Exam preparation materials

Practice Test 2

Section I: Multiple-Choice Questions

Time: 55 Minutes 80 Questions

Directions: Select the best answer for the following questions or incomplete statements from the five choices provided. Indicate your answer by darkening the appropriate space on the answer sheet.

1. The Dred Scott decision held that a slave

A. could sue for his freedom in the courts

B. became free when transported to free territory

C. was private property even in a free territory

D. was a citizen when in free territory

E. could not be transported out of a slave state

2. Open-range ranching came to an end due to

A. overproduction of beef and declining prices

B. federal support for irrigated agriculture

C. the range wars between cattlemen and sheepherders

D. fencing of the plains with barbed wire

E. increase in cattle production in the Midwest and East

3. The vision of America as a country of yeoman farmers is most often associated with

A. George Washington

B. Alexander Hamilton

C. Benjamin Franklin

D. Thomas Jefferson

E. Andrew Jackson

4. President Lyndon Johnson’s reference to "guns and butter” meant that

A. the domestic economy would not be affected by the Vietnam War

B. the Vietnam War would require consumer sacrifice

C. dairy producers would suffer economic recession

D. the United States would alternate between fighting and peace settlement negotiations E. U.S. military goals would not be vulnerable to charges of weakness

5. The first successful oil well was drilled in

A. Texas

B. Oklahoma

C. Pennsylvania

D. New Jersey

E. California

6. Henry Ford was able to reduce the price of automobiles significantly by

A. entering into price-fixing arrangements with steel companies

B. preventing his workers from joining unions

C. developing assembly-line production techniques

D. forming the automobile trust

E. getting Congress to support a national highway system

7. Which of the following New Deal agencies was NOT intended to provide jobs for the unemployed?

A. Civilian Conservation Corps

B. Works Progress Administration

C. National Recovery Administration

D. Civil Works Administration

E. Public Works Administration

8. Which of the following best describes the message of this cartoon?

A. A plea for keeping the Union together on the eve of the Civil War

B. An appeal to the colonies to unify against the threat from France

C. An appeal to slaveholding states against the Missouri Compromise

D. A call for Native American tribes to unite against white settlers

E. A plea to end sectional differences over tariff policy

9. The early nineteenth-century Native American leader who urged the Indian tribes in the Old Northwest Territory to unify to protect their lands was

A. Chief Joseph

B. Geronimo

C. Tecumseh

D. Powhatan

E. King Philip

10. Which statement best describes the “Irreconcilables” during the debate over the Treaty of Versailles?

A. They opposed the treaty because it failed to adequately protect national minorities in eastern Europe.

B. They supported the treaty if certain changes were made on the reparations issue.

C. They were opposed to American participation in the League of Nations on any terms.

D. They were willing to accept the treaty if limitations were placed on U.S. participation in the League of Nations.

E. They accepted the treaty as presented by Wilson but refused to make any changes.

11. Which of the following statements is NOT true about the Coercive Acts?

A. They were directed against all of the colonies.

B. They were called the Intolerable Acts by the colonists.

C. They significantly strengthened colonial unity.

D. They led to a boycott of British goods in the colonies.

E. They were the British response to the Boston Tea Party.

12. The individual who best represented the Enlightenment in colonial America was

A. Anne Hutchinson

B. George Whitefield

C. Alexander Hamilton

D. William Bradford

E. Benjamin Franklin

13. The principle that freedom of speech as guaranteed under the First Amendment is not absolute was stated in which early twentieth-century Supreme Court decision?

A. Marbury v. Madison

B. Gibbons v. Ogden

C. Brown v. Board of Education

D. Schenck v. U.S.

E. Miranda v. Arizona

14. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 was significant because

I. it meant that Congress rather than the President would determine Reconstruction policies

II. it showed President Andrew Johnson's unwillingness to accept the Radical Republican approach to Reconstruction

III. it was the first major piece of legislation that became law over a presidential veto

IV. it guaranteed that former slaves would control the state legislatures in the South

A. I only

B. III only

C. I and III only

D. II and IV only

E. I, II, and III only

15. The American journalist William Allen White wrote that the United States was “tired of issues, sick at heart of ideals, and weary of being noble.” This best describes the mood of the country in

A. 1920

B. 1932

C. 1960

D. 1968

E. 1976

16. To Andrew Jackson, the spoils system

A. denied qualified persons the right to keep federal jobs

B. was needed in the absence of civil service laws

C. benefited the political process

D. was a political practice beyond his ability to control

E. kept him from appointing his friends to political office

17. The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions argued that the right to determine the constitutionality of a law passed by Congress rested in

A. Congress

B. the states

C. the President

D. the Supreme Court

E. the vote of the people

18. Hamilton proposed a tariff soon after the launching of the United States government in order to

A. stop the export of raw materials to Great Britain

B. help develop manufacturing in the United States

C. help develop the American labor movement

D. punish Great Britain for postwar harassment of American shipping

E. support the creation of an American merchant marine

19. The Civil Rights Act of 1964

A. made de jure segregation illegal

B. made de facto segregation illegal

C. outlawed racial discrimination in all places of public accommodation

D. protected registration of black voters

E. ended segregation in private schools

20. According to Jay’s Treaty

A. the British agreed finally to evacuate the Northwest posts

B. all prewar colonial debts were canceled

C. American rights to the Mississippi River were secured

D. a definite boundary between the United States and Canada was secured and extended to the Great Lakes region

E. the British agreed not to take any more American sailors off merchant ships

21. The “Back to Africa” movement, which resulted in the creation of Liberia in 1822, found support in which twentieth-century group?

A. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

B. Universal Negro Improvement Association

C. Urban League

D. Southern Christian Leadership Conference

E. Congress of Racial Equality

22. In the seventeenth century, the Great Migration refers to the

A. settlement of the Puritans in Massachusetts Bay

B. trade in slaves between west Africa and the West Indies

C. immigration of Irish to the colonies

D. expansion of white settlement across the Appalachian Mountains

E. settlement of French-speaking Canadians in Louisiana

23. All of the following statements about slavery and the Constitution are true EXCEPT

A. There was some support for the abolition of slavery at the Constitutional Convention.

B. An important compromise allowed slaves to be included in determining representation in Congress.

C. The slave trade was immediately abolished.

D. The Constitution included a fugitive-slave clause.

E. The word “slavery” is never used in the Constitution.

24. “Forty acres and a mule” refers to

A. the proposal to make freed slaves small-scale farmers

B. the terms of the Homestead Act of 1862

C. the allotment given to Native Americans under the Dawes Severalty Act

D. the inducement given recent immigrants if they would settle outside of urban centers

E. a typical homestead on the Great Plains in the 1870s

25. “If the gold delegates dare to defend the gold standard as a good thing, we will fight them to the uppermost.” Bryan’s famous “cross of gold” speech called for

A. the unlimited coinage of silver

B. lower tariffs

C. a revival of greenback paper currency

D. renewed religious commitment for all Americans

E. federal and social welfare programs to deal with the Panic of 1893

U. S. POPULATION INCREASE 1800-1850

U. S. POPULATION INCREASE 1800-1850

Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States for Colonial Times to 1970.

26. Which of the following events best explain the periodic declines in the population density of the United States in the first half of the nineteenth century?

I. Railroad construction

II. Louisiana Purchase

III. Missouri Compromise

IV. Mexican-American War

A. II only

B. IV only

C. I and III only

D. II and III only

E. II and IV only

27. Between 1920 and 1939, American foreign policy included all of the following EXCEPT

A. attempts to develop international agreements on disarmament

B. improved relations with Latin America

C. nonrecognition of territory acquired by force

D. concern over the war debt and reparations issue

E. active intervention to prevent aggression

28. By the end of his presidency, Ulysses Grant’s popularity had declined substantially because of

A. the corruption evident in his administration

B. his harsh and brutal policies toward the South

C. his support for “greenbacker” monetary policies

D. his refusal to support the Radicals in Congress

E. revelations about his poor military leadership during the Civil War

29. Senator Stephen A. Douglas managed to engineer the Compromise of 1850 by

A. winning the endorsement of President Zachary Taylor for the Compromise

B. letting the southern Democrats dictate the terms of the Compromise

C. securing passage of the different parts of the Compromise as separate laws

D. threatening to remove political opponents from important congressional committees

E. a policy of conciliation for all factions

30. The “Insular Cases” decision of the Supreme Court declared that

A. the United States had the right to establish a Canal Zone in Panama

B. indigenous people in newly acquired colonies did not necessarily have the same rights as Americans

C. Puerto Rico and the Philippines could be lawfully annexed

D. newly acquired territories could eventually become states

E. annexation of the Hawaiian Islands had been unlawful

31. The British response to the American claim of “no taxation without representation” was that

A. colonial assemblies would be permitted to vote on all new taxes

B. monies raised through taxes would be used for internal improvements in the colonies

C. American approval was necessary for internal taxes

D. members of Parliament represented the interests of all people in the British Empire

E. Parliament agreed it had no authority to impose taxes on the colonies

32. All of the following were part of American economic policy during the 1920s EXCEPT

A. lower taxes on the wealthy

B. high tariffs

C. opposition to parity prices for farmers

D. limits on regulation of business

E. support of public-works projects

33. The individual associated with the development of the skyscraper was

A. John A. Roebling

B. Frederick Law Olmsted

C. Louis H. Sullivan

D. Edward Bellamy

E. Thomas A. Edison

34. Which of the following events occurred LAST?

A. The South Carolina Ordinance of Secession

B. Abraham Lincoln’s inauguration

C. The surrender of Fort Sumter

D. The secession of Virginia

E. The secession of Alabama

35. The Seventeenth Amendment called for

A. a personal income tax

B. direct election of U.S. Senators

C. woman suffrage

D. moving up the date of presidential inaugurations

E. raising the minimum-age requirement for U.S. Senators to thirty-five

36. The Ballinger-Pinchot controversy involved

A. a diplomatic incident between the United States and France

B. the regulation of the trusts

C. child-labor laws

D. conservation policy

E. legislation to restrict immigration

37. In the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the War of 1812,

A. most American demands were satisfied

B. the Americans made substantial concessions to the British

C. the issues that had led to war were finally resolved

D. nothing was settled beyond a restoration of the prewar status quo

E. Britain agreed to end the impressment of American seamen

38. Germany’s notorious Zimmermann telegram

A. promised a temporary halt to submarine warfare

B. proposed an alliance with Mexico if the United States declared war on Germany

C. apologized for the sinking of the Lusitania

D. warned the United States not to send merchant ships to belligerent nations

E. rejected U.S. efforts for a truce in the fighting

39. Shays’ Rebellion suggests that the most important problem facing the United States after the Revolution was

A. the ongoing conflict with Native Americans

B. the British refusal to recognize American claims to the Northwest Territory

C. economic problems caused by debt and high taxes

D. disputes over states’ rights and the authority of the federal government

E. the danger of an open slave revolt in the South

40. “Under our system of railroad ownership, an excessive competition exists for the business of all competing points, while the local business of the various competing lines is an absolute monopoly. This has naturally resulted in compelling the corporations to do through business at rates often ruinously unremunerative, which again has compelled those companies to recoup themselves for their losses and secure their profits by excessive charges on the local traffic.”

This passage explains which problem that farmers faced in the late nineteenth century?

A. prices charged by grain-elevator operators

B. agricultural overproduction

C. high protective tariffs

D. long vs. short hauls

E. heavy debt

41. For the period from the end of Reconstruction to 1900, the position of the Supreme Court toward civil rights is best characterized as

A. supporting the integration of African-Americans into society

B. strictly interpreting the Constitution to broaden the rights of African-Americans

C. establishing the constitutionality of segregation

D. vigorously enforcing the terms of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments

E. willing to end segregation in the South but not in the North

42. The so-called “Phony War” of 1939-40

A. marked a period of time when nothing seemed to be happening

B. was a nickname given to the Spanish Civil War

C. was the undeclared war between Great Britain and Italy

D. involved submarine warfare in the Atlantic between the United States and Germany

E. ended with the attack on Pearl Harbor

43. Jacob Coxey’s 1894 march on Washington, D.C., called for

A. tougher immigration restrictions

B. a government takeover of the railroads

C. an increase in the supply of paper money

D. recognition of the legitimacy of labor unions

E. generosity in granting pensions to Civil War veterans

44. Which of the following is in the correct chronological order?

A. Articles of Confederation, Whiskey Rebellion, Constitutional Convention, Shays’ Rebellion

B. Shays' Rebellion, Articles of Confederation, Whiskey Rebellion, Constitutional Convention

C. Articles of Confederation, Shays’ Rebellion, Constitutional Convention, Whiskey Rebellion

D. Whiskey Rebellion, Articles of Confederation, Constitutional Convention, Shays’ Rebellion

E. Constitutional Convention, Articles of Confederation, Shays’

Rebellion, Whiskey Rebellion

Rebellion, Whiskey Rebellion

Source: Library of Congress

45. The conditions shown in this photograph were captured in print by

A. John dos Passos

B. Ernest Hemingway

C. John Steinbeck

D. Frank Norris

E. Eudora Welty

46. Land Ordinance of 1785 provided for

A. a ban on the importation of slaves into the Northwest Territory

B. a survey of the Northwest Territory and its division into townships

C. the procedure by which new states would be admitted to the Union

D. protection of Indians by prohibiting white settlement west of the Appalachians

E. the establishment of a series of forts along the Mississippi

47. The official reason for the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson was his

A. refusal to support ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment

B. violation of the Tenure of Office Act

C. veto of the First Reconstruction Act

D. campaigning against Radical Republicans in the election of 1866

E. belief that African-Americans were not equal to whites

48. The first federal law to restrict immigration, passed in 1882, was aimed at

A. stopping Mexicans from crossing the border without first obtaining a visa

B. excluding Chinese immigrants

C. stopping immigration from eastern Europe

D. restricting the number of people coming into the United States

E. preventing smuggling of illegal aliens over the Canadian border

49. Wilson’s Fourteen Points did NOT include the

A. creation of an independent Czechoslovakia

B. creation of an independent Poland

C. return of Alsace-Lorraine to France

D. creation of an international organization of nations

E. creation of an international peacekeeping force

50. All of the following were advantages the North had over the South at the start of the Civil War EXCEPT

A. a larger population

B. better military leaders

C. greater industrial production

D. more railroad and canal networks

E. a larger navy

51. The trend taken by the Supreme Court under Chief Justice John Marshall was to

A. strengthen state power at the expense of the federal government

B. give more authority to state courts and state laws

C. deny the national government authority concerning interstate commerce

D. expand the federal government's powers

E. deprive Native Americans of their ancestral land holdings

52. One of the consequences of the Great Awakening was

A. a closer sense of unity between England and its colonies

B. that the Church of England was adopted by the colonies as an officially established church

C. the discussion of new ideas in religion

D. a challenge to traditional beliefs

E. a growing awareness of people in the colonies of their rights as Englishmen

Popular and Electoral Votes in Two Controversial Elections, 1876 and 1888

Popular and Electoral Votes in Two Controversial Elections, 1876 and 1888

53. Based on the pie charts above, the presidential election of 1876 and 1888 were controversial because

A. the elections were decided by the House of Representatives

B. the electoral-vote winner lost in the popular vote

C. less than fifty percent of the eligible voters cast ballots

D. former slaves were an important factor in the outcome

E. voter turnout was high compared to that of other elections after the Civil War

54. The “Critical Period” in American history refers to the

A. decade between 1860 and Lincoln’s election

B. United States under the Articles of Confederation

C. era of Jacksonian democracy

D. New Deal

E. rise of the United States to the status of world power from 1898 to 1920

55. During the presidency of Andrew Jackson, the issue that triggered the debate over states’ rights was

A. tariff policy

B. expansion of slavery

C. Indian removal

D. internal improvements

E. rechartering the Bank of the United States

56. Which of the following sources would NOT be useful in understanding the military campaigns of the Civil War?

A. newspaper accounts

B. diaries kept by soldiers

C. photographs

D. presidential speeches

E. official unit histories

57. Which of the following statements regarding the Monroe Doctrine is true?

A. The United States committed itself to provide military aid to countries in the Western Hemisphere that wanted to overthrow colonial rule.

B. Throughout most of the nineteenth century, the effectiveness of the Monroe Doctrine depended on British naval supremacy.

C. Monroe renewed George Washington’s idea of not becoming involved in entangling foreign alliances.

D. The Doctrine was rejected by the major European powers as a violation of international law.

E. European acceptance of the Doctrine established the United States as a world power.

58. The disappearance of slavery in the North resulted from

A. greater Northern devotion to American ideals

B. economic competition from the South

C. higher prices for slaves in the South

D. the economic unprofitability of slavery in a region of small farms

E. the Puritan tradition, which rejected slaveholding

59. The injunction as a court order was often used in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century to

A. break up trusts

B. help farmers in danger of losing their farms

C. stop strikebreaking

D. prevent labor unions from striking

E. protect blacks from civil rights abuses

60. During World War II. African- Americans in the military

A. could serve only in the Army

B. were integrated for the first time into white units

C. served in leadership positions

D. received training as airplane pilots

E. were seldom given combat assignments

61. The Native American Group known as the “mound builders” is associated with

A. the Anasazi

B. the Sioux

C. the Adena-Hopewell

D. the Apache

E. the Iroquois

62. All of the following are identified with the counterculture of the 1960s EXCEPT

A. Woodstock

B. Haight-Ashbury

C. Flower Power

D. James Dean

E. the film Easy Rider

63. Richard Nixon’s early success in politics was largely based on his

A. support for civil rights legislation

B. expertise in foreign policy, particularly China

C. anticommunism

D. backing of an expansion of the New Deal programs

E. military service during World War II

64. The most likely cause of the increase in urban poverty in eighteenth-century America was that

A. when people found it more difficult to acquire property, they went to the cities looking for work

B. urban-dwelling people had more children than those living in rural areas

C. rural jobs paid more than city jobs

D. there was greater economic opportunity in rural areas

E. the enclosure movement was brought over from England to displace colonial farmers

65. The main purpose of the Tennessee Valley Authority was to

A. create affordable housing in rural Appalachia

B. control floods and provide electric power to the region

C. demonstrate the benefits of socialism in a poverty-stricken area

D. win political support for the New Deal in traditionally Republican states

E. expand the jurisdiction of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration

66. The doctrine of popular sovereignty called for the question of permitting slaves in a new territory to be decided by the

A. House of Representatives

B. Supreme Court

C. people living in the territory

D. Compromise of 1850

E. Wilmot Proviso

67. Gabriel’s rebellion, a Virginia slave revolt in 1800.

A. resulted in the destruction of most of Richmond

B. caused the deaths of more than a hundred whites

C. inspired slaves in other southern states to revolt

D. was planned but never took place

E. was exceptional for its time

68. The key issue in the 1978 Supreme Court decision in Bakke v. Board of Regents was

A. school desegregation

B. affirmative action

C. freedom of the press as applied to student newspapers

D. abortion

E. prayer in public schools

69. Which of the following events in the

Cold War occurred most recently?

A. Hungarian uprising

B. Berlin airlift

C. U-2 incident

D. launching of Sputnik

E. Castro in power in Cuba

70. In the negotiations that led to the Treaty of Paris and formally ended the Revolution, the Americans

A. were helped by the French in formulating diplomatic strategy and objectives

B. settled for much less than they might have gotten through shrewd diplomacy

C. won many concessions through separate bargaining with the British

D. found the British obstinate on the issue of the Northwest outposts

E. failed to gain a clear claim to the lands west to the Mississippi River

71. The first employees in the Lowell, Massachusetts, textile mills were

A. slaves imported from the South

B. young girls from New England farms

C. farmers who could no longer support themselves through farming

D. newly arrived immigrants from Europe

E. people who could not find work in urban centers

72. The most important aspect of Jacksonian democracy was

A. abolition of the property qualification

B. granting of suffrage to free blacks

C. permitting limited suffrage rights to women

D. abolition of poll taxes

E. creation of distinct political parties

73. The Annapolis Convention was called because

A. merchants wanted a stronger navy to protect their shipping

B. the Indians were effectively resisting the advance of settlers

C. the Confederation Congress had proved incapable of dealing with commercial issues

D. the British continued to challenge U.S. ships at sea

E. of the debate over the status of free blacks

Questions 74-75 refer to the following map.

Questions 74-75 refer to the following map.

74. On the above map, the routes moving north from south Texas represent

A. escape routes for slaves to the free territories

B. advances made by Mexican troops during the war with the United States

C. trails used for the “long drive” during the Cattle Kingdom

D. patterns of migrant Mexican labor in the early twentieth century

E. Native American resettlement in the “Indian Territory”

75. The railroad route linking New Orleans and Los Angeles shown on the map was made possible by

A. the Mexican Cession

B. the military defeat of the Apache Indians

C. the success of the Union Pacific and Central Pacific railroads

D. the Gadsden Purchase

E. California’s independence from Mexico

76. Cotton production was made profitable by the

A. invention of the Deere steel plow

B. use of irrigation on plantations

C. improved agricultural techniques

D. use of the McCormick reaper

E. success and simplicity of the cotton gin

77. Prohibition failed because

A. organized crime controlled illegal liquor production

B. many Americans believed the law interfered with their personal freedom

C. rural America failed to support it

D. it adversely affected American productivity

E. the costs of enforcing it were too expensive

78. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., advocated the philosophy of

A. economic equality

B. Black Power

C. accommodation

D. nonviolence

E. militant protest

79. As a consequence of the French and Indian War,

A. American colonists began to distrust the actions of the British government

B. colonists feared yet another involvement in a Franco-British conflict

C. Britain gave up Florida to Spain

D. Spain yielded Cuba to Great Britain

E. the Shawnee protested against British policy in the Ohio River valley

80. During the American Revolution, the state that benefited the most from a demand for foodstuffs was

A. Alabama

B. Pennsylvania

C. Connecticut

D. Georgia

E. Massachusetts

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