Exam preparation materials

Practice Test 1 Answers and Explanations

Answer Key





































































































51. A

74. C

52. C

75. A

53. B

76. E

54. C

77. D

55. E

78. B

56. A

79. E

57. D

80. B

58. D

81. B

59. E

82. D

60. D

83. B

61. E

84. B

62. D

85. A

63. C

86. E

64. E

87. D

65. B

88. A

66. C

89. D

67. B

90. C

68. C

91. E

69. D

92. B

70. B

93. E

71. B

94. E

72. C

95. B

73. A


Answer Explanations

1. A. Ashoka, the last emperor of the Mauryan culture who reigned in present-day India around 250 BCE, was known for his promotion of Buddhist principles. Although his reign was marked by early fighting, he soon denounced violence and dedicated himself wholly to the Buddhist principle of dharma, or right living. He became a successful proponent of the religion even though he did not openly discuss it. Instead, he modeled its ideals and hoped his people would follow.

2. D. Socialist philosophy holds that all of a nation's wealth—both money and resources—should be shared equally among the people. It is an opposing position to capitalism, which encourages private enterprise. Friedrich Engels, a German English social theorist, helped create a form of socialism known as Marxism in the 1840s.

3. C. The dotted line on this map shows the approximate course of Hernan Cortes and his forces during their conquest of the Aztec civilization, which occurred between 1519 and 1521. Unlike other colonizers, Cortes took a methodical approach by exploring the coastal areas, communicating with native groups, and stopping to found the city of Veracruz to ensure his political independence. Cortes was able to gather allies to supplement his tiny military force as they entered the enormous empire of the Aztec.

4. E. Hammurabi was one of the most noteworthy kings of the ancient civilizations, primarily because of his crafting of the Code of Hammurabi, one of the world's earliest known written systems of law. It includes 282 case laws that deal with a variety of legal areas, such as criminal law, civil law, economic law, and family law. Leaders and citizens alike could refer to the code to learn their rights and recourses in many legal situations. Historians have noted that this comprehensive set of rules abandoned many primitive practices and was an early step toward more modern forms of government.

5. B. Freud's 1900 book Die Traumdeutung, or The Interpretation of Dreams, is perhaps his most famous and celebrated written work. In this volume, Freud describes his belief that dreams are “the royal road to knowledge of the unconscious.” In the book, he presented examples from his own dreams and those of his patients, and he showed how these dreams could be deciphered.

6. C. Before the thirteenth century, the Mongols roamed freely through the plains in search of grass for their herds. This hardy lifestyle created expert riders. Their comfort with and large supply of horses allowed the Mongols to travel long distances and strike enemies with stunning speed and ferocity. While the Mongols did not generally have much wealth or equipment, or the ability to engage in protracted battles with large armies, their terror strikes broke their opponents' wills and caused nation after nation to flee upon their approach.

7. E. The so-called Green Revolution was a period of agricultural innovation in the mid-twentieth century during which global production of grains increased as a result of the use of high-yield crops and chemical fertilizer. Although the Green Revolution increased the world's food supply and helped combat starvation in many regions, critics have pointed out some negative effects, including potential environmental harm.

8. E. The initial year in the Muslim calendar is 622 CE, the year in which Muhammad migrated from Mecca to Medina. That pivotal act is seen as the origination of the Muslim faith. The first day on the calendar is July 16, as it is the first day of the year, according to the Koran. The Muslim calendar observes 354 days per year, as well as 29 or 30 days per month.

9. A. According to legend, Rome was founded by twins Romulus and Remus, the sons of the war god Mars. Jealous enemies ordered that the twins be drowned, but they survived and were raised by wild animals, including a she-wolf.

10. D. Apartheid strictly segregated the white and nonwhite populations of South Africa. It was designed to ensure the political dominance of the country's white minority, the Afrikaners, who were South Africans of Dutch heritage. To solidify their political control over South Africa, the white members of the National Party enacted apartheid laws after gaining power in 1948.

11. C. The ancient Greeks and Romans made important and long-term advances in many areas, but their most enduring developments were in the field of politics and government. The Greeks and Romans were among the first societies to introduce democratic elements into government.

12. A. Lebensraum, or “living space,” was a geographical concept that became a major point in Nazi ideology during the 1920s. This concept held that German people needed more land in order to grow and fulfill their destiny as world leaders. Hitler and others felt that the territory in question was land occupied by primarily Slavic peoples, including Poland, Russia, and the Ukraine. The call for Lebensraum attempted to justify the invasion of these lands and the cruel treatment of their occupants.

13. C. Throughout much of the sixteenth century, France was gripped by a series of religious wars between Roman Catholics and French Protestants known as Huguenots. In 1598 King Henry IV of France issued the Edict of Nantes. This proclamation attempted to settle the religious tension and grant Huguenots, a repressed Protestant minority, substantial rights in French society.

14. C. One of the most devastating events in Irish history was the potato blight, a massive crop failure that swept through Ireland from 1845 to 1849. Since potatoes were a staple crop in Ireland and the main food source for many poor families, widespread famine followed. Many died of starvation, malnutrition, and disease. Others immigrated to North America to avoid the famine.

15. A. The Hindu caste system contained four major divisions: Brahmans, Kshatriya, Vaishya, and Shudra. The social roles of these groups descend in importance, with Shudra being the lowest in the social hierarchy. Members of the Shudra had the lowest social distinction and the least desirable roles. Generally, they were considered servants.

16. D. The Olmec people, whose civilization lasted from approximately 1200 to 400 BCE, built their villages on lowlands in what is now Southern Mexico, specifically in the regions of Tabasco and Veracruz. This location gave them access to the Gulf Coast but brought year-round heat and humidity. The oldest Olmec building discovered is near present-day San Lorenzo in Veracruz.

17. A. This excerpt comes from Leviathan, published in 1651 by philosopher Thomas Hobbes. In this work, Hobbes expresses his beliefs about human nature and the need for society and government. In contrast to philosophers such as Rousseau, Hobbes believed that humans are essentially brutes. Government becomes necessary to prevent chaos. In an era when many were speaking out against repressive governments, Hobbes believed that government needed to be powerful or risk the people destroying themselves.

18. B. Emperor Meiji strove to open the previously isolated Japan to global development. Japan underwent a series of drastic changes in society, economics, and politics. By the end of the Meiji era, Japan was more modernized, industrialized, and Westernized. These developments were similar to what occurred in Russia under Peter the Great.

19. C. The Duma was an elected legislative body established in 1906 by Czar Nicholas II as a result of the 1905 revolution. Nicholas presented the legislature as a representative body whose participation would be required in all future lawmaking, thus giving the Russian people a stake in crafting government policy. The Duma briefly became a lower house of the Russian Parliament. However, a series of laws quickly whittled away the power of the Duma. It was dissolved in March 1917.

20. C. The Byzantine Empire, which thrived for more than a millennium, lost its power as a result of internal dissent, competition with neighboring powers, and territorial loss. It was weakened during a series of civil wars in the 1300s. In the fifteenth century, a disastrous conflict against the Ottomans led to defeat. The Byzantine Empire crumbled, and the Ottoman Turks annexed its territories in 1453.

21. D. Dystopian novels, also known as anti-utopian novels, are works of fiction that deal with a negative future. The future is typically characterized by a repressive government, environmental damage, destructive war, and increased human cruelty. Dystopian literature became popular in the twentieth century as many people looked ahead with trepidation at a future that often seemed uncertain thanks to two world wars, the spread of communism, the threat of nuclear annihilation, and other issues.

22. B. Offshoring, also known as outsourcing, occurs when companies in industrialized nations hire workers in other countries, particularly developing countries. Offshoring generally seeks out locations with fewer regulations, lower costs, cheap raw materials, and proximity to low-wage workers.

23. B. Agriculture caused lasting change for civilization. One of the most important was in human population. Whereas nomadic people typically lived in small bands that moved frequently, agriculture led to more stable and sedentary populations. Sedentary peoples had more time and resources to raise families, which led to a sharp rise in population. As a result of the gathering of people around farms and the eventual growth of villages, population density increased significantly. In some cases, ancient farming communities developed over thousands of years into today's major cities.

24. A. French troops invaded Madagascar in a series of invasions beginning in 1883. By 1896 France had annexed Madagascar into its colonial empire. In the twentieth century, freedom movements challenged the colonial domination. After World War II, France had little choice but to surrender its claim to the colony. After a transitional period, Madagascar declared independence in 1960.

25. A. The English Great Charter, or Magna Carta, was first issued by King John in 1215. Although this charter was first celebrated as a victory against oppressive government, it was soon recognized for its importance in outlining the rights of citizens. Clause 39 states that “no free man shall be... imprisoned or [dispossessed]... except by the lawful judgment of his peers or by the law of the land,” effectively establishing the modern principle of due process.

26. A. Like Buddhism, Jainism developed in India around the sixth century BCE as a result of changing perspectives regarding religion. After the arrival of the Aryans in the Indus River valley, Hinduism had become the dominant religion in India. By around the sixth century BCE, there were a growing number of people who took issue with the Hindu belief system and the sociopolitical environment it fostered. This led to the development of Buddhism and Jainism.

27. B. The Paraguayan War, also known as the War of the Triple Alliance, lasted from 1864 to 1870. Paraguay was pitted against Uruguay, Argentina, and Brazil. The war began after various political, economic, and boundary disputes led Paraguayan leader Francisco Solano Lopez to declare war on Brazil. Brazil quickly brought its allies into the conflict, overwhelming Paraguayan forces. The aggressive actions of Lopez would lead to a devastating loss to Paraguay, including the deaths of more than half the country's population and the loss of thousands of square miles of territory.

28. D. In Canada's early history, the nation was divided into the regions of Upper and Lower Canada. After rising tensions and a series of attempted rebellions underscored the problems of this arrangement, leaders began to examine how to unite the country. In 1841 the British government consented to unite the regions. Citizens of both French and British backgrounds were given representation in the new government, although the British citizens received proportionately more.

29. B. Ghana was a primary trading power in medieval times. Its people, mostly of the Soninke clans, were situated between the booming salt trade in the north and the gold and ivory producers in the south. Leaders in Ghana negotiated transactions between the two groups, bringing prosperity and wealth.

30. A. The Forbidden City was a massive complex used by China's rulers from the Ming dynasty through the Qing dynasty. Located in Beijing, the Forbidden City was built after 1406 and occupied in 1420. It gained its unusual title because entry into the palace was forbidden to most regular citizens. A person could gain admittance only with permission of the emperor.

31. B. Ziggurats were built from about 2200 to 500 BCE. They were four-cornered stepped structures that were somewhat similar to pyramids. They had religious significance to the people who built and used them. However, their construction was different from that of pyramids, as they were usually made from mud brick rather than carved stone. In addition, ziggurats did not have internal chambers.

32. C. Kashmir is a region of the northwestern Indian subcontinent. Since 1947, several nations, primarily Pakistan and India, have contested control of Kashmir. Pakistan controls the northern and western districts, whereas India has incorporated the southern regions. This disagreement between Pakistan and India culminated in brief wars in 1948 and 1965.

33. D. The pharaohs, the rulers of ancient Egypt, were believed to be allpowerful mediators between gods and humans. Although most pharaohs were male, in rare instances women ascended to this position of power. Some early female pharaohs had themselves depicted as masculine, but others did not. Hatshepsut took on the pharaoh's role during her reign beginning in 1473 BCE. Later, and more famously, Cleopatra ascended to rule over Egypt just before the Roman takeover of the kingdom. Other, lesser-known female pharaohs included Ankhesenamen, who shared the throne with Tutankhamen, and Sebeknefru, who reigned in the final years of the Middle Kingdom.

34. B. The opium trade began after a trade imbalance occurred between China and Europe. Europeans prized many Chinese exports, including porcelain, tea, and silk. However, the Chinese generally had low interest in European goods. Chinese industry was on par with most European nations and could produce comparable or superior manufactured goods, a traditional export for Europe. The only European commodity consistently valued in China was precious metal, which Europeans were hesitant to part with. In desperation, British traders arranged to import addictive opium drugs to China to create a new and bustling market.

35. B. The Great Schism was a troubled period for the Roman Catholic Church; at times, there were two or even three popes. They gathered supporters and competed for power and influence. The schism began in 1378 when the papacy moved to Avignon, and it created turmoil in many nations. From 1414 to 1418, the Council of Constance met to debate a course of action to resolve the problem. Ultimately, the council chose to recall the three standing popes, John XXIII, Gregory XII, and Benedict XII. In their place, the council elected a single and preeminent pope, Martin V, on November 11, 1418. With those acts, the Council of Constance ended the Great Schism.

36. A. Most ancient religions were polytheistic, or characterized by a belief in many gods. However, Judaism showed a marked transition away from this view. Monotheism is the belief in the existence of only one god.

37. B. Ancient classical notions of philosophy and art were revived by the neoclassicists, who favored allusions to the great civilizations of the Greeks and Romans and based their compositions on science, order, and reason. In the eighteenth century, the neoclassicist movement met with opposition from a new style of art and thought in romanticism. Romantic artists took virtually an opposite stance from the classicists. Romantics emphasized the wildness of nature and celebrated expressions of human feeling and emotion in their works.

38. E. Daoism revolves around the belief that the universe is unified by a mysterious force called Dao. Humans must eliminate the distractions caused by earthly desires—such as wealth, knowledge, social advancement, and power—to clear their hearts and minds enough to connect with the Dao life force.

39. B. The Rosetta stone was a carved stone tablet crafted in ancient Egypt. On it were recorded phrases in both Egyptian and Greek. The Rosetta stone allowed modern researchers to understand and decipher Egyptian hieroglyphics.

40. A. Pope Benedict VIII was a short-reigning pontiff who entered the papacy in 1012. His time as pope was marked by his aristocratic leanings as well as his participation in frequent military campaigns. His most lasting action took place during a council in 1022 at Pavia, where he introduced a doctrine aimed to coerce the clergy into following a previously mandated policy of celibacy that had not been properly enforced or practiced.

41. C. The Hittites most likely pioneered the production and usage of iron. They mined iron from the mountains near the Black Sea and used it to produce implements of war. Iron weapons and tools were generally superior to those of bronze, copper, and stone, and they gave the Hittites an advantage in battle.

42. B. Mahatma Gandhi was an Indian nationalist leader who struggled with an oppressive British colonization of his homeland. His situation was similar to that of Nelson Mandela, the South African rights activist. Both leaders were known for diplomacy and nonviolent methods of protest.

43. E. The Normans established a homeland in northern France. From there, they launched successful conquests into Italy and England. Their pinnacle of success came in 1066, when they invaded and conquered England. In subsequent generations, Norman forces would spread throughout the British Isles.

44. D. The defining milestone of the Paleolithic era was the use of stone tools; in fact, the term Paleolithic means “old Stone Age.” Neolithic means “new Stone Age,” and stone tools continued to be used almost exclusively during this time. The primary advancement of the Neolithic period was in agriculture. At that time, people first discovered methods of farming. They cultivated crops, planted fruit trees, and domesticated animals.

45. E. Venice and Tenochtitlan were both major cities constructed on islands. Tenochtitlan was established as the Aztec capital around 1325

CE. It originated as a settlement on two islands in Lake Texcoco. Venice, an island town in northern Italy that became a major seaport in medieval times, was built in the Laguna Veneta, near the Adriatic Sea.

46. D. “Total war” is a phrase used to describe conflicts in which the participants are willing to mobilize all of a nation's resources and make unlimited sacrifices to achieve victory. In such wars, even civilians are viewed as part of the enemy's war effort. Combatants may bomb civilian centers to demoralize the nation and disrupt industry and government.

47. D. Confucius, the premier philosopher of ancient China, lived from 551 to 479 BCE. Many of the guiding principles of his philosophy, Confucianism, dealt with the importance of the social order, moral conduct, proper actions, and political organization. To Confucius, these things were roots of a productive and peaceful world. This excerpt comes from a compilation of his writings and sayings known as the Analects of Confucius.

48. E. Slavery was a common practice in many cultures worldwide throughout history. In early times, there were no widespread racial designations on slaves. In ancient times, individuals were enslaved for a number of reasons.

49. B. Alexander the Great embarked on a conquest spanning much of the ancient world. His campaign began in Macedonia and took him through Egypt, Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, Persia, and Bactria. In 327 BCE, Alexander and his armies arrived in India, where they successfully battled King Porus and his elephant-mounted warriors.

50. D. The meeting in Frankfurt am Main beginning in 1848 was conducted by the Frankfurt National Assembly, a short-lived parliamentary organization that attempted to unify the German states. The assembly, led by Heinrich von Gagern, was largely guided by liberal principles and empowered by liberal leaders. It spent much of its existence debating plans for German unity and went so far as to draft a constitution for the unified kingdom.

51. A. The Suez Canal, built by a French engineering company in the 1850s and 1860s, was immensely valuable to Europe's imperial powers. The canal spanned the Isthmus of Suez in Egypt and provided a shortcut between Europe and Asia. With the advent of the Suez Canal, the distance of the average sea trip was reduced significantly.

52. C. Nirvana is a spiritual state of bliss that is considered the highest goal of meditation among many Indian religions. It is most famously connected with Buddhism, but it is also present in other Indian faiths, such as Hinduism, Jainism, and Sikhism. Islam does not share the belief in nirvana.

53. B. The White Lotus society was a religious sect formed in medieval times. It had been largely dormant in central China until the sixteenth century, when it reemerged in response to a takeover by Manchurian Manchu tribes. The White Lotus members opposed the Manchu, and by the end of the eighteenth century, the society began rebelling against them.

54. C. James I, who supported the authorized English translation of the Bible popularly known as the King James Bible, began his reign in Scotland in 1567 and went on to become the first Stuart king of England in 1603. He held both thrones concurrently until 1625. James was known for his absolutist policies in both countries. His practices led to conflicts with the British Parliament, which was beginning to assert power independent of the monarchy.

55. E. Prior to the Phoenicians, writing generally consisted of pictographs, or symbols that portrayed objects, people, and ideas. Around 1000 BCE, the Phoenicians invented a new form of writing based on syllables.

56. A. Sri Lanka is an island nation located in the Indian Ocean, close to the southeastern edge of the Indian subcontinent. Although inhabited since prehistoric times, Sri Lanka was generally known to the world by names that outsiders gave it. Arab, Greek, and Portuguese traders all had their own names for this land. When Britain colonized Sri Lanka, British leaders transliterated a previous name and called the island nation Ceylon. This name held well into the twentieth century and persisted even after the nation gained independence from Britain. In 1972, however, national leaders officially changed the name to the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka.

57. D. Arthur Zimmermann was a German foreign secretary whose aggressive style contributed to the scale and severity of World War I. In 1916 Zimmermann hatched a plan in which Germany would make secret agreements with Mexico and Japan to attack the United States. Zimmermann believed that this would keep the United States occupied and out of the European conflict. On January 16, 1917, Zimmermann sent a coded telegram to the German minister in Mexico proposing such a scheme. The telegram was intercepted and led to the United States' entry into the war.

58. D. The Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the closing years of the eighteenth century. Britain's textile, coal, and steel industries grew sharply, and British manufactured goods were exported all over the world. The factor that did not apply was a lack of colonial power; on the contrary, at this time, Britain was one of the world's most powerful global empires.

59. E. The communist movement in China, beginning around the 1920s, followed through on some of the ideological demands of the Taiping Rebellion. In particular, both movements advocated for equality in the distribution of land, goods, and liberties. However, in other ways, the revolts were quite different.

60. D. Many of the great civilizations of ancient times developed their own calendars, some of which were relatively accurate. The Romans introduced the Julian calendar, which became one of the world's most widely accepted records of time until the sixteenth century. In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII replaced the Julian calendar with the Gregorian calendar, also called the New Style calendar.

61. E. The Luddites were an organization of craftsmen in nineteenth- century England. They were disturbed by the development of automated industrial machines, particularly power textile looms, which threatened to take away their jobs and livelihoods. The Luddites quickly became known for the sabotage and destruction of such machines.

62. D. Mansa Musa was a West African mansa, or emperor, of the Mali kingdom. He ruled from about 1307 until his death in the 1330s. Musa was a gifted and generally benevolent ruler who encouraged great developments in trade, education, and architecture. In particular, he is remembered for turning Timbuktu into a large, successful city that included the Great Mosque, built under his orders. He is also known for his vast personal wealth.

63. C. The Silk Roads were a land trade route between China and the Roman Empire. A branch of the Silk Roads reached into India and allowed Indian merchants to share their religion, Buddhism, with China. Indian monks even joined the trade caravans to bring Buddhist holy texts to the Chinese. Buddhism took hold in China and, within the next few centuries, became the dominant religion in that country. After that, trade networks and other international relations spread the faith to other parts of Asia including Korea and Japan.

64. E. Devanagari, sometimes referred to as Nagari, is a type of script that developed from the Brahmi Gupta writing system around the seventh century CE. Over the following four centuries, it developed into the form still widely used today.

65. B. The information in the chart is best used to support the statement that “improving medical technologies in South America has increased the life span there.” Although the chart does not contain any direct evidence to this effect, it does show that the population of the South American nation of Brazil has grown considerably since 1950. This population boom could be used as indirect evidence to suggest that health-care services have improved in the region.

66. C. Captain James Cook, the famed British explorer, spent much of his life at sea and explored more miles of the world's coastline than any of his contemporaries. Many of his voyages and discoveries were in the South Pacific. In 1768 Cook led the Endeavour on a scientific mission during which he mapped the coasts of New Zealand and Australia. His work led the British to claim ownership over those lands. Cook even named New South Wales, a region of eastern Australia, in honor of his home country, believing that the two places looked similar.

67. B. Pueblo architecture originated with the Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest. This style is derived from the appearance and functionality of the cliff dwellings built by early Pueblo peoples. As shown, Pueblo architecture involves small attached homes arranged in multiple stories. They are often arranged in an almost pyramidal step formation around a central courtyard.

68. C. Manfred von Richthofen, better known to history as the “Red Baron,” was a German fighter pilot in World War I. Born to a family of minor aristocracy, Richthofen became a career military officer in the Prussian army. In World War I, after a brief stint in the cavalry, Richthofen became a pioneer of early aerial combat. His many successes, along with his refined and chivalric personal style and the fact that he daringly painted his plane bright red, captured the public imagination in countries around the world.

69. D. Nationalists believe that citizens owe their highest loyalty to the nation. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, nationalism was prevalent in many European nations, and it commingled with militarism, imperialism, and other philosophies to produce deadly conflict. Giuseppe Mazzini was an Italian revolutionary active in the mid-1800s. He helped establish an organization called the Risorgimento that pushed for the unification of Italy. His dedication to and love of Italy helped inspire a tide of nationalism that rose in Europe, uniting fragmented countries such as Italy and Germany in the late nineteenth century and then sending them to war in the twentieth.

70. B. Socrates, born around 470 BCE, was famous for philosophy and conversation, which he spread around the streets of Athens. Typically going barefoot and dressed simply, Socrates habitually engaged strangers in dialogues that relied on questions to reveal philosophical leanings, faulty arguments, and prejudices. Although he became a lasting figure in philosophy and oratory, his critical and questioning methods made him many enemies, particularly among Athenian leaders. In 399 BCE, some of his foes brought serious charges against him, including “corruption of the young.” Socrates subsequently died by drinking poisonous hemlock.

71. B. Mumbai, previously known as Bombay, is one of India's premiere business and industry centers. The city began its rise to industrial prominence in the 1850s, when it became a major player in the cotton textile industry. This move was encouraged by the British, who came to rely on India for its cotton materials after its former supplier, the United States, became embroiled in tensions that would eventually lead to the American Civil War.

72. C. Beginning in 1096, Christians from across Europe began participating in a long series of military actions, or Crusades, meant to wrest control of the “Holy Land” in Palestine from the Muslims. When Muslim leader Saladin conquered Jerusalem, Christians undertook the Third Crusade, which lasted from 1189 to 1191. After some early victories, infighting among Crusaders led to a Christian withdrawal.

73. A. Pedro II of Brazil, emperor from 1831 to 1889, was one of the country's longest-reigning, most successful, and most widely supported leaders. During Pedro's reign, Brazil made considerable advances in many fields. Brazil saw population growth, economic development, and infrastructure improvement. However, although Brazil was faring well, many people remained dissatisfied. Conflicts over social hierarchies and the abolition of slavery contributed to growing unrest and an eventual military coup in 1889. Pedro's rule included all of the listed events except for the backlash to the so-called coffee government, which occurred in the 1920s.

74. C. All of these leaders were important to Iranian history. However, Ayatollah Ruhallah Khomeyni was the leader who did the most to reinvent government on the basis of a stricter interpretation of Islamic law. A leader of the Shia sect, Khomeyni led a revolution in 1979. He eventually declared himself ruler and created a new set of stricter laws based closely on interpretation of the Koran.

75. A. Traditional African masks were typically made of wood and decorated with paint, grass, and other materials. Masks often took human, animal, or abstract forms. Some were intentionally grotesque. Although the masks had many different uses, their primary role was in religious ceremonies and other rituals of spirituality. In African tradition, the wearer of a mask temporarily takes on the spirit represented by the mask, thus becoming a medium between the worlds of the living and the nonliving. Many of the ceremonies were so sacred and mysterious that only a select few from a community were allowed to participate or even watch.

76. E. The question of citizenship had long been a difficult issue for the Romans, particularly as their empire grew to encompass many lands and peoples. At first, Roman subjects in distant regions had few enumerated rights, and the Latin people around Rome had a set of rights called jus Latii but lacked full citizenship. During the reign of Emperor Caracalla, however, reforms took place in the citizenship laws. Under the Edict of Caracalla in 212 CE, almost all people living within the Roman Empire were granted Roman citizenship. The Romans' largely fair treatment of subject peoples stands in contrast to most modern imperial policies and was one of the reasons for the Roman Empire's long reign and diverse accomplishments.

77. D. Masada was a fortified city built by the Hasmonean dynasty on top of a high mountain in Palestine. Herod, one of the chief proponents of the fortification, equipped it with strong walls, citadels, irrigation systems, and royal palaces. Following the death of Herod, Romans began their domination of the region and briefly took control of Masada. In

66 CE; however, Jewish rebels called Zealots won it back from Roman control and held it for several years. When Jerusalem fell to the Roman invaders, Masada became the Jews' last stronghold in Palestine, and the small band of Zealot defenders fought for two years to resist invasion by some fifteen thousand Roman legionaries.

78. B. The Copper Age was the first major period in the discovery and use of metal, occurring from approximately 5000 to 3000 BCE. Bronze was the next metal to be put into use. An alloy of copper, bronze proved sturdier and stronger, and it soon replaced copper in most tools and weapons. The Bronze Age began around 3200 BCE. About two thousand years later, around 1200 BCE, the Iron Age began in Europe. This was followed around 475 BCE by the creation of steel, a hardened form of iron, in India.

79. E. When England came under the rule of the Roman Empire around 43 CE, Roman scouts found a small village near the mouth of the Thames River. This village, Lud Hill, stood near the location where London is today. The Romans chose to expand this site into a great city they called Londinium. They fortified the city with strong walls, constructed the first London Bridge to facilitate travel, and promoted trade with other regions of England.

80. B. Great Zimbabwe, a civilization that originated during the African Iron Age, was located in what is today southeastern Zimbabwe. Great Zimbabwe is known for its stonework, particularly its stone walls and houses. In fact, the word Zimbabwe derives from a Shona term for stone homes.

81. B. After a Japanese victory over China, Japan took control of Port Arthur on the Liaodong Peninsula. This created international tension, and when Japan relented, Russian forces took over the peninsula in 1898. Further Russian encroachments in Asia pushed Japan to the brink of war, and in 1904 Japanese forces began torpedoing Russian ships in Port Arthur. The Japanese then engaged the Russians and defeated them in several land and sea battles. The Russians ultimately had to withdraw.

For the first time in modern history, an Asian nation had defeated a European power.

82. D. One of the most distinguishing characteristics of Charles Dickens's writings was his treatment of issues concerning economic class and poverty. Many of Dickens's most enduring characters, such as Oliver Twist, are on the lowest rungs of the socioeconomic ladder. These characters struggle against poverty and oppression while demonstrating virtues that are often lacking in more affluent characters.

83. B. One of the most important developments in early international trade was the establishment of the Silk Roads, a landed pathway connecting China to Europe. This approximately four-thousand-mile-long road allowed the passage of trade caravans bringing silk, a prized textile produced by silkworms in China, to Europe. In exchange, Europeans sent back precious metals, wool, and other products.

84. B. After years of study and fasting, Buddha felt that he had achieved a state of spiritual enlightenment. He identified his accomplishment as being based on the Four Noble Truths, concepts that could be used to guide an individual to enlightenment. These truths included the inevitability of suffering, the roots of suffering in desire and negative actions, the possibility of reaching a state of peace (nirvana), and the Middle Way as a path to reach it. Buddha's Four Noble Truths dealt with personal spirituality and did not directly address organized religion.

85. A. Kublai Khan, grandson of Genghis Khan, was a Mongol leader in China who helped unify the nation and bring it under Mongol control. Ultimately, the world would know him best for his role in the life and memoirs of Venetian explorer Marco Polo, who lived at the khan's court for twenty years. Kublai Khan was not, however, responsible for bringing Buddhism to China.

86. E. Tulips were introduced to Europe by Turkish merchants around 1550 CE. In Holland, tulips became immensely popular; in the years following their introduction, they became valuable status symbols. Some rare varieties of tulip bulbs were traded for the equivalent of thousands of dollars, new homes, or successful businesses. Around 1633 all classes of Dutch society began trading in tulips, and many people took on extensive mortgages so they could increase their investments in the flower trade. The assumed value of tulips so exceeded their actual value that an economic “bubble” became inevitable; the bubble exploded in 1637.

87. D. The embroidery is just one scene in the large Bayeux Tapestry, a seamless linen sheet some 231 feet long. The tapestry includes images representing eleventh-century history, particularly the Norman takeover of England. Each scene portrays one event in the story, ending in the 1066 Battle of Hastings, in which William the Conqueror and the Norman invaders routed the native forces under King Harold. The tapestry was stored for centuries in the Bayeux Cathedral before its discovery by scholars in the 1700s.

88. A. The Panama Canal project faced many obstacles. Construction was undertaken by a French company led by Ferdinand de Lesseps; the main challenge quickly became the thick swaths of mosquitoes and the diseases they carried. Unprepared for such conditions and lacking medical knowledge to deal with the situation, the French workers suffered greatly. As many as twenty-two thousand men died during the construction attempt, and the project was ultimately abandoned. Later, a U.S. company would complete the task.

89. D. T’ien ming was a fixture of Chinese social, political, and religious thought that was derived from the philosophy of Confucianism. The concept, enacted around 1000 BCE, held that heaven mandated the emperor, or the so-called son of heaven, to rule. The concept is similar to the European divine right of kings. A subtle but important difference was that, whereas many European monarchs took their divine mandate as an invitation for oppressive rule, in China the t’ien ming actually held the monarchs to moral behavior.

90. C. In 1917, Germany worried about the United States getting involved in World War I. A German statesman offered Mexico a secret alliance

in which Mexico would attack the United States to divert its attention. Not only was Germany's secret solicitation discovered; Mexico rejected it for a number of reasons. Mexican President Venustiano Carranza had asked his military leaders to examine Germany's offer, and they reported that the terms offered and the overall benefits would not make the plan feasible.

91. E. Imperialism has existed since prehistoric times, and its influence has spanned almost all regions of the world. The basic tenets of imperialism have changed little since the time of ancient civilizations such as the Persians, Greeks, Assyrians, and Romans. However, the nature of the colonizers' intentions has changed significantly. In ancient times, colonization was often undertaken with the intent to gain wealth by taxing conquered people and frequently enslaving them. In modern times, imperialism is usually undertaken to support industrial goals, such as accessing raw materials and opening new markets.

92. B. The Songhai Empire was a flourishing trade power in West Africa in the 1400s and 1500s that gained considerable wealth from gold and salt. Despite clashes with the Mali Empire and the temporary loss of the city of Gao, the Songhai people were generally successful at controlling their territory. However, in the late sixteenth century, a Moroccan army began a campaign in the Sahara. Employing superior weapons and tactics, the Moroccans overwhelmed the Songhai and captured their cities, which led to the collapse of their empire.

93. E. Alchemy is an ancient form of pseudoscience in which people attempted to transform metals—particularly lead into gold—and to find magical or supernatural methods of achieving eternal life. Various forms of alchemy were practiced in Asia, India, Europe, and the Middle East.

94. E. The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Warsaw Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance, was arranged by the Soviet Union and signed on May 14, 1955. The members of the pact included the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Albania. This organization primarily served as a buffer between the Soviet sphere and the Western democracies. This latter faction was best represented by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), established in 1949 as a defense against the Soviet Union and its associated states.

95. B. The Zapatista National Liberation Army (EZLN) became a dynamic force in Mexican politics in the early 1990s. After starting an armed revolt in the state of Chiapas, the group made claims and demands concerning Mexican politics and economics. The EZLN believed that Mexico's financial partnerships and policies would cause native Mexicans to suffer greater poverty. The Zapatistas named their organization after Emiliano Zapata, a rebel guerrilla during the Mexican Revolution who battled for the rights of Mexican Indians, peasants, and poor farmers.

If you find an error or have any questions, please email us at admin@erenow.net. Thank you!