relation de la France équinoxiale (Paris, 1743), 7, 39, 46, 70.

40. D’Orvilliers to Minister, February 2, 1750, ANOM, AC, F3, vol. 21, n.p.

41. Antoine-Philippe Lemoyne to Minister, January 19, 1756, Cayenne, ANOM, AC, série C14, régistre 24, 122.

42. Henry Pouillard, “Sommaire,” 1761, ANOM, AC, série F3, vol. 21, f. 263v.

43. Copy of anonymous correspondence, 1726, ANOM, AC, F3, vol. 22, 130.

44. Régis Burrone[t?] to Minister, May 14, 1740, ANOM, AC, F3, vol. 22, 147–147v.

45. Henry Pouillard, “Sommaire,” 1761, ANOM, AC, série F3, vol. 21, f. 263v.

46. Cited in Gérard Prost and Jacqueline Zonzon, eds., Histoire de la Guyane (Cayenne, 1990), 2:n.p.

47. D’Orvilliers to Minister, March 28, 1753, ANOM, AC, série F3, vol. 95, n.p.

48. D’Orvilliers to Minister, Jaunary 29, 1756, ANOM, AC, série F3, vol. 95, n.p.

49. Lemoyne to Minister, March 20, 1759, ANOM, AC, série C14, régistre 24, 170v–171.

50. Marie Polderman, La Guyane Française, 1676–1763: Mise en place et evolution de la société coloniale, tensions et métissage (Petit-Bourg: Ibis Rouge, 2004), 154.

51. Lemoyne to Minister, March 20, 1759, ANOM, AC, série C14, régistre 24, 171.

52. Elizabeth Fox-Genovese, The Origins of Physiocracy: Economic Revolution and Social Order in Eighteenth-Century France (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1976), 9.

53. Pierre-Samuel Dupont de Nemours, La Physiocratie; ou constitution naturelle du gouvernement le plus avantageux au genre humain (Leyde, 1768), 107.

54. Dupont de Nemours, De l’origine et progrès d’une science nouvelle, 7; Ephémérides du Citoyen, ou chronique de l’esprit nationale (Paris), tome VI (1768), 207.

55. Gail Bossenga, “Status, Corps, and Monarchy: Roots of Modern Citizenship in the Old Regime,” in Robert M. Schwartz and Robert A. Schneider, eds., Tocqueville and Beyond: Essays on the Old Regime in Honor of David D. Bien (Newark: University of Delaware Press, 2003), 141.

56. Ephémérides du Citoyen, tome V (1766), 146.

57. Victor Riqueti, Marquis de Mirabeau, L’ami des hommes, ou traité de la population (Paris, 1883), 551.

58. Charles-Louis de Secondat, Comte de Montesquieu, Lettres Persanes (Paris, 1721); see also Carol Blum, Strength in Numbers: Population, Reproduction, and Power in Eighteenth-Century France (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002).

59. Mirabeau, L’ami des hommes, 552–53, 551.

60. Gabriel Bonnot de Mably, Le droit public de l’Europe, fondé sur les traités (Geneva, 1764), quoted in Carl Lokke, France and the Colonial Question: A Study of Contemporary French Opinion, 1763–1801 (New York, 1932), 37.

61. Ephémérides du Citoyen, tome II (1766), 35.

62. Victor Riqueti, Marquis de Mirabeau, La philosophie rurale, ou économie générale et politique de l’Agriculture, reduite à l’ordre immuable des Loix physiques & morales, qui assurent la pros-périté des Empires (Amsterdam, 1764), 239.

63. Mirabeau, L’ami des hommes, 178, 180.

64. Dupont de Nemours, La physiocratie, xlix; Mirabeau, L’ami des hommes, 554.

65. See D’Orvilliers to Minister, Jaunary 29, 1756, ANOM, AC, série F3, vol. 95, n.p.

66. See Jean-Antoine de Préfontaine, La Maison Rustique, à l’usage des habitans de la partie de la France équinoxiale, connue sous le nom de Cayenne (Paris, 1763). Later published and given to the colonists of “La Nouvelle Colonie,” Préfontaine’s original manuscript contained his vision for the project as of 1762.

67. See Godfroy-Tayart de Borms, “La guerre de sept ans,” 170–75.

68. Michel, La Guyane, 26.

69. See “Texte official énumérant les conditions de recrutement des futures colons,” in Jacques-François Artur, Histoire des colonies françoises de la Guianne, ed. Marie Polderman (Paris: Ibis Rouge, 2002), 713–14.

70. Bruletout de Préfontaine, La Maison Rustique, 105.

71. See “Lettre de mission addressée par le roi aux responsables de la future colonie, Etienne François Turgot et Thibault de Chanvalon,” in Artur, Histoire des colonies françoises de la Guianne, 716.

72. Ibid., 716.

73. See Pierre-Samuel Dupont de Nemours, La Physiocratie, ou constitution naturelle du gouvernement le plus avantageux au genre humain (Leyden, 1768), xciii, 111–14. For an attempt by the Marquis de Mirabeau to undertake similarly physiocratic social reforms in France, see Peter Jones, Liberty and Locality in Revolutionary France: Six Villages Compared, 1760–1820 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 231–245.

74. Michel, La Guyane, 19.

75. Ibid., 20.

76. [Duc de Nivernais], “Mémoire sur les Acadiens,” February 17, 1763, London, AMAE, Correspondance Politique, Angleterre, vol. 449, 78.

77. “Mémoire sur les Acadiens,” 78.

78. Ibid., 80–82; on Nivernais, see Ernest Martin, Les exilés acadiens en France au XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1936), 58–59.

79. M. de la Rue DeFrancy to Choiseul, March 3, 1763, Cherbourg, AMPC, 4P1-A, fol. 2, 3, copy at CEA.

80. Choiseul to M. le Controlleur-General, April 4, 1763, Versailles, ANOM, AC, série B, vol. 117, 218.

81. Choiseul to Nivernais, March 11, 1763, Versailles, ANOM, AC, série B, vol. 117, 183; Choiseul to M. Ribot, September 12, 1763, Versailles, ANOM, AC, série B, vol. 117, 507.

82. Griffiths, “Acadians in Exile,” 70.

83. De Francy to Glien, May 24, 1765, AMPC, 4P1-B, fol. 54v; De Francy to Choiseul, September 13, 1765, AMPC, 4P1-B, fol. 64.

84. “Projet de lettre à M. le Controlleur Général,” May 9, 1772, BMB MS 1480, 78.

85. Choiseul to M. les Maire et Echevins de Cherbourg, September 28, 1761, ANOM, AC, série B, vol. 117, n.p.

86. Choiseul, “Circulaire,” November 14, 1761, ANOM, AC, série B, vol. 117, 312.

87. De Francy to Mistral and Choiseul, December 30, 1763 to February 27, 1764, AMPC, 4P1-A, fol. 79v–93.

88. De Francy to Choiseul, March 16, 1764, AMPC, 4P1-B, fol. 3v; De Francy to Mistral, April 13, 1764, AMPC, 4P1-B, fol. 11v.

89. De Francy to Mistral, March 29, 1764, AMPC, 4P1-B, folio 7, 7v.

90. De Francy to Choiseul, March 16, 1764, AMPC, 4P1-B, fol. 4.

91. Bernard Cherubini, “Les acadiens en Guyane française: des colons exemplaires pour une colonisation en dilettantes (1762–1772),” Bulletin du centre d’histoire des éspaces Atlantiques 5 (1990): 163.

92. Chanvalon to Minister, February 18, 1764, ANOM, AC, série F3, vol. 22, 264–264v.

93. Cited in Précis Historique de l’éxpédition du Kourou (Guyana Française) 1763–1765 (Paris: Imprimerie Royale, 1842), 48.

94. Artur, Histoire des colonies françaises de la Guianne, 691.

95. Ibid., 693.

96. See “Texte official énumérant les conditions de recrutement des futures colons,” in Artur, Histoire des colonies françoises de la Guianne, 713.

97. Michel, La Guyane, 47.

98. Choiseul to M. Hocquart, June 18, 1764, ANOM, AC, série B, vol. 120, 273.

99. Michel, La Guyane, 51.

100. “Engagement du tambourineur,” March 17, 1763, ANOM, AC, série F3, vol. 22, 216.

101. Michel, La Guyane, 53.

102. Ibid., 54.

103. Ibid., 54.

104. Migrants were to be given three sols per day per league traveled between the German border and their point of departure; see “Notte des avantages qui serot fait aux familles qui voudront aller s’établir aux colonies françoises de l’Amérique,” ANOM, AC, série F3, vol. 22, 209. In practice, however, the Germans were often simply passed from one royal administrator to the next as they made their way across the kingdom; see Rothschild, “A Horrible Tragedy,” 76, for an account of destitute Germans begging in front of the Comédie Italienne in Paris.

105. Choiseul to the Bishops of France, October 25, 1763, ANOM, AC, série B, vol. 117, 570.

106. See Rothschild, “A Horrible Tragedy,” 77.

107. “Voyage du Duc de Praslin à Cayenne,” série LXVII, article 1, Fonds Georges Roux de Corse, CCIM.

108. Ibid.

109. Ibid.

110. Chanvalon to Minister, April 7, 1764, ANOM, AC, série F3, vol. 22, 260.

111. [Pierre Campet] to E. F. Turgot, June 14, 1764, ANOM, AC, série F3, vol. 22, n.p.

112. Ibid.; Michel, La Guyane, 65.

113. Chanvalon to Minister, July 17, 1764, ANOM, AC, série F3, vol. 22, n.p.

114. Rothschild, “A Horrible Tragedy,” 80–82.

115. Jean-Louis Carra, Mémoires historiques et authentiques sur la Bastille (Paris, 1789), 150.

116. Cherubini, “Acadiens en Guyane française,”174–78.

117. Ibid., 180.

118. Fiedmont to Minister, April 22, 1768, ANOM, AC, série C14, régistre 22, f. 109.

119. François de Barbé-Marbois, The History of Louisiana (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1977), 127.

120. Rothschild, “A Horrible Tragedy,” 75; Godfroy-Tayart de Borms, “La guerre de sept ans et ses conséquences atlantiques,” 173.

121. Choiseul to Nivernais, March 11, 1763, ANOM, AC, série B, vol. 117, 183; Antoine-Philippe Lemoyne to intendant of Montpelier, August 15, 1772, BMB MS 1480, 136.

122. Artur, Histoire des colonies françoises de la Guianne, 711.

123. Jacques-Nicolas Bellin, Description des débouquemens qui sont au nord de l’isle de Saint-Domingue (Versailles: Imprimerie du Département de la Marine, 1773), 7–9.

124. Cited in John Garrigus, Before Haiti: Race and Citizenship in French Saint-Domingue (New York: Routledge, 111)

125. Garrigus, Before Haiti, remains the essential source on postwar reform in Saint Domingue.

126. “Observations de M. le Chevalier de Montreuil sur la deffense de l’Isle de St. Domingue,” n.d., ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 118, n.p.

127. D’Estaing to Choiseul, September 21, 1765, ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 124, n.p.

128. See Garrigus, Before Haiti, 26, 96, 118.

129. Vaucresson to Minister, October 7, 1712, ANOM, AC, série F3, vol. 88, n.p.

130. Pierre Pluchon, Vaudou, Sorciers, Empoisonneurs de Saint Domingue à Haiti (Paris: Karthala, 1987), 152.

131. “Extrait des déclarations de Médor,” May 26, 1757, ANOM, AC, série F3, vol. 88, 214v.

132. On Makandal, see Karol K. Weaver, Medical Revolutionaries: The Enslaved Healers of Eighteenth-Century Saint-Domingue (Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 2006), 76–97.

133. “Mémoire pour servir á l’information des Procès contre les nègres,” 1758, ANOM, AC, série F3, vol. 88, 235v.

134. One source estimated that 6,000 people, both white and black, had been killed during the poisoning spree. See Pluchon, Vaudou, 165.

135. Ibid.; L’Huillier de Marigny, “Mémoire sur les poisons que régnent á St. Domingue,” 1762, ANOM, AC, série F3, vol. 88, 280.

136. L’Huillier de Marigny, “Mémoire sur les poisons que régnent á St. Domingue,” 1762, ANOM, AC, série F3, vol. 88, 280.

137. Ibid.

138. Borthon, “Mémoire,” 1764, ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 120, n.p.

139. “Representations qui present au Roi l’assemblé des deux conseils superieurs à St. Domingue,” April 1, 1764, ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 118, n.p.

140. L’Huillier de Marigny, “Mémoire sur les poisons que régnent á St. Domingue,” 1762, ANOM, AC, série F3, vol. 88, 280.

141. D’Estaing to Minister, January 2, 1764, ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 120, n.p.

142. L’Huillier de Marigny, “Mémoire sur les poisons que régnent á St. Domingue,” 1762, ANOM, AC, série F3, vol. 88, 280v.

143. D’Estaing and Magon to Choiseul, April 29, 1764, ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 120, n.p.

144. Clugny to Accaron, January 25, 1764, ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 119, n.p.

145. Acadians of Maryland to the Duc de Nivernais, July 7, 1763, AMAE, Correspondance Politique, Angleterre, vol. 450, 438.

146. Balthazzard Corne, Marain Leblanc, Jacque Hugond to Nivernais, August 12, 1763, Charleston, AMAE, Correspondance Politique, Angleterre, vol. 451, 62.

147. D’Estaing to Acadians, June 26, 1764, Cap François, in Placide Gaudet, ed., Rapport concernant les archives canadiennes pour l’année 1905 (Ottawa: National Archives of Canada, 1906), 148.

148. “Mémoire de Messrs. Le Chevalier de Montreuil et de Clugny pour l’Etablissement du Môle St. Nicolas,” January 27, 1764, ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 122, n.p. “Mémoire de M. le Chevalier de Montreuil sur l’Etablissement du Môle St. Nicolas,” January 24, 1764, Cap Français, ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 122, n.p. A carreau contained between 2.79 and 3.00 English acres. McClellan, Colonialism and Science, xvii.

149. “Etat des ouvriers blancs & des nègres du Roy, employés aux travaux du Mole, présents aux ateliers le 6 fevrier 1766,” Fonds d’Estaing, 562 AP, box 15, AN.

150. Saltoris to Clugny, February 2, 1764, ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 123, n.p.

151. Saltoris to Clugny, February 8, 1764, ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 123, n.p.

152. Saltoris to Clugny, February 11, 1764, ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 123, n.p.

153. Ibid.

154. Saltoris to Clugny, March 12, 1764, ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 123, n.p.

155. Saltoris to Clugny, February 15, 1764, ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 123, n.p.

156. Saltoris to Clugny, February 19, 1764, ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 123, n.p.

157. Entry for April 27, 1764, Journal of René Magon, intendant at Port-au-Prince, ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 121, n.p.

158. Ibid. See Saltoris’s dossier, cited in Gabriel Debien, “The Acadians in Santo Domingo: 1764–1789,” in Glenn Conrad, ed., The Cajuns: Essays on Their History and Culture (Lafayette: Center for Louisiana Studies, University of Southwestern Louisiana, 1978), 93, note 34.

159. Saltoris to Montreuil, February 22, 1764, ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 123, n.p.

160. Saltoris to Clugny, April 2, 1764, ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 123, n.p.

161. Saltoris to Clugny, April 2, 1764, ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 123, n.p.

162. Saltoris to Clugny, March 31, 1764, ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 123, n.p.

163. Saltoris to d’Estaing, April 12, 1764, ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 123, n.p.

164. D’Estaing to Choiseul, September 21, 1765, ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 124, n.p.

165. Entry for July 7, 1764, Journal of René Magon, intendant at Port-au-Prince, ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 121, n.p.

166. Saltoris to D’Estaing, November 1, 1764, ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 123, n.p.

167. D’Estaing to Choiseul, September 21, 1765, ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 124, n.p.

168. Entry for July 7, 1764, Journal of René Magon, intendant at Port-au-Prince, ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 121, n.p.

169. D’Estaing to Choiseul, September 21, 1765, ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 124, n.p.

170. D’Estaing to Choiseul, September 21, 1765, ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 124, n.p.

171. D’Estaing to Minister, September 22, 1765, ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 124, n.p.; d’Estaing to Minister, September 21, 1765, ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 124, n.p.; Aublet to Choiseul, September 11, 1764, ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 125, n.p.

172. D’Estaing to Minister, September 21, 1765, ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 124, n.p.

173. D’Estaing to Minister, February 28, 1765, ANOM, AC, série C9A, vol. 124, n.p.

174. Lescallier to d’Estaing, March 26, 1765, Fonds d’Estaing, 562 AP, box 15, AN.

175. On the Broussard brothers, see Warren A. Perrin, Acadian Redemption: From Beausoleil Broussard to the Queen’s Royal Proclamation (Opelousas, LA: Andrepont, 2004)s.

176. “Etat des ouvriers blancs et des négres du Roy employés aux travaux du Môle aux ateliers, le 6 fevrier 1766,” Fonds d’Estaing, 562 AP, box 15, AN.

177. “Extrait du role des officiers, employés, ouvriers Acadiens, Allemands, Soldats, Négres du Roy, & autres personnes composantes l’établissement du Môle & autres lieux de sa dépendance, fait le 1er juin 1766,” Fonds d’Estaing, 562 AP, box 15, AN.

178. Debien, “The Acadians in Santo Domingo: 1764–1789,” 60–71.

Chapter 4: The Unknown

1. François Veron de Forbonnais, Elémens de commerce (Leyde, 1766), 5.

2. [Denis Diderot], Histoire philosophique et politique des établissements et du commerce des Européens dans les deux Indes, cited in Sankar Muthu, Enlightenment Against Empire (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2003), 74.

3. Ephémérides du Citoyen, ou chronique de l’esprit nationale (Paris), tome VI (1766), 139, 186.

4. Ephémérides du citoyen, tome I (1765), 228.

5. Charles de Brosses, Histoire des navigations aux terres Australes (Paris, 1756), 22.

6. Ibid., iv.

7. Ibid., 6.

8. Ibid., 4.

9. Ibid., 16, 18.

10. Bernard le Bovier de Fontenelle, Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds (Dublin, 1761), 62.

11. Charles-François Tiphaigne de la Roche, Giphantia: or, a view of what has passed, or what is now passing, and during the present century, what will pass, in the world (Dublin, 1761), 41.

12. David A. Bell, The Cult of the Nation in France: Inventing Nationalism, 1680–1800 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003), 96; R. A. Leigh, “Jean-Jacques Rousseau and the Myth of Antiquity in the Eighteenth Century,” in R. R. Bolgar, ed.,Classical Influences on Western Thought, a.d. 1650–1870 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979), 157, 159.

13. Elizabeth Rawson, The Spartan Tradition in European Thought (New York: Oxford University Press, 1969), 227.

14. Leigh, “Rousseau and the Myth of Antiquity,” 158; for the “spirit of community,” see the article “Législateur” in Denis Diderot and Jean le Ronde d’Alembert, Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers, par une société des gens de letters (Paris: 1751–80).

15. Cited in Rawson, The Spartan Tradition, 234.

16. Johnson Kent Wright, A Classical Republican in Eighteenth-Century France: The Political Thought of Mably (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1997), 49, 46.

17. De Brosses, Histoire des navigations, 19.

18. Alexander Dalrymple, An Historical Collection of the Several Voyages and Discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean (New York: Da Capo Press, 1967), xxviii; Yves-Joseph de Kerguelen-Trémarec, “Réflexions sur les avantages que peut procurer la France Australe,” in Kerguelen-Trémarec, Rélation de deux voyages dans les mers australes et des Indes, faits en 1771, 1772, 1773, et 1774 (Paris: Serpent de Mer, 2000), 95–110.

19. De Brosses, Histoire des navigations, 41–42.

20. Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, A Voyage Round the World (London, 1772), 38.

21. “Journal of a Voyage to Nova Scotia made in 1731 by Robert Hale of Beverly,” in Essex Institute Historical Collections (Salem, 1906), 42:232–33.

22. Barry Gough, The Falkland Islands/Malvinas: The Contest for Empire in the South Atlantic (Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Athlone, 1992), 15–16.

23. Stephen A. White, “Les acadiens aux Iles Malouines en 1764,” Les cahiers de la société historique acadienne 15 (June and September 1984): 100–105.

24. Bernard Penrose, An Account of the Last Expedition to Port Egmont, in Falkland’s Islands, in the year 1772 (London, 1775), 19.

25. Alan Gurney, Below the Convergence: Voyages Toward Antarctica, 1699–1839 (New York: W. W. Norton, 1997), 55–56.

26. Glyndwr Williams and Alan Frost, “Terra Australis: Theory and Speculation,” in Glyndwr Williams and Alan Frost, eds., Terra Australis to Australia (Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1988), 1. See also Alfred Hiatt, Terra Incognita: Mapping the Antipodes Before 1600 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008); Gurney, Below the Convergence, 3–5; William Eisler, The Furthest Shore: Images of Terra Australis from the Middle Ages to Captain Cook (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 9; Paul Simpson-Housley, Antarctica: Exploration, Perception, and Metaphor (New York: Routledge, 1992), 3.

27. Gurney, Below the Convergence, 5.

28. See John Carey, “Ireland and the Antipodes: The Heterodoxy of Virgil of Salzburg,” Speculum 64 (January 1989): 1, 4.

29. Eisler, The Furthest Shore, 11; for more on the unknown southern continent in medieval cartography, see Marcia Kupfer, “The Lost Mappamundi at Chalivoy-Milon,” Speculum 66 (July 1991): 540–71.

30. Eisler, The Furthest Shore, 11.

31. Ibid., 26.

32. Williams and Frost, “Terra Australis: Theory and Speculation,” 9.

33. Pedro Fernandes de Quieros [sic], Terra australis incognita: or, a new southern discovery (London, 1720), 7–8.

34. Gracie Delépine, Histoires extraordinaires et inconnues dans les mers australes: Kerguelen, Crozet, Amsterdam et Saint-Paul (Rennes: Editions Ouest-France, 2002), 19–21.

35. For Paulmier’s early career, see Abbé Jean Paulmier, Mémoires touchant l’établissement d’une mission chréstienne dans le troisième monde, autrement appelé, la terra australe, méridionale, antarctique, & inconnue, ed. Margaret Sankey (Paris: Honoré Champion, 2006), 18.

36. Ibid., 78.

37. Ibid., 19.

38. Ibid., 258.

39. Ibid., 257, 259, 260.

40. Ibid., 177, 195.

41. De Brosses, Histoire des Navigations aux Terres Australes, 103.

42. “Projet d’armement pour former un établissement de commerce aux Isles Cabaldes,” May 5, 1714, ANOM, AC, série F2A 14, vol. 1, 1–2.

43. Delépine, Histoires extraordinaires, 27–32.

44. Paulmier, Mémoires, 95.

45. De Brosses, Histoire des navigations, 1:62–63.

46. Woodes Rogers, A cruising voyage round the world: first to the South-Sea, thence to the East-Indies, and homewards by the Cape of Good Hope (London, 1726), 325.

47. See Mary Terrall, The Man Who Flattened the Earth: Maupertuis and the Sciences in the Enlightenment (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002), 118.

48. Alexander Dalrymple, An Historical Collection of the Several Voyages and Discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean (London, 1770), 12.

49. De Brosses, Histoire des navigations, 13.

50. Dalrymple, An Historical Collection, 19.

51. Henry Home Kames, Sketches on the History of Man (Dublin, 1774–75), 46.

52. Claude Gros de Boze, Éloge de M. le Cardinal de Polignac (Paris, 1749), 13.

53. Cardinal de Polignac, L’Anti-Lucrèce, poème sur la religion naturelle (Paris, 1749), vi, xv; on Polignac’s philosophical position, see Ernest J. Ament, “The Anti-Lucretius of Cardinal Polignac,” Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 101 (1970): 29–49.

54. Ament, “The Anti-Lucretius of Cardinal Polignac,” 47.

55. Victor Suthren, The Sea Has No End: The Life of Louis-Antoine de Bougainville (Toronto: Dundurn, 2004), 17.

56. Lucretius, On the Nature of Things, ed. and trans. Martin Ferguson Smith (Indianapolis: Hackett, 2001), 31.

57. Jean-Pierre de Bougainville, Dissertation qui a remporté le prix de l’Académie Royale des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, en l’année 1745 (Paris, 1745), 17, 73.

58. Many now argue that Pytheas’s Ultima Thule was either Iceland or an island off the Norwegian coast. For the Icelandic hypothesis, see Barry Cunliffe, The Extraordinary Voyage of Pytheas the Greek (New York: Penguin, 2001).

59. Jean-Etienne Martin-Allanic, Bougainville: navigateur et les découvertes de son temps (Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, 1964), 1:21.

60. Cunliffe, Voyage of Pytheas, 15, 17.

61. Ibid., 129.

62. Martin-Allanic, Bougainville, 1:18–19.

63. Ibid., 31–32; see Terrall, The Man Who Flattened the Earth, 240–43.

64. Jean-Pierre de Bougainville, Mémoire sur les découvertes & les établissemens faits le long des cotes d’Afrique par Hannon, amiral de Carthage (Paris, 1754), 10, 14. This work is often mistakenly attributed to Louis-Antoine de Bougainville.

65. Ibid., 13.

66. Ibid., 21.

67. Ibid., 260.

68. Ibid., 24. See also J. D. Fage and Roland Anthony Oliver, The Cambridge History of Africa, vol. 2: c. 500 b.c.– c.1050A.D. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986), 137–38.

69. Bougainville, Mémoire sur les découvertes, 291, 290.

70. Ibid., 26.

71. Ibid., 28.

72. Ibid., 299.

73. Ibid., 14.

74. Martin-Allanic, Bougainville, 1:29.

75. “Mémoire,” July 4, 1764, AC, série F2A 14, 40.

76. Mary Kimbrough, Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, 1729–1811: A Study in French Naval History and Politics (Lewiston, ME: Edwin Mellen, 1990), 7.

77. Louis-Antoine’s most recent biographer assesses Jean-Pierre’s influence in these terms: “Jean-Pierre’s interest in the science of cartography may have planted in the young Louis-Antoine an interest in the wider world beyond Europe … and may have been the burr under the young man’s career saddle that made him restless rather than comforted by the security of a Parisian lawyer’s life; certainly Jean-Pierre did all he could to encourage the skills and abilities he saw emerging in his stocky, robust younger brother, having the youth at his elbow as he edited and published Freret’s hand-drawn collection of more than a thousand maps and charts.” Suthren, The Sea Has No End, 19–20. See also Martin-Allanic, Bougainville, 1:34.

78. Edward Hamilton, ed., Adventure in the Wilderness: The American Journals of Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, 1756–1760 (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1964), 65, 284, 175.

79. Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, “Réflexions sur la campagne prochaine,” Rapport de l’Archiviste de Québec pour 1923–1924 (Québec, 1924), 17.

80. De Brosses, Histoire des navigations aux terres australes, 4, 45, 372, 375.

81. John Dunmore, ed., The Pacific Journal of Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, 1767–1768 (London: Hakluyt Society, 2002), xx.

82. Gough, The Falkland Islands/Malvinas, xi; Ephémérides du citoyen, tome III (1766), 49.

83. This sketch is drawn from Gough, The Falkland Islands/Malvinas, 3.

84. Martin-Allanic, Bougainville, 1:85.

85. Ibid., 7–8.

86. Glyndwr Williams, The Prize of All the Oceans: The Triumph and Tragedy of Anson’s Voyage Round the World (New York: Harper Collins, 1999), 167.

87. George Anson [Richard Walter and Benjamin Robins], A Voyage Round the World in the Years MDCCXL, I, II, III, IV (New York: Oxford University Press, 1974), 97–98.

88. Ministre to the comte de Vaulgrenant, January 9, 1750, ANOM, AC, série F2A, vol. 14, 4.

89. Martin-Allanic, Bougainville, 1:87.

90. Bougainville, Adventure in the Wilderness, 116, 192.

91. De Brosses, Histoire des navigations, 1:41.

92. Mémoire sur differents objets relatifs à l’expedition des Navires l’Aigle et le Sphinx, actuellement en armement à St. Mâlo,” n.d., ANOM, AC, série F2A, vol. 14, 3v.

93. White, “Les acadiens aux Iles Malouines en 1764,” 100–105. The Boucher family is described in “Liste de l’Etat major, matelots, ouvriers et habitants restés aux Isles Malouines,” September 5, 1764, ANOM, AC, série F2A, vol. 14, 63bis.

94. Mémoire sur differents objets relatifs à l’expedition des Navires l’Aigle et le Sphinx, actuellement en armement à St. Mâlo,” n.d., ANOM, AC, série F2A, vol. 14, 3v.

95. Antoine-Dom [Joseph] Pernéty, Journal Historique d’un Voyage fait aux Iles Malouïnes en 1763 & 1764 (Berlin, 1769), 32, 39–40.

96. Ibid., 52.

97. “Journal de Pierre St. Marc, 1er pilote de la frigate l’Aigle,” ANOM, AC, série F2A, vol. 14, n.p.

98. Ibid., 109.

99. Ibid., 157; “Journal de Pierre St. Marc, 1er pilote de la frigate l’Aigle,” ANOM, AC, série F2A, vol. 14, n.p.

100. Pernèty, Journal Historique, 215–16.

101. Gough, The Falkland Islands/Malvinas, 15–16.

102. “Copie de l’acte de prise de possession au nom de sa majesté des Isles Malouines par M. de Bougainville,” April 5, 1763, ANOM, AC, série F2A, vol. 14, 51.

103. Thomas Falkner, S.J., A Description of Patagonia and the Adjoining Parts of South America (Chicago: Armann & Armann, 1935; orig. pub. London, 1774), 93.

104. Antoine-Joseph Pernèty, The history of a voyage to the Malouine (or Falkland) Islands, made in 1763 and 1764, under the command of M. de Bouganville (London; 1773), 203.

105. Kimbrough, Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, 41.

106. Martin-Allanic, Bougainville, 1:206.

107. White, Les Acadiens aux Iles Malouines,” 101; Martin-Allanic, Bougainville, 215.

108. Martin-Allanic, Bougainville, 1:206.

109. White, Les Acadiens aux Iles Malouines,” 103–4.

110. “Mémoire,” August 29, 1764, ANOM, AC, série F2A, vol. 14, 44;. “Mémoire,” July 4, 1764, ANOM, AC, série F2A, vol. 14, 40.

111. “Mémoire,” August 29, 1764, ANOM, AC, série F2A, vol. 14, 44.

112. Martin-Allanic, Bougainville, 1:534.

113. Gough, Falkland Islands/Malvinas, 13.

114. [Bougainville de Nerville], “Détails sur le séjour aux Isles Malouines de la frégate angloise le Jason, Capitaine Jean Macbride,” n.d., ANOM, AC, série F2A, vol. 14, 166.

115. Gough, Falkland Islands/Malvinas, 10.

116. Ibid., 247.

117. “Copie de la lettre du Roy écritte á M. de Bougainville de Nerville, commandant aux Isles Malouines,” August 30, 1766, ANOM, AC, série F2A, vol. 14, 110–11.

118. Bougainville de Nerville to Dubuq, September 2, 1767, ANOM, AC, F2A, vol. 14, n.p.

119. “Rolle des noms et surnoms des cy-devant habitants des Isles Malouines,” 1767, ANOM, AC, série F2A, vol. 14, 157–59.

120. Martin-Allanic, Bougainville, 1:544.

121. Falkner, Description of Patagonia, 95.

122. Martin-Allanic, Bougainville, 1:544.

123. Bougainville, Voyage Round the World, 219, 251, xxv–xxvi.

124. [Praslin] to Guillot, July 10, 1769, ANOM, AC, série B, vol. 134, 239.

125. Acadians to de Boynes, n.d., ANOM, AC, série F2A, vol. 14, 221–22.

126. Dalrymple, Historical Collection, 1:xxvii.

127. Samuel Johnson, “Thoughts on the Late Transactions Respecting Falkland’s Islands,” in J. P. Hardy, ed., The Political Writings of Dr. Johnson: A Selection (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1968), 78.

128. “Mémoire sur differents objets relatifs à l’expedition des Navires l’Aigle et le Sphinx, actuellement en armement à St. Mâlo,” n.d., ANOM, AC, série F2A, vol. 14, 1.

129. Gracie Delépine, Les Iles Australes Françaises: Kerguelen, Crozet, Amsterdam, Saint-Paul (Rennes: Éditions Ouest-France, 1995), 11.

130. Yves-Joseph de Kerguelen-Trémarec, “Réflexions sur les avantages que peut procurer la France Australe,” “Mémoire sur l’établissement d’une colonie dans la France Australe,” Kerguelen-Trémarec, Rélation de deux voyages, 95–110.

Chapter 5: The Homeland

1. “Mémoire à presenter à Monseigneur le Duc de Praslin … en faveur du nommé Joseph Le Blanc dit Le Maigre agé de 70 ans Acadien d’origine,” August 1, 1767, ANOM, AC, série C11A, vol. 105, 577v.

2. “Bordereau des services que le nommé Joseph Leblanc dit Le Maigre a rendus dans la colonie de l’Acadie et les différents postes où il s’est trouvé suivant qu’il lui est aisé de le constater et de le justifier par les ordres et certificats qu’il joint ici,” n.d., ANOM, AC, série C11A, vol. 105, 580.

3. Council Minutes, January 25, 1744/5, in NSA IV; September 24, 1745, in ibid., 78.

4. William Shirley, Circular Letter, October 20, 1747, Boston, in Placide Gaudet, ed., Rapport concernant les archives canadiennes pour l’année 1905 (Ottawa: National Archives of Canada, 1906), 105.

5. “Mémoire à presenter à Monseigneur le Duc de Praslin … en faveur du nommé Joseph Le Blanc dit Le Maigre agé de 70 ans Acadien d’origine,” August 1, 1767, ANOM, AC, série C11A, vol. 105, 578–79.

6. Prévost to Ministère, December 1, 1750, Louisbourg, ANOM, AC, série C11B, vol. 29, 182.

7. “Mémoire à presenter à Monseigneur le Duc de Praslin … en faveur du nommé Joseph Le Blanc dit Le Maigre agé de 70 ans Acadien d’origine,” August 1, 1767, ANOM, AC, série C11A, vol. 105, 578v–579v.

8. J. C. Piquet, “Arrest de la Cour, rendu sur les Remontrance & Conclusions de Monsieur le Procureur Général du Roi, concernant les Acadiens actuellement établis à Belle-Isle,” January 12, 1767, AMAE, Memoires et documents, Angleterre, vol. 47, 10–13.

9. Henri-Raymond Casgrain, ed., Collection de documents inédits sur le Canada et l’Amérique publiés par le Canada-Français (Québec: L. J. Demers & Frère, 1888–90), 2:175–76.

10. Abbé Le Loutre to Séminaire des Missions Étrangères, February 1, 1771, ANOM, AC, série E, E275, 11.

11. Abbé de l’Isle-Dieu to the Comte de Warren, April 23, 1773, Paris, Archives Départementales du Morbihan, copy in série E, A9-2-7, CEA.

12. The annual register, or a view of the history, politics, and literature, for the year 1771 (London, 1772), 2.

13. Charles-Louis Secondat, baron de Montesquieu, Persian Letters, ed and trans. C. J. Betts (New York: Penguin, 1993), 205.

14. Ibid., 202.

15. “Population,” in Jean le Rond d’Alembert and Denis Dicerot, eds., Encyclopédie, ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts, et des métiers, par une société de gens de lettres (Paris: 1751–66), 13:89–90.

16. Ibid., 13:100.

17. Jean-Baptiste Gaultier, Les lettres persanes convancues d’impiété (n.p., 1751), 82–84, cited in Carol Blum, Strength in Numbers: Population, Reproduction, and Power in Eighteenth-Century France (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002), 55.

18. Mylo Freeman, A word in season to all true lovers of their liberty and their country (Boston, 1748), 5.

19. Gentlemen’s Magazine, November 1753, 499–502.

20. See D. V. Glass, Numbering the People: The Eighteenth-Century Population Controversy and the Development of Census and Vital Statistics in Britain (London: Gordon and Cremonesi, 1978), 24.

21. Joseph Massie, A plan for the establishment of charity-houses for exposed or deserted women and girls, and for penitent prostitutes (London, 1758), 102, 146, 88.

22. Philippe-Auguste de Sainte-Foix, chevalier d’Arcq, La noblesse militaire, ou le patriote français (Paris, 1756), 70.

23. See Philippe-Laurent Withof, Dissertation sur les eunuques (Duisbourg, 1756), cited in Blum, Strength in Numbers, 50.

24. “Habillement, équipement, et armament des troupes,” in Encyclopédie, 8:9.

25. Journal d’Agriculture, du Commerce, et des Finances, October 1766, 66.

26. “Luxe,” in Encyclopédie, 9:764.

27. A. Rebelliau, Vauban (Paris, 1962), 293–96, cited in Blum, Strength in Numbers, 8.

28. “Invalides,” Encyclopédie, 17:802; for Mirabeau, see Blum, Strength in Numbers, 49.

29. See, for example, John Shovlin, “Emulation in Eighteenth-Century Economic Thought,” Eighteenth-Century Studies 36 (Winter 2003): 224–30, and Thomas Crow, Emulation: Making Artists for Revolutionary France (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995).

30. Sieur de Diéreville, Relation du voyage de Port Royal de l’Acadie ou de la Nouvelle France (Rouen, 1708), 74–76.

31. Naomi E. S. Griffiths, Griffiths, From Migrant to Acadian: A North American Border People, 1604–1755 (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2005), 305; Shirley and Warren to Greene, October 14, 1746, in The Correspondence of William Shirley, ed. Henry Lincoln (New York: Macmillan, 1910), 1:359.

32. [Louis-Nicolas, marquis de Pérusse des Cars], “Mémoire sur les Acadiens présenté au roy,” ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 98.

33. Abbé Gabriel-François Coyer, Oeuvres de M. l’Abbé Coyer (London, 1765), 2:84.

34. D’Arcq, La noblesse militaire, 81, 128.

35. Ange Goudar, Les interets de la France mal entendus (Amsterdam, 1757), 1:11.

36. Ibid., 11.

37. Victor de Ricqueti, marquis de Mirabeau, La philosophie rurale, ou économie genérale et politique de l’agriculture, reduite à l’ordre immuable des loix physiques &morales, qui assurent la prospérité des empires (Amsterdam, 1764), 238.

38. “Mémoire des avances … pour etablir en France les Acadiens,” n.d., AMAE, Correspondance Politique, Angleterre, vol. 450, 86–87.

39. Choiseul to Ribot, September 12, 1763, ANOM, AC, série B, vol. 117, 507.

40. Choiseul to Controller-General, June 10, 1764, ANOM, AC, série B, v. 120, 264; for “miracle,” see Saint-Victour to Lemoyne, November 3, 1772, BMB MS 1480, 187.

41. See “Mémoire pour établir les Acadiens,” n.d., ANOM, AC, série C11D, vol. 8, 303–12; “Extrait des régistres des Etats tenues à Nantes en l’an 1764,” March 5, 1765, BMB MS 1480, 13.

42. Comte de Tressan, “Projet pour établir un Certain nombre de Canadiens dans le comté de Bitche,” July 20, 1763, Bitche, ANOM, AC, série C11D, vol. 8, 235–240v. At this stage of the grand dérangement, Acadians, Canadians, and former residents of Ile Royale were often conflated.

43. “Colonies,” April 6, 1763, ANOM, AC, série C11D, vol. 8, 252v.

44. Ministre to Duval, October 8, 1755, ADIV, C1949.

45. Choiseul to Juge de Landivisiau, September 4, 1764, ANOM, AC, série B, vol. 120, 362.

46. See Jean-Marie Fonteneau, Les Acadiens: citoyens de l’Atlantique (Rennes: Editions Ouest-France, 1996), 221.

47. “Mémoire addressée á M. l’indendant de Bretagne,” ADIV, C1949.

48. See Léandre le Gallen, Belle-Ile, histoire politique, religieuse, et militaire (Vannes, 1906).

49. Le Sergent to Intendant of Brittany, January 6, 1742, ADIV, C1949.

50. Le Sergent to Intendant of Brittany, January 20, 1742, ADIV, C1949.

51. Trudaine to subdelegate at Belle-Ile, October 31, 1749, ADIV, C1949; Trudaine to subdelegate at Belle-Ile, March 23, 1749, ADIV, C1949; “Etat des pauvres mendiants des Villes, Bourgs, et Campagnes de l’isle de Belle-Ile-en-Mer,” n.d., ADIV, C1949; “Marché de grain pour les pauvres de Belle-Ile,” May 13, 1753, ADIV, C1949.

52. Pierre d’Isambert to Estates of Brittany, July 4, 1763, ADIV, C5128.

53. “Mémoire,” n.d., ADIV, C5127.

54. Pierre d’Isambert to Estates of Brittany, July 4, 1763, ADIV, C5128.

55. Estates of Brittany to Minister, July 18, 1763, ADIV, C5127.

56. La Bourdonnaye to Estates of Brittany, July 4, 1763, ADIV, C5127.

57. Daumesnil to Raudot, July 20, 1763, Morlaix, ADIV, C5156.

58. Cited in Jean-François Mouhot, Les réfugiés Acadiens en France, 1758–1785: L’impossible réintégration? (Montréal: Septentrion, 2009), 89. See also “Mémoire,” n.d., ADIV, C5128, in which the anonymous author argues that a key “motive” for settling the Acadians was “to provide an object of emulation for the old settlers of Belle-Ile, who have the reputation of being lazy.”

59. “Réponses au mémoire de Nosseigneurs les Commissaires portant les conditions pour l’établissement de soixante dix sept familles acadiennes á Belleisle en Mer,” February 17, 1764, ADIV, C5156.

60. Daumesnil to Raudot, July 20, 1763, Morlaix, ADIV, C5156; Coetancour to Estates of Brittany, November 20, 1763, ADIV, C5156.

61. Abbé de Cargouet et al. to M.M. les Commissaires des Domaines et Controles, July 5, 1763, ADIV, C5156.

62. Coetancour to Estates of Brittany, November 20, 1763, ADIV, C5156.

63. “Réponse au Mémoire de Nosseigneurs les Commissaires des États de Bretagne,” October 30, 1763, ADIV, C5156.

64. [Choiseul] to M. les Commissaires des Provinces … de la Bretagne, December 3, 1763, Versailles, ANOM, AC, série B, vol. 117, 627.

65. George Collingwood to William Walmesley, August 4, 1756, State Papers, SP 42, vol. 64, n.p., PRO, microfilm copy at LAC.

66. Choiseul to le Loutre, December 3, 1763, ADIV, C5156.

67. Fonteneau, Les Acadiens, 279.

68. “Réponse au mémoire de Nosseigneurs les commissaries portant les conditions pour l’établissement de soixante dix sept familles accadiennes á Belleisle en Mer,” February 3, 1764, ADIV, C5156.

69. Alexis Trahan et al. to d’Aiguillon, n.d., ADIV, C5156.

70. Estates of Brittany to Choiseul, n.d., ADIV, C5156.

71. Alexis Trahan et al. to d’Aiguillon, n.d., ADIV, C5156; Gosselin to Estates of Brittany, April 23, 1766, ADIV, C5156.

72. Estates of Brittany to Choiseul, November 4, 1763, ADIV, C5156.

73. Ibid., 279.

74. Fonteneau, Les Acadiens, 276–77; Marguerite Daligault, “L’installation belliloise en 1766,” Association pour l’histoire de Belle-Ile-en-Mer, Bulletin Trimestriél, 1977, 21–22.

75. “Etat des colons qui doivent déguerpir des villages destines a l’établissement des acadiens,” n.d., ADIV, C5158.

76. [Pierre d’Isambert], “Observations sur l’établissement des colons de l’Isle et des Accadiens,” April 1764, ADIV, C5158.

77. “L’état des terres destinées aux acadiens,” n.d., ADIV, C5156.

78. Ibid., 287–88.

79. “Etat général de l’établissement des acadiens á Belle-Ile-en-Mer,” n.d., ADIV, C5157; Fonteneau, Les Acadians, 234–35.

80. Le Loutre and Isambert to Estates of Brittany, March 24, 1766, ADIV, C5142.

81. Estates of Brittany to Isambert, April 9, 1766, ADIV, C5142.

82. Le Sergent to Warren, March 26, 1765, ADIV, C5158.

83. “Remboursement de la somme de 28065 payée par les Etats aux anciens fermiers de Belle-Ile-en-Mer,” n.d., ADIV, C5127.

84. Fonteneau, Les Acadiens, 288, 299.

85. Le Loutre to Estates of Brittany, June 14, 1766, ADIV, C5157.

86. Choblet to Warren, September 18, 1766, ADIV, C5143.

87. Le Sergent to Estates of Brittany, June 24, 1766, ADIV, C5143.

88. Recteurs de Belle-Ile to Estates of Brittany, October 29, 1766, ADIV, C5143.

89. Isambert to Estates of Brittany, January 24, 1766, ADIV, C5142.

90. Fonteneau, Les Acadiens, 355.

91. Isambert to Estates General, April 9, 1766, ADIV, C5142.

92. Babin to Estates of Brittany, April 4, 1768, ADIV, C5158.

93. Le Loutre to Warren, November 26, 1768, A9-2-7, CEA.

94. Ibid.

95. Le Loutre to Warren, July 10, 1771, A9-2-7, CEA.

96. Charles Leblanc, Jean Melançon, Pierre Doucet, Joseph-Simon Granger to Estates of Brittany, August 27, 1769, ADIV, C5157.

97. Marguerite Granger to M. Ruis-Embito, July 21, 1771, A9-2-7, CEA.

98. Warren to Estates of Brittany, n.d. [but likely 1770 or 1771], A9-2-7, CEA.

99. Sergent, Certificat Haché, May 26, 1773; Warren, Passport, May 26, 1773, ANOM, AC, série E, carton E1, dossier Haché.

100. Sarah Maza, The Myth of the French Bourgeoisie: An Essay on the Social Imaginary, 1750–1850 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003), 1.

101. [François-Antoine de] Chevrier, L’Acadiade, ou prouesses angloises en Acadie, Canada, etc. (Cassel, 1758), 11–12 (copy at LAC); David Bell, The Cult of the Nation in France: Inventing Nationalism, 1680–1800 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2001), 19.

102. Estates of Brittany to Isambert, June 20, 1766, ADIV, C5142.

103. Statements from Cassiet, Desenclaves, and Girard, 1764, ADIV, C5158.

104. See Christopher Hodson, “Exile on Spruce Street: An Acadian History,” William and Mary Quarterly 67, no. 2 (April 2010): 249–78, for a case in which a copy of the parish registers from Saint-Charles des Mines in Grand Pré were eventually deposited in Iberville, Louisiana.

105. “Tableau général de l’établissement…” 1765, BMB MS 1480, 23.

106. J. C. Picquet, “Arrest de la Cour, rendu sur les Remonstrances et Conclusions de Monsieur le Procureur Général dur Roy concernant les Accadiens actuellement établis à Belleisle,” January 12, 1767, AMAE, Memoires et documents, Angleterre, vol. 47, 10–13.

107. Casgrain, Documents Inédits, 2:170, 180.

108. Ibid., 2:189.

109. Ibid., 3:11–12.

110. Fonteneau, Les Acadiens, 357.

111. Cited in Maza, Myth of the French Bourgeoisie, 59.

112. Cited in Colin Jones, “The Great Chain of Buying: Medical Advertisement, the Bourgeois Public Sphere, and the Origins of the French Revolution,” American Historical Review 101 (February 1996): 14.

113. See P. M. Jones, Reform and Revolution in France: The Politics of Transition, 1774–1791 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 58–59; Michael Sonenscher, Work and Wages: Natural Law, Politics, and the Eighteenth-Century French Trades(New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989), 216–18.

114. Affiches du Poitou, July 7 and 21, 1774.

115. Lemoyne to de Boynes, June 1, 1772, BMB MS 1480, 86.

116. Lemoyne to de Boynes, December 1772, BMB MS 1480, 257.

117. Lemoyne to Guillot, June 20, 1773, Le Havre, BMB MS 1480, 321.

118. Mistral to Lemoyne, October 18, 1773, Le Havre, BMB MS 1480, 389.

119. LeMoyne to Bertin, September 14, 1772, BMB MS 1480, 129.

120. “Mémoire [LeMoyne to Bertin],” September 3, 1772, BMB MS 1480, 132.

121. “Mémoire pour les Acadiens,” n.d., St Servan, BMB MS 1480, 299–301.

122. Lemoyne to de Boynes, June 1, 1772, BMB MS 1480, 86.

123. Ephémérides du Citoyen, ou chronique de l’esprit nationale (Paris), tome X (1767), 222–24.

Chapter 6: The Conspiracy

1. Douglas Dakin, Turgot and the Ancien Regime in France (London, 1939), 40.

2. Correspondance de l’abbé Galiani, ed. Lucien Perry and Gaston Maugras (Paris, 1881), 2:345–46.

3. Dakin, Turgot and the Ancien Regime, 304.

4. Jean-Antoine-Nicolas de Caritat, marquis de Condorcet, The life of M. Turgot, Comptroller General of the Finances of France, in the years 1774, 1775, and 1776 (London, 1787), 85.

5. [Marquis de Pérusse], “Noms des deputes accadiens et notes les concernants,” n.d., ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 97.

6. Jean-Jacques Leblanc to Rimano, April 23, 1773, CEA, A9-2-7.

7. Louis-Antoine de Caraccioli, The Travels of Reason in Europe (London, 1778), 253.

8. On the unevenness of French agricultural development during the eighteenth century, see Peter M. Jones, Reform and Revolution in France: The Politics of Transition, 1774–1791 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 83–88.

9. Ephémérides du Citoyen, ou chronique de l’esprit nationale (Paris), tome II (1767), 80.

10. Les Affiches du Poitou, October 20 and December 1, 1774.

11. Arthur Young, Travels in France During the Years 1787, 1788, 1789, ed. Miss Betham-Edwards (London: George Bell and Sons, 1900), 72–73.

12. Ephémérides du Citoyen, tome I (1765), 228.

13. Chevalier d’Eon to duc de Praslin, September 6, 1763, London, AMAE, Correspondance Politique, Angleterre, vol. 451, 118; see also Praslin to comte de Guerchy, November 11, 1763, AMAE, Correspondance Politique, Angleterre, vol. 452, 48, D’Eon to Praslin, August 30, 1763, London, AMAE, Correspondance Politique, Angleterre, vol. 451, 105.

14. On peasant-soldiers, see Joseph Spengler, French Predecessors of Malthus: A Study in Eighteenth-Century Wage and Population Theory (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1942), 73; on population as a source of tax revenue, see ibid., 39.

15. Henri Bertin, “Arrêt du Conseil d’État du Roi qui autorise le Sieur Marquis de Pérusse …,” June 14, 1763, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 98. On the imperial ramifications of domestic agriculture, see Peter M. Jones, Liberty and Locality in Revolutionary France: Six Villages Compared, 1760–1820 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003), 231.

16. This sketch of Pérusse’s life is based on Ernest Martin, Les exilés acadiens en France au XVIIIe siècle (Paris, 1936), 124–25.

17. “Mémoire,” 1771, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 7. Although local variants existed throughout France, Pérusse likely estimated the area of his land in arpents de Paris, of which one equals about 0.84 acres.

18. See especially André J. Bourde, Agronomie et agronomes en France au XVIII siècle, (Paris, 1967), 3:1594–603.

19. Arrest du conseil d’État du roi, qui ordonne l’établissement d’une société d’Agriculture dans la généralité de la Rochelle (Paris, 1762), 1.

20. Sarcey de Sutières, Agriculture expérimentale, à l’usage des agriculteurs, fermiers, & laboureurs (Yverdon, 1765), 13–15.

21. Pérusse to M. de Simon, July 28, 1775, Targé, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 124.

22. Ephémérides du citoyen, tome VI (1767), 22.

23. Ibid., 79.

24. On la grande culture, see Pierre-Samuel Dupont de Nemours, La physiocratie, ou constitution naturelle du gouvernement le plus avantageux au genre humain (Leyden, 1768), 112–14.

25. Ibid., xciii.

26. Ephémérides du Citoyen, tome III (Paris, 1766), 193–94.

27. Victor de Riquetti, Marquis de Mirabeau, L’ami des hommes, ou traité de la population (Paris, 1883), 13, 29.

28. Journal d’Agriculture, du Commerce, et des Finances, January 1767, 89.

29. Ephémérides du Citoyen, tome III (1766), 194.

30. Journal d’agriculture, du commerce, et des finances, January 1767, 89.

31. Ephémérides du Citoyen, tome III (1766), 189–94.

32. “Mémoire pour établir les Acadiens,” AC, C11D, vol. 8, 308–10; De Francy to Moreau, directeur général des pépinières, August 1, 1767, AMPC, 4P1-C, f. 125; Deboynes to LeMoyne, October 8, 1772, BMB MS 1480, 150.

33. Le Loutre to Praslin, n.d, BMB MS 1480, 29–33.

34. Ministre to Le Loutre, July 3, 1769, Versailles, ANOM, AC, B, vol. 134, 229; Ministre to Mistral, December 27, 1771, ANOM, AC, B, vol. 139, 784.

35. Lemoyne to Deboynes, May 9, 1772, BMB MS 1480, 76; Saint-Victour to Lemoyne, November 3, 1772, BMB MS 1480, 187; Le Loutre to Praslin, n.d., BMB MS 1480, 29; “Extrait des régistres des Etats tenues à Nantes en l’an 1764,” March 5, 1765, BMB MS 1480, 13; Praslin to Controller-General, August 26, 1768, BMB MS 1480, 27.

36. Louis-François-Henri de Turbilly, Mémoire sur les Défrichemens (Paris, 1762). On Turbilly, see John Shovlin, The Political Economy of Virtue: Luxury, Commerce, and the Origins of the French Revolution (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2006), 78, 86–87.

37. “Mémoire pour le défrichement des terreins incultes qui se trouvent dependant de la Terre de Montoiron située dans la Généralité de Poitiers,” 1764, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 124, partie 2 (temporary).

38. Turbilly to Pérusse, October 6, 1762, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 98.

39. Like Pérusse’s initial German experiment, the Acadian colony of Poitou represented an agrarian version of state-sponsored, privileged improvements in manufactures and other economic activities. See Pierre Deyon and Philippe Guignet, “The Royal Manufactures and Economic and Technological Progress in France before the Industrial Revolution,” Journal of European Economic History 9 (Winter 1980), 611–32. For a concrete example of an old régime enterprise that made use of the state’s resources, see Leonard N. Rosenband, Paper-making in Eighteenth-Century France: Management, Labor, and Revolution at the Montgolfier Mill, 1761–1805 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000). For a compelling attempt to yoke internal improvements to territorial expansion into a single conceptual frame, see Barbara Fuchs, “Imperium Studies: Theorizing Early Modern Expansion,” in Patricia Clare Ingham and Michelle R. Warren, eds., Postcolonial Moves: Medieval through Modern (New York: Palgrave, 2003), 71–90.

40. “Mémoire sur les défrichements et sur les moyens de les Encourager et de les Etendre,” n.d., ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 124, partie 2.

41. “Déffrichements du Marquis de Pérusse,” 1764, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 124, partie 2.

42. Henri Bertin, “Arrêt du Conseil d’Etat du Roi qui autorise le Sieur Marquis de Pérusse …” June 14, 1763, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 98.

43. Henri Bertin, “Extrait des régistres du conseil d’Etat,” February 12, 1766, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 98.

44. De Francy to Mistral, October 10, 1767, AMPC, 4P1-C, fol. 150v.

45. De Francy to Mistral, December 19, 1766, AMPC, 4P1-C, fol. 70v.

46. On Acadian marriages in France, see especially Jean-François Mouhot, Les réfugiés Acadiens en France, 1758–1785: L’impossible réintégration? (Montréal: Septentrion, 2009), 260–71.

47. Rouger de [illegible] to Pérusse, May 7, 1774, Niort, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 124.

48. De Francy to Mistral, September 26, 1767, Cherbourg, AMPC, 4P1-C, fol. 145v.

49. Félix Le Blanc to [Terray], 1774, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 98.

50. On the British recruitment of Greeks for Florida, see E. P. Panagopoulos, New Smyrna: An Eighteenth-Century Greek Odyssey (Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1966).

51. Roger P. Bartlett, Human Capital: The Settlement of Foreigners in Russia, 1762–1804 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1979), 26.

52. Pérusse to l’Éveque de Tagaste, May 18, 1774, Montoiron, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 98.

53. Choiseul to Nivernais, March 11, 1763, ANOM, AC, B, vol. 117, 183; Guillot to Lemoyne, November 17, 1772, BMB MS 1480, 219.

54. On Jersey, see Martin, Exilés acadiens, 97; on a possible return to Nova Scotia, see De Francy to Choiseul, March 3, 1763, AMPC, 4P1-A, fol. 2, 3.

55. On Spain’s internal colony in the Sierra Morena, see Anthony H. Hall, Charles III and the Revival of Spain (Washington, DC, 1981), 167–68; and Paul J. Hauben, “The First Decade of an Agrarian Experiment in Bourbon Spain,” Agricultural History 39 (1965): 34–40.

56. LeMoyne, “Etablissement des Accadiens, Mémoire,” February 19, 1772, Paris, BMB MS 1480, 10–11; LeMoyne to Bertin, October 23, 1772, BMB MS 1480, 162–64.

57. Paul Dugats [sic] to M. l’abbé Le Loutre, April 5, 1772, BMB MS 1480, 146.

58. LeMoyne to Guillot, January 19, 1773, BMB MS 1480, 251–52.

59. Guillot to LeMoyne, October 31, 1772, BMB MS 1480, 185.

60. Guillot to Lemoyne, November 22, 1772, BMB MS 1480, 218.

61. Lemoyne to de Boynes and Le Loutre, March 26, 1772, BMB MS 1480, 89–91.

62. Carl A. Brasseaux, The Founding of New Acadia: The Beginnings of Acadian Life in Louisiana, 1764–1803 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1987), 61–62; Oscar William Winzerling, Acadian Odyssey (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1955), 66–67.

63. “Projet de lettre à M. le Controlleur Général,” May 9, 1772, BMB MS 1480, 78.

64. Lemoyne to Bertin, September 3, 1772, BMB MS 1480, 132.

65. Pérusse to Turgot, November 23, 1774, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 98.

66. “Etablissement des familles acadiennes sur la Terre de Monthoiron,” ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 124, partie 2 (temporary); “Projet d’établissement des familles Acadiennes pour concilier les offers de M. le Marquis de Pérusse avec les intentions du ministère,” in Placide Gaudet, ed., Rapport concernant les archives canadiennes pour l’année 1905 (Ottawa: National Archives of Canada, 1906), 205–8.

67. “Mémoire sur les Acadiens ou François Neutres,” 1777, AMAE, Correspondance Politique, Angleterre, vol. 47, 17.

68. Pérusse to M. Hay, “Mémoire sur les défrichements, généralité de Poitiers,” n.d., ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 97.

69. Pérusse to Turgot, November 23, 1774, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 98;

70. Lemoyne, “Etablissement des familles accadiennes …” n.d, Le Havre, BMB MS 1480, 328.

71. Lemoyne to Controller General, June 21, 1773, Le Havre, BMB MS 1480, 322.

72. LeMoyne to Controller General, July 22, 1773, St. Malo, BMB MS 1480, 340, 341v; Martin Porcheron did migrate to Pérusse’s lands, remaining there even after the exodus of 1775. On May 28, 1780, he requested firewood from the intendant of Poitiers. See Blossac to Pérusse, May 28, 1780, Poitiers, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 124.

73. Lemoyne to Pérusse, July 14, 1773, St. Malo, BMB MS 1480, 333.

74. Lemoyne to Bacancour, August 16, 1773, St. Malo, BMB MS 1480, 358v, 359.

75. Lemoyne to Guillot, November 9, 1772, BMB MS 1480, 175.

76. Hérault to Pérusse, July 30, 1773, Archives Départementales de la Vienne, Poitiers, France, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, Liasse 124, part 3, n.p.

77. L’Isle-Dieu to Acadians of Morlaix, July 20, 1773, Paris, BMB MS 1480, 349.

78. “Circulaire écrite aux Recteurs, Curés des Paroisses de St. Servan,” August 21, 1773, Saint-Malo, BMB MS 1480, 370.

79. Lemoyne to Terray, July 26, 1773, Saint-Malo, BMB MS 1480, 347.

80. Lemoyne to Bacancour, August 16, 1773, Saint-Malo, BMB MS 1480, 358v.

81. Lemoyne to Bacancour, August 16, 1773, Saint-Malo, BMB MS 1480, 358v.

82. Given the irregularities surrounding the report on Pérusse’s soil, Doucet’s later appointment as a syndic, or community representative, for Acadians in Archigny, and the gift of a certificate of commendation from the mayor of Chatellerault, Doucet may well have been one. See Beauregard to Pérusse, September 12, 1774, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 124.

83. Beauregard to Pérusse, September 5, 1773, Poitiers, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 124.

84. Delauzon to Beauregard, July 10, 1774, Chauvigny, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 124.

85. [Pérusse], “Mémoire sur les Acadiens présenté au Roy,” ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 98; Pérusse to l’Eveque de Tagaste, May 18, 1774, Montoiron, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 98.

86. Pérusse to l’Éveque de Tagaste, May 18, 1774, Montoiron, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 98.

87. Pérusse to Nivernois, July 20, 1774, Montoiron, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 98.

88. Affiches du Poitou, June 2, 1774.

89. Blossac to Pérusse, August 2, 1774, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 124.

90. Dakin, Turgot and the Ancien Régime, 80.

91. Turgot to Pérusse, July 18, 1774, Paris, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 124, partie 2; Jacques Necker to Gabriel-Antoine Sartine, April 25, 1778, Versailles, Fonds des Colonies, série F2B, carton 6, 4, AN.

92. Turgot to Pérusse, July 18, 1774, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 124, partie 2 (temporary).

93. Ibid.

94. Acadians to Marie-Antoinette, n.d., ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 97.

95. Blossac to Pérusse, November 13, 1774, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 124.

96. Pérusse to l’Eveque de Cerain, November 12, 1774, Montoiron, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 98.

97. Pérusse to Turgot, November 9, 1774, Targé, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 98.

98. Pérusse to Blossac, November 29, 1774, Montoiron, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 98.

99. Pérusse to Louis XVI, August 17, 1774, Montoiron, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 98.Pérusse to Blossac, August 31, 1774, Montoiron, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 98.

100. M. le Controlleur Général [Turgot] to Blossac, n.d. ADV, série J, J64, liasse M7.

101. For Corsica, see Le Loutre to Praslin, n.d., BMB MS 1480, 29–33; for “prejudice” against the tropics, see Choiseul to Guillot, June 5, 1764, AC, série B, vol. 120, 261v.

102. Pérusse to Blossac, December 13, 1774, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 98.

103. Pérusse to M. de Simon, July 28, 1775, Targé, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 124; L’Eveque de Poitiers to Pérusse, February 8, 1775, Poitiers, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 124.

104. Blossac to Pérusse, April 21, 1775, ADV, série J, J64, liasse M7.

105. Pérusse to M. de St. Simon, July 28, 1775, Targé, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 124. Dubuisson had long occupied and managed a farm in near Soissons in eastern France; in 1765, he wrote and published an agricultural treatise called Mémoires sur la généralité de Soissons at the request of Dupont de Nemours. In 1768, the physiocrats’ journal, Ephémérides du Citoyen, reported that a careless servant had set fire to Dubuission’s stables, killing nineteen horses. “The creators and nomenclators of economic science,” he wrote, “have spoken of me in an advantageous way; I dare to give them thanks, and to implore them to take interest in my unhappy situation.” The abbé Baudeau, then editing the journal, encouraged readers to “come to his aid.” See Martin, Les exilés acadiens, 212; Ephémérides du Citoyen, tome VI (1768), 262–63.

106. Blossac to Taboureau, December 29, 1776, Poitiers, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 97.

107. Beauregard to Hérault, July 31, 1775, ADV, série J, J64, liasse M7.

108. Blossac to Pérusse, August 2, 1775, ADV, dépôt 22, liasse 124.

109. Pérusse to Blossac, November 26, 1775, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 124.

110. Pérusse to [Blossac], October 7, 1775, Targé, ADV, série J, J64, liasse M7.

111. Pérusse to M. de la Croix, September 22, 1775, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 124.

112. Pérusse to Hérault, August 17, 1775, Montoiron, ADV, série J, J64, liasse M7.

113. Martin, Les exilés acadiens, 218.

114. Pérusse to M. de la Croix, December 1, 1775, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 124.

115. Pérusse to M. de la Croix, September 22, 1775, Montoiron, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 124.

116. Martin, Les exilés acadiens, 220.

117. Dubel to Pérusse, November 28, 1775, Orléans, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 124; Pérusse to Hérault, September 2, 1775, Montoiron, ADV, série J, J64, liasse M7; Blossac to Hérault, March 3, 1776, Poitiers, ADV, série J, J64, liasse M7.

118. Blossac to Pérusse, January 7, 1776, Poitiers, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 124.

119. Pérusse to Sutières, March 15, 1777, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 97.

120. Martin, Les exilés acadiens, 253.

121. Necker to Pérusse, 27 Mars 1777, Paris, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 124.

122. Necker to Sartine, April 25, 1778, Versailles, AC, série F2B, carton 6.

123. Blossac to Pérusse, November 18, 1778, ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 124.

124. Necker to Sartine, April 25, 1778, Versailles, AC, série F2B, carton 6.

125. Winzerling, Acadian Odyssey, 84–86; Brasseaux, Founding of New Acadia, 64–65.

126. Winzerling, Acadian Odyssey, 96.

127. Mouhot, Les réfugiés acadiens en France, 287.

128. Acadians of Saint-Malo to Minister, February 19, 1784, ANOM, AC, C11D, vol. 8, 320.

129. Brasseaux, The Founding of New Acadia, 70.

130. Winzerling, Acadian Odyssey, 102, 122.

131. Pierre Melanson, Augustin Doucet, Jean Breaux, et al. to Monseigneur l’Intendant de Police [Antoine-Gabriel de Sartine], n.d., ADV, série J, dépôt 22, liasse 124.

Conclusion

1. Deposition of Marie-Josèphe Dupuis, 1817, in Peter Stephen du Ponceau Papers, box 4, folder 4, Papers Relating to Charles White Estate, HSP.

2. See especially Carl A. Brasseaux, “A New Acadia: The Acadian Migrations to South Louisiana, 1764–1803,” Acadiensis 15 (1985): 123–32; Carl A. Brasseaux, Acadian to Cajun: Transformation of a People, 1803–1877 (Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 1992), 4; John Mack Faragher, A Great and Noble Scheme: The Tragic Story of the Expulsion of the French Acadians from Their American Homeland (New York: W. W. Norton, 245 2005), 428–32.

3. Carl A. Brasseaux, The Founding of New Acadia: The Beginnings of Acadian Life in Louisiana, 1764–1803 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1987), 34.

4. See Pierre-Maurice Hebert, The Acadians of Quebec, trans. Melvin Surette (Pawtucket, RI: Quintin Publications, 2002).

5. See Mason Wade, “After the Grand Dérangement: The Acadians’ Return to the Gulf of St. Lawrence and to Nova Scotia,” American Review of Canadian Studies 5 (1975): 42–65.

6. See Faragher, A Great and Noble Scheme, 439.

7. Andrew Brown, “A private Anecdote,” August 18, 1791, in Reverend Andrew Brown Collection, Mss. 19073, 113, MG 21, vol. 34, LAC.

8. Bernard to House of Representatives, January 18, 1764, in Gaudet, Rapport, 147; Jean Trahant et al. to Governor Bernard, January 1, 1765, in ibid., 150; Bernard to House of Representatives, January 25, 1765, in ibid., 151.

9. Faragher, A Great and Noble Scheme, 437.

10. ibid., 432.

11. “Memoire concernant le Brigantin le Copinambou,” 1777, ANOM, Archives de la Marine, série B4, vol. 130, 29.

12. Jean-Baptiste Demondion et al. to Pérusse, n.d., ADV, série J, dêpot 22, liasse 124.

13. De Blossac to Pérusse, January 25, 1780, ADV, série J, dêpot 22, liasse 124.

14. De Blossac to Pérusse, May 28, 1780, ADV, série J, dêpot 22, liasse 124.

15. Necker to Pérusse, August 22, 1779, ADV, série J, dêpot 22, liasse 124.

16. Necker to de Blossac, February 12, 1779, ADV, série J, dêpot 22, liasse 124; Necker to Pérusse, December 29, 1776, ADV, série J, dêpot 22, liasse 124.

17. “État des Acadiens … de St. Malo,” June 12, 1787, ADIV, copy at CEA, A9-3-1, 10; “État des Acadians … de Morlaix, March 12, 1786, Archives de la Préfecture de l’Ille-et-Villaine, copy at CEA, A9-3-4, 3; État des Acadiens… de Lorient, June 27, 1785, ADIV, copy at CEA, A9-3-1, 9.

18. Cited in Colin Jones, The Great Nation: France from Louis XV to Napoleon (New York: Penguin, 2003), 401.

19. Archives Parlementaires (Paris, 1860), 23:378–79.

20. Ibid., 23:380.

21. Ibid., 25:106–7.

22. Ibid., 43:4.

23. Département de la Loire-Inférièure, June 11, 1972, F15 (Hospices et secours), vol. 3492, AN, Paris, France.

24. “Rapport,” December 1792, F15 (Hospices et secours), vol. 3492, AN.

25. “Demande de Marie-Joseph Baron de jouir des secours accordés aux acadiens,” July 17, 1792, F15 (Hospices et secours), vol. 3492, AN.

26. “Etat des acadiens demeurant á Boulogne, qui prétendent aux secours mentionnés en l’article 2 de la loi du 21 février 1791,” F15 (Hospices et secours), vol. 3492, AN.

27. Les habitants du Canada et de l’Acadie to Conseil général de Nantes, 19 frimaire, an II, ADIV, L867, microfim F-1041 at CEA.

28. “Mémoire de plusieurs Canadiens et Acadiens …” 30 Juin 1814, ANOM, AC, série C11D, vol. 10, 189.

29. “Liste des réfugies,” July 1, 1822, Bibliothéque municipale de la Rochelle, dossier 5Q2, copy at CEA.

30. Faragher, A Great and Noble Scheme, 361; for the full story of Charles White, see Christopher Hodson, “Exile on Spruce Street: An Acadian History,” William and Mary Quarterly 67, no. 2 (April 2010): 249–78.

31. “Deposition of Mary Joseph Trepagnié,” Peter Stephen du Ponceau Papers, Box 4, folder 4: Papers relating to Charles White Estate, 1811–1825, HSP.

32. Minutes of the Provincial Council of Pennsylvania, 7: 240.

33. Ibid., 7:446; “Interrogations to be administered to witnesses particularly Catherine Bijeo and Samuel Mangeant,” March 1817, Peter Stephen du Ponceau Papers, Box 4, folder 4: Papers relating to Charles White Estate, 1811–1825, HSP; on Mangeant, see Charles Carroll, Dear Papa, Dear Charlie: The Papers of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 1748–1782, ed. Ronald Hoffman and Sally Mason (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001), 1:104, 143.

34. “Deposition of Mary Joseph Trepagnié,” Peter Stephen du Ponceau Papers, Box 4, folder 4: Papers relating to Charles White Estate, 1811–1825, HSP.

35. “Interrogations to be administered to witnesses particularly Catherine Bijeo and Samuel Mangeant,” March 1817, Peter Stephen du Ponceau Papers, Box 4, folder 4: Papers relating to Charles White Estate, 1811–1825, HSP.

36. Pennsylvania Evening Post, September 2, 1777.

37. Pennsylvania Packet, and Daily Advertiser, December 16, 1790.

38. See Michelle Craig McDonald, “The Chance of the Moment: Coffee and the New West Indians Commodities Trade,” William and Mary Quarterly 62 (July 2005): 460.

39. Federal Gazette, and Philadelphia Evening Post, November 20, 1793; Philadelphia Gazette and Universal Daily Advertiser, December 29, 1794.

40. See “Real Estate Owned by Charles Leblanc in the City of Philadelphia at the Time of his Death August 1816,” Charles Leblanc Mss., William Laimbeer Collection, HSP.

41. See Hodson, “Exile on Spruce Street,” 272.

42. “Real Estate Owned by Charles Leblanc in the City of Philadelphia at the Time of his Death August 1816,” Charles Leblanc Mss., William Laimbeer Collection, HSP, Philadelphia, PA.

43. “Deposition of Elizabeth Biddle,” in Peter Stephen du Ponceau Papers, box 4, folder 4: Papers relating to Charles White Estate, 1811–1825, HSP.

44. “Deposition of Benjamin Norris,” “Deposition of Thomas Bradford,” n.d., Charles Leblanc Mss., William Laimbeer Collection, HSP, Philadelphia, PA.

45. “Deposition of Ursula LaZele,” Clarence J. D’Entremont Collection, AMWP, n.p.

46. “Deposition of Peter S. du Ponceau,” n.d., Clarence J. D’Entremont Collection, AMWP, NS, n.p.

47. “Deposition of the Reverend Michael Hurley,” “Deposition of Elizabeth Biddle,” in Peter Stephen du Ponceau Papers, box 4, folder 4: Papers relating to Charles White Estate, 1811–1825, HSP.

48. “Deposition of Elizabeth Biddle,” in Peter Stephen du Ponceau Papers, box 4, folder 4: Papers relating to Charles White Estate, 1811–1825, HSP.

49. “Deposition of Wm. McDonough,” Peter Stephen du Ponceau Papers, Box 4, folder 4: Papers relating to Charles White Estate, 1811–1825. HSP.

50. “Deposition of the Reverend Michael Hurley,” in Peter Stephen du Ponceau Papers, box 4, folder 4: Papers relating to Charles White Estate, 1811–1825, HSP.

51. “To the Honorable the Judges of the Circuit Court of the United States in and for the District of Pennsylvania,” [April 1819], in Peter Stephen du Ponceau Papers, Box 4, folder 4: Papers relating to Charles White Estate, 1811–1825. HSP; “Deposition of John Tanguy,” Peter Stephen du Ponceau Papers, Box 4, folder 4: Papers relating to Charles White Estate, 1811–1825, HSP.

52. “Deposition of Anne-Joseph Landry,” Charles Leblanc Mss., William Laimbeer Collection, n.p., HSP.

53. “Interrogations to be administered to witnesses particularly Catherine Bijeo and Samuel Mangeant,” March 1817, Peter Stephen du Ponceau Papers, Box 4, folder 4: Papers relating to Charles White Estate, 1811–1825, HSP.

54. “Deposition of the Reverend Michael Hurley,” in Peter Stephen du Ponceau Papers, box 4, folder 4: Papers relating to Charles White Estate, 1811–1825, HSP.

55. “Deposition of Mary Joseph Trepagnié,” Peter Stephen du Ponceau Papers, Box 4, folder 4: Papers relating to Charles White Estate, 1811–1825, HSP.

56. Ibid.

57. The Montgomerys did so by hiring the lawyer and politician Horace Binney, who argued that some of the depositions that favored Boudreau and the other Acadian plaintiffs had been taken illegally. In 1821, Bushrod Washington ruled that although irregularities existed, even imperfect depositions could, like hearsay, be used to demonstrate pedigree. This ruling made Boudereau [sic] v. Montgomery an important precedent in nineteenth-century probate law. On Binney, see “Exception on the part of the defendants to the Report of the Master in this case,” Peter Stephen du Ponceau Papers, Box 4, folder 4: Papers relating to Charles White Estate, 1811–1825, HSP. For Washington’s 1821 ruling, see Boudereau v. Montgomery, C.C. Pa 1821, Case No. 1694, 4 Wash C.C. 186, also cited as 3 F. Cas. 993. On the subsequent use of Boudereau v. Montgomery, see William G. Myer, Federal Decisions: Cases Argued and Determined in the Supreme, Circuit, and District Courts of the United States (St. Louis, 1887), 17:348.

58. Report of James G. Smith, Master, June 19, 1828, Boudereau v. Montgomery Case File, NAMAP.

59. Report of James G. Smith, Master, June 19, 1828, Boudereau v. Montgomery Case File, NAMAP.

60. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Evangeline: A Tale of Acadie (London: David Bogue, 1854), 80–1.

61. “Deposition of Wm. McDonough,” Peter Stephen du Ponceau Papers, Box 4, folder 4: Papers relating to Charles White Estate, 1811–1825. HSP.

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