Exam preparation materials


Once again, it is interaction that leads to innovation. This period is marked by expanding trade, expanding empires and expanding interactions. All lead to increased wealth, frequent cultural borrowing, and the development of new ideas. Many of these new innovations came from the eastern societies–China and India, filtered through the Islamic world. By 1450, most of these new ideas had made their way back to Europe, following the Crusaders, merchants, and missionaries.

Islamic World


paper mills (from China)

gunpowder cannons


moveable type

astrolabe and sextant

paper currency

algebra (from Greece)


chess (from India)

terrace farming

modern soap formula

water-powered mills

guns and cannons (from China)

cotton sails

mechanical pendulum clock

water clock

distilled alcohol

magnetic compass

surgical instruments (syringe etc.)

state-run factories

In addition to ideas that began to move around the world, trade networks moved agricultural products. Some of these would result in great environmental changes, influence trade networks, and motivate exploration and conquest.

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