Common section

NOTES

Introduction

1 Thomas Johnston, The History of the Working Classes of Scotland (Yorkshire, UK: EP Publishing, 1974), 319.

2 Susanna Corder, Life of Elizabeth Fry: Compiled from Her Journal, as Edited by Her Daughters, and from Various Other Sources (Philadelphia: Henry Longstreth, 1853), 251, 312; Abraham Harvey, 2nd Officer, “Reminiscences of the Voyage of the Garland Grove 2,” Archives of Tasmania, NS816; Frances J. Woodward, Portrait of Jane: A Life of Lady Franklin (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1951), 143.

Chapter 1: The Grey-Eyed Girl

1 Scottish Record Office. High Court of Justiciary Processes, Reference JC26.

2 T.M. Devine, The Scottish Nation (New York: Viking Press, 1999), 334.

3 Christopher Hibbert, Queen Victoria: A Personal History (Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 2000), 12.

4 Janet R. Glover, The Story of Scotland (New York: Roy Publishers, 1960), 320.

5 Heather Shore, Artful Dodgers: Youth and Crime in Early 19th-Century London (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1999), 49.

6 E. P. Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class (New York: Vintage Books, 1966), 267.

7 Thomas Johnston, The History of the Working Classes of Scotland (Yorkshire, UK: EP Publishing, 1974), 295.

8 L. A. Selby-Bigge, ed., British Moralists: Being Selections from Writers Principally of the Eighteenth Century, Volume I (New York: Dover Publications, 1965), 394.

9 T. R. Malthus, An Essay on the Principle of Population; or, A View of its Past and Present Effects on Human Happiness with an Inquiry into our Prospects Respecting the Future Removal or Mitigation of the Evils which it Occasions (London: Ward, Lock and Co., 1890), 579.

10 Glover, The Story of Scotland, 257.

11 Johnston, The History of the Working Classes of Scotland, 294.

12 W. Hamish Fraser and Irene Maver, eds., Glasgow Volume II: 1830 to 1912 (Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1996), 361.

13 Ibid., 362.

14 Johnston, The History of the Working Classes of Scotland, 319.

15 R. A. Cage, ed., The Working Class in Glasgow, 1750-1914 (London: Croom Helm, 1987), 42.

16 Johnston, The History of the Working Classes of Scotland, 203.

17 Ibid., 273.

18 Ibid., 318.

19 Douglas A. Galbi, “Through Eyes in the Storm: Aspects of the Personal History of Women Workers in the Industrial Revolution,” prepublication draft, Social History, Vol. 21, No. 2 (May 1996), 142-159; http://www.galbithink.org/eyes.pdf, 17.

20 Johnston, The History of the Working Classes of Scotland, 319.

21 Ibid.

22 “Child Labour, Factory Workers: Robert Blincoe,” http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/IRblincoe.htm.

23 Excerpt from A Memoir of Robert Blincoe (1828) by John Brown, http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/IRblincoe.htm.

24 Ibid.

25 Johnston, The History of the Working Classes of Scotland, 322.

26 Samuel Fielden, excerpt from Autobiography of Samuel Fielden (1887), http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/IRpunishments.htm.

27 “Child Labour, Sarah Carpenter,” http:/ /www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/IRpunishments.htm.

28 “Child Labour, Samuel Davy,” http:/ /www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/IRpunishments.htm.

Chapter 2: Crown of Thieves

1 Charles Dickens, Sketches by Boz (London: Everyone’s Library, 1968), 241.

2 Heather Shore, Artful Dodgers: Youth and Crime in Early 19th-Century London (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1999), 7.

3 Henry Mayhew and Others, The London Underworld in the Victorian Period: Authentic First-Person Accounts by Beggars, Thieves and Prostitutes (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 2005), 122.

4 Alasdair Cameron, “Popular Entertainment in Nineteenth-Century Glasgow: Background and Context for the Waggle o’ the Kilt Exhibition,” A Companion to an Exhibition Drawn from the Scottish Theatre Archive and Featuring the Jimmy Logan Collection, Held in the Upper Hall, Hunterian Museum, 7th December 1992-20th February 1993http://www.arts.gla.ac.uk/SESLL/STELLA/STARN/crit/WAGGLE/popular.htm.

5 John MacGibbon, Going Abroad (Wellington, New Zealand: Ngaio Press, 1997), 43.

6 Ibid.

7 “Glasgow Broadside Ballads: Cheap Print and Popular Song Culture in Nineteenth-Century Scotland,” Special Collections Department, Library, University of Glasgow, Scotland, http://special.lib.gla.ac.uk/teach/ballads/.

8 MacGibbon, Going Abroad, 43-44.

9 Archibald R. Adamson, Rambles Round Kilmarnock (T. Bibliobazaar; first published in 1875), 137.

10 Archibald M’Kay, The History of Kilmarnock (BiblioLife; first published in 1848), 11.

11 Scottish Record Office, Reference JC26/671.

12 “Kilmarnock with the Villages of Riccarton and Kilmaurs Ayrshire,” Directory, 1837, by Pigot & Co., http://www.maybole.org/history/Archives/1837directory/kilmarnock.htm.

13 Ibid.

14 Scottish Record Office, Reference JC26/671.

15 Mayhew, The London Underworld in the Victorian Period, 118-119.

16 Scottish Record Office, Reference JC26/671.

17 Ibid.

18 Ibid.

19 M’Kay, The History of Kilmarnock, 170.

20 The Green Guide to Scotland (Watford, Herts, UK: Michelin Travel Publications, 2000), 72.

21 Ayrshire Roots Towns, “Ayr: The Burgh of Newton, The Parish of St Quivox, & Monktown with Prestwick,” Ayrshire Directory, 1837, by Pigot & Co., http://www.ayrshireroots.com/Towns/Ayr/Ayr%201837.htm.

22 Rob Close, Ayrshire and Arran: An Illustrated Architectural Guide (Edinburgh: Royal Incorporation of Architects in Scotland, 1992), 22.

23 South Ayrshire Council, “County Buildings,” http://www.south-ayrshire.gov.uk/maps/countybuildings/.

24 Scottish Record Office, Reference JC26/671.

25 Donald A. Low, The Regency Underworld (Stroud, UK: Sutton Publishing, 2005), 68.

26 Corder, Life of Elizabeth Fry, 301.

27 Scottish Record Office, Reference JC26/671.

28 Ibid.

29 Ibid.

30 Ibid.

31 Lennox, Lord William Pitt, Coaching, with Anecdotes of the Road (London: Hurst & Blackett, Publishers, 1876), 94.

32 Tony Rayner, Female Factory, Female Convicts (Dover, Australia: Esperance Press, 2004), 34.

33 Michael Paterson, Voices from Dickens’ London (Cincinnati, OH: David & Charles, 2007), 255.

Chapter 3: The Angel of Newgate

1 John Kent, Elizabeth Fry (London: B. T. Batsford, 1962), 99-100.

2 Janet Whitney, Elizabeth Fry (London: Guild Books, 1947), 135.

3 Ibid.

4 Ibid.

5 Ibid.

6 Susanna Corder, Life of Elizabeth Fry: Compiled from Her Journal, as Edited by Her Daughters, and from Various Other Sources (Philadelphia: Henry Longstreth, 1853), 244.

7 Whitney, Elizabeth Fry, 110.

8 Stephen Halliday, Newgate: London’s Prototype of Hell (Stroud, UK: Sutton Publishing, 2007), v.

9 Georgina King Lewis, Elizabeth Fry (London: Headley Brothers, 1912), 102.

10 Corder, Life of Elizabeth Fry, 289.

11 Memoir of the Life of Elizabeth Fry, with Extracts from her Journal and Letters, Edited by Two of her Daughters, Vol. I (Philadelphia: J. W. Moore, 1847), 225.

12 Corder, Life of Elizabeth Fry, 238.

13 Whitney, Elizabeth Fry, 178.

14 J. C. Long, George III: The Story of a Complex Man (New York: Little, Brown, 1960), 96.

15 Whitney, Elizabeth Fry, 179.

16 Clive Emsley, Crime and Society in England, 1750-1900 (Harlow, UK: Pearson Education, 2005), 74-75.

17 Nicolas Bentley, The Victorian Scene (London: G. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1968), 105.

18 Whitney, Elizabeth Fry, 178.

19 Ibid.

20 Ibid.

21 Ibid.

22 Memoir of the Life of Elizabeth Fry, 327.

23 Corder, Life of Elizabeth Fry, 262.

24 Memoir of the Life of Elizabeth Fry, 327.

25 Abraham Harvey, 2nd Officer, “Reminiscences of the Voyage of the Garland Grove 2,” Archives of Tasmania, NS816.

Chapter 4: Sweet Sixteen

1 Stephen Halliday, Newgate: London’s Prototype of Hell (Stroud, UK: Sutton Publishing, 2007), 238.

2 Kay Daniels, Convict Women (Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1998), 81.

3 Jean Hatton, Betsy: The Dramatic Biography of Prison Reformer Elizabeth Fry (Oxford, UK: Monarch Books, 2005), 272.

4 Bernard O’Donnell, The Old Bailey and Its Trials (London: Clerke & Cockeran Publishers Limited, 1950), 136.

5 Ibid.

6 Halliday, Newgate, 239.

7 John Kent, Elizabeth Fry (London: B. T. Batsford, 1962), 125.

8 Halliday, Newgate, 59.

9 Arthur Griffiths, The Chronicles of Newgate (New York: Dorset Press, 1987), 412.

10 Ibid., 105.

11 Philip Priestley, Victorian Prison Lives (London: Methuen, 1985), 5.

12 Frank Lewis, “The Cost of Convict Transportation: Britain to Australia, 1796-1810,” Economic History Review, Series 2, Vol. 41, No. 4 (1988), 521.

13 Dennis Bardens, Elizabeth Fry: Britain’s Second Lady on the Five-Pound Note (London: Chanadon Publications, 2004), 55.

14 Description List: Agnes McMillan, Archives of Tasmania, CON 19/1/14, 438.

15 Charles Bateson, The Convict Ships, 1787-1868 (North Sydney: Library of Australian History, 1985), 65.

16 Abraham Harvey, 2nd Officer, “Reminiscences of the Voyage of the Garland Grove 2,” Archives of Tasmania, NS816.

17 Bateson, The Convict Ships, 1787-1868, 66.

18 Ibid., 66.

19 James Ellis, Surgeon Superintendent, “Surgeon’s Report Westmoreland,” AJCP ADM 101/74, Archives of Tasmania, Reel 3212.

20 Phillip Tardif, Notorious Strumpets and Dangerous Girls (North Ryde, Australia: Angus & Robertson Publishers, 1990), 12.

21 William H. Render, Through Prison Bars: The Lives and Labours of John Howard & Elizabeth Fry (London: S. W. Partridge, 1894), 110.

22 Conduct Record, Agnes McMillan, Archives of Tasmania, CON 40/1/8, 9; Conduct Record, Janet Houston, Archives of Tasmania, CON 40/1/6, 9.

23 Elizabeth Fry, Observations on the Visiting, Superintendence, and Government of Female Prisoners (London: John & Arthur Arch, 1827), 37-38; Tony Rayner, Female Factory, Female Convicts (Dover, Australia: Esperance Press, 2004), 47.

24 J. R. Roberts, Surgeon Superintendent, “Journal of His Majesty’s Convict Ship Royal Admiral , between the 23rd day of February, 1842 and 14th day of October, 1842,” transcription courtesy of Port Arthur Historic Site for Female Factory Research Group.

25 Allan M. Grocott, Convicts, Clergymen and Churches: Attitudes of Convicts and Ex-Convicts towards the Churches and Clergy in New South Wales from 1788 to 1851 (Sydney: Sydney University Press, 1980), 56.

26 “Convict Maid,” Australian Folk Songs, from Butterss & Webby, Penguin Book of Australian Balladshttp://folkstream.com/026.html.

27 Ellis, “Surgeon’s Report Westmoreland.”

28 Frank Murcot Bladen, ed., “Letter from a Female Convict, 29th March 1791,” Historical Records of New South Wales, Vol. 2 (Sydney: Charles Potter, Government Printer, 1893), 779.

29 Bateson, The Convict Ships, 1787-1868, 250.

30 Ellis, “Surgeon’s Report Westmoreland.”

31 Conduct Record, Agnes McMillan, Archives of Tasmania, CON 40/1/8, 9.

32 Ibid.

33 Conduct Record, Janet Houston, Archives of Tasmania, CON 40/1/6, 9.

34 Bateson, The Convict Ships, 1787-1868, 76.

35 Ibid.

36 Ellis, “Surgeon’s Report Westmoreland.”

37 Harvey, “Reminiscences.”

38 Ellis, “Surgeon’s Report Westmoreland.”

39 Ibid.

40 Hyland, Jeanette E., Maids, Masters and Magistrates (Blackmans Bay, Australia: Clan Hogarth Publishing, 2007), 15.

Chapter 5: More Sinned Against Than Sinning

1 Hobart Town Courier, “Trade and Shipping,” Friday, 9 December 1836, 3.

2 James Ellis, Surgeon Superintendent, “Surgeon’s Report Westmoreland,” AJCP ADM 101/74, Archives of Tasmania, Reel 3212.

3 Linus W. Miller, Notes of an Exile to Van Diemen’s Land (New York: Johnson Reprint Corporation, 1968; first published in 1846), 260.

4 Margaret C. Dillon, “Convict Labour and Colonial Society in the Campbell Town Police District: 1820-1839,” unpublished doctoral thesis (University of Tasmania, 2008), 179.

5 Description List: Janet Houston, Archives of Tasmania, CON 19/1/14, 415.

6 Hobart Town Courier, Friday, 23 December 1836, 2.

7 Charles Wooley and Michael Tatlow, A Walk in Old Hobart (Walk Guides Australia, 2007), 4.

8 John West, The History of Tasmania (London: Angus & Robertson Publishers, 1971; first published in 1852), 342.

9 Alan Villiers, Vanished Fleets (Oxford, UK: Scribner’s, 1974), 145-146.

10 Phillip Tardif, Notorious Strumpets and Dangerous Girls (North Ryde, Australia: Angus & Robertson Publishers, 1990), 18.

11 West, The History of Tasmania, 47.

12 Peter Bolger, Hobart Town (Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1973), 17.

13 Ibid., 60.

14 Ibid., 36.

15 Sir William Molesworth, Report from the Select Committee of the House of Commons on Transportation; Together with a Letter from the Archbishop of Dublin on the Same Subject, and Notes by Sir William Molesworth, Bart., Chairman of the Committee 1838 (Adelaide: Libraries Board of South Australia, 1967), 36.

16 Colonial Times (Hobart, Australia), Friday, 23 March 1827, 4.

17 Kay Daniels, Convict Women (Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1998), 86.

18 Henry Melville, The History of Van Diemen’s Land (Sydney: Horwitz-Grahame, 1965), 161.

19 Bolger, Hobart Town, 59.

20 Hyland, Jeanette E., Maids, Masters and Magistrates (Blackmans Bay, Australia: Clan Hogarth Publishing, 2007), 24.

21 Wooley and Tatlow, A Walk in Old Hobart, 82.

22 Hyland, Maids, Masters and Magistrates, 24.

23 Joy Damousi, Depraved and Disorderly: Female Convicts, Sexuality and Gender in Colonial Australia (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 51.

24 Hobart Town Courier, “Rules and Regulations,” Saturday, 10 October 1829, 4.

25 Ibid.

26 Ibid.

27 Ibid.

28 Hyland, Maids, Masters and Magistrates, 126.

29 Hobart Town Courier, Friday, 30 December 1836, 2.

30 Hobart Town Courier, Friday, 13 January 1837, 2.

31 Miller, Notes of an Exile to Van Diemen’s Land, 266-267.

32 Frances J. Woodward, Portrait of Jane: A Life of Lady Franklin (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1951), 143.

33 Thomas Timpson, Memoirs of Mrs. Elizabeth Fry (Elibron Classics; first published in 1847), 150.

34 Ibid., 158.

35 Conduct Record, Agnes McMillan, Archives of Tasmania, CON 40/1/8, 9.

36 Ibid.

37 West, The History of Tasmania, 254.

38 Conduct Record, Ellen Scott, Archives of Tasmania, CON 40/1/9.

39 Damousi, Depraved and Disorderly, 59.

40 Miller, Notes of an Exile to Van Diemen’s Land, 262.

41 Colonial Times (Hobart, Australia), Tuesday, 10 March 1840, 4.

42 Daniels, Convict Women, 140.

43 Damousi, Depraved and Disorderly, 61.

44 Conduct Record, Agnes McMillan, Archives of Tasmania, CON 40/1/8, 9.

Chapter 6: Ludlow’s Choice

1 Daniel Pool, What Jane Austen Ate and Charles Dickens Knew (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993), 30.

2 Eliza Lynn Linton, “On the Side of the Maids,” Cornhill Magazine, Vol. 29, No. 171 (1874), 304.

3 Pool, What Jane Austen Ate, 30.

4 Ibid., 252.

5 Judith Flanders, Inside the Victorian Home (New York: W. W. Norton, 2006), 371.

6 Charles Dickens, Sketches by Boz (London: Everyone’s Library, 1968), 164.

7 Ellen W. Darwin, “Domestic Service,” Nineteenth Century, Vol. 39, No. 162 (August 1890), 290.

8 Sally Mitchell, ed., Victorian Britain: An Encyclopedia (New York: Garland Publishing, 1988), 706.

9 Linton, “On the Side of the Maids,” 304.

10 Bobbie Kalman, Victorian Christmas (New York: Crabtree Publishing, 1997), 6.

11 Sian Rees, The Floating Brothel (New York: Hyperion Press, 2002), 37.

12 Ibid., 24.

13 The Old Bailey Online: The Proceedings of the Old Bailey, 1674-1913, “History of the Old Bailey Courthouse,” http://www.oldbaileyonline.org//static/The-old-bailey.jsp.

14 Rees, The Floating Brothel, 25.

15 Proceedings of the Old Bailey Central Criminal Court, Sessions Paper, held on Monday, 17 December 1838, Reference Number: t18381217-301, http://www.oldbaileyonline.org//Ibrowse.jsp?id=def1-301-18381217&div=t18381217-301.

16 Ibid.

17 The Old Bailey Online: The Proceedings of the Old Bailey, 1674-1913, “Trial Procedures: How Trials Were Conducted at the Old Bailey,” http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/static/ITrial-procedures.jsp.

18 Proceedings of the Old Bailey Central Criminal Court, Sessions Paper, held on Monday, 17 December 1838, Reference Number: t18381217-301, http://www.oldbaileyonline.org//Ibrowse.jsp?id=def1-301-18381217&div=t18381217-301.

19 Henry Mayhew with William S. Gilbert, London Characters: Illustrations of the Humour, Pathos, and Peculiarities (London: Chatto & Windus, 1881), 216.

20 Ibid., 213.

21 Clive Emsley, Crime and Society in England, 1750-1900 (Harlow, UK: Pearson Education, 2005), 201.

22 Proceedings of the Old Bailey Central Criminal Court, Sessions Paper, held on Monday, 17 December 1838, Reference Number: t18381217-350, http://www.oldbaileyonline.org//Ibrowse.jsp?id=def1-350-18381217&div=t18381217-350.

23 Proceedings of the Old Bailey Central Criminal Court, Sessions Paper, held on Monday, 17 December 1838, Reference Number: t18381217-330, http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=def1-330-18381217&div=t18381217-330.

24 The Old Bailey Online: The Proceedings of the Old Bailey, 1674-1913, “Punishments at the Old Bailey,” http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/static/Punishment.jsp.

25 Mayhew, London Characters, 204.

26 Heather Shore, Artful Dodgers: Youth and Crime in Early 19th-Century London (Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 1999), 134.

27 Proceedings of the Old Bailey Central Criminal Court, Sessions Paper, held on Monday, 17 December 1838, Reference Number: t18381217-417, http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=def1-417-18381217&div=t18381217-417.

28 Proceedings of the Old Bailey Central Criminal Court, Sessions Paper, held on Monday, 17 December 1838, Reference Number: t18381217-269, http://www.oldbaileyonline.org//Ibrowse.jsp?id=def1-269-18381217&div=t18381217-269.

29 Proceedings of the Old Bailey Central Criminal Court, Sessions Paper, held on Monday, 17 December 1838, Reference Number: t18381217-333, http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=def1-333-18381217&div=t18381217-333.

30 Proceedings of the Old Bailey Central Criminal Court, Sessions Paper, held on Monday, 17 December 1838, Reference Number: t18381217-333, http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/browse.jsp?id=def1-300-18381217&div=t18381217-300.

31 Gay Hendriksen, Dr. Carol Liston, and Dr. Trudy Cowley, Women Transported: Life in Australia’s Convict Female Factories (Parramatta, Australia: Parramatta Heritage Centre), 18.

32 Ibid.

Chapter 7: Liverpool Street

1 Michele Field and Timothy Millett, eds., Convict Love Tokens (Kent Town, Australia: Wakefield Press, 1998), 13-14.

2 Ibid., 4.

3 Description List: Ann Price, Archives of Tasmania, CON 19/1/13, 296.

4 Ibid., 141.

5 Description List: Mary Grady, Archives of Tasmania, CON 19/1/13, 261.

6 Description List: Mary Sullivan, Archives of Tasmania, CON 19/1/13, 306.

7 Description List: Hannah Herbert, Archives of Tasmania, CON 19/1/13, 265.

8 Description List: Amy Wilson, Archives of Tasmania, CON 19/1/13, 321.

9 John Love, Surgeon Superintendent, “Surgeon’s Report Mellish,” ADM 101/53, Archives of Tasmania, Reel 3204.

10 Patrick Howard, To Hell or to Hobart (Kenthurst, Australia: Kangaroo Press, 1993), 124.

11 Malcolm Ronan, Up and Down the River: The Butlers from Benenden (Melbourne, Australia: Macron Publishing, 1998), 14.

12 Ibid.

13 Conduct Record, Amy Wilson, Archives of Tasmania, CON 40/1/10, 175; Conduct Record, Mary Grady, Archives of Tasmania, CON 40/1/4, 177; Conduct Record, Ann Price, Archives of Tasmania, CON 40/1/8, 141.

14 Conduct Record, Ludlow Tedder, Archives of Tasmania, CON 40/1/10, 113.

15 Colonial Times (Hobart, Australia), Tuesday, 10 March 1840, 4.

16 Joan C. Brown, Poverty Is Not a Crime: Social Services in Tasmania, 1803-1900 (Hobart, Australia: Tasmanian Historical Research Association, 1972), 63.

17 Kay Daniels, Convict Women (Sydney: Allen & Unwin, 1998), 124.

18 Colonial Times (Hobart, Australia), “Fatality of the Factory Nursery Repeated!” Tuesday, 29 May 1838, 4.

19 Colonial Times (Hobart, Australia), “Coroners Inquest: Inspection of the Female Factory,” Tuesday, 3 April 1838, 6.

20 Colonial Times, “Fatality of the Factory Nursery Repeated!”

21 Ibid.

22 Ibid.

23 George Mackaness, Some Private Correspondence of Sir John and Lady Jane Franklin (Tasmania, 1837-1845), Part I (Sydney: D. S. Ford Printers, 1947), 37-38.

24 Rebecca Kippen, “‘And the Mortality Frightful’: Infant and Child Mortality in the Convict Nurseries of Van Diemen’s Land,” paper for Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, 5.

25 Hobart Town Courier, “Fashions for March,” Friday, 23 July 1841, 4.

26 Brown, Poverty Is Not a Crime, 27.

27 Joyce Purtscher, Children in Queen’s Orphanage Hobart Town, 1828-1863 (New Town, Australia: Irene Schaffer, 1993).

28 Joyce Purtscher, “Queen’s Orphanage Hobart Town, 1828-1879,” paper presented to Female Factory Research Group, November 2007, 2, 8.

29 Ibid., 9.

30 Ibid., 12.

31 Ibid., 1.

32 Brown, Poverty Is Not a Crime, 67.

33 Purtscher, “Queen’s Orphanage Hobart Town, 1828-1879,” 7.

34 Ibid., 4.

35 Ibid., 6.

36 John Price, Letter to Josiah Spode, Principal Superintendent of Convicts, March 19, 1841, Archives of Tasmania, Colonial Secretary’s Office 5/1/282/7406.

37 Ibid.

38 Ibid.

39 Ibid.

40 Margaret Rolfe, Australian Quilt Heritage (Rushcutters Bay, Australia: J. B. Fairfax Press, 1998), 19.

41 Mackaness, Some Private Correspondence of Sir John and Lady Jane Franklin, 22.

42 Hobart Town Courier, Friday, 30 July 1841, 3.

43 Supplementary Conduct Record, Ellen Scott, Archives of Tasmania, CON 32/1/1, 309.

44 Female Factory Research Group, Convict Lives: Women at Cascades Female Factory (Hobart, Australia: Research Tasmania, 2009), 68.

45 Colonial Times (Hobart, Australia), Tuesday, 10 March 1840, 4.

46 Female Factory Research Group, Convict Lives, 52, 55.

47 Female Factory Research Group, “Infant Deaths at Hobart Nurseries” (name misspelled as William Hoaston), http://www.femalefactory.com.au/FFRG/nurseries.htm.

Chapter 8: The Yellow C

1 Conduct Record, Janet Houston, Archives of Tasmania, CON 40/1/6, 9.

2 Joy Damousi, Depraved and Disorderly: Female Convicts, Sexuality and Gender in Colonial Australia (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 109.

3 Damousi, Depraved and Disorderly, 91.

4 Ibid.

5 Rebecca Kippen, “‘And the Mortality Frightful’: Infant and Child Mortality in the Convict Nurseries of Van Diemen’s Land,” paper for Research School of Social Sciences, Australian National University, 4.

6 Kippen, “‘And the Mortality Frightful,’” 4.

7 Hobart Town Courier, “Rules and Regulations,” Saturday, 10 October 1829, 4.

8 Kippen, “‘And the Mortality Frightful,’” 5.

9 “Convict Maid,” Australian Folk Songs, from Butterss & Webby, Penguin Book of Australian Balladshttp://folkstream.com/026.html.

10 Hyland, Jeanette E., Maids, Masters and Magistrates (Blackmans Bay, Australia: Clan Hogarth Publishing, 2007), 18.

11 Colonial Times (Hobart, Australia), Tuesday, 7 April 1846, 3.

12 James Boyce, Van Diemen’s Land (Melbourne, Australia: Black, 2009), 179.

13 Lt. Colonel Godfrey Charles Mundy, Our Antipodes: or, Residence and Rambles in the Australasian Colonies, with a Glimpse of the Goldfields (London: Richard Bentley, 1855), 501.

14 Hobart Town Courier, “Rules and Regulations.”

15 Damousi, Depraved and Disorderly, 60.

16 Description List: Eliza Smith, Archives of Tasmania, CON 19/1/12, 247.

17 Description List: Mary Devereux, Archives of Tasmania, CON 19/1/13, 511.

18 Description List: Frances Hutchinson, Archives of Tasmania, CON 19/1/14, 17.

19 David Kent, “Decorative Bodies: The Significance of Convicts’ Tattoos,” Journal of Australian Studies, No. 53 (1 June 1997), 79.

20 Conduct Record, Eliza Smith, Archives of Tasmania, CON 40/1/10, 14.

21 Damousi, Depraved and Disorderly, 61.

22 Colonial Times (Hobart, Australia), “Calendar for the Ensuing Week,” Tuesday, 16 August 1842, 2.

23 Damousi, Depraved and Disorderly, 60.

24 Ibid., 61.

25 Colonial Times (Hobart, Australia), “The Factory,” Tuesday, 1 February 1842, 2.

26 Ibid.

27 George Mackaness, Some Private Correspondence of Sir John and Lady Jane Franklin (Tasmania, 1837-1845), Part II (Sydney: D. S. Ford Printers, 1947), 51.

28 Ibid.

29 Ibid.

30 Kippen, “‘And the Mortality Frightful,’” 7.

31 Ludlow Tedder, Testimony before the Principal Superintendent, Tuesday, 14 June 1842, Archives of Tasmania, AC 480/1/1.

32 Description List: Eliza Morgan, Archives of Tasmania, CON 19/1/14, 235.

33 Stefan Petrow, “Policing in a Penal Colony: Governor Arthur’s Police System in Van Die-men’s Land, 1826-1836,” Law and History Review, Vol. 18, No. 2 (Summer 2000), http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/lhr/18.2/petrow.html (18 October 2009).

34 Ibid.

35 Ibid.

36 Eleanor Conlin Casella, “To Watch or Restrain: Female Convict Prisons in 19th-Century Tasmania,” International Journal of Historical Archaeology, Vol. 5, No. 1 (2001), 61.

37 Lucy Frost and Hamish Maxwell-Stewart, Chain Letters: Narrating Convict Lives (Carlton South, Australia: Melbourne University Press, 2001), 81.

38 Ibid.

39 Ibid., 82.

40 Hobart Court of Petty Sessions May-November 1842, Tuesday, 21 June 1842, Archives of Tasmania, LC 247/1/11, 154.

41 Hobart Town Courier, “Rules and Regulations,” Saturday, 10 October 1829, 4.

42 Conduct Record, Ludlow Tedder, Archives of Tasmania, CON 40/1/10, 113.

43 Gay Hendriksen, Dr. Carol Liston, and Dr. Trudy Cowley, Women Transported: Life in Australia’s Convict Female Factories (Parramatta, Australia: Parramatta Heritage Centre), 65.

44 Ibid., 62.

45 Queen’s Asylum, Register of Children Admitted and Discharged from the Male and Female Orphan School, 1828-1863, SWD28, 13.

46 Ticket of Leave, Ludlow Tedder, New South Wales and Tasmania, Australia, Convict Pardons 1834-1859, http://search.ancestrylibrary.com/search/db.aspx?dbid=1184.

Chapter 9: Flames of Love

1 Colonial Times (Hobart, Australia), “Rules and Regulations for Young Ladies,” Friday, 4 March 1831, 4.

2 Phil Cullen (Agnes McMillan’s great-grandson-in-law), Agnes McMillan family history.

3 Robert Hughes, The Fatal Shore (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1987), 454.

4 Hobart Town Courier, Friday, 14 September 1838, 2.

5 Brad Williams, Heritage Project Officer, Southern Midlands Council, Oatlands Gaol Conservation Management Plan 2006, 17, http://www.southernmidlands.tas.gov.au/webdata/resources/files/OatlandsGaol_CMP_compressed.pdf.

6 Anna Gurnhill, “Oatlands Supreme Court House and Collections Access and Interpretation Plan,” People and Place, Vol. 2 (March 2007), 3, http://www.southernmidlands.tas.gov.au/webdata/resources/files/OatlandsCourt_House_Interps_Plan_Volume_2.pdf.

7 K. R. Von Stieglitz, A History of Oatlands and Jericho (Launceston, Australia: Telegraph Printery, 1960), 14.

8 Ibid., 71.

9 Bruce Hindmarsh, “Beer and Fighting: Some Aspects of Male Convict Leisure in Rural Van Diemen’s Land, 1820-40,” Journal of Australian Studies, Vol. 63 (1 December 1999), 153.

10 Ibid., 154-156.

11 Vera Fisher, Oatlands Heritage Walk One, Municipality of Oatlands, 8.

12 Description List: William Roberts, Archives of Tasmania, CON 18/1/21, 76.

13 Phil Cullen, Agnes McMillan family history.

14 Alan Villiers, Vanished Fleets (Oxford, UK: Scribner’s, 1974), 62.

15 Ken McGoogan, Lady Franklin’s Revenge (London: Bantam Books, 2007), 251.

16 James Boyce, Van Diemen’s Land (Melbourne, Australia: Black, 2009), 232.

17 Von Stieglitz, A History of Oatlands and Jericho, 71.

18 McGoogan, Lady Franklin’s Revenge, 233.

19 Boyce, Van Diemen’s Land, 157.

20 Ibid.

21 Charles Darwin, A Naturalist’s Voyage: Journal of Researches into the Natural History and Geology of the Countries Visited during the Voyage of H.M.S. ‘Beagle’ Round the World (London: John Murray, 1889), 531.

22 Ibid., 534.

23 Boyce, Van Diemen’s Land, 158.

24 John West, The History of Tasmania (London: Angus & Robertson Publishers, 1971; first published in 1852), 543.

25 Charles Wooley and Michael Tatlow, A Walk in Old Launceston (Battery Point, Tasmania: Walk Guides Australia, 2007), 26.

26 Boyce, Van Diemen’s Land, 224-225.

27 Colonial Times (Hobart, Australia), Tuesday, 23 April 1839, 1.

28 Phillip Tardif, Notorious Strumpets and Dangerous Girls (North Ryde, Australia: Angus & Robertson Publishers, 1990), 1476.

29 Ibid.

30 Tony Rayner, Female Factory, Female Convicts (Dover, Australia: Esperance Press, 2004), 126-127.

31 Gay Hendriksen, Dr. Carol Liston, and Dr. Trudy Cowley, Women Transported: Life in Australia’s Convict Female Factories (Parramatta, Australia: Parramatta Heritage Centre), 61-62.

32 Tardif, Notorious Strumpets and Dangerous Girls, 1477.

33 Colonial Times (Hobart, Australia), Friday, 25 September 1846, 4.

34 Richmond Primary School website, Department of Education, Tasmania, http://www.richmond.tased.edu.au/School/Principal/Principal.htm.

35 Michael Tatlow, Charles Wooley, and Peter Mercer, A Tour of Old Tasmania (Battery Point, Tasmania: Walk Guides Australia, 2008), 100.

36 Colonial Times (Hobart, Australia), “Great Demonstration—Jubilee—Cessation of Transportation,” Thursday, 11 August 1853, 2.

37 Ibid.

38 Ibid.

39 Colonial Times (Hobart, Australia), “Great Demonstration.”

40 Ibid.

41 Ibid.

42 Colonial Times (Hobart, Australia), “The Jubilee,” Tuesday, 9 August 1853, 2.

43 Colonial Times (Hobart, Australia), “Abolition of Transportation—Free Institutions—Slanderous Despatches,” Tuesday, 25 December 1849, 2.

44 Boyce, Van Diemen’s Land, 236.

45 Colonial Times, “Abolition of Transportation.”

46 Ibid.

47 Peter Bolger, Hobart Town (Canberra: Australian National University Press, 1973), 52.

48 Ibid.

49 Ibid., 50.

50 Colonial Times (Hobart, Australia), “Jubilee—10th August,” Saturday, 6 August 1853, 2.

51 Rayner, Female Factory, Female Convicts, 186.

52 L. L. Robson, The Convict Settlers of Australia (Carlton, Australia: Melbourne University Press, 1965), 10.

53 Ballina Chronicle, “Condition of the Poor,” Mayo, Ireland, Wednesday, 6 June 1849.

54 John Williams, Ordered to the Island (Darlinghurst, Australia: Crossing Press, 1994), 14.

55 Ibid., 7.

56 Susanna Corder, Life of Elizabeth Fry: Compiled from Her Journal, as Edited by Her Daughters, and from Various Other Sources (Philadelphia: Henry Longstreth, 1853), 255.

57 Williams, Ordered to the Island, 8.

58 Trudy Mae Cowley, A Drift of Derwent Ducks (Hobart, Australia: Research Tasmania, 2005), 105.

59 Ibid., 247.

60 Description List: Bridget Mulligan, Archives of Tasmania, CON 19/1/9.

61 Cowley, A Drift of Derwent Ducks, 99.

62 Charles Bateson, The Convict Ships, 1787-1868 (North Sydney: Library of Australian History, 1985), 73.

63 John Moody, Surgeon Superintendent, “Surgeon’s Report Blackfriar,” ADM 101/12, Archives of Tasmania, Reel 3189.

64 Conduct Record, Bridget Mulligan, Archives of Tasmania, CON 41/1/30.

65 Description List: Mary Rennicks, Archives of Tasmania, CON 19/1/9,160.

66 Patrick Howard, To Hell or to Hobart (Kenthurst, Australia: Kangaroo Press, 1993), 154.

67 Williams, Ordered to the Island, 113.

68 Boyce, Van Diemen’s Land, 226.

69 Description List: John Wild, Archives of Tasmania, CON 18/1/30, 80.

70 Mary Binks (Bridget Mulligan’s great-granddaughter), Bridget Mulligan family history.

71 Conduct Record, Mary Rennicks, Archives of Tasmania, CON 41/1/30, 222.

72 Boyce, Van Diemen’s Land, 250.

Chapter 10: Bendigo’s Gold

1 Geoff Hocking, Gold: A Pictorial History of the Australian Goldrush (Rowville, Australia: Five Mile Press, 2006), 50.

2 Hocking, Gold, 34.

3 Ibid.

4 Maitland Mercury & Hunter River General Advertiser (New South Wales, Australia), “Discovery of an Extensive Gold Field,” Saturday, 17 May 1851, 4.

5 Hocking, Gold, 45.

6 Colonial Times (Hobart, Australia), Friday, 23 May 1851, 3.

7 William Manley Chambers, “Licensee—Sailor’s Return,” Archives of Tasmania, Hobart Town Gazette, 5 August 1850, 29 September 1850, 30 September 1851.

8 Argus (Melbourne, Australia), “Shipping Intelligence,” Thursday, 27 May 1852, 4.

9 Judith O’Neill, Transported to Van Diemen’s Land (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1977), 32.

10 Hocking, Gold, 76-77.

11 Ibid., 129.

12 Ellen Clacy, A Lady’s Visit to the Gold Diggings of Australia in 1852 to 1853 (Kessinger Publishing), 8.

13 Hocking, Gold, 101-103.

14 Ibid., 120.

15 Clacy, A Lady’s Visit, 12.

16 Hocking, Gold, 114.

17 Ibid., 73.

18 Ibid., 85.

19 Frank Cusack, Bendigo: A History (Kangaroo Flat, Australia: Bendigo Modern Press, 2006), 32.

20 Clacy, A Lady’s Visit, 25.

21 Ibid., 33.

22 Ibid., 28.

23 Hocking, Gold, 122.

24 Laurel Johnson, Women of Eureka (Ballarat, Australia: Historic Montrose Cottage and Eureka Museum, 1995), 8.

25 Ibid., 6.

26 O’Neill, Transported to Van Diemen’s Land, 36.

27 Hocking, Gold, 132.

28 Ibid., 137.

29 Ibid., 136.

30 Ibid.

31 Ibid., 142.

32 Cathryn Game, ed., We Swear by the Southern Cross: Investigations of Eureka and Its Legacy to Australia’s Democracy (Carlton, Australia: Curriculum Corporation, 2004), 57.

33 Hocking, Gold, 146.

34 Argus (Melbourne, Australia), “To the Colonists of Victoria,” Tuesday, 10 April 1855, 7.

35 Hocking, Gold, 146.

36 Johnson, Women of Eureka, 22.

37 Ballina Beacon, “The Passing of a Pioneer: Mr. William Roberts,” Monday, 29 July 1935.

38 Hocking, Gold, 155.

39 Glenda Manwaring, At the Crossroads: The History of the Wilsons Ridges/Wollongbar/Alpha-dale Cemetery and St. Pauls Church (Daisy Hill, Australia: Glenda Manwaring, 1996).

40 Hocking, Gold, 13.

41 Cusack, Bendigo: A History, 71-73.

42 Bendigo Advertiser, Arabella Oliver, obituary, Tuesday, 3 September 1918.

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