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What the Koran Really Says

What the Koran Really Says

This excellent collection of critical commentaries on the Koran brings together outstanding articles by noted scholars from the beginning of the 20th century to recent times. These important studies, as well as the editor's own lengthy introduction, show that little about the text of the Koran can be taken at face value. Among the fascinating topics discussed is evidence that early Muslims did not understand Muhammad's original revelation, that the ninth-century explosion of literary activity was designed to organize and make sense of an often incoherent text, and that much of the traditions surrounding Muhammad's life were fabricated long after his death in an attempt to give meaning to the Koran. Also of interest are suggestions that Coptic and other Christian sources heavily influenced much of the text and that some passages reflect even an Essenian background reaching back to the community of the Dead Sea Scrolls. This valuable compilation will be a welcome resource to interested lay readers and scholars alike.

PART 1. INTRODUCTION

Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 2: What Is the Koran?

PART 2. BACKGROUND

Chapter 3: Towards a Prehistory of Islam

PART 3. A QUESTION OF LANGUAGE

Chapter 4: Syriac Influence on the Style of the Koran

Chapter 5: Some Additions to Prof. Jeffery's Foreign Vocabulary of the Qur'an

Chapter 6: The Arabic Readers of the Koran

Chapter 7: The Beginnings of Classical Arabic

Chapter 8: The Role of the Bedouins as Arbiters in Linguistic Questions and the Mas'ala Az-Zunburiyya

Chapter 9: Some Suggestions to Qur'an Translators

PART 4. SOURCES OF THE KORAN: ESSENIAN, CHRISTIAN, COPTIC

Chapter 10: Introduction to the Dead Sea Scrolls

Chapter 11: The Qumran Scrolls and the Qur'an

Chapter 12: An Essenian Tradition in the Koran

Chapter 13: A Qumranian Expression in the Koran

Chapter 14: A Possible Coptic Source of a Qur'anic Text

Chapter 15: Introduction to Raimund

Chapter 16: The Shahadat az-45r: The False Witness

Chapter 17: On the Meaning of the Three Final Words of Sura XXII.30-31

Chapter 18: Early and Later Exegesis of the Koran: A Supplement to Or 35

PART 5. SURAS, SURAS, SURAS

Chapter 19: Introduction to Sura IX.29

Chapter 20: Some Minor Problems in the Qur'an

Chapter 21: Koran IX.29

Chapter 22: A Propos de Qur'an IX.29

Chapter 23: The Ancient Arab Background of the Koranic Concept al-Gizatu an Yadin

Chapter 24: "'An Yadin" (Qur'an IX.29): An Attempt at Interpretation

Chapter 25: Koran and Tafsir: The Case of ",an Yadin"

Chapter 26: Koran XXV. 1: Al-Furgan and the "Warner"

Chapter 27: The Buddha Comes to China

Chapter 28: The Secret Identity of Dhul-Kifl

PART 6. EMENDATIONS, INTERPOLATIONS

Chapter 29: Studies Contributing to Criticism and Exegesis of the Koran

Chapter 30: A Qur'anic Interpolation

Chapter 31: Regarding Qur'an CI.6

Chapter 32: Three Difficult Passages in the Koran

Chapter 33: A Strange Reading in the Qur'an

Chapter 34: Some Proposed Emendations to the Text of the Koran

PART 7. RICHARD BELL: INTRODUCTION AND COMMENTARY

Chapter 35: Introduction to Richard Bell

Chapter 36: From Introduction to the Qur'an

Chapter 37: From A Commentary on the Qur'an

PART 8. POETRY AND THE KORAN

Chapter 38: The Strophic Structure of the Koran

Chapter 39: On the Koran

Chapter 40: On Pre-Islamic Christian Strophic Poetical Texts in the Koran: A Critical Look at the Work of Gunter

PART 9. MANUSCRIPTS

Chapter 41: The Problem of Dating the Early Qur'ans

Chapter 42: Observations on Early Qur'an Manuscripts in Sanca'

APPENDICES

Glossary

Origin of the Alphabet - Semitic Languages Family Tree - The Genetic Relationship among Semitic Languages

Development of Aramaic Scripts