Practice Test 4
Section I: Multiple-Choice Questions
Time: 55 Minutes 80 Questions
Directions: Select the best answer for the following questions or incomplete statements from the five choices provided. Indicate your answer by darkening the appropriate space on the answer sheet.
1. Which of the following statements about the alliance between the United States and the Soviet Union during World War II is true?
A. The United States failed to recognize the contribution of the Soviet Union to the victory over Germany.
B. The relationship was strained by the delays in opening up a second front in Europe.
C. The United States fully supported the Soviet Union’s security claims in Eastern Europe.
D. Lend-lease was withheld from the Soviet Union until after the battle of Stalingrad.
E. The Soviet Union supported free elections in Poland.
2. The practice of “impressment” involved
A. seizure of purported British sailors from American merchant ships and pressing them into service with the British navy
B. seizure of American sailors serving on French ships during the Napoleonic Wars
C. French efforts to win the propaganda war against the British to gain American resources
D. British use of Indian allies in the War of 1812
E. French inducements to Americans to join the French navy
3. The theory of mercantilism was
A. strongly favored by Adam Smith in his book The Wealth of Nations
B. a policy in which colonies existed for the benefit of the mother country, exchanging raw materials for manufactured products
C. a colonial American policy favoring trade exclusively with England
D. a way of avoiding widespread smuggling
E. intended to encourage free trade among various European colonies in the Americas
4. “This conjunction of an immense military establishment and a large arms industry is new in the American experience. The total influence— economic, political, even spiritual—is felt in every city, every statehouse, every office of the federal government.”
This statement was made by
A. President John Kennedy
B. General Douglas MacArthur
C. President Dwight Eisenhower
D. President Franklin Roosevelt
E. General George Patton
5. In the Civil Rights Cases (1883), the Supreme Court rejected the idea that
A. public schools should be integrated
B. all persons should have equal access to public accommodations
C. African Americans were entitled to vote
D. former slaves had a right to sue their masters for compensation
E. the military academies should be open to African Americans
6. Supporters of states rights find constitutional support for the political position in
A. the elastic clause
B. the supremacy clause
C. the Ninth Amendment
D. the full faith and credit clause
E. the Tenth Amendment
7. The Peace of Paris (1783) contained all of the following terms EXCEPT
A. the evacuation of all British troops from American soil
B. free navigation of the Mississippi River to New Orleans
C. recognition of the independence of the United States
D. extension of the boundary of the United States to the Mississippi River
E. compensation of Loyalists for loss of their property
8. The 1917 Zimmermann telegram urging an alliance in war against the United States was sent by Germany to
9. The purpose of the 1887 Dawes Severalty Act was to provide Native Americans with
A. independent tribal sovereignty
B. communal tribal lands under federal jurisdiction
C. individual family land allotments
D. American citizenship and the right to vote in federal elections
E. Economic aid in establishing industries on reservation land
10. Which of the following statements about education in the United States after the Civil War is true?
A. Educational opportunities for women declined as more girls went into the labor force.
B. The creation of land-grant colleges led to a significant expansion of higher education.
C. African Americans were unable to attend college as a matter of law in the South.
D. The influx of immigrants created a demand of bilingual education programs.
E. Public school enrollment declined as the affluent turned to private schools.
11. The southern states of the Upper South area joined the Confederacy only when
C. Lincoln took the oath of office as president
D. The Confederacy moved its capital from Montgomery to Richmond
E. Lincoln issued a preliminary proclamation of emancipation
12. During the 1960 election campaign, an important foreign policy issue was
A. the military experience of Nixon and Kennedy
B. U.S. relations with countries in the Middle East
C. Nixon’s willingness to open diplomatic relations with China
D. Kennedy’s claim there was a missile gap between the U.S. and the Soviet Union
E. support for United Nations action in Korea
13. European wars in the late 17th and 18th centuries were known in the American colonies by the names of the rulers during the time of strife. A correct match of European war and its American version would be
A. War of the Spanish Succession — King George’s War
B. War of the League of Augsburgh — King Louis’s War
C. War of the Spanish Succession — Queen Anne’s War
A. both sides had rejected the Crittenden Compromise
B. Lincoln proclaimed the Lower South states in insurrection
D. Seven Years’ War — Queen Mary’s War
E. War of the Austrian Succession — King Charles’s War
14. The “Great Migration” refers to
A. the thousands of Puritans who settled in the Massachusetts Bay Colony
B. the Irish who came to the United States in the 1840s
C. the Pilgrims who established a Separatist colony in Plymouth
D. the Jews who fled persecution in Russian in the late 19th century
E. the movement of slaves from West Africa to the British colonies
15. The main purpose of France’s North American empire was to
A. provide a refuge for French Huguenots from Catholic persecution
B. convert Native Americans to the Catholic faith
C. enlarge the fur trade activitiy with the Indians
D. block British expansion to the north and west
E. form and alliance with Spain to limit the area of British control
16. The Republican party’s tactic of “waving the bloody shirt” referred to
A. reviving Civil War animosities and connecting Democrats to the Confederacy
B. praising Americans for their sacrifices in building a great nation
C. demanding the United States support the independence of Cuba
D. the violence of the labor movement in striking against the railroads
E. none of the above
17. Which of these women is NOT associated with the reform movements in the antebellum United States?
A. Sarah Grimke
B. Elizabeth Cady Stanton
C. Susan B. Anthony
D. Margaret Sanger
E. Sojourner Truth
18. The federal income tax, which was adopted in 1913 through the Sixteenth Amendment,
A. was regressive since it taxed all income at the same rate
B. was intended to redistribute wealth in the United States
C. regained revenue lost through tariff reduction
D. was not enforced until the late 1920s
E. was accepted in lieu of a national sale tax
19. The primary objective of the Marshall Plan was to
A. provide economic aid to Western Europe after World War II
B. create a military organization that could meet the threat from the Soviet Union
C. assist the countries of Eastern Europe to establish democratic governments
D. develop new weapons of mass destruction, including the hydrogen bomb
E. grant federal assistance to alleviate poverty in Appalachia
20. In the decades following World War II, there has been a massive migration of Americans to
A. the “Sunbelt” states
B. the New England states
C. the Midwest
D. the Pacific Northwest
E. the South
21. President Jefferson called for naval action against the Barbary States because
A. waging war was less costly than paying tribute
B. most Americans would support such a political decision
C. he wanted to divert attention from domestic political issues
D. the United States had the active backing of France and Great Britain
E. European nations had little faith in American words
23. In the second half of the 17th century the economy of the Chesapeake region
A. was characterized by small-scale subsistence farming
B. rose dramatically with the increase in tobacco prices
C. was linked to swings in the price of cotton
D. depended largely on importation of food supplies from Europe
E. created inequality in colonial society because tobacco prices were severely depressed
24. Which of the following was a consequence of the Glorious Revolution?
A. Virginia became a royal colony.
B. Georgia was established as a colony.
C. The Dominion of New England was dissolved.
D. France declared war on England.
E. James reestablished his control over Parliament
22. “Your president may easily become a king. Your Senate so imperfectly constructed that your dearest rights may become sacrificed by what might be a small minority.”
This statement reflects the views of a
25. Under the terms of the Treaty of Greenville,
A. the Miami Confederation gave up its lands in Ohio
B. the British agreed to give up then- control of the fur trade in the Northwest Territory
C. the Creeks and the Cherokees agreed to move west of the Mississippi
D. Spain gave up its control of Florida to the United States
E. boundary disputes between Canada and the United States were resolved
26. Henry Ford believed that most Americans could own their own automobile if
A. car companies advertised intensively
B. mass production lowered the per unit cost to make cars affordable
C. national car dealerships established a network to connect cars to potential customers
D. they could be persuaded to pay their debts by installments
E. factory owners raised the wages of workers
27. The term “Gilded Age’’ refers to
A. America’s military power in the post-Civil War years
B. a time of political corruption and robber barons
C. improvement in food preparation in the late 19th century
D. new discoveries of gold in the West
E. none of the above
28. The creation of a segregated society in the South after the Civil War was the result of
A. federal laws enacted by Congress during Reconstruction
B. executive orders issued by President Andrew Johnson
C. legislation enacted by the Southern states
D. law suits filed by such groups as the Ku Klux Klan
E. state court decisions after Reconstruction
29. President Hoover’s main strategy in dealing with the Great Depression was to
A. reduce the tariff
B. cut the federal income tax
C. create federal relief agencies to help people in need
D. encourage private voluntary relief agencies to assist the unemployed
E. none of the above
30. Which book is credited with creating the consumer protection movement?
A. Silent Spring
B. The Crabgrass Frontier
C. Man in a Gray Flannel Suit
D. Unsafe at Any Speed
E. The Population Bomb
31. Which of the following statements about the election of 1876 is NOT true?
A. Rutherford B. Hayes had a one vote margin in the Electoral College.
B. Samuel Tilden won the popular vote by a clear majority.
C. The election was ultimately decided by the House of Representatives.
D. Democrats were in control of the South with the exception of South Carolina, Florida, and Louisiana.
E. Congress created a special commission to resolve disputed votes in the South.
32. Washington’s response to the Whiskey Rebellion showed that
A. he was determined to enforce federal laws
B. he wanted Americans to drink more
C. he did not support Hamilton’s economic program
D. he encouraged farmers in western Pennsylvania to resist the excise tax
E. he did not believe in the Bill of Rights
33. Indictment by a grand jury, protection against double jeopardy and selfincrimination are provided for in the Bill of Rights in the
A. First Amendment
B. Third Amendment
C. Fifth Amendment
D. Sixth Amendment
E. Eighth Amendment
34. Which of the following was the most important event of 1969?
A. Student demonstrators were killed at Kent State University.
B. Martin Luther King, Jr. was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee.
C. American astronauts landed on the moon.
D. The Tet Offensive was launched in South Vietnam.
E. The Watergate break-in took place in Washington, D.C.
35. The Civil War amendments to the Constitution provided for all of the following EXCEPT
A. the abolition of slavery
B. the extension of the right to vote to African Americans
C. the granting of citizenship to African Americans
D. that all persons were entitled to the equal protection under the law
E. the readmission of the states of the Confederacy to the Union
36. Andrew Johnson escaped removal from the presidency
A. as a result of public anger at the methods used to try to force him out of office
B. because the Senate failed to convict him
C. when the Supreme Court declared the impeachment charges were unconstitutional
D. when neither house in Congress could muster a majority vote
E. none of the above
37. In 1867 Secretary of State William H. Seward engineered the purchase of Alaska from Russia
A. partly in appreciation of Russian support for the Union in the Civil War
B. because of potential wealth from gold deposits there
C. as a strategic line of defense for American interests in the Pacific
D. to end Russian persecution of native peoples there
E. as a region for exiling southern diehards
38. The first suburbs developed in the late 19th century because of
A. the fear of the rising urban crime rate
B. the rising cost of real estate in the central city
C. a housing shortage due to the influx of immigrants
D. the desire of middle class residents to live in the “country”
E. the development of mass transit made longer commutes possible
39. Dissatisfied progressives within the Republican party prior to 1912 were known as
E. none of the above
40. Who of the following was associated with the Harlem Renaissance?
A. Louis Armstrong
B. Claude McKay
C. W. E. B.DuBois
D. Malcom X
E. Booker T. Washington
41. Plantation owners might encourage slaves to marry because
A. married slaves were less likely to runaway
B. married slaves made better household servants
C. married slaves were worth more as a couple
D. slaves marriages were encouraged in many Southern states
E. the Anglican Church supported slave marriages
42. All of the following statements accurately reflect American economic policy during the 1920s EXCEPT
A. Tax policy benefited wealthy Americans.
B. Tariff rates were increased to protect American industry.
C. Regulatory enforcement, including anti-trust laws, was lax.
D. Government spending was cut to balance the budget.
E. Agriculture prospered with federal price supports.
43. A major factor in the eventual victory of Britain over France in their wars in North America was
A. French abandonment of strategic outposts
B. British commitment to permanent settlement
C. the failure of the French to win Indian alliances
D. British willingness to abandon outposts that could not be defended
E. British control over Atlantic sea routes
44. The major purpose of the Gadsden Purchase was to
A. prevent an invasion by Mexico in an attempt to recover its lost territory
B. expand slave territory into southern Arizona
C. provide a southern route for a proposed transcontinental railroad
D. buy Baja California and secure total control of the Colorado River
E. none of the above
46. The Venezuelan crisis of 1895 involved the United States in a dispute with
D. Great Britain
47. All of the following are true about American labor in the late 19th century EXCEPT
A. The most successful unions focused on higher wages and the eight hour day.
B. No attempt was made to organize unskilled workers.
C. Strikes were often put down by local police, state militia, and federal troops.
D. Federal laws, such as the Sherman Antitrust Act, were used against unions.
E. Unions supported legislation to restrict immigration fearing competition for jobs.
45. The most important result of Bacon’s Rebellion was that
A. wealthy planters in the Tidewater lost political power
B. small farmers in Virginia were given the right to vote
C. Native Americans were driven out of the Southern colonies
D. planters turned to slaves as the chief source of cheap labor
E. indentured servants got the length of their labor contracts reduced
48. Which of the following does NOT support the idea that civil liberties is the first casualty of war?
A. Executive Order 9066
B. Espionage and Sedition Acts
C. Lincoln’s policy toward habeas corpus
D. Creel Committee
E. Ex Parte Milligan
49. Which of the following statements best reflects a valid assessment of the Kennedy administration?
A. Kennedy was considerably more successful in the foreign policy arena than handling domestic issues.
B. The administration was responsible for most of the accomplishments of the civil rights movement in the 1960s.
C. Kennedy strengthened the presidency by his ability to get legislation through Congress.
D. Kennedy created problems for his administration by his legislative and diplomatic inexperience.
E. Most of the accomplishments of the Kennedy administration are due solely to the advisers he had around him.
50. Hamilton's economic program included all of the following EXCEPT
A. an excise tax
B. federal assumption of state debt
C. protective tariffs
D. a national bank
E. creation of the Treasury Department
51. Minstrel shows, which became popular before the Civil War,
A. poked fun at all minority groups in the country, particularly Irish immigrants
B. were put on by African Americans before both black and white audiences
C. created a stereotype of African Americans, providing a racial justification for slavery
D. were banned in the South because they presented a positive portrait of African-American life outside of slavery
E. declined in popularity once slavery was abolished
52. The Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798 were
A. never enforced by federal marshals
B. supported by most Americans
C. eventually declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court
D. intended by the Federalists to weaken Jefferson’s Republican party
E. none of the above
53. Which of the following statements about the population the New England colonies in the 17th century is true?
A. Immigration was not a factor in population growth.
B. The birthrate was low because women were in short supply.
C. It was rare for children to know their grandparents.
D. Settlers typically came in family groups.
E. Germans made up a significant percentage of the population.
54. All of the following were ways in which England tried to strengthen the Navigation Acts EXCEPT
A. Governors took an oath to enforce the laws.
B. English customs officials were sent to the colonies to inspect ships for smuggled goods.
C. The Board of Trade and Plantations was created.
D. Admiralty courts with judges appointed by the crown tried smuggling cases.
E. Fewer goods were included in the enumerated articles.
55. American foreign policy during the 1920s
A. focused on the growing threat from Japan and Germany
B. was strictly isolationist after the failure to ratify the Treaty of Versailles
C. was committed to controlling the spread of Communist influence around the world
D. was actively involved with Europe and Asia on such issues as disarmament and reparations
E. concentrated on maintaining American supremacy in the Western Hemisphere
56. Modern investigations have revealed that the explosion and sinking of the U.S.S. Maine in Havana Harbor was caused by
A. a Spanish mine planted on the outside of the ship
B. a device placed on the ship by Cuban revolutionaries
C. the age and decrepit state of the battleship
D. an accident inside the ship
E. Spanish militants eager for a war with the United States
57. The Populists committed political suicide in 1896 when they
A. focused on the adoption of the gold standard as their main goal
B. concentrated on coinage of silver money as a way to solve their economic problems
C. supported William McKinley for president
D. rejected the advice of William Jennings Bryan to advocate silver coinage
E. none of the above
58. Despite Woodrow Wilson’s record of liberal accomplishment, his “blind spot” was his endorsement of
A. segregation of federal employees
B. harassment of socialists during World War I
C. antisemitism among the upper class
D. British colonialism in Africa
E. none of the above
59. President Nixon’s New Federalism was intended to
A. create a balance between the responsibilities of the federal government and the states
B. limit the power of Washington, and shift power to the states
C. make sure the states enforced all federal environmental laws
D. increase the power of the president at the expense of the Congress
E. give Congress additional authority over setting national goals in education
60. The massive migration of Irish to the United States was prompted by the A. civil war in Ireland
B. Protestant persecution of Irish Catholics
C. Famine in Ireland when the potato crop failed
D. Desire of Irishmen to fight in the war against Mexico
E. British declaration of war against Ireland in 1845
61. The term “pet banks” referred to
A. foreign banks chosen by Andrew Jackson to receive deposits of federal money
B. state banks receiving preferential treatment from the Bank of the United States
C. state banks chosen by Jackson to receive deposits of federal money
D. branches of the Bank of the United States in states hostile to Jackson
E. state banks established in states hostile to Jackson
62. The British response to the American claim of “no taxation without representation” was
A. to allow the colonial legislatures to vote on taxes approved by Parliament
B. to give authority to the Continental Congress to tax the colonies
C. to claim that Parliament recognized colonial concerns by virtual representation
D. to agree not to impose internal taxes in the future
E. to use the revenue generated by internal taxes to support schools in the colonies
63. Which of the following Supreme Court decisions strengthened the constitutional protection against selfincrimination?
A. Gideon v Wainwright
B. Board of Regents v Bakke
C. Miranda v Arizona
D. Mapp v Ohio
E. Shaw v Reno
64. The mechanical reaper dramatically affected American agriculture by
A. creating more jobs for farmers
B. mechanizing cotton production in the South
C. encouraging farmers to grow more corn
D. saving time and labor in wheat harvesting
E. helping farmers plow prairie lands
65. In the 1877 case of Munn v Illinois, the Supreme Court stated
A. railroad regulation by states was constitutional
B. state railroad regulation was unconstitutional
C. railroad rate regulation should be left to federal courts
D. only Congress could regulate railroads
E. railroads had the right to set their own rates regardless of destination
66. The difficulty in managing an empire was clearly demonstrated after the Spanish-American War by
A. the cost of administering colonies in the Caribbean and the Pacific
B. the need to intervene militarily in Central America frequently
C. the strong domestic opposition the U.S. colonial policy
D. the protracted fighting to put down the Philippine Insurrection
E. the opposition of the European powers to growing U.S. influence
67. All of the following were arguments used to support restrictions on immigration in the late 19th and early 20th century EXCEPT
A. Immigrants were radicals and would subvert the country
B. Because they worked for less, immigrants took jobs away from Americans
C. Immigrants refused to abandon their old world culture, and would not assimilate
D. Immigrants were poor and became a drain on the resources of the society
E. Most immigrants were women of questionable character and morality
68. Under the Neutrality Act of 1939, the United States
A. prohibited Americans from traveling on ships of countries at war
B. could not make loans or extend credit to belligerents
C. could not sell armaments to either side in a civil war
D. could sell military equipment to belligerents on a cash-and-carry basis
E. prohibited Germany from trading with countries in the Western Hemisphere
69. Which of the following statements about the integration of public schools is true?
A. Integration was accomplished quicker in the North than in the South.
B. The timetable for integration was spelled out in Brown v. Board of Education.
C. Busing to achieve integration in the North was a controversial program.
D. The Supreme Court did not support busing to achieve integration.
E. The Brown decision only applied to schools in Kansas.
70. The Missouri Compromise of 1820
A. was the brainchild of Henry Clay B. admitted Missouri to the Union as a slave state
C. admitted Maine to the Union as a free state
D. drew a boundary line separating slave and free states
E. all of the above
71. The Era of Good Feelings was
A. the period after the War of 1812 when the Republican party dominated American politics
B. the period after the end of Reconstruction when the animosity of the Civil War began to fade
C. the period immediately after the French and Indian War when the Great Britain and the American colonies were on good terms
D. the period after World War I and before the Depression when the country was prosperous
E. the period just before and after the Mexican War when Americans were satisfied with the results of Manifest Destiny
72. Parliament repealed the Stamp Act and the Townshend duties because
A. Parliament feared the colonies would revolt against the government
B. the colonies agreed to create their own tax structure
C. anticipated revenues proved lower than expected
D. colonial boycotts harmed British business
E. Edmund Burke argued that the colonists should tax themselves
73. The theory of nullification, which declared that the states could declare a federal law null and void, is found in
A. Article IV of the Constitution
B. the Federalist Papers
C. the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
D. the Tenth Amendment
E. Jefferson’s First Inaugural Address
74. Which of the following acronyms was associated with the Cold War?
75. The presidential election of 1828 demonstrated that
A. first-term presidents usually are reelected
B. political parties could be strongly sectional in their political allegiance
C. relaxation of state eligibility requirements for voting could produce a dramatic increase in the popular vote
D. a “southern” president would rarely be elected
E. supporters of the common people would have difficulty getting elected because of the electoral college structure
76. The main purpose of the Ku Klux Klan in the South during and after the Reconstruction era was to
A. persecute African Americans
B. established a stratified social structure in southern communities
C. keep law and order in an era of political chaos
D. prevent Republicans from holding state and local offices in the South
E. all of the above
77. The 1903 Platt Amendment, written by the United States for inclusion in the Cuban Constitution
A. required Cuba to have a democratic government
B. joined Cuba and the United States in a pledge of eternal friendship
C. awarded the United States trading advantages with Cuba
D. granted the United States the right to intervene in Cuban domestic affairs
E. all of the above
78. Albert Fall, secretary of the interior under President Harding
A. strongly favored conservation of natural resources
B. was the first cabinet-level officer to go to prison
C. believed Indians should be assimilated into the dominant society
D. was one of the few reliable cabinet officers appointed by Harding
E. rejected bribes offered by prominent oil producers
79. Bruce Barton’s book The Man Nobody Knows, a best-seller of the 1920s, claimed that the founder of modern business methods was
A. Attila the Hun
B. Jesus Christ
C. Christopher Columbus
E. George Washington
80. Early in his term, Richard Nixon faced stagflation which meant that
A. stock prices were falling and interest rates were rising
B. both inflation and unemployment were high
C. the saving rate was low and job creation was high
D. home prices were depressed but employment was high
E. the budget deficit was growing while revenue increased
IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION ONLY. DO NOT WORK ON ANY OTHER SECTION IN THE TEST.