Notes

INTRODUCTION

1. Hugh McLeod, “The Crisis of Christianity in the West: Entering a Post-Christian Era?” in Hugh McLeod (ed.), The Cambridge History of Christianity: World Christianity c. їдц-с.2000 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006): 323-47; Hugh McLeod, The Religious Crisis of the 60s (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010); Callum G. Brown, The Death of Christian Britain (London: Routledge, 2001). In this book, the nouns “Pentecostalism” and “Evangelicalism” will be capitalized while “pentecostal” and “evangelical” will be used as both nouns and adjectives.

2. Charles H. Gabriel, “Pentecostal Power,” Redemption Hymnal: With Tunes (London: Assemblies of God Publishing House, 1955): no. 244; Todd M. Johnson, David B. Barrett, & Peter F. Crossing, “Christianity 2010: A View from the New Atlas of Global Christianity,” International Bulletin of Missionary Research 34:1(2010): 29-36, 36.

3. Lamin Sanneh, Disciples of All Nations: Pillars of World Christianity (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008): 275; Philip Jenkins, The Next Christendom: The Coming of Global Christianity (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007): 8-9; Robert Wuthnow, Boundless Faith: The Global Outreach of American Churches (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010): 34-47.

4. Vinson Synan, The Holiness-Pentecostal Tradition: Charismatic Movements in the Twentieth Century (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1997).

5. Johnson, Barrett, & Crossing, “Christianity 2010,” 36.

6. Allan Anderson, “Varieties, Definitions and Taxonomies,” in Allan Anderson, Michael Bergunder, André Droogers, & Cornells van der Laan (eds.), Studying Global Pentecostalism: Theories and Methods (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010): 13-29; Douglas Jacobsen, Thinking in the Spirit: Theologies of the Early Pentecostal Movement (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2003): 11-12.

7. Robert Mapes Anderson, Vision of the Disinherited: The Making of American Pentecostalism (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1979).

CHAPTER 1

1. John Wolffe, The Expansion of Evangelicalism: The Age ofWilherforce, More, Chalmers and Finney (Downer’s Grove, IL: IVP, 2007): 80-82; C. Gordon Strachan, The Pentecostal Theology of Edward Irving (London: Darton, Longman & Todd, 1973).

2. Gary B. McGee, Miracles, Missions, and American Pentecostalism (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 2010): 3-98; Marshall is quoted in McGee, Miracles, Missions, 8.

3. McGee, Miracles, Missions, 7-8,24-25; David W. Bebbington, The Dominance of Evangelicalism: The Age of Spurgeon and Moody (Downer’s Grove, IL: IVP, 2005): 107-8.

4. Allan Anderson, Spreading Fires: The Missionary Nature of Early Pentecostalism (London: SCM, 2007): 39, 40-42.

5. William K. Kay, Pentecostalism (London: SCM, 2009): 59; J. Edwin Orr, Evangelical Awakenings in Southern Asia (Minneapolis, MN: Bethany Fellowship, 1970): vii.

6. Minnie F. Abrams, The Baptism of the Holy Ghost and Fire (Kedgaon: Pandita Ramabai Mukti Mission, 1906): v.

7. TF 1:1 (January 1881): 1, 3-5; Jennifer A. Miskov, Life on Wings: The Forgotten Life and Theology of Carrie Judd Montgomery (1858-1946), PhD thesis (University of Birmingham, 2011); Kimberley Ervin Alexander, Pentecostal Healing: Models in Theology and Practice (Blandford Forum, Dorset: Deo Publishing, 2006J: 24-27, 151-60.

8. Anderson, Spreading Fires, 31-35.

9. David Martin, On Secularization: Towards a Revised General Theory (Aldershot, Hants: Ashgate, 2005): 144.

10. Stanley H. Frodsham, “With Signs Following": The Story of the Latter-Day Pentecostal Revival (Springfield, MO: Gospel Publishing House, 1926): 234; Anderson, Spreading Fires, 18-26; Morton Kelsey, Tongue Speaking: The History and Meaning of Charismatic Experience (New York: Crossroad, 1981): 52-59, 65-68.

11. G. H. Lang, The History and Diaries of an Indian Christian (London: Thinne, 1939): x93> 201-3. Later Lang wrote a booklet in opposition to the Pentecostal movement: G. H. Lang, The Earlier Years of the Modem Tongues Movement (Enfield, Middlesex: Metcalfe Collier, c.1946).

12. “Account of the Half Yearly Examination of the Male Seminary, July 6th & 7th 1826.” Box 101, 2/0, 198/52-116. CMS Archives, University of Birmingham; Lang, History and Diaries, 16-21, 28, 30.

13. Quoted in Lang, History and Diaries, 32; emphases in original.

14. Lang, Histories and Diaries, 33, 91-92, 116, 147.

15. Wilbert Shenk, “Rufus Anderson and Henry Venn: A Special Relationship?” International Bulletin of Missionary Research 5:4 (October 1981): 161-72; Orr, Southern Asia, 58-59; Lang, History and Diaries, 140-41.

16. Lang, History and Diaries, 140-41.

17. Lang, History and Dianes, 186.

18. Quoted in Lang, History and Diaries, 143-45.

19. Lang, History and Diaries, 145-46.

20. Lang, History and Diaries, 154-55, 197~99-

21. Quoted in Lang, History and Diaries, 158-59.

22. From The Bombay Guardian, quoted in Lang, History and Diaries, 164.

23. Lang, History and Diaries, 163-65, 169-70, 177.

24. Quoted in Lang, History and Diaries, 178-79.

25. Lang, History and Diaries, 216-20; Orr, Southern Asia, 61-63; Edith L. Blumhofer, “Consuming Fire: Pandita Ramabai and the Early Pentecostal Impulse,” in Roger

E. Fledlund, Sebastian Kim, & Rajkumar Boaz Johnson (eds.), Indian and Christian: The Life and Legacy of Pandita Ramabai (Chennai: MIIS/CMS/ISPCK, 2011): 138.

26. Conf 1:1 (April 1908): 17; 1:2 (May 1908): 13; Barratt, When the Fire Fell, 1; Anderson, Spreading Fires, 85.

27. Adhav, Pandita Ramabai, 147. A fuller account of Ramabai’s revival and its connections with Pentecostalism is given in Anderson, Spreading Fires, 77-103; see also Blumhofer, “Consuming Fire,” 127-54; Allan Anderson, ‘“The Present World-Wide Revival...Brought Up in India’: Pandita Ramabai and the Origins of Pentecostalism,” in Roger E. Fledlund, Sebastian Kim, & Rajkumar Boaz Johnson (eds.), Indian and Christian: The Life and Legacy of Pandita Ramabai (Chennai: MIIS/CMS/ISPCK, 2011): 307-25; Gary F. McGee, “Minnie

F. Abrams: Another Context, Another Founder,” in James R. Goff & Grant Wacker (eds.), Portraits of a Generation: Early Pentecostal Leaders (Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2002): 87-104; Edith L. Blumhofer, ‘“From India’s Coral Strand’: Pandita Ramabai and U.S. Support for Foreign Missions,” in Daniel FI. Bays & Grant Wacker (eds.), The Foreign Missionary Enterprise at Home: Explorations in North American Cultural History (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2003): 152-70; BM 126 (1 February 1913): 1; Mukti Prayer-Bell (September 1907): 21-22; Meera Kosambi (ed. & trans.), Pandita Ramabai Through Her Own Words: Selected Works (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2000): 9-12, 181-244; Mary L. B. Fuller, The Triumph of an Indian Widow: The Life of Pandita Ramabai (New York: Christian Alliance, 1927): 30-35; Jessie FI. Mair, Bungalows in Heaven: The Story of Pandita Ramabai (Kedgaon, India: Pandita Ramabai Mukti Mission, 2003): 87-88; Shamsundar Manohar Adhav, Pandita Ramabai (Madras: Christian Literature Society, 1979): 201-202.

28. Rajas K. Dongre & Josephine F. Patterson, Pandita Ramabai: A Life of Faith and Prayer (Madras: Christian Literature Society, 1963): 18,24, 72-73; Fuller, Triumph of an Indian Widow, 41; Blumhofer, “From India’s Coral Strand,” 164.

29. Blumhofer, “From India’s Coral Strand,” 167; Adhav, Pandita Ramabai, 216; Flelen Dyer, Revival in India igos~igo6 (Akola: Alliance Publications, 1987): 29-30.

30. LRE 1:10 (July 1910): 8, 11; McGee, “Minnie F. Abrams,” 93; Dongre & Patterson, Pandita Ramabai, 78; Kosambi, Pandita Ramabai, 320; Dyer, Revival

in India, 45; Padmini Sengupta, Pandita Ramabai Saraswati: Her Life and Work (London: Asia Publishing House, 1970): 287-88.

31. WW 28:4 (April 1906): 16; 28:5 (May 1906): 145; Trust 9:8 (October 1910): 12-13; Dyer, Revival in India, 40, 68; Adhav, Pandita Ramabai, 232.

32. AF 1:3 (November 1906): 1; cf. McGee, “Minnie F. Abrams,” 97; Orr, Southern Asia, 118-27, 129> 135—43-

33. The India Alliance 6:4 (September 1906): 30.

34. AF 1:7 (April 1907): 2; later reprinted in TF 28:1 (January 1908): 14-16; Gary B. McGee, ‘“Latter Rain’ Falling in the East: Early-Twentieth-Century Pentecostalism in India and the Debate over Speaking in Tongues,” Church History 68:3 (1999): 648-65; Gary B. McGee, “The Calcutta Revival of 1907 and the Reformulation of Charles F. Parham’s ‘Bible Evidence’ Doctrine,” Asian Journal of Pentecostal Studies 6:1 (2003): 123-43; Abrams, The Baptism, 36.

35. Abrams, The Baptism, 41-42; AF 9 (June-September 1907): 1, 4; cf. WW 33:8 (August 1911): 247.

36. Mukti Prayer-Bell (September 1907): 17-21; WW 32:4 (April 1910): 138-41; Frodsham, With Signs Following, 131-34.

37. AF 1:12 (January 1908): 1; Mukti Prayer-Bell (September 1907): 3, 4, 6, 8; Bombay Guardian and Banner of Asia (7 November 1905): 9; Trust 9:8 (October 1910): 16; Conf 5:6 (June 1912): 142; Mair, Bungalows in Heaven, 76.

38. Barratt, When the Fire Fell, 167; Conf 1:6 (September 1908): 14, 16; UR 1:1 (June 1909): 6; WW 31:8 (August 1909): 169; BM 68 (15 August 1910): 2; 77 (1 January 1911): 4; TF29:12 (December 1909): 288; Pent 2:4 (March 1910): 4; LRE 1:9 (June 1909): 10-13; 1:10 (July 19°9): 6—13; 1:12 (September 1909): 3-9; 2:6 (March 1910): 13-18; 2:7 (April 1910): 12-15; 2:11 (August 1910): 6-12; Dongre & Patterson, Pandita Ramabai, 27-28; Kosambi, Pandita Ramabai, 12-13.

39. Bartleman, Azusa Street, 19, 90; McGee, “‘Latter Rain’ Falling,” 650.

40. Abrams, The Baptism; Pent 2:11-12 (November-December 1910): 9; LRE 3:7 (April 1911): 19; BM 126 (1 February 1913): 1; Frodsham, With Signs Following, 175; Anderson, Spreading Fires, 90.

41. Quoted in Lian Xi, Redeemed by Fire: The Rise of Popular Christianity in Modem China (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010): 105.

42. Lian Xi, Redeemed by Fire, 28-31; Geraldine Taylor, Pastor Hsi: A Struggle for Chinese Christianity (Singapore: Overseas Missionary Fellowship, 1900, 1949, 1997): 164-65, 191; Daniel H. Bays, A New History of Christianity in China (Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012): 82.

43. LRE 11:5 (February 1919): 20; BM 7 (1 February 1908): 1; WW 33:1 (January 1911): 27; Park, “Korean Pentecost,” 192; Blair & Hunt, Korean Pentecost, 71, 75; Koo Dong Yun, “Pentecostalism from Below: Minjung Liberation and Asian Pentecostal Theology,” in Veli-Matti Karkkainen (ed.), The Spirit in the World: Emerging Pentecostal Theologies in Global Contexts (Grand Rapids, MI:

Eerdmans, 2009): 89-114: 104; Sean C. Kim, “Reenchanted: Divine Healing in Korean Protestantism,” in Candy Gunther Brown (ed.), Global Pentecostal and Charismatic Healing (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011): 274.

44. William Nesbitt Brewster, A Modem Pentecost in South China (Shanghai: Methodist Publishing House, 1909): 47; Xi, Redeemed by Fire, 87-89; Daniel H. Bays, “Christian Revival in China, 1900-1937,” in Edith L. Blumhofer & Randall Balmer (eds.), Modem Christian Revivals (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1993): 162-65; W. W. Simpson, “Contending for the Faith” (unpublished typescript, 1953): pp. 2-4; Trust 8:12 (February 1910): 2; UR 1:3 (August 1909): 5; TF 29:8 (August 1909): 181.

45. Sanneh, Disciples of All Nations, 193-204; Anderson, Spreading Fires, 162-65.

chapter 2

1. Jean Comaroff, Body of Power, Spirit of Resistance: The Culture and History of a South African People (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985): 165-68, 175-76, 191.

2. Adrian Hastings, The Church in Africa 1450-1930 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1994): 530- 31; Harold W. Turner, Religious Innovation in Africa (Boston: G. K. Hall, 1979): 19; M. L. Daneel, Quest for Belonging (Gweru, Zimbabwe: Mambo Press, 1987): 78.

3. Simon S. Maimela, “Salvation in African Traditional Religions,” Missionalia 13: 2 (1985): 63-77, 71’ M- L. Daneel, Old and New in Southern Shona Independent Churches, Vol. 2 (The Hague: Mouton, 1974); John S. Pobee & Gabriel Ositelu II, African Initiatives in Christianity: The Growth, Gifts and Diversities of Indigenous African Churches—A Challenge to the Ecumenical Movement (Geneva: World Council of Churches, 1998): 34, 40-42.

4. Hastings, Church in Africa, 512, 530; Daneel, Quest for Belonging, 99, 101; Comaroff, Body of Power, 169, 186 ; David B. Barrett, Schism and Renewal in Africa: An Analysis of Six Thousand Contemporary Religious Movements (Nairobi: Oxford University Press, 1968): 95-96.

5. Bays, New History, 79, 106; Simpson, “Contending for the Faith,” 21.

6. Hastings, Church in Africa, 527, 532-33; Barrett, Schism and Renewal, 101.

7. Barrett, Schism and Renewal, 83; Anderson, Spreading Fires, 57-65.

8. F. B. Welbourn & B. A. Ogot, A Place to Feel at Home (Fondon: Oxford University Press, 1966); Hastings, Church in Africa, 529; Comaroff, Body of Power, 172.

9. Walter J. Hollenweger, Pentecostalism: Origins and Developments Worldwide (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1997): 18-24; Douglas J. Nelson, For Such a Time as This: The Story of William J. Seymour and the Azusa Street Revival, PhD thesis, (University of Birmingham, UK, 1981); Faupel, The Everlasting Gospel; Frank Bartleman, Azusa Street, (S. Plainfield, NJ: Bridge Publishing, 1925, 1980): 54.

10. Hollenweger, Pentecostalism, 18-19; Harvey Cox, Fire from Heaven: The Rise of Pentecostal Spirituality and the Reshaping of Religion in the Twenty-first Century

(London: Cassell, 1996): 46-48; Bartleman, Azusa Street, 63; Cecil M. Robeck Jr., The Azusa Street Mission and Revival: The Birth of the Global Pentecostal Movement (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 2006); Augustus Cerillo Jr., “Interpretive Approaches to the History of American Pentecostal Origins,” Pneuma 19 (Spring 1997): 29-52; Joe Creech, “Visions of Glory: The Place of the Azusa Street Revival in Pentecostal History,” Church History 65:3 (September 1996): 405-24, 406.

11. AT 1 (Septemberi9o6): 1; 3 (November 1906): 2; Anderson, Spreading Fires, 57-65.

12. McGee, “Latter Rain Falling,” 649-51, 653-59, 664; Anderson, Spreading Fires, 77-101; TF 25:11 (November 1905): 251-53; for Sisson, see TF 26:3 (March 1906): 57-60; Live Coals 3:48 (18 October 1905): 1; 4:21 (23 May 1906): 1; Holiness Advocate 6:3 (15 May 1906): 8; WW 32:5 (May 1910): 138-40; Bartleman, Azusa Street, 35; AF 3 (November 1906): 1.

13. Allan H. Anderson, An Introduction to Pentecostalism: Global Charismatic Christianity (Cambridge University Press, 2004): 45-57.

14. Reed, David A. “In Jesus’ Name”: The History and Beliefs of Oneness Pentecostalism (Blandford Forum, UK: Deo Publishing, 2008); Talmadge Leon French, Early Oneness Pentecostalism, Garfield Thomas Haywood, and the Interracial Pentecostal Assemblies of the World (igo6-iggi), PhD thesis (University of Birmingham, 2011).

15. Enrichment Journal (Fall 1999): http://enrichmentjournal.ag.0rg/199904/076_ hogan.cfm, accessed 19 November 2011.

16. C. W. Conn, “Church of God (Cleveland, TN),” NIDPCM, 530-35; H. D. Hunter, “Church of God of Prophecy,” NIDPCM, 539-42.

17. H. V. Synan, “International Pentecostal Holiness Church,” NIDPCM, 798-801.

18. David Bundy, “Thomas Ball Barratt: From Methodist to Pentecostal,” JEPTA 13 (1994): 19-40; David Bundy, “Historical and Theological Analysis of the Pentecostal Church in Norway,” JEPTA 20 (2000): 66-92.

19. D. D. Bundy, “Pethrus, Lewi,” NIDPCM, 986-87; Joseph R. Colletti, “Lewi Pethrus: His Influence upon Scandinavian-American Pentecostalism,” Pneuma 5:2 (1983): 18-29; Connie Ho Yan Au, Grassroots Unity in the Charismatic Renewal (Eugene, OR: Wipf& Stock, 2011): 78-79.

20. For Boddy, see AF 6 (February-March 1907): 1; Walter J. Hollenweger, The Pentecostals (London: SCM, 1972): 184-85; Hollenweger, Pentecostalism, 343-45; Cornells van der Laan, “The Proceedings of the Leaders’ Meetings (1908-1911) and of the International Pentecostal Council (1912-1914),” Pneuma 10:1 (1988): 36-49.

21. Malcolm R. Hathaway, “The Elim Pentecostal Church: Origins, Development and Distinctives,” Keith Warrington (ed.), Pentecostal Perspectives (Carlisle, UK: Paternoster, 1998): 1-39.

22. William K. Kay, Pentecostals in Britain (Carlisle, UK: Paternoster, 2000): 74; William K. Kay, “Assemblies of God: Distinctive Continuity and Distinctive Change,” in Keith Warrington (ed.), Pentecostal Perspectives (Carlisle, UK: Paternoster, 1999): 40-63.

23. Everett A. Wilson, Strategy of the Spirit: J. Philip Hogan and the Growth of the Assemblies of God Worldwide ig6o-iggo (Carlisle, UK: Paternoster, 1997): 3, 15, 179; http://ag.org/top/; http://worldagfellowship.orgwww.churchofgod.org/ index.php/pages/history; www.foursquare.org/, accessed 19 November 2011.

chapter 3

1. LRE 2:3 (December 1909): 9.

2. Daneel, Quest for Belonging, 92.

3. Anderson, Spreading Fires, 288; Gary B. McGee, “Pentecostals and Their Various Strategies for Global Mission,” in Murray A. Dempster, Byron D. Klaus, & Douglas Petersen (eds.), Called and Empowered: Global Mission in Pentecostal Perspective (Peabody: Hendrickson, 1991): 212.

4. LRE 2:11 (August 1910): 15.

5. AT7 (April 1907): 1; 9 (June-September 1907): 1; LRE6:3 (December 1913): 23; WW29:6 (June 1907): 184; Robeck, Azusa Street, 250-2; Thompson & Gordon, Alfred Garr, 81-9; DPCM, 248.

6. WW 32 (January 1910): 30; BM 1 (1 October 1907): 2, 4; 9 (1 March 1908): 2; 11 (1 Aprili9o8): 1, 2; AT 10 (September 1907): 2; 12 (January 1908): 1; 13 (May 1908): 4.

7. BM 17 (1 July 1908): 1; 18 (15 July 1908): 1; 41 (1 July 1909): 2.

8. TF29:1 (January 1909): 9-10; AT 13 (May 1908): 3.

9. TF 29:5 (May 1909): 100-101, 115; 29:7 (July 1909): 158; Pentecostal Truths 2:3 (March 1909): 4 (trans. Connie Au).

10. Law, Pentecostal Mission Work, 2; Conf 5:5 (May 1912): 113; BM 129 (15 March 1913): 3; LRE 11:8 (May 1919): 11; 12:12 (September 1920): 20; Pentecostal Truths 2:13 (January 1909): 2 (trans. Connie Au); AT 11 (January 1908): 1; 13 (May 1908): 3; Robeck, Azusa Street, 246; Thompson & Gordon, Alfred Garr, 70, 90-95; Shanghai periodical quoted in Bays, “Protestant Missionary Establishment,” 54.

11. Con/27 (July 1909): 147; BM 129 (15 March 1913): 3; WE 122 (8 January 1916): 12; Thompson & Gordon, Alfred Garr, 106-72; Aimee Semple McPherson, This Is That: Personal Experiences, Sermons and Writings (Los Angeles: Echo Park Evangelistic Association, 1923): 63-68.

12. Conf 1:7 (October 1908): 7-8; 2:1 (January 1909): 13-15; 2:8 (August 1909): 174-75, 183; 2:11 (November 1909): 253; 4:3 (March 1911): 67; 5:5 (May 1912):

111. The PMU training is described in detail in Anderson, Spreading Fires, 263-65.

13. A full account of these activities is given in Anderson, Spreading Fires, 123-30; Pentecostal Truths 3:10 (November 1910): 4; Conf 3:8 (August 1910): 199-200; 3:11 (November 1910): 272; 3:12 (December 1910): 293; 4:1 (January 1911): 20; 4:3 (March 1911): 69; 6:4 (April 1913): 83; BM 75 (1 December 1910): 4; 108 (15 April 1912): 1; UR 2:1 (August 1910): 6; “Combined Minutes,” 1920, 66.

14- Conf 2:4 (April 1909): 86-87; BM 64 (15 June 1910): 3; FF 38 (May 1916): 8-9; PMU Minutes, 2 December 1910, 88; Letters (Donald Gee Centre, Mattersey, England): A. Williams to T. H. Mundell, 13 January 1911, F. Trevitt to T. H. Mundell, 14 January 1911; A. Kok to T. H. Mundell, 14 September 1913; Letter, F. Trevitt to T. H. Mundell, 13 October 1913; PMU Minutes, 4 September 1913; H. French Ridley to C. Polhill, 22 November 1915; W. Glassby (Bedford) to T. H. Mundell (postcard): n.d.; T. H. Mundell to Maggie Trevitt, 16 May 1916; Maggie Trevitt, Yunnan-fu to T. H. Mundell, 13 July 1916.

15. FF 38 (May 1916): 8-9.

16. Paul L. King, Genuine Gold: The Cautiously Charismatic Story of the Early Christian and Missionary Alliance (Tulsa, OK: Word & Spirit Press, 2006): 151-78; AF 13 (May 1908): 4; BM 9 (1 March 1908): 2; Conf 1:5 (August 1908): 22-23.

17. Christian e[ Missionary Alliance 30:3 (18 April 1908): 38-39; Simpson, “Contending for the Faith,” 2-11; W. W. Simpson, “Notes from Kansu,” The Alliance Weekly 39:22 (1 March 1913 ): 345-46; Simpson, “Contending for the Faith,” 15-16; Conf 6:1 (January 1913): 4-5; FF 33:3 (March 1913): 52-56.

18. FF9 (January 1913): 7.

19. Simpson, “Contending for the Faith,” 18-19; Letters (Donald Gee Centre, Mattersey, England): W. W. Simpson to T. H. Mundell, 5 February 1914, 18 May 1914; FRF 8:4 (January 1916): 8.

20. Anderson, Spreading Fires, 135; Frodsham, With Signs Following, 139-43; Simpson, “Contending for the Faith,” 20-24, 9°> Xi, Redeemed by Fire, 98-99.

21. Letters (Donald Gee Centre, Mattersey, England): W. W. Simpson to C. Polhill, 12 August 1914, D. E. Hoste to Cecil Polhill, 4 January 1915, enclosing copy of circular letter from Simpson; CF 53 (8 August 1914): 4; FF 29 (July 1915): 9.

22. WE 179 (3 March 1917): 14; TF 39:6 (June 1919): 143; FRF 12:10 (July 1920): 15; WW42:3 (March 1920): 28; 42:4 (April 1920): 29; 42:5 (May 1920): 30; “Minutes of the General Council of the Assemblies of God,” 4-11 September 1918, 28; Simpson, “Contending for the Faith,” 45-48, 57, 61, 87, 113.

23. Simpson, “Contending for the Faith,” 94.

24. For details on Berg’s work in India, see Anderson, Spreading Fires, 95-97; Bergunder, The South Indian Pentecostal Movement, 25; Robert F. Cook, A Quarter Century of Divine Leading in India (Chengannur, S. India: The Church of God in India, 1939): 2-6,, 19-23, 45-46.

25. Trust 12:8 (October 1913): 11; WWit 9:9 (September 1913): 4; 12:5 (May 1915): 6; WE 93 (5 June 1915): 4; 216 (24 November 1917): 12; “Combined Minutes,” 1920, 67; “Constitution and By-Laws,” 1927, 114; Cook, Quarter Century, 25, 51; Bergunder, The South Indian Pentecostal Movement, 27-34, 263-64.

26. Cook, Quarter Century, 57.

27. J. H. Ingram, Around the World with the Gospel Light (Cleveland, TN: Church of God Publishing House, 1938): 85-93; Cook, Quarter Century, 60-62, inserted page, “Extent of the Work’; Conf 6:1 (January 1913): 20; BM 125 (15 January

1913): 3> x35 (15 June 1913): 2> 138 (15 August 1913): 2; 145 (1 December 1913): 1; W 36:6 (June 1914): 187; 36:10 (October 1914): 316; 36:11 (November 1914): 349-50:42:1 (January 1920): 14, 20; 42:6 (June 1920): 13; CE 56 (29 August 1914): 4; WWit 12:5 (May 1915): 6; Bergunder, “Constructing Indian Pentecostalism,” 192; Bergunder, The South Indian Pentecostal Movement, 27-34.

28. Gordon MacKay Haliburton, The Prophet Harris: A Study of an African Prophet and His Mass Movement in the Ivory Coast and the Gold Coast 1913-1915 (London: Longman, 1971): 28-35.

29. AT 11 (January 1908): 2; Robeck, Azusa Street, 269-70.

30. AF 13 (May 1908): 1; Conf 2:4 (April 1909): 92; 6:2 (February 1913): 39; 6:9 (Septemberi9i3): 184; 7:2 (February 1914): 36; UR 1:3 (August 1909): 7; 2:3 (August 1910): 6; LRE2:11 (August 1910): 21; 3:10 (July 1911): 17; 3:11 (Augustan): 17; 5:3 (December 1912): 12; 6:2 (November 1913): 2; 8:11 (August 1916): 18-21; BM67 (1 August 1910): 4; 69 (1 September 1910): 2; 75 (1 December 1910): 3,4; 79 (1 February 1911): 4; 81 (1 March 1911): 4; 104(15 February 1912): 2; 106 (15 March 1912): 1, 3; 130 (1 April 1913): 4; Trust 10:1 (March 1911): 19; 10:2 (April 1911): 15-16; 11:8 (October 1912): 19; CE 55 (22 August 1914): 4; Robeck, Azusa Street, 271-72.

31. AF 5 (January 1907): 3, 4; 6 (February-March 1907): 3; Pent 1:1 (August 1908): 2; LRE 13:2 (November 1920): 20-23; Robeck, Azusa Street, 274-80; Kemp Pendleton Burpeau, God's Showman: A Historical Study of John G. Lake and South African/ American Pentecostalism (Oslo: Refleks Publishing, 2004): 44-45; William F. P. Burton, When God Makes a Pastor (London: Victory Press, 1934): 30-31.

32. Leaves of Healing 15:25 (8 October 1904): 853-54; 18:11 (30 December 1905): 314-20; BM29 (1 January 1909): 4; WW 32:7 (July 1910): 213; TF 30:9 (September 1910): 195; Gerhardus C. Oosthuizen, The Birth of Christian Zionism in South Africa (KwaDlangezwa, South Africa: University of Zululand, 1987): 30; Burton, When God Makes, 31; B. G. M. Sundkler, Zulu Zion and Some Swazi Zionists (London: Oxford, 1976): 51.

33. Pent 1:1 (August 1908): 7; 1:2 (September 1908): 2; 1:7 (June 1909): 2; WW 30:11 (November 1908): 344-5; Conf 2:2 (February 1909): 28; UR 1:7 (February 1910): 7; BM 115 (1 August 1912): 1.

34. Pent 1:5 (January-February 1909):4; 1:10(September 1909): 4; Conf2:3 (March !9°9): 74> BM 38 (15 May 1909): 4; 39 (1 June 1909): 4; 47 (1 October 1909): 2; UR 1:1 (June 1909): 3; 1:5 (October-Novemberi909): 1; 1:7 (February 1910): 7; 2:3 (November 1910): 1-2, 6-8; 2:4 (January 1911): 6; WW 32:4 (April 1910): 121; Advocate 1:8 (21 June 1917): 10; 4:49 (7 April 1921): 10; PE 656 (17 July 1926): 3; Sundkler, Zulu Zion, 55-6, n54; Burpeau, God's Showman, 120-25.

35. UR 1:7 (February 1910): 7; 2:5 (May 1911): 6; BM 62 (15 May 1910): 4; 82 (15 March 1911): 1; Anderson, Spreading Fires, 167-81; Allan Anderson, Zion and Pentecost: The Spirituality and Experience of Pentecostal and Zionist/Apostolic

Churches in South Africa (Pretoria: University of South Africa Press, 2000): 85-114.

36. David Maxwell “The Soul of the Luba: W. F. Burton, “Missionary Ethnography and Belgian Colonial Science,” History and Anthropology 19:4 (2008): 325-51, 328; Letter (Donald Gee Centre, Mattersey, England): Alma Doering (St. Croix, Switzerland) to T. H. Mundell, 11 February 1914; WE 140 (20 May 1916): 11; 199 (21 July 1917): 12; Burton, God Working, 18-19; Womersley & Garrard, Into Africa, 29, 51, 56, 110, 115-16; Moorhead, Missionary Pioneering, 20, 24, 45-46, 74, 103-4.

37. Moorhead, Missionary Pioneering, 72, 108-9, xl4> 163, 215-16; Frodsham, With Signs Following, 154; Maxwell, “The Soul of the Luba,” 336; Womersley & Garrard, Into Africa, 66-67; Burton, God Working, 108; Burton in Redemption Tidings 1:4 (January 1925): 12; Corry in Burton, When God Changes a Village, vi.

38. Burton, God Working, 106; Moorhead, Missionary Pioneering, 207; Womersley, Wm F. Burton, 77, 113.

39. Maxwell, “The Soul of the Luba,” 331-33; David Maxwell, “Photography and the Religious Encounter: Ambiguity and Aesthetics in Missionary Representations of the Luba of South East Belgian Congo,” Comparative Studies in Society and History 53:1 (2011): 38-74.

40. Brian Stanley, The World Missionary Conference, Edinburgh igio (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2009): 1, 3.

41. Stanley, World Missionary Conference, 12; Brian Stanley, “Twentieth Century World Christianity: A Perspective from the Elistory of Missions,” in Donald M. Lewis (ed.), Christianity Reborn: The Global Expansion of Evangelicalism in the Twentieth Century (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2004): 52-83, 77.

42. Stanley, World Missionary Conference, 17.

43. BM 69(1 September 1910): 1; IRE 2:6 (March 1910): 12:2:11 (August 1910): 6.

44. EE9 (January 1913): 3.

45. LRE 12:6 (March 1920): 15; WW21:1 (May 1899): 18.

46. Sanneh, Disciples of All Nations, 218-34.

47. Roland Allen, Missionary Methods: St Paul’s or Ours? (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1962): 149.

48. PE 374-5 (8 January 1921): 6-7; 376-77 (22 January 1921): 6, 11; 378-79 (5 February 1921): 6-7; Anderson, Spreading Fires, 90.

49. Melvin L. Elodges, The Indigenous Church (Springfield, MO: Gospel Publishing Elouse, 1953): 10-12, 22.

50. Elodges, Indigenous Church, 14.

51. Elodges, Indigenous Church, 9.

52. Allen, Missionary Methods, 142-43.

53. William F. P. Burton, When God Changes a Village (London: Victory Press, 1933): 127-28.

1. TF6:12 (December 1886): 270-73.

2. Jacob Baynham, “Hong Kong Missionary Uses Intensive Prayer to Help Heroin Addicts,” San Francisco Chronicle (14 December 2007): www.sfgate.com/ cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2007/i2/i4/MNIKT2BIA.DTL&feed=rss.news, accessed 8 September 2011; Donald E. Miller & Tetsunao Yamamori, Global Pen- tecostalism: The New Face of Christian Social Engagement (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007): 99-105; www.irismin.org/about/history, accessed 28 August 2011.

3. WW 22:11 (November 1900): 337; letter, J. A. Dowie to A. A. Boddy, 12 June 1903, reproduced in Conf 6:2 (February 1913): 38.

4. AF 12 (January 1908): 3; Constitution quoted in Larry Martin (ed.), Doctrines and Disciplines of the Azusa Street Mission of Los Angeles California (Joplin, MO: Christian Hfe Books, 2000).

5. Estrelda Alexander, The Women of Azusa Street (Cleveland, TN: Pilgrim Press, 2005): 39-46, 59-70; Sutton, Aimee Semple McPherson, 204-209.

6. Edith L. Blumhofer, Aimee Semple McPherson: Everybody’s Sister (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1993); Matthew Avery Sutton, Aimee Semple McPherson and the Resurrection of Christian America (Cambridge, MA: Harvard, 2007).

7. Grant Wacker, “Are the Golden Oldies Still Worth Playing? Reflections on History Writing among Early Pentecostals,” Pneuma 8:2 (1986): 81-100: 95; Anderson, Spreading Fires, 88-89, x35> 202.

8. AF 1:3 (November 1906): 4.

9. Conf 2:1 (January 1909): 22; Pent 1:5 (January-February 1909): 5; BM29 (1 January 1909): 1; 32 (15 February 1909): 1; 33 (1 March 1909): 2; WW 31:8 (August 1909): 168; TF 29:6 (June 1909): 125; UR 1:6 (January 1910): 6; 1:7 (February 1910): 6; Anderson, Spreading Fires, 152-5 3; Alexander, Women of Azusa Street, 71-79; Barbara Cavaness, “Spiritual Chain Reactions: Women Used of God,” Assemblies of God Heritage 25:4 (2005-06): 24-29.

10. WW 32:10 (October 1910): 315; 39:16 (May 1917): 254; UR 1:10 (May 1910): 7; 1:11 (June 1910): 8; 2:2 (September-October 1910): 7; LRE 5:2 (November 1912): 11; 5:5 (February 1913): 11; 5:7 (April 1913): 15; 5:12 (September 1913): 16; 11:9 (June 1919): 11; 11:12 (September 1919): 14-19; 12:1 (October 1919): 7-8; WWit 8:8 (October 1912): 4; 9:2 (February 1913): 2; CE 72 (26 December 1914): 4; WE 191 (26 May 1917): 12; TF 38:4 (April 1918): 90; NIDPCM, 1153; AG Heritage 4:4 (Winter 1984-85): 1-8.

11. LRE 12:3 (December 1919): 12-13; Trust 17:2 (April 1918): 9; 19:2 (April 1920): 2; Wacker, Heaven Below, 158.

12. Diana Chapman, Searching the Source of the River: Forgotten Women of the British Pentecostal Revival lgoy-igi^ (London: Push Publishing, 2007): 14-23, 114-31.

13. LRE6:3 (December 1913): 4; BM 134 (1 June 1913): 3.

14. Letters, E. Cook to T. H. Mundell, 6 February 1915; W. J. Boyd to T. H. Mundell, 26 August 1916 (Donald Gee Centre, Mattersey, England); BM80 (15 February 1911): 2.

15. Mukti Prayer-Bell (September 1907): 3, 4, 6, 8, 10; Kosambi, Pandita Ramabai, 12, 18, 23-24; c.f. McGee, “Latter Rain,” 660-61; McGee, “Calcutta Revival,” 131-32; Robert, Occupy Until I Come, 263.

16. Mukti Prayer-Bell (September 1907): 10-12; Kosambi, Pandita Ramabai, 26.

17. Mukti Prayer-Bell (September 1907): 10-11, 13; PE 543 (29 April 1922): 7-8; cf. Edith L. Blumhofer, “Consuming Fire: Pandita Ramabai and the Early Pentecostal Impulse,” in Roger E. Hedlund, Sebastian Kim, & Rajkumar Boaz Johnson (eds.), Indian and Christian: The Life and Legacy of Pandita Ramabai (Chennai: MIIS/CMS/ISPCK, 2011): 127-54, 147-48.

18. PE 543 (19 April 1924): 9. First Abrams quote in TP 31:1 (January 1911): 5; second Abrams quote in LRE 2:11 (August 1910): 10; third Abrams quote at WW 337 (July 1911): 218.

19. WW26:3 (March 1904): 84; 32:4 (April 1910): 122.

20. Trust 17:7 (September 1918): 11; LRE 5:4 (January 1913): 11; Powar quoted in LRE 5:6 (March 1913): 24; NIDPCM, 844-45.

21. Ying FukTsang, “ From a Film Star to a Prophetess: The Legend of Mui Yee,” Christian and Missionary Alliance Monthly 44 (August 2003); 45 (September 2003), www.cmacuhk.org.hk/version3/mag/mag_monews_45/mag_monews_ shadow_45a.htm, original in Chinese, accessed 17 April 2010; Paul Farrelly, “Mount Zion and Typhoon Morakot: A New Religion’s Response to a Natural Disaster,” www.religion.info/pdf/2010_04_Farrelly.pdf, accessed 3 September 2011; Tan Jin Huat, “Pentecostals and Charismatics in Malaysia and Singapore,” in Allan H. Anderson & Edmond Tang (eds.), Asian and Pentecostal: The Charismatic Face of Christianity in Asia (Oxford: Regnum, 2011): 238- 58.

22. Choi Jashil, Hallelujah Lady (Seoul: Seoul Logos, 2009): 10, 175-79; Julie C- Ma, “Korean Spirituality: A Case Study of Jashil Choi,” in Wonsuk Ma & Robert P. Menzies (eds.), The Spirit and Spirituality: Essays in Honour of Russell P. Spittler (London: T&T Clark, 2004): 298-313; cf. Julie C. Ma, “Asian Women and Pentecostal Ministry,” in Allan H. Anderson & Edmond Tang (eds.), Asian and Pentecostal: The Charismatic Face of Christianity in Asia (Oxford: Regnum, 2011): 109-24; Yeol Soo Eim, “The Amazing Ministry of Dr Seen SookAhn,” www.pctii. org/cyberj/cyberj6/eim.html, accessed 6 September 2011; Ma, “Asian Women,” 138—39; I visited Daejeong and met Dr. Ahn in 2008.

23. Martin West, Bishops and Prophets in a Black City (Cape Town: David Philip, 1975): 65; Sundkler, Zulu Zion, 79-82; Anderson, Zion and Pentecost, 72-74.

24. West, Bishops and Prophets, 66; Sundkler, Zulu Zion, 82; Peter Korner, “The St. John’s Apostolic Faith Mission and Politics: The Political Dimension of an Apolitical Independent Church,” in Gordon Mitchell & Eve Mullen (eds.), Religion and the Political Imagination in a Changing South Africa (Munster, Germany: Waxmann, 2002): 133-50; Christina Landman, “Christinah Nku and

St John’s: A Hundred Years Later,” Studia Historian Ecclesiasticae 32:3 (2006): 1-32.

25. Paul Gifford, Christianity, Politics and Public Life in Kenya (London: Hurst,

2009): 116-18, 163-64; Kalu, African Pentecostalism, 150-www.idahosa.com/ Bishop_Margaret.html; http://archbishopmargaretbensonidahosa.com/

archbishop-margaret-idahosa; www.jiam.org/about_us/bishop_profile.aspx; http://allafrica.com/stories/201108220771 .html, accessed 6 September 2011.

26. Bernice Martin, “The Pentecostal Gender Paradox: A Cautionary Tale for the Sociology of Religion,” Richard K. Fenn (ed.), The Blackwell Companion to Sociology of Religion (Oxford: Blackwell, 2003): 52-66; quote at 54.

27. Confy.11 (November 1914): 208-209, 212-14.

28. WWit 10:1 (January 1914): 2; “Minutes of the General Council” (2-12 April 1914): 7; Wacker, Heaven Below, 165-68; Edith L. Blumhofer, Restoring the Faith: The Assemblies of God, Pentecostalism, and American Culture (Urbana: University oflllinois Press, 1993): 174.

29. Cheryl Bridges Johns, “Pentecostal Spirituality and the Conscientization of Women,” in Harold D. Hunter & P. D. Hocken (eds.), All Together in One Place: Theological Papers from the Brighton Conference on World Evangelization (Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 1993): 53-65, 165.

30. Brusco, “Gender and Power,” 83-84; Anthea D. Butler, Women in the Church of God in Christ: Making a Sanctified World (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2007).

31. Elizabeth E. Brusco, The Reformation of Machismo: Evangelical Conversion and Gender in Colombia (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1995): 86-87; Brusco, “Gender and Power,” 76; Miller & Yamamori, Global Pentecostalism, 208; Deidre Helen Crumbley, Spirit, Structure, and Flesh: Gendered Experiences in Afiican Instituted Churches among the Yoruba of Nigeria (Madison: University ofWisconsin Press, 2008); R. Andrew Chesnut,, Bom Again in Brazil: The Pentecostal Boom and the Pathogens of Poverty (New Brunswick, NY: Rutgers University Press, 1997): 32.

32. Brusco, Reformation of Machismo, 78, 79-80, 100-102, 106, 114; quote at 5.

33. Brusco, Reformation of Machismo, 6; Martin, “Pentecostal Gender Paradox,” 54; Kristina Helgesson, “Walking in the Spirit”: The Complexity of Belonging in Two Pentecostal Churches in Durban, South Africa, PhD thesis (Uppsala University, 2006): 169-201; Mark J. Cartledge, “Family Socialisation, Godly Love and Pentecostal Spirituality,” Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion 23 (2012), 1-27.

34. Brusco, “Gender and Power,” 81; Lesley Gill, ‘“Hke a Veil to Cover Them’: Women and the Pentecostal Movement in La Paz,” American Ethnologist 17:4 (1990): 708-21.

3 5. Jonathan Friedmann, “Liberating Domesticity: Women and the Home in Orthodox Judaism and Latin American Pentecostalism,” Journal of Religion e[ Society 10 (2008): 1-55; David Martin, Forbidden Revolutions: Pentecostalism in Latin America

and Catholicism in Eastern Europe (London: SPCK, 1996): 52; Anne Motley Hallum, “Taking Stock and Building Bridges: Feminism, Women’s Movements, and Pentecostalism in Latin America,” Latin American Research Review 38:1 (2003): 169-86; Brusco, Reformation of Machismo, 137; Cecilia Loreto Mariz & Maria das Dores Campos Machado, “Pentecostalism and Women in Brazil,” in Edward L. Cleary & Hannah W. Stewart-Gambino (eds.), Power, Politics, and Pentecostals in Latin America (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1997): 41-54, 44.

chapter 5

1. Frodsham, With Signs Poliowing, 207; Hollenweger, The Pentecostals, xvi, 321-22.

2. Philip Jenkins, The New Paces of Christianity: Believing the Bible in the Global South (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006).

3. Hastings, Church in Africa, 527, 529; Barrett, Schism and Renewal, 117, 120-21.

4. Lamin Sanneh, Whose Religion Is Christianity: The Gospel beyond the West (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2003): 10-11; Kenneth J. Archer, A Pentecostal Hermeneutic for the Twenty-First Century: Spirit, Scripture and Community (Cleveland, TN: CPT Press, 2009): 69; Carlos Mesters, “The Use of the Bible in Christian Communities of the Common People,” in N. K. Gottwald and R. A. Horsley (eds.), The Bible and Liberation (New York: Orbis, 1993): 7; Elizabeth Brusco, “Gender and Power,” in Allan H. Anderson, Michael Bergunder, André Droogers, & Cornells van der Laan (eds.), Studying Global Pentecostalism: Theories and Methods (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2010): 82-83.

5. AT 1:9 (June-September 1907): 2; 1:10 (September 1907): 2; Advocate 3:9 (26 June 1919): 6; Andrew Davies, “What Does It Mean to Read the Bible as a Pentecos- talY’JPT 18:2 (2009): 219; Steven J. Land, Pentecostal Spirituality: A Passion for the Kingdom (Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 1993): 29, 39; Taylor quote in Advocate 4:10 (8 July 1920): 9; Kerr quote in WE 175 (3 February 1917): 4-5.

6. Davies, “What Does It Mean,” 221; Archer, Pentecostal Hermeneutic, 168.

7. Sanneh, Disciples of All Nations, 25-29; Severino Croatto, Biblical Hermeneutics (New York: Orbis, 1987): 1; Davies, “What Does It Mean,” 224.

8. Mesters, “The Use of the Bible,” 14; Croatto, Biblical Hermeneutics, 6; Archer, Pentecostal Hermeneutic, 96.

9. Mesters, “The Use of the Bible,” 9; John McKay, “When the Veil Is Taken Away: The Impact of Prophetic Experience on Biblical Interpretation,” Journal of Pentecostal Theology 5 (1994): 38.

10. M. L. Daneel, Old and New in Southern Shona Independent Churches, Vol. Ill (Gweru, Zimbabwe: Mambo Press, 1988): 117-18.

11. WW 21: 5 (September 1899): 145; 25:8 (August 1903): 245; Post quote in LRE 5:7 (April 1913): 15; WWit 10:3 (March 1914): 3; letter, E. Cook to T. H. Mundell, 8 August 1914 (Donald Gee Centre, Mattersey, England); Cook, Quarter Century, 50.

12. FF (May 1917): 4-7.

13. Letter, T. H. Mundell to the Leighs, 18 September 1918 (Donald Gee Centre, Mattersey, England)

14. LRE 10:9 (June 1918): 16.

15. LRE 3:6 (March 1911): 14; ТЕ 5:10 (October 1885): 222; NIDPCM, 372-73; Anderson, Spreading Fires, 260-61.

16. LRE 2:9 (June 1910): 23; NIDPCM, 375; Anderson, Spreading Fires, 262, 273.

17. Conf 2:1 (January 1909): 14; 2:6 (June 1909): 129; Moorhead, Missionary Pioneering, 215-16; Womersley & Garrard, Into Africa, 66-67; Anderson, Spreading Fires, 264-65.

18. LRE 5:4 (January 1913): 22; WWit 12:5 (May 1915): 5.

19. Henry I. Lederle, “Pentecostals and Ecumenical Theological Education,” Ministerial Formation 80 (January 1998): 46; Byron D. Klaus & Loren O. Triplett, “National Leadership in Pentecostal Missions,” in Murray A. Dempster, Byron D. Klaus, & Douglas Petersen (eds.), Called and Empowered: Global Mission in Pentecostal Perspective (Peabody: Hendrickson, 1991): 227-29; Benjamin Sun, “Assemblies of God Theological Education in Asia Pacific: A Reflection,” Asian Journal of Pentecostal Studies 3:2 (July 2000): 230; Cox, Fire from Heaven, 303.

20. HwaYung, “Critical Issues Facing Theological Education in Asia,” Transformation (October-December 1995): 1; Allan Anderson, “The ‘Fury and Wonder? Pentecostal-Charismatic Spirituality in Theological Education,” Pneuma 23:2 (2001): 287-302.

21. Christian Lalive d’Epinay, “The Training of Pastors and Theological Education: The Case of Chile,” International Review of Missions 56: 222 (April 1967): 185, 191; Juan Sepulveda, “The Challenge for Theological Education from a Pentecostal Standpoint,” Ministerial Formation 87 (October 1999): 29-30.

22. www.pentvars.edu.gh/; accessed 30 August 2011; Interview with Chinese house church leader, May 2011.

23. Andrew F. Walls, “Of Ivory Towers and Ashrams: Some Reflections on Theological Scholarship in AfricaJournal of African Christian Thought 3:1 (June 2000): 1-3.

24. Willem A. Saayman, “Some Reflections on the Development of the Pentecostal Mission Model in South Africa,” Missionalia 21:1 (April 1993): 40-56, 43.

25. Land, Pentecostal Spirituality, 22; Daniel E. Albrecht, Rites in the Spirit: A Ritual Approach to Pentecostal/Charismatic Spirituality (Sheffield, UK: Sheffield Academic Press, 1999): 22; Cox, Fire from Heaven, 101.

26. Mark J. Cartledge, Testimony in the Spirit: Rescripting Ordinary Pentecostal Theology (Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 2010): 29.

27. J. Kwabena Asamoah-Gyadu, “Reversing Christian Mission: African Pentecostal Pastor Establishes ‘God’s Embassy’ in the Ukraine” (unpublished paper, May 2004), 4.

28. Martin West, Bishops and Prophets, 196-99

29. Paul Gifford, African Christianity: Its Public Role (London: Hurst, 1998): 197-205; Jason Mandryk, Operation World, 7th ed. (Colorado Springs: Biblica, 2010): 683;

Eddie Villanueva, “A Consuming Passion,” in Cityland Foundation, This Is My Story: 31 Lives, Stones, Miracles (Manila: OMF Fiterature, 2004): 224-33; http:// pewforum.org/Christian/Evangelical-Protestant-Cliurclies/Historical-Overview- of-Pentecostalism-in-Philippines.aspx, accessed 11 September 2011.

30. Joel Robbins, “Anthropology of Religion,” in Allan H. Anderson, Michael Bergunder, André Droogers, & Cornells van der Faan (eds.), Studying Global Pentecostalism: Theories and Methods (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2010): 156-78, 172; Kalu, African Pentecostalism, 194, 199; Miller & Yamamori, Global Pentecostalism, 211.

31. Vinson Synan, The Century of the Holy Spirit: 100 Years of Pentecostal and Charismatic Renewal (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 2001); www.persecution. net/eritrea.htm; www.christiantoday.com/article/eritrean.ofl1cials.imprison.35. members.of.underground.church/i6749.htm; www.amnesty.org.uk/actions_ details.asp?ActionID=io; www.unhcr.org/refworld/country„USDOS„ERI„4cf2do9 ecp.html, c.f. Michael Kagan, “Refugee Credibility Assessment and the ‘Religious Imposter’ Problem: A Case Study of Eritrean Pentecostal Claims in Egypt,” Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law 43:5 (November 2010): 1179-233; author’s interviews with pentecostal asylum seekers from Eritrea during the period 2008-11.

32. NIDPCM, 9, Kalu, African Pentecostalism, 225, 240-46.

chapter 6

1. LRE 4:1 (Octoberigi 1): 23.

2. Donald W. Dayton, Theological Roots of Pentecostalism (Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1987), 19-28.

3. BM 110 (15 May 1912): 1; circular letter, W. W. Simpson to missionaries in China, undated, likely 1914 (Donald Gee Centre, Mattersey, England).

4. Conf 2:2 (February 1909): 28.

5. Candy Gunther Brown, “Introduction: Pentecostalism and the Globalization of Illness and Healing,” in Candy Gunther Brown (ed.), Global Pentecostal and Charismatic Healing (New York: Oxford, 2011): 3, 8, 14.

6. WW24:7 (July 1902): 210; Alexander, Pentecostal Healing, 16-23, 58-63; Heather D. Curtis, “The Global Character of Nineteenth-Century Divine Healing” in Candy Gunther Brown (ed.), Global Pentecostal and Charismatic Healing (New York: Oxford, 2011): 29-45; E>avid Edwin Harrell Jr., All Things Are Possible: The Healing and Charismatic Revivals in Modern America (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975): 13; Faupel, Everlasting Gospel, 121, 123, 127, 132-35; Anderson, Spreading Fires, 37-39.

7. TF 1:1 (January 1881): 1, 3-5; Alexander, Pentecostal Healing, 24-27, 151-60; Jennifer Ann Miskov, Life on Wings: The Forgotten Life and Theology of Carrie Judd Montgomery (1858-1946), PhD thesis (University of Birmingham, 2011).

8. In Frodsham, With Signs Following, 142.

9. Matthew Marostica, “Learning from the Master: Carlos Annacondia and the Standardization of Pentecostal Practices in and beyond Argentina,” in Candy Gunther Brown (ed.), Global Pentecostal and Charismatic Healing (New York: Oxford, 2011): 207-27.

10. Harrell, All Things Are Possible, 20-21; 27-52, 79-80,150-72, 194-208; NIDPCM, 440-41, 713, 950-51, 1024-25.

11. BM 91 (1 Augustigi 1): 1; Gary B. McGee, ‘“Power from on High’: A Historical Perspective on the Radical Strategy in Missions,” in Wonsuk Ma & Robert P. Menzies (eds.): Pentecostalism in Context (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1997)'. 317, 324, 329; McGee, “Pentecostals and Their Various Strategies,” 215; Moorhead, Missionary Pioneering, 76-79; David Edwin Harrell Jr. “Foreword,” in C. Douglas Weaver, The Healer-Prophet: William Marrion Branham, A Study of the Prophetic in American Pentecostalism (Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 2000): 3.

12. Moorhead, Missionary Pioneering, 39-40; Pentecost 1:7 (June 1909): 2; Conf 2:2 (February 1909): 29.

13. FT 3 (January 1912): 5; BM 84 (15 April 1911): 2; letter, Maggie Trevitt to T. H. Mundell, 9 October 1915 (Donald Gee Centre, Mattersey, England).

14. Moorhead, Missionary Pioneering, 12, 15.

15. Allan H. Anderson, Zion and Pentecost: The Spirituality and Experience of Pentecostal and Zionist/Apostolic Churches in South Africa (Pretoria: University of South Africa Press, 2000): 120-26.

16. John Sung, The Diaries of John Sung, Stephen L. Sheng (trans.) (Brighton, MI: Stephen L. Sheng, 1995): 1-19, 40, 43, 51, 56, 88, 91, 93; Lian Xi, Redeemed by Fire: The Rise of Popular Christianity in Modem China (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010): 137-41.

17. Sung, Diaries, 24, 26-27,29> 32> 56, 64, 67,118-19, 183, 223-26,231; Xi, Redeemed by Fire, 146-47; William E. Shubert, “I Remember John Sung,” in Timothy Tow (ed.), The Asian Awakening (Singapore: Christian Life Publishers, 1988): 178; Leslie T. Lyall, John Sung (Singapore: Armour Publishing, 2004): 236-45.

18. IRM 93:370-1 (July/October 2004); “The Healing Mission of the Church,” in “You Are the Light of the World": Statements on Mission by the World Council of Churches 1980-2005 (Geneva: World Council of Churches Publications, 2005): 141-42, 145-46.

19. Samuel Kobia, “Opening Remarks,” draft CWME paper, Athens, Greece, 10 May 2005, 1; “A Statement by Pentecostal and Charismatic Participants in the Conference on World Mission and Evangelism,” Athens, Greece, 9-16 May 2005.

20. Allan Anderson, “Pentecostals, Healing and Ecumenism,” IRM 93:370-71 (July/ October 2004): 489.

21. Wonsuk Ma, ‘“When the Poor Are Fired Up’: The Role of Pneumatology in Pentecostal Mission,” draft CWME paper, Athens, Greece, 10 May 2005, 1-2.

22. World Council of Churches, “The Healing Mission of the Church,” 149-50, 159- Go; Allan Anderson, “Pentecostal Approaches to Faith and Healing,” IRM 911363 (2002): 523-34.

23. AF 1 (September 1906): 1; Anderson, Spreading Fires, 46-68.

24. Anderson, Spreading Fires, 53-54, 57-65.

25. AF 6 (February-March 1907): 1 (a reference to Acts 1:8); Faupel, Everlasting Gospel, 212-16; Robeck, “Pentecostal Origins,” 176-77; T. B. Barratt, In the Days of the Latter Rain (London: Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent & Co, 1909): 144.

26. Acts 1:8; 2:4, New International Version; Flower quoted in McGee, “Pentecostals and Their Various Strategies,” 206; Polhill in Conf 2:1 (January 1909): 15; 2:6 (June 1909): 129; 3:8 (August 1910): 198; Boddyin Confy.S (August 1910): 199.

27. LRE 3:8 (May 1911): 8; WW 33:8 (August 1911): 244.

28. Polhill in FF 12 (July 1913): 3; Willis Collins Hoover & Mario G. Hoover (trans.), History of the Pentecostal Revival in Chile (Santiago, Chile: Imprenta Eben-Ezer, 1930, 2000): 124.

29. Faupel, Everlasting Gospel, 99, 104-5, 110-12.

30. Paul Alexander, Peace to War: Shifting Allegiances in the Assemblies of God (Telford, PA: Cascadia, 2009); Anderson, Spreading Fires, 22 3-28; www.pcpj .org/, accessed 20 October 2011.

31. Norton in BM 97 (1 November 1911): 1; Simpson in Pentecostal Truths 34 (April 1912): 4.

32. BM 94 (15 September 1911): 1; Brian Stanley, The Bible and the Flag: Protestant Missions and British Imperialism in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (Leicester, UK: Apollos, 1990), 76.

33. Wahrisch-Oblau, Claudia, “God Can Make Us Healthy Through and Through: On Prayers for the Sick and Healing Experiences in Christian Churches in China and African Immigrant Congregations in Germany,” IRM 90:356/357 (2001): 87-102, 94, 99.

chapter 7

1. BM 59 (1 April 1910): 4; WE 144 (17 June 1916): 8.

2. Supplement to Conf 2:6 (June 1909): 12; LRE 3:7 (April 1911): 19; Frodsham, With Signs Following, 175; Anderson, Spreading Fires, 20-21.

3. Hoover, History, 9, 18-20, 29-32, 36, 68-73; WW 32:3 (March 1910): 94; 32:5 (May

1910) : 156-57; UR 1:6 (January 1910): 5; 1:10 (May 1910): 5; TF 30:6 (June 1910): 26-27; Trust 9:8 (October 1910): 18; LRE 3:7 (April 1911): 20; DPCM, 770-71.

4. Hoover, History, 74-100, 240-47; Trust 9:8 (October 1910): 19; UR 2:5 (May

1911) : 5; LRE 3:10 (July 1911): 21-24; 6:9 (June 1914): 19; 13:4 (January 1921): 2-5; BM 97 (1 November 1911): 4; TF 32:2 (February 1912): 48; Frodsham, With Signs Following, 185-86.

5. www.imepch.cl/actualidad/reportajes/939-datos-biogralicos-del-reverendo-ma nuel-umana-salinas.html, accessed 25 May 2011.

6. Edward L. Cleary & Juan Sepulveda, “Chilean Pentecostalism: Corning of Age,” in Edward L. Cleary & Hannah W. Stewart-Gambino (eds.), Power, Politics, and Pentecostals in Latin America (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1997): 97-121, 114.

7. Paul Freston, Evangelicals and Politics in Asia, Africa and Latin America (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001): 215-21; Cleary & Sepulveda, “Chilean Pentecostalism,” 103.

8. Paul Freston, Evangelicals and Politics in Asia, Africa and Latin America (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001): 226, 266-80; Mandryk, Operation World, 210, 393; Cleary & Sepulveda, “Chilean Pentecostalism,” 112. NID- PCM, 55-57; http://pewforum.org/Christian/Evangelical-Protestant-Churches/ Historical-Overview-of-Pentecostalism-in-Chile.aspx, accessed 11 September 2011; www.state.g0v/g/drl/rls/irf/2008/108518.htm, accessed 25 May 2011.

9. Hollenweger, The Pentecostals, 85-92; Mandryk, Operation World, 163.

10. Vingren in LRE8:4 (January 1916): 14; WWit 9:10 (October 1913): 2; 10:3 (March 1914): 4; LRE 8:4 (January 1916): 14-16; 12:3 (December 1919): 11; WE 213 (3 November 1917): 13; Hollenweger, The Pentecostals, 75-79.

11. Hollenweger, The Pentecostals, 75, 78; Chesnut, Born Again, 26-27, 3°> Cox, Fire, 163-67; Phillip Berryman, Religion in the Megacity: Catholic and Protestant Portraits from Latin America (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1996): 17.

12. Freston, Evangelicals and Politics, 9; Mandryk, Operation World, 163; Cox, Fire from Heaven, 163-67; www.blackpast.org/?q=gah/da-silva-benedita-i942, accessed 21 November 2011; www.minhamarina.org.br/home/home.php, accessed 2 October 2011; interview with Brazilian pentecostal leader, 21 September 2011, Quito, Ecuador.

13. John Paul II, “Opening Address,” in Alfred T. Hennelly (ed.), Santo Domingo and Beyond: Documents and Commentaries from the Historic Meeting of the Latin American Bishops Conference (Maryknoll, NJ: Orbis Books, 1993): 48; Bryan Froehle, “Pentecostals and Evangelicals in Venezuela: Consolidating Gains, Moving in New Directions,” in Edward L. Cleary & Hannah W. Stewart-Gambino (eds.), Power, Politics, and Pentecostals in Latin America (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1997): 213-14; cf. Jean-PierreBastian, “Pentecostalism, Market LogicandReligiousTransnationalisation in Costa Rica,” in André Corten & Ruth Marshall-Fratani (eds.), Between Babel and Pentecost: Transnational Pentecostalism in Africa and Latin America (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001): 167; Edward L. Cleary, “Introduction: Pentecostals, Prominence, and Politics,” in Edward L. Cleary & Hannah W. Stewart-Gambino (eds.), Power, Politics, and Pentecostals in Latin America (Boulder, CO: Westview, 1997): 10; Edward L. Cleary, “Movement of Latin American Catholic Charismatics to the United States,” unpublished paper, May 2010; Chesnut, Bom Again, 174.

14. Sanneh, Disciples of All Nations, 187-90; Kalu, African Pentecostalism, 38-39.

15. Anderson, Spreading Fires, 159-61; Sanneh, Disciples of All Nations, 193-210; Allan H. Anderson, African Reformation: African Initiated Christianity in the 20th Century (Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2001): 69-76.

16. E. Kingsley Larbi, Pentecostalism: The Eddies of Ghanaian Christianity (Accra, Ghana: Centre for Pentecostal and Charismatic Studies, 2001): 63-68; Anderson, African Reformation, 76-78.

17. Larbi, Pentecostalism, 104-37.

18. Yaw Bredwa-Mensah, “The Church of Pentecost in Retrospect,” in Opoku Onyinah (ed.), 50 Years of the Church of Pentecost (Accra: Church of Pentecost, 2004): 8, 21-26, 30-45; McKeown quoted in Opoku Onyinah, “The Man James McKeown,” in Opoku Onyinah (ed.), 50 Years of the Church of Pentecost (Accra: Church of Pentecost, 2004): 71, 86.

19. Larbi, Pentecostalism, 175-294; Onyinah, 50 Years, 168; http://thecophq.org/ accessed 10 April 2011; information from COP Chairman, Dr. Opoku Onyinah, personal conversation, 27 May 2011.

20. Harold W. Turner, History of an African Independent Church (1) The Church of the Lord (Aladura) (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967): 6, 11-12.

21. Turner, History, 22-25, 32> J- D. Y. Peel, Aladura: A Religious Movement among the Yoruba (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1968), 91; Anderson, African Reformation, 82-88; Sanneh, Disciples of All Nations, 190-91.

22. I witnessed this myself at the ZCC Easter 1992 conference. Anderson, Zion and Pentecost, 56-76; Anderson, Spreading Fires, 173-81.

23. C. Hanekom, Krisis en Kultus (Pretoria: Academica, 1975): 39-40; E. K. Lukhaimane, The Zion Christian Church of Ignatius (Engenas) Lekganyane, 1924 to 1948: An African Experiment with Christianity, MA thesis (University of the North, Pietersburg, 1980): 9, 14-18, 20.

24. Lukhaimane, Zion Christian Church, 41, 62, 65-67, 72-76; World quoted in Hanekom, Krisis en Kultus, 44; “South African Population Census 2001, by gender, religion recode (derived): population.” www.statssa.gov.za/censusoi/html, accessed 13 July 2011.

25. Anderson, Zion and Pentecost, 166-72.

26. BM 52 (15 December 1909): 4; UR 1:10 (May 1910): 6; 2:2 (September-October 1910): 3; 2:4 (January 1911): 6, 8; 2:5 (May 1911): 6; Conf4:12 (December 1911): 284; WE 124 (22 January 1916): 13; Anderson, African Reformation, 97, 153-60.

27. WWit 9:1 (January 1913): 2; 9:11 (November 1913): 4; 9:12 (December 1913): 1; 10:4 (April 1914): 4; 12:5 (May 1915): 7; BM 144 (15 November 1913): 1; CE 70 (12 December 1914): 4; WE 91 (22 May 1915): 4; G. P. V. Somaratna, Origins of the Pentecostal Mission in Sri Lanka (Mirihana-Nugegoda: Margaya Fellowship of Sri Lanka, 1996): 12-23, 27-32, 4G 45_47> Bergunder, South Indian Pentecostal, 31-32,41-44; Paul C. Martin “A Brief History of the Ceylon Pentecostal Church,” in Roger E. Hedlund (ed.), Christianity Is Indian: The Emergence of an Indigenous Community (Delhi: ISPCK, 2000): 437-44; Anderson, Spreading Fires, 102.

28. Sara Abraham, “Indian Pentecostal Church of God and Its Indigenous Nature,” in Roger E. Hedlund (ed.), Christianity Is Indian: The Emergence of an Indigenous Community (Delhi: ISPCK, 2000): 457; Bergunder, South Indian Pentecostal,

27-34» 5°“57> Roger Hedlund, “Indigenous Pentecostalism in India,” in Allan H. Anderson & Edmond Tang (eds.), Asian and Pentecostal: The Charismatic Face of Christianity in Asia (Oxford: Regnum, 2011): 183-207; Paulson Pullikottil, “Ramankutty Paul: A Dalit Contribution to Pentecostalism,” in Allan H. Anderson & Edmond Tang (eds.), Asian and Pentecostal: The Charismatic Face of Christianity in Asia (Oxford: Regnum, 2011): 208-18.

29. The Hongkong Government Gazette, 22 May, 1886, 449; AF 13 (May 1908): 1-2; “Registrar General’s Report for the Year 1892,” Hong Kong, 1 June 1893, 257; BM 39 (1 June 1909): 3; Conf2:12 (December 1909): 282-83; FRh 2:3 (December

1909) : 22-23; Pentecostal Truths 37 (November 1914): 4; S. H. Sung, “History of Pentecostal Mission, Hong Kong & Kowloon,” in Pentecostal Mission, Hong Kong e[ Kowloon 75 Anniversary igoy-ig82, 8; Daniel Woods, “Failure and Success in the Ministry of T. J. McIntosh, the First Pentecostal Missionary to China,” Cyberjoumal for Pentecostal Charismatic Research 12, 15 April 2003, www.pctii. org/cyberj/cyberj 12/woods.html.

30. Conf 2:12 (December 1909): 283.

31. UR (September 1909): 30; Pentecostal Truths 2:4 (April 1909): 1; 37 (November 1914): 1.

32. Conf 2:7 (July 1909): 147; 2:11 (November 1909): 259; 2:12 (December 1909): 283-84; BM 38 (15 May 1909): 2; 52 (15 December 1909): 2; 53 (1 January 1910): 2; UR (September 1909): 30; (February 1910): 54; LRE 2:3 (December 1909): 22-23; Pentecostal Truths 2:4 (April 1909): 4; Fetters of Cora Fritsch, 23 January 1909, 27 January 1909, 5 February 1909, 31 March 1909 (personal collection).

33. UR 1:7 (February 1910): 54; (April 1910): 5; (June 1910): 5; (August 1910): 5; Conf 3:4 (April 1910): 91; BM 59 (1 April 1910): 4; 63 (1 June 1910): 1; 69 (1 September

1910) : 4; 73 (1 November 1910): 4; Joseph H. King, Yet Speaketh: Memoirs of the Late Bishop Joseph H. King (Franklin Springs, GA: Pentecostal Holiness Church, 1949): 164-65.

34. Pentecostal Truths 3:10 (November 1910): 1 (trans. Connie Ho Yan Au).

35. WWit 9:11 (20 November 1913): 4; Pentecostal Truths 37 (November 1914): 1; 38 (March 1915): 1; 39 (April 1917): 1, 4; personal communication, Connie Ho Yan Au.

36. Hong Kong Fegislative Council report, 18 July 1921, 84-85; letter, S. H. Sung to author, 22 July 2005; Sung, “History of Pentecostal Mission,” 8-9; www. pentecostal-mission.org/, accessed 21 July 2011.

37. David Aikman, Jesus in Beijing (Oxford: Monarch, 2006): 21; Mandryk, Operation World, 215-16; Bays, “Christian Revival in China,” 162; David A. Reed, “Missionary Resources for an Independent Church—Case Study of the True Jesus Church,” Paper presented at the 40th Annual Meeting of the Society for Pentecostal Studies, March 2011.

38. Bridge 41: 8; 62: 5, 9-12; 63: 3, 5-7, 9-11, 14; Xi, Redeemed by Fire, 42-63, 183-84, 200-202; Bays, “Christian Revival,” 170; Deng Zhaoming, “Indigenous Chinese

Pentecostal Denominations,” in Allan H. Anderson & Edmond Tang (eds.), Asian and Pentecostal: The Charismatic Face of Christianity in Asia (Oxford: Regnum, 2011): 369-93.

39. TF 37:6 (June 1917): 127; LRE 11:3 (December 1917): 16; Bays, “Protestant Missionary Establishment,” 58; Frodsham, With Signs Following, 147; Deng, “Indigenous Chinese Pentecostal Denominations,” 452-64; Xi, Redeemed by Fire, 64-84, 185, 200.

40. Xi, Redeemed by Fire, 95-108, 185-86; Bays, “Christian Revival in China,” 173-74.

41. Xi, Redeemed by Fire, 202, 204-207; Bays, “Christian Revival in China,” 174-75; Aikman, Jesus in Beijing 20-31, 66; Sanneh, Disciples of All Nations, 264.

42. Anderson, Spreading Fires, 65-68.

chapter 8

1. It is now generally accepted that the term “Charismatic movement” in its original usage referred to the practice of spiritual gifts and the experience of Spirit baptism in sections of the mainline churches in the Western world after 1960.

2. Anderson, Spreading Fires, 29-31, 90-95, 201-204; Hollenweger, Pentecostalism, 334-49; Kay, Pentecostalism, 168-75; Stephen Hayes, Black Charismatic Anglicans: The Iviyo loFakazi bakaKristu and its Relations with other Renewal Movements (Pretoria: University of South Africa, 1990); NIDPCM, 477-519.

3. Hollenweger, The Pentecostals, 6-7; NIDPCM, 1024-25.

4. Michael J. McClymond, “Prosperity Already and Not Yet: An Eschatological Interpretation of the Health-and-Wealth Emphasis in the North American Pentecostal-Charismatic Movement,” in Peter Althouse & Robby Waddell (eds.), Perspectives in Pentecostal Eschatologies: World without End (Eugene, OR: Pickwick, 2010): 297-303; NIDPCM, 830-33.

5. NIDPCM, 653-54.

6. David du Plessis, A Man Called Mr. Pentecost (Plainfield, NJ: Logos, 1977): 1-3; NIDPCM, 589-93.

7. Los Angeles Times, 20 April 1992, http://articles.latimes.com/1992-04-20/local/ me-395_i_van-nuys, accessed 4 August 2011.

8. Dennis Bennett, Nine O’Clock in the Morning (Plainfield, NJ: Bridge Publishing, 1970); NIDPCM, 477-519; Synan, Holiness-Pentecostal, 226-33; E)avid Wilker- son, The Cross and the Switchblade (New York: Random House, 1963); John L. Sherrill, They Speak with Other Tongues (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964).

9. Wuthnow, Boundless Faith, 83; http://mediamatters.0rg/mmtv/200508220006; www.salon.com/news/haiti/index.html?story=/news/20io/oi/i3/haitLrobert- son, accessed 12 September 2011.

10. Jim Bakker, I Wwas Wrong (Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 1996): 535; Synan, Holiness-Pentecostal, 289-90; NIDPCM, 352-55, 1111; Wuthnow, Boundless Faith,

138; www.jsm.org/index.php;http://jimbakkershow.com/about-us/about-jim/, accessed 28 August 2011.

11. Mandryk, Operation World, 862; Anderson, Introduction to Pentecostalism, 253- 58; Anderson et al, Studying Global Pentecostalism.

12. Connie Ho Yan Au, Grassroots Unity in the Charismatic Renewal: Ecumenism in the Fountain Trust International Conferences (Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 2010): 19-56; Nigel Scotland, Charismatics and the New Millennium (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1995): 1-17; Kay, Pentecostalism, 175-92.

13. Hayes, Black Charismatic Anglicans; Josiah R. Mlahagwa, “Contending for the Faith: Spiritual Revival and the Fellowship Church in Tanzania,” in Thomas Spear & IsariaN. Kimambo (eds.), East African Expressions of Christianity (Oxford: James Currey, 1999): 296-306; Gifford, African Christianity, 95-96, 154, 227-8, 330; NIDPCM, 230-31, 450-51.

14. Brusco, Reformation of Machismo, 28-29; Michael Bergunder, ‘“Ministry of Compassion’: D. G. S. Dhinakaran—Christian Healer-Prophet from Tamil Nadu,” in Roger E. Hedlund (ed.), Christianity Is Indian: The Emergence of an Indigenous Community (Mylapore & Delhi: MIIS/ISPCK, 2000): 160-61; “Evangelist Dhinakaran Dead,” The Hindu, 21 February 2008, www.hindu. c0m/2oo8/o2/2i/stories/2oo8o22i 59540800.htm.

15. Kevin Ranaghan & Dorothy Ranaghan, Catholic Pentecostals (New York: Paulist Press, 1969); Kilian McDonnell, Catholic Pentecostalism (Pecos, NM: Dove Publications, 1970); Edward O’Connor, The Pentecostal Movement in the Catholic Church (Notre Dame, IN: Ave Maria Press, 1971).

16. http://catholiccharismatic.us/ccc/articles/John_Paul/John_Paul_oo 1 .html, accessed 7 August 2011.

17. Synan, Holiness-Pentecostal, 246-52; NIDPCM, 460-67; http://iccrs.org/en/index. php/ccr/, accessed 7 August 2011; http://press.catholica.va/news_services/bul- letin/news /18881 .php?index= 18881 &po_date=26.09.20o6&lang=fr#Testo%20 in%2olingua%2oinglese, accessed 17 July 2012.

18. Brusco, Reformation of Machismo, 28; www.time.com/time/world/ article/0,8 5 99,1618439, oo.html; www.padremarcelorossi.com.br/, accessed 7 August 2011; http://www.thedailybeast.com/newsweek/2011/10/02/brazil-s- superstar-preacher-marcelo-rossi.html, accessed 11 August 2011.

19. NIDPCM, 124, 206-207; www.missionofjesus.com/divine_centre/;

www.drcm.org/, accessed 7 August 2011; Katharine L. Wiegele, Investing in Miracles: El Shaddai and the Transformation of Popular Catholicism in the Philippines (Honolulu, HI: University of Hawaii Press, 2005).

20. Richard Bustraan, Upon Your Sons and Daughters: An Analysis of the Pentecostalism in the Jesus People Movement and Its Aftermath, PhD thesis (University of Birmingham, 2011); Synan, Holiness-Pentecostal, 255-56; Anderson, Introduction to Pentecostalism, 144-55.

21. Synan, Holiness-Pentecostal, 260-66; NIDPCM, 484-88, 1060-62.

22. Richard Bustraan, “The Jesus People Movement and the Charismatic Movement: A Case for Inclusion,” Penteco Studies 10:1 (2011): 29-49; Scotland, Charismatics, 202-28; Kay, Pentecostalism, 198-200; www.vineyardusa.org/site/about/ vineyard-history, http://uk.alpha.org/, accessed 7 August 2011.

23. Valdis Teraudkalns, “Pentecostalism in the Baltics: Historical Retrospection,” Journal of the European Pentecostal Theological Association 21 (2001): 91-108, 107.

24. Forum 18 news reports: 3 November 2006; 17 May,4july, 14 August, 30 December 2007; 16 January, 31 March; 2 April, 30 May 2008. http://forum18.org accessed 30 May 2010.

25. McClymond, “Prosperity Already and Not Yet,” 303-309; E. W. Kenyon, The Wonderful Name of Jesus (Seattle, WA: Kenyon’s Gospel Publishing Society, 1927): 5 3—5 5; E. W. Kenyon, The Hidden Man (Seattle, WA: Kenyon’s Gospel Publishing Society, 1955): 95-111; E. W. Kenyon, Jesus the Healer (Lynnwood, WA: Kenyon’s Gospel Publishing Society, 1995): 15, 24, 31; Paul Gifford, Christianity and Politics in Doe's Liberia (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993): 147.

26. H. Terris Neumann, “Cultic Origins of the Word-Faith Theology within the Charismatic Movement,” Pneuma 12:1 (1990): 32-55, 33-34; Allan Anderson, “The Prosperity Message in the Eschatology of Some New Charismatic Churches,” Missionalia 15:2 (1987): 72-83, 74; www.rbtc.org/about-us, accessed 7 August 2011.

27. Kenneth E. Hagin, The Midas Touch: A Balanced Approach to Biblical Prosperity (Tulsa, OK: Faith Library, 2000): xiii.

28. Wuthnow, Boundless Faith, 138; www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/01/29/

cbsnews_investigates/main3767305.shtml, www.inplainsite.org/html/

tele-evangelist_lifestyles.html#Tele-Copeland, accessed 5 April 2012.

29. Anderson, “Prosperity Message,” 80-81; Andrew Perriman (ed.), Faith, Health and Prosperity: A Report on “Word of Faith” and “Positive Confession" Theologies (Carlisle, UK: Paternoster, 2003).

chapter 9

1. Jeong Chong Нее, The Formation and Development of Korean Pentecostalism from the Viewpoint of a Dynamic Contextual Theology, ThD thesis (University of Birmingham, 2001): 161-195; Mandryk, Operation World, 510.

2. Hodges, The Indigenous Church.

3. Sunghoon Myung, Spiritual Dimension of Church Growth as Applied in Yoido Full Gospel Church, PhD thesis (Fuller Theological Seminary, 1990): 156.

4. Hollenweger, Pentecostalism, 100, n 2, 104; Cox, Fire from Heaven, 219-26; David Martin, Pentecostalism: The World Their Parish (Oxford: Blackwell, 2002): 161; Mark R. Mullins, Christianity Made in Japan: A Study of Indigenous Movements (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1998): 175-77; E>avid Yonggi Cho, How Can I Be Healed? (Seoul: Seoul Logos Co., 1999): 98-100.

5. David Yonggi Cho, More than Numbers (Waco, TX: Word Books, 1984): 9.

6. Cho, More than Numbers, 43, 101, 144; David Yonggi Cho, with Harold Hostetler, Successful Home Cell Groups (Seoul: Seoul Logos Co., 1997): 23-29; Myung, “Spiritual Dimension,” 235; Allan Anderson, “Pentecostalism in East Asia: Indigenous Oriental Christianity?” Pneuma 22:1 (Spring 2000): 115-32; David Martin, Tongues of Fire: The Explosion of Protestantism in Latin America (Oxford: Blackwell, 1990): 140-41.

7. David (Paul) Yonggi Cho, The Fourth Dimension (Seoul: Seoul Logos Co., 1979): 10-11, 46-49, 71, 173; Cho, Successful Home Cell, 149; David Yonggi Cho, The Fourth Dimension, Vol. 2 (South Plainfield, NJ: Bridge Publishing, 1983): 36, 76, 83-85.

8. Cho, Fourth Dimension, 9-10, 14, 110, 172; Cho, Fourth Dimension 2, xi-xviii, 20, 27; David Yonggi Cho, Solving Life's Problems (Seoul: Seoul Logos Co., 1980): 48, 73, 125, 132, 135; Cho, Successful Home Cell, 3; Cho, More than Numbers, 23-24, 97, 118; David Yonggi Cho, Praying with Jesus (Altamonte Springs, FL: Creation House, 1987): 91; David Yonggi Cho, Salvation, Health and Prosperity: Our Threefold Blessings in Christ (Altamonte Springs, FL: Creation House, 1987): 11; David Yonggi Cho, The Holy Spirit, My Senior Partner: Understanding the Holy Spirit and His Gifts (Seoul: Seoul Logos Co., 1989): 8; Lee Young Hoon, The Holy Spirit Movement in Korea: Its Historical and Doctrinal Development, PhD thesis (Temple University, 1996): 19-21, 25-26, 179, 204-205, 212-13; Jeong, “Formation and Development,” 17, 26-27, 3°> 216, 225-27, 235, 246-56; Myung, “Spiritual Dimension,” 111, 235-36.

9. Cho, Fourth Dimension 2, 137-138.

10. Cho, More than Numbers, 24; Cho, Holy Spirit, 8-9, 13, 21, 100-102, 111, 167-68; David Yonggi Cho, How to Pray: Patterns of Prayer (Seoul: Seoul Logos Co., 1997): 76-83; Cho, Salvation, 32, 49; Cho, Successful Home Cell, 119-20, 131, 149, 153- 56; David (Paul) Yonggi Cho, Great Businessmen (Seoul: Seoul Logos Co., 1995): 69-75.

11. Paul Yonggi Cho, Suffering... Why Me? (South Plainfield, NJ: Bridge Publishing, 1986): 6, 13, 17, 33-41, 57-62, 89-93; Cho, Salvation, 115-56; Cho, How Can I Be Healed? 15-20; Cho, Praying with Jesus, 115-26; Cho, Successful Home Cell, 41-44; Paul Yonggi Cho, Daniel: Insight on the Life and Dreams of the Prophet from Babylon (Lake Mary, FL: Creation House, 1990); David Yonggi Cho, Revelation: Visions of our Ultimate Victory in Christ (Seoul: Seoul Logos Co., 1991).

12. Yoido Full Gospel Church, Yoido Full Gospel Church (Seoul, 1993): 1; Cho, Solving Life's Problems, 15-16, 47; Cho, Salvation, 11-12, 16-18, 49-50; Cho, Praying with Jesus, 26.

13. Cho, Fourth Dimension, 33-34, 91, 105-106; Cho, Fourth Dimension 2, 76-77, 153-54; Cho, PrayingwithJesus, 50-51; Cho, Salvation, 68; Lee, “Holy Spirit,” 214. For a fuller treatment of this subject, see Allan Anderson, “The Contribution of David Yonggi Cho to a Contextual Theology in Korea,” JPT 12:1 (2003): 87-107.

14- David Yonggi Cho, Successful Home Cell Groups (Seoul: Seoul Logos Co., 1997); Ralph W. Neighbour Jr., Where Do We Go from Here? A Guidebook for the Cell Group Church (Houston, TX: Touch Publications, 1990).

15. Hong Young-gi, “Social Leadership and Church Growth,” in Wonsuk Ma, William Menzies, & Hyeon-sung Bae (eds.), David Yonggi Cho: A Close Look at his Theology and Ministry (Baguio, Philippines: APTS & Goonpo, S Korea: Hansei University Press, 2004): 249; Ig-Jin Kim, History and Theology of Korean Pentecostalism: Sunbogeum (Pure Gospel) Pentecostalism (Zoetermeer, Netherlands: Uitgeverij Boekencentrum, 2003): 289; Allan Anderson, “A ‘Time to Share Love’: Global Pentecostalism and the Social Ministry of David Yonggi Cho,” JPT 21 (2012): 152-67.

16. “The Social Service Activities ofYoido Full Gospel Church,” in Yoido Full Gospel Church, 50th Anniversary ofYoido Full Gospel Church (Seoul: YFGC, 2008); Hong, “Social Leadership,” 241-44.

17. Matthews A. Ojo, The End-Time Army: Charismatic Movements in Modem Nigeria (Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2006): 23-31; Richard Burgess, Nigeria's Christian Revolution: The Civil War Revival and Its Pentecostal Progeny (icjoy-2006) (Oxford: Regnum, 2008): 67-109; Kalu, African Pentecostalism, 90-94.

18. Anderson, Zion and Pentecost, 87-92; Kalu, African Pentecostalism, 240-41; www. charismamag.com/index.php/online-exclusives/1515-35th-anniversary/29036- milestones-in-the-movement, accessed 28 August 2011.

19. Ruthanne Garlock, Fire in His Bones: The Story of Benson Idahosa (South Plainfield, GA: Logos, 1981): 117.

20. Ojo, End-Time Army, 148-58.

21. Asonzeh Ukah, A New Paradigm of Pentecostal Power: A Study of the Redeemed Christian Church of God in Nigeria (Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2008); Ruth Marshall-Fratani, “Mediating the Global and Local in Nigerian Pentecostalism,” Journal of Religion in Africa 28:4 (1998): 298; www.davidoyedepoministries.org/ domi-network/lfcww; I visited these churches in southwestern Nigeria in May 2001.

22. Burgess, Nigeria's Christian Revolution, 272-73, 278.

23. Mensa Otabil, Beyond the Rivers of Ethiopia: A Biblical Revelation on God's Purpose for the Black Race (Accra, 1992); J. Kwabena Asamoah-Gyadu, African Charismatics: Current Developments within Independent Indigenous Pentecostalism in Ghana (Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2005): 112-28, 153; Gerrie ter Haar, “Standing Up for Jesus: A Survey of New Developments in Christianity in Ghana,” Exchange 23:3 (1994): 225-36; Gifford, African Christianity, 76-109.

24. Gifford, Christianity and Politics, 163; Leslie H. Brickman, Rapid Cell Church Growth and Reproduction: Case Study of Eglise Protestante Baptiste Oeuvres et Mission Internationale, Abid January, Cote d'Ivoire, DMin Dissertation (Regent University, 2001); http://neighbourgrams.blogspot.com/2011 /05/cell-church-in- ivory-coast-in-grave.html, accessed 20 December 2011.

25. Charles Ouko, “The Triumph of Vision,” Sunday Nation, Nairobi, 15 February 1998, www.winnersnairobi.org/, accessed 20 December 2011.

26. Richard van Dijk, “Young Born-Again Preachers in Post-Independence Malawi: The Significance of an Extraneous Identity,” in Paul Gifford (ed.), New Dimensions in African Christianity (Nairobi: All Africa Conference of Churches, 1992): 55-65; Gifford, African Christianity, 157-68, 197-205, 220, 230, 233.

27. David Maxwell, ‘“Delivered from the Spirit of Poverty’ : Pentecostalism, Prosperity and Modernity in Zimbabwe,” Journal of Religion in Africa 28:4 (1998): 351-52, 357, 366-68, 372; David Maxwell, African Gifts of the Spirit: Pentecostalism and the Rise of a Zimbabwean Transnational Religious Movement (Oxford: James Currey, 2006).

28. Anderson, “Prosperity Message,” 74-75; Anderson, Zion and Pentecost, 76-78; Gifford, African Christianity, 236-37.

29. Allan Anderson, Bazalwane: African Pentecostals in South Africa (Pretoria: Unisa, 1992): 137-52; Anderson, Zion and Pentecost, 166-72.

30. Kwabena J. Asamoah-Gyadu, “The Church in the African State: The Pentecostal/ Charismatic Experience in Ghana,” Journal of African Christian Thought, 1:2, 1998, 56; Asamoah-Gyadu, African Charismatics, 96; Birgit Meyer, ‘“Make a Complete Break with the Past’: Memory and Post-Colonial Modernity in Ghanaian Pentecostalist Discourse,” Journal of Religion in Africa 28:4 (1998): 323-24; Gifford, African Christianity, 97-109.

31. Anderson, African Reformation: African Initiated Christianity in the Twentieth Century (Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press, 2001): 175-86.

32. Paul Adefarasin, “The Kingdoms of This World,” in C. Peter Wagner & Joseph Thompson (eds.), Out of Africa (Ventura, CA: Regal, 2004): 134-50, 144.

33. T. E. Koshy, Brother Bakht Singh of India (Secunderabad: OM Books, 2003): 57, 438-39, 521; www.tehelka.com/story_main.asp?filename=tsoi3004qaeda. asp&id=5; www.nicmission.org/;www.operationagape.com; accessed 13 July 2011.

34. Personal communication, Wessly Lukose, 14 July 2011; Mandryk, Operation World, 408; Jon Thollander, He Saw a Man Named Mathews (Udaipur: Cross & Crown, 2000); Wessly Lukose, A Contextual Missiology of the Spirit: A Study of Pentecostalism in Rajasthan, India, PhD thesis (University of Birmingham, 2009):

112-22.

CONCLUSIONS

1. Johnson, Barrett & Crossing, “Christianity 2010,” 36; http://religions.pewforum. org/affiliations, accessed 9 April 2010.

2. Anderson, Introduction to Pentecostalism, 97; Martin, Pentecostalism, 67-70.

3. Cox, Fire from Heaven, 83.

4. Sanneh, Disciples of All Nations, 274-75; Johnson, Barrett & Crossing, “Christianity 2010,” 36; Douglas Jacobsen, The World's Christians: Who They Are, Where

They Are, and How They Got There (Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2011): 373; Jenkins, New Faces of Christianity, 188.

5. http://pewforum.org/Christian/Evangelical-Protestant-Churches/ Spirit-and-Power.aspx, accessed 9 April 2010.

6. Martin, On Secularization, 19, 58-59; Jenkins, The New Faces of Christianity, 187-89.

7. Cox, Fire from Heaven, xvi, 83, 104.

8. Jenkins, The Next Christendom, 245-49.

9. Jenkins, The Next Christendom, 254.

10. Miller, Global Pentecostalism, 221.

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