Exam preparation materials

SAT World History Subject Test Practice Test 2

SAT Subject Test in World History

Time—60 minutes 95 questions

Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements is followed by five answer choices. Choose the answer choice that best answers the question or best completes the incomplete statement.

Note: This test uses the chronological designations BCE (before the Common Era) and CE (Common Era). These designations correspond to BC (before Christ) and AD (anno Domini), which are used in some history texts.

1. The Aztec built their capital city Tenochtitlan on an island in the middle of Lake Texcoco primarily because the site

A. was ideally located for trade purposes

B. provided protection from outside attackers

C. fulfilled a prophecy about where they should settle

D. was rich with natural deposits of gold and other minerals

E. was sacred to the people conquered by the Aztec

2. Early civilizations in Mesopotamia and Egypt were MOST similar in that they both

A. developed a code of retaliatory punishment

B. viewed women as socially equal to men

C. developed a government of separate city-states

D. were invaded and occupied by the Hyksos

E. depended on the annual flooding of a river for survival

3. Which of these nations was the first to establish a trading presence in Asia by finding a sea route to India?

A. Spain

B. England

C. France

D. Portugal

E. Italy

4. Claudius Ptolemy's geocentric theory of astronomy was not disproved until the sixteenth century, when the heliocentric theory was introduced by

A. Aristotle

B. Copernicus

C. Galileo

D. Kepler

E. Brahe

5. Which of these statements MOST accurately describes the Bantu

people of sub-Saharan Africa?

A. They initially organized into a stateless society composed of numerous villages.

B. They developed a class system that divided people along the lines of social importance.

C. They relied on a trans-Saharan gold and salt trade for economic and physical survival.

D. They practiced a monotheistic religion similar to that of the Hebrews.

E. They experienced violent clashes with the Muslim population in Africa.

6. The Treaty of Versailles contained all of the following provisions EXCEPT a

A. demand that Germany cede the territory of Alsace-Lorraine to France

B. condition that placed permanent restrictions on the size of the Germany army

C. clause that required Germany to be held solely responsible for starting the war

D. stipulation that forced Germany to pay for the right to retain its African colonies

E. requirement that prevented Germany from manufacturing or importing weapons

7. Respect for elders and ancestors, emphasis on effective government, and the belief that order and harmony can exist only if leaders cooperate with the most highly educated are all major philosophical tenets of

A. Daoism

B. Confucianism

C. Shintoism

D. Buddhism

E. Legalism

8. The departure of Alexander the Great and his forces from India in 325 BCE led directly to the

A. rise of the Mauryan Empire

B. decline of Indian Buddhism

C. reemergence of Hinduism

D. formation of the Gupta Empire

E. decentralization of Indian government

9. Which twentieth-century school of art produced works that were primarily whimsical in tone and devoid of any single specific meaning?

A. Surrealism

B. Dadaism

C. Expressionism

D. Functionalism

E. Cubism

10. Which of these was primarily responsible for the tensions between China and Great Britain that led to the Anglo-Chinese War in 1839?

A. Chinese desire for independent self-rule

B. British importation of opium into China

C. Westernization of Chinese society

D. Territorial control over Hong Kong

E. Spread of communist influence

“The heart of the idea of the social contract may be stated simply: Each of us places his person and authority under the supreme direction of the general will, and the group receives each individual as an indivisible part of the whole.”

11. Which of these would be LEAST likely to agree with the statement above?

A. John Locke

B. Voltaire

C. Thomas Hobbes

D. Montesquieu

E. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

12. The Crusades had all of the following effects on Europe EXCEPT a/an

A. increase in the power of European monarchs

B. elevation in the social status of women

C. emergence of a middle class in society

D. decline of trade between Europe and the East

E. increase in the political strength of the church

13. Japan and the countries of Western Europe were most similar around the thirteenth century in that both

A. established strong centralized governments

B. experienced a series of civil wars

C. developed intricate feudal systems

D. advanced the social status of women

E. endured invasion by Mongol forces

14. The stone carving pictured is a type of calendar created by which of these civilizations?

A. Mauryan

B. Phoenician

C. Harappan

D. Aztec

E. Zhou

15. The influence of Minoan culture on Mycenaean culture was MOST evident in the Mycenaean

A. written language

B. interest in metallurgy

C. system of trade

D. social class structure

E. religious practices

16. In 1975, the Khmer Rouge, led by Pol Pot, attempted to establish communist rule in which country?

A. Thailand

B. Cambodia

C. Laos

D. Malaysia

E. Burma

17. The Balfour Declaration, issued by Britain in 1917, clarified England's position on the

A. Indian movement for independence from British rule

B. discriminatory South African policy of apartheid

C. establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine

D. formation of the Soviet Union under Lenin

E. proposed terms of German surrender in World War I

18. In 1908, facing international criticism for his harsh treatment of the Congolese in the Congo Free State, King Leopold II was forced to

A. agree to Congolese independence and abdicate

B. relinquish his control and pay reparations

C. surrender his authority in the Congo to British forces

D. cede control of the Congo Free State to the Belgian government

E. adopt humanitarian policies that ended hostilities

19. The Upanishads contain the core philosophy and central teachings of which world religion?

A. Buddhism

B. Hinduism

C. Jainism

D. Shintoism

E. Zoroastrianism

20. Which of the following was a significant change instituted during the reign of the ‘Abbasid Empire?

A. Non-Arab Muslims were allowed to hold civil and military office.

B. The Islamic capital was moved from Mecca to Damascus.

C. A hereditary method of succession was put in place.

D. Islam was divided into the major sects of Sunni and Shia.

E. The Byzantine capital of Constantinople was conquered.

21. Early human cultures in the Paleolithic Age were characterized by all of these EXCEPT the

A. development of language

B. prevalence of hunter-gatherers

C. emergence of agriculture

D. appearance of artwork

E. practice of funereal rituals

22. The Ottoman policy of devsirme primarily served to

A. cement governmental control

B. increase military manpower

C. maintain religious freedom

D. improve agricultural productivity

E. ensure economic stability

23. Which of these was NOT one of the global effects of the Industrial Revolution?

A. Decline in the colonization of foreign territories by industrial powers

B. Widening of the divide between industrialized and non- industrialized nations

C. Lessening of isolation between distant world cultures

D. Increase in Europe's economic power

E. Strengthening of the political influence of the middle class

24. Who led the South American struggle for independence from Spain?

A. Benito Juarez

B. Porfirio Diaz

C. Emiliano Zapata

D. Simon Bolivar

E. Miguel Hidalgo

25. What was the purpose of this late-eighteenth-century French cartoon?

A. To criticize the insolence of the lower class

B. To illustrate the size imbalances of the three estates

C. To encourage the reversal of the French class system

D. To decry the inadequacy of the French aristocracy

E. To demonstrate the strength of the Third Estate

26. After solidifying his control over Russia following civil war in 1918, Lenin's immediate goal was to

A. create a new communist government

B. reclaim Russian territory lost in World War I

C. eliminate any remaining political dissidents

D. institute his own totalitarian political regime

E. stabilize the Russian economy

27. Early Vietnamese resistance to the French imperialists who controlled their country was primarily a response to

A. abusive labor practices

B. destructive agricultural policies

C. racially discriminatory governance

D. suppression of native religion

E. violent police tactics

28. The city of Great Zimbabwe and the kingdom of Aksum were MOST similar in that both

A. became predominantly Christian societies

B. were located along the banks of the Red Sea

C. were eventually toppled by Muslim invaders

D. thrived on income derived from trade routes

E. incorporated Greek as their primary language

29. During the expansion of the Muslim Empire in the seventh century, all of these were true EXCEPT

A. conquered people who converted to Islam were not required to pay a poll tax

B. the ability to read Arabic was highly valued in regions conquered by Muslims

C. pagan members of conquered societies were expected to convert to Islam or face death

D. conquered people of Christian or Jewish faiths were required to submit to military service

E. conquered people who refused to convert to Islam were prevented from spreading their faith

30. The native Japanese religion of Shinto is primarily focused on

A. deity worship

B. personal enlightenment

C. ancestral veneration

D. dogmatic occultism

E. penitent self-denial

31. Which of these was NOT true of the spread of Islam in eastern and central Africa?

A. The conversion of Africans to Islam was largely the result of trade.

B. African women readily accepted Islam's traditional attitudes toward women.

C. The elite of the African business community saw conversion as commercially valuable.

D. Many Africans who converted to Islam were allowed to retain some tribal customs.

E. The agricultural population was more reluctant to convert than others.

32. The spread of ancient Greek culture throughout the Mediterranean region was primarily the result of Greece's

A. unique geography

B. military conquests

C. diverse population

D. democratic government

E. economic prosperity

“It is the State which educates its citizens in civic virtue, gives them a consciousness of their mission and welds them into unity.”

33. This quote was most likely spoken by a leader who supported what philosophy of government?

A. Republicanism

B. Absolute monarchism

C. Enlightened despotism

D. Fascism

E. Constitutional monarchism

34. The concept of the mandate of heaven provided a rationalization for

A. maintaining strict standards of morality

B. invading and conquering foreign civilizations

C. transferring power from one dynasty to another

D. believing in the moral superiority of the Chinese

E. adopting largely male-dominated gender roles

35. The Incan civilization was unique among pre-Columbian civilizations most notably because the Inca

A. used irrigation systems to increase agricultural yield

B. practiced a polytheistic form of religion

C. developed a complex written language

D. expanded their empire through conquest

E. built an advanced system of roads

36. For the majority of the eighteenth century, South Africa was controlled by the

A. Dutch

B. English

C. Spanish

D. French

E. Portuguese

37. Fear over the “domino theory” led the United States to enter which military conflict?

A. World War I

B. World War II

C. Korean War

D. Vietnam War

E. Persian Gulf War

38. Which of these Roman authors produced both the Annals and Germania?

A. Cicero

B. Tacitus

C. Virgil

D. Seneca

E. Horace

39. Both England and Egypt experienced all of the following as a result of the Industrial Revolution, EXCEPT

A. improved communication methods

B. expertise in glassmaking

C. increased levels of foreign trade

D. thriving cotton textile factories

E. commercial agriculture profits

40. The earliest significant civilization in Mesoamerica developed around the settlement of

A. Tenochtitlan

B. Cuzco

C. Chichen Itza

D. Tula

E. Tikal

41. Japan turned to militarism in the 1930s primarily as a result of the

A. series of Chinese threats along the borders

B. belief that democracy had failed

C. desire to retake control of nearby foreign colonies

D. rash of violent civil unrest in the cities

E. desire to be completely isolated from the West

42. In order to restore peace in Europe after the Napoleonic Wars, the Congress of Vienna did all of the following EXCEPT

A. formally recognize Swiss independence

B. introduce the German Confederation

C. require France to disband its military

D. create the Kingdom of the Netherlands

E. restore the legitimacy of the monarchy

43. The Later Ly dynasty incorporated many aspects of the Chinese bureaucratic and civil service practices as it established a new centralized form of government in present-day

A. Vietnam

B. Cambodia

C. Korea

D. Thailand

E. Laos

44. What famous trade route is shown on the map?

A. Via Appia

B. Silk Roads

C. Via Maris

D. Amber Road

E. King's Highway

45. During his reign, Alexander the Great conquered all of the following EXCEPT

A. Syria

B. Egypt

C. Mesopotamia

D. India

E. Asia Minor

46. The Maoist version of communism practiced in China during the 1950s and 1960s differed from the concurrent Soviet version of communism in that it

A. promoted a peaceful coexistence with capitalist countries

B. viewed the proletariat as a nation rather than a class

C. favored the redistribution of wealth among the peasantry

D. advocated the censorship of artistic and literary endeavors

E. espoused the value of state-run agricultural programs

47. Which civilization's code of law was written in the Twelve Tables?

A. Greece

B. Egypt

C. England

D. France

E. Rome

48. Which of these BEST describes the Taiping Rebellion?

A. National uprising against imperialist rule

B. Militant communist insurgency

C. Battle for dynastic control of China

D. Religious and political civil war

E. Revolt against the Mongol occupation

49. Among the Bantu-speaking peoples of Africa, the term griots referred to

A. leaders

B. storytellers

C. priests

D. warriors

E. slaves

50. The navigator Ferdinand Magellan is most famous for

A. leading the first expedition around the Cape of Good Hope

B. being the first European to reach the Pacific Ocean

C. leading the first attempt to locate the Northwest Passage

D. making the first landing in the New World

E. being the first person to circumnavigate the globe

51. Which of these BEST describes the Mensheviks and the Bolsheviks in early-twentieth-century Russia?

A. The Mensheviks believed in working with the bourgeois, while the Bolsheviks believed in immediate revolution against them.

B. The Mensheviks supported an elitist political system, while the Bolsheviks supported a more inclusionary approach.

C. The Mensheviks favored an altered form of Marxism, while the Bolsheviks favored pure Marxism.

D. The Mensheviks were a proactively radical political group, while the Bolsheviks were comparatively reactionary in approach.

E. The Mensheviks supported Russia's involvement in World War I, while the Bolsheviks were against it.

52. In the mid-1800s, the southeastern port of Singapore was controlled by the

A. Dutch

B. French

C. Germans

D. British

E. United States

53. The campaign for Mexican independence from Spain was different from other political revolts in the Americas in that it was

A. diplomatic in nature and did not involve violence

B. ultimately decided by events in Europe

C. started by mestizos instead of the Creole class

D. undertaken to install a new monarchy

E. conducted with the help of other nearby countries

54. The signing of the Treaty of Tordesillas served to

A. end hostilities in the Spanish Civil War and affirm nationalist control

B. grant Spain exclusive rights to all land discovered in the New World

C. free the colony of Brazil from Spanish imperial governance

D. formally and permanently abolish the Spanish Inquisition

E. establish a trade agreement between Spain and the United States

“Whose government is unostentatious, quite unostentatious, his people will be prosperous, quite prosperous. Whose government is prying, quite prying, his people will be needy, quite needy.”

55. The above quotation reflects the central view of government espoused by which spiritual philosophy?

A. Confucianism

B. Buddhism

C. Legalism

D. Shintoism

E. Daoism

56. From which region did the cuneiform method of writing emerge?

A. Egypt

B. Mesoamerica

C. India

D. Mesopotamia

E. China

57. The African kingdom of Ghana fell into decline during the eleventh century primarily as a result of

A. invasion by foreign conquerors

B. internal political strife

C. poor agricultural practices

D. weak government leadership

E. violent religious disputes

58. In 1935, Italian forces under the command of Benito Mussolini invaded the nation of

A. Somalia

B. Ethiopia

C. Egypt

D. Libya

E. Nigeria

59. Which crop's cultivation led to the rise of the Khmer Empire in the region known today as Cambodia?

A. Tea

B. Opium

C. Rice

D. Sugar

E. Corn

60. What was the primary reason Russia ended its involvement in World War I?

A. The population devastation wrought by massive casualties

B. The diplomatic agreement signed with Germany for territory in East Europe

C. The adversarial nature of the relationship with the French and British allies

D. The internal political dissent against the czarist government

E. The severe economic strain placed on the country by its war efforts

61. All of these emerged during the reign of the Gupta Empire in India EXCEPT

A. funerary custom of sati

B. common Arabic numeral system

C. Sanskrit poems of Kalidasa

D. discovery of Earth's circumference

E. tradition of viewing cows as sacred

62. The ancient African city of Meroe became a major trading center between 250 BCE and 150 CE due to production of

A. gold

B. spices

C. iron

D. silver

E. grains

63. All of the following were true of the Roman army EXCEPT

A. all citizens who owned land were expected to serve in the army

B. each army legion consisted of several thousand foot soldiers

C. the government was responsible for providing the army with weapons

D. every army legion was complemented with a regiment of cavalry

E. all peoples allied with Rome were required to provide army troops

64. In the eighteenth century, Prussia rose to prominence under the leadership of the

A. Hapsburgs

B. Bourbons

C. Romanovs

D. Hohenzollerns

E. Carolingians

65. The culture of the Bantu people evolved and spread throughout Africa primarily as a result of

A. warfare

B. trade

C. migration

D. agriculture

E. religion

66. Which of these BEST describes parallel descent as it was practiced by the Inca in the sixteenth century?

A. Males inherited separately from the mother and father.

B. Males inherited from the father, while females inherited from the mother.

C. Males inherited from the mother and father, while female were not eligible to inherit.

D. Females inherited from the mother and father, while males were not eligible to inherit.

E. Females inherited only monetary wealth and not land or property.

67. Which issue did the 1997 Kyoto Protocol address?

A. Nuclear disarmament

B. World poverty

C. Energy crisis

D. Global warming

E. Water shortage

68. The Korean and Vietnam wars of the twentieth century were MOST similar in that they

A. produced significant territorial gains for communist forces

B. ended with the establishment of a neutral demilitarized zone

C. resulted from a desire to prevent the spread of communism

D. originated in nationalistic fervor to be free of colonial control

E. broke out as a result of invasions of democratic territories

69. After being installed as dictator, Julius Caesar did all of the following EXCEPT

A. declared himself a monarch

B. established a new solar calendar

C. decreased the power of the Senate

D. granted citizenship to inhabitants of provinces

E. offered public land to soldiers who had served him

70. When Spanish conquistadors entered South America in the 1500s, they were able to conquer the Inca with relative ease because of the Inca's weakness from

A. natural disasters

B. famine

C. disease

D. prior invasion

E. civil war

71. Which of these was true of both Sparta and Athens?

A. They were democratic governments.

B. They denied female participation in politics.

C. They made significant contributions to the arts.

D. They prohibited the use of gold and silver.

E. They required all men to serve in the military.

72. The overthrow of the Qing dynasty in China in 1912 was primarily the result of

A. severe governmental oppression

B. excessive taxation of imports

C. rising nationalistic sentiment

D. increased foreign pressure

E. widespread poverty and famine

73. In the 1500s, which Southeast Asian nation was a Spanish colony that helped facilitate trade with Mexico?

A. Burma

B. Indonesia

C. Siam

D. Vietnam

E. Philippines

74. The collapse of the Carolingian dynasty in the 800s quickly led to the

A. rise of European nation-states

B. introduction of the feudal system

C. beginning of the Renaissance

D. establishment of the Protestant church

E. onset of widespread industrialization

75. Lutheranism and Calvinism were LEAST similar in regard to views on the

A. degree of corruption in the Roman Catholic Church

B. importance of religion in everyday life

C. sale of indulgences

D. ability of individuals to affect their fate

E. importance of celibacy outside marriage

76. With which statement would an adherent to the philosophy of cynicism be MOST likely to agree?

A. All human beings are part of a common brotherhood.

B. Inner peace can be found by seeking pleasure and avoiding pain.

C. Individuals have an inherent responsibility to help others.

D. Life should be lived simply and without material attachments.

E. Conducting oneself virtuously is the key to living a good life.

77. The world peacekeeping organization known as the League of Nations and its successor, the United Nations, are MOST different in that the

A. League of Nations originated with many more nations

B. League of Nations excluded the nations it viewed as troublesome

C. United Nations formed a military division to enforce its policies

D. United Nations was founded to help bring an end to an active war

E. League of Nations included several separate administrative bodies

78. In 1521 Hernan Cortes led the Spanish conquest of which Mesoamerican culture?

A. Aztec

B. Inca

C. Olmec

D. Maya

E. Toltec

“Wild and blasphemous ideas of God are formed because man has wandered away from the unchangeable laws of science, and the right use of reason; and because something called revealed religion was invented.”

79. The above statement MOST reflects the ideology of which intellectual movement?

A. Humanism

B. Materialism

C. Deism

D. Utilitarianism

E. Idealism

80. The Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere was primarily designed by Japan to

A. end Japanese reliance on Western support

B. limit the spread of communism in Asia

C. free Asian nations from imperial control

D. establish its own empire throughout Asia

E. secure an adequate supply of raw materials

81. The Greek philosopher who developed a teaching methodology based on systematic questioning was

A. Aristotle

B. Epicurus

C. Plato

D. Democritus

E. Socrates

82. While they controlled China, the Mongols were unsuccessful in their attempts to extend their empire into Southeast Asia primarily because

A. their incursions were met with heavy resistance

B. the terrain was too difficult to navigate

C. they lacked the manpower to overcome local forces

D. the regional climate was extremely inhospitable

E. they had insufficient resources for long campaigns

83. The written language of the Mycenaeans was based on that of the

A. Minoans

B. Phoenicians

C. Babylonians

D. Hittites

E. Assyrians

84. Which of these BEST describes the type of protectorate commonly found in imperial-controlled Africa?

A. A region directly controlled by a foreign power

B. A region considered an administrative subdivision of another country

C. A region allowed to maintain its government while under imperial control

D. A region controlled by a private business instead of a foreign government

E. A region over which another nation holds exclusive trade rights

85. Which of these does NOT accurately describe a similarity between the peoples of ancient Egypt and the Indus River valley?

A. They practiced polytheistic religion.

B. They drove out a foreign occupation force.

C. They developed a stratified social structure.

D. They made significant architectural advances.

E. They depended on agriculture for survival.

86. During their conquest of Mesoamerica, the Spaniards utilized the encomienda system, which allowed them to

A. compel the natives out of settlements and off the land

B. require the natives to pledge allegiance under penalty of death

C. pay the natives to fight on Spain's behalf

D. require the natives pay tribute and perform labor

E. encourage mass migration of the native peoples

87. Which of these was the most important point of agreement between Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points and the Treaty of Versailles?

A. Germany should relinquish control of its African colonies.

B. An international peacekeeping organization should be established.

C. Trade barriers between nations should be reduced.

D. Germany should be forced to accept full responsibility for the war.

E. Freedom of the seas should be guaranteed in both peace and wartime.

88. The separation of the Shia sect of Islam from the larger Sunni sect was primarily the result of disputes over the

A. treatment of women in Muslim society

B. differing interpretations of the Koran

C. Umayyad preoccupation with wealth acquisition

D. trade practices with nearby cultures

E. line of succession following the death of Muhammad

89. Which factor contributed the MOST to the rise of the Fascist Party under Benito Mussolini in Italy?

A. Increased sense of nationalism among Italians

B. Oppressive policies of the existing Italian government

C. Frustration with Italy's lack of territorial gains after World War I

D. Widespread opposition to Italian monarch Victor Emmanuel III

E. Concern over the fragile state of international relations in Europe

90. Which of these was NOT true of the Han dynasty?

A. It engaged in extensive trade with Europe.

B. It introduced the civil service examination.

C. It began early construction on the Great Wall.

D. It created roads and canals to improve transportation.

E. It funded bureaucracy and army through taxes.

91. What was the major goal of the Concert of Europe?

A. To redraw the boundaries of Europe after World War I

B. To restrict the spread of communism to Eastern Europe

C. To prevent future revolutions by maintaining the status quo

D. To establish new nation-states after the fall of the Roman Empire

E. To develop continental trade relationships and business partnerships

92. What inference can BEST be made from the information in the chart shown?

A. Slavic languages strongly influenced the development of the English language.

B. The Roman occupation of England significantly influenced the development of the English language.

C. The English language developed through a blend of Germanic, French, and Greek influences.

D. The classical languages strongly influenced the development of both English and French.

E. The English language primarily developed during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.

93. Why did the government installed in South Vietnam in 1954 by France and the United States ultimately fail?

A. The government was corrupt and unpopular with the Vietnamese people.

B. The Vietnamese people preferred Ho Chi Minh's communist regime.

C. The Vietnamese people distrusted the government because of its French backing.

D. The government was unable to procure the resources necessary for independent existence.

E. The Vietnamese people were angered by the government's communist policies.

94. In which way were the ancient Chinese philosophies of Confucianism and legalism MOST similar?

A. They divided educational standards by class.

B. They emphasized the importance of strong government.

C. They promoted respect and reverence of elders.

D. They emphasized life in harmony with the natural world.

E. They discouraged most independence of thought.

95. The concept of humanism was a key characteristic of the

A. Enlightenment

B. Protestant Reformation

C. Renaissance

D. Scientific Revolution

E. Impressionism movement

END OF PRACTICE TEST 2

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