Notes

PART ONE: THE CHAPTERS OF BOOK ONE

ONE

  1.  John 8: 12

  2.  Mark 3: 5

  3.  The direct reference is to the Book of Revelation 2: 17, but it relates to the manna provided by God to the Jews in the wilderness (Exodus) and also to John 6: 46–51.

  4.  Romans 8: 9

  5.  This is a direct attack on post-Thomist theologians who argued over fine details of theology.

  6.  Ecclesiastes 1: 2

  7.  Deuteronomy 6: 13

  8.  Galatians 5: 16

  9.  Ecclesiastes 1: 8

TWO

  1.  Aristotle, Metaphysics, 1.i

  2.  Ecclesiasticus 19: 22

  3.  1 Corinthians 13: 1–3

  4.  1 Timothy 3: 9

  5.  Romans 11: 20

THREE

  1.  Numbers 12: 8

  2.  Jeremiah 5: 21; John 12: 40; Romans 11: 8 and Psalm 115: 4–8 in reference to idols.

  3.  John 1: 3

  4.  John 8: 25–7. The writer is referring to the Latin Vulgate translation.

  5.  John 14: 6

  6.  Jeremiah 31: 3

  7.  Cf. the Liturgy of St James. See the hymn ‘Let all mortal flesh keep silence’.

  8.  Wisdom 10: 12

  9.  1 Corinthians 9: 24–7

10.  Matthew 7: 17–20

11.  This refers to a Religious (Monastic) Community.

12.  The whole section reflects Ecclesiastes 2.

13.  Psalm 103: 1, 5ff. and 1 John 2: 17

14.  Romans 1: 21–3

15.  Philippians 2: 1–9 and 3: 8

FOUR

  1.  Ecclesiasticus 19: 16

  2.  Genesis 8: 21

  3.  Ecclesiasticus 14: 1

  4.  Tobit 4: 19

  5.  Ecclesiasticus 34: 9

FIVE

  1.  Seneca, Letters, XII

  2.  Augustine on Psalm 36

  3.  Psalm 117: 2; 1 Peter 2: 24–5

  4.  Hebrews 1: 1

  5.  Ecclesiasticus 6: 35

  6.  This refers to the early Fathers of the Church.

SEVEN

  1.  Psalm 118: 8–9

  2.  Psalm 4: 5

  3.  James 4: 6

  4.  2 Corinthians 10: 17

  5.  Psalm 94: 11; John 2 : 25

  6.  Isaiah 55: 8

EIGHT

  1.  This chapter and chapters 9, 10, 11, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 and 25 relate mainly to those under vows in Religious Communities.

  2.  Ecclesiasticus 8: 19

NINE

  1.  Cf. 1 Peter 5: 1–7

TEN

  1.  Matthew 26: 41

  2.  Ephesians 4: 29

  3.  James 3: 5

  4.  Acts 2: 42. This describes how the devotio moderna operated.

ELEVEN

  1.  Matthew 5: 8

  2.  Matthew 3: 10

  3.  1 Corinthians 9: 27

  4.  Matthew 25: 23

TWELVE

  1.  1 Peter 2: 11

  2.  John 15: 5

  3.  Philippians 1: 23

THIRTEEN

  1.  John 16: 33

  2.  Job 7: 1

  3.  1 Peter 4: 7

  4.  1 Peter 5: 8

  5.  Acts 14: 22

  6.  Ecclesiasticus 9: 11

  7.  James 1: 14

  8.  Matthew 12: 45

  9.  Colossians 1: 11

10.  Psalm 107: 23–7

11.  Ecclesiasticus 31: 26

12.  Cf. Ovid, Remedies for Love 91, in which Ovid instructs his readers on how to extricate themselves from a love affair.

13.  1 Corinthians 10: 13

14.  Judith 8: 17; 1 Peter 5: 6

15.  Luke 1: 52

FOURTEEN

  1.  Matthew 7: 1

  2.  Philippians 3: 21, but this section is a reflection on Philippians 2: 3–11

FIFTEEN

  1  Colossians 1: 16–19

SIXTEEN

  1.  Matthew 6: 13

  2.  Matthew 6: 9

  3.  Genesis 50: 20

  4.  Galatians 6: 2

  5.  Galatians 6: 5

  6.  2 Corinthians 3: 5

  7.  Proverbs 3: 7

  8.  1 Thessalonians 5: 11

  9.Colossians 3: 13

SEVENTEEN

  1.  Philippians 3: 6

  2.  Revelation 2: 10

  3.  Stability is a great principle of the Benedictine Rule.

  4.  1 Peter 2: 11; Hebrews 11: 13

  5.  1 Corinthians 4: 10

  6.  The tonsure is the shaven head of the monk, which he is given on entering the monastery. The habit is the distinctive garment of the Order he enters.

  7.  Ecclesiastes 1: 18

  8.  Luke 22: 26–7

  9.  Wisdom 3: 6

EIGHTEEN

  1.  Hebrews 10: 32; 1 Corinthians 4: 11

  2.  John 12: 25

  3Labore est orare was the essential principle of the Religious Life. See The Rule of St Benedict.

  4.  Exodus 33: 11

  5.  James 4: 4

NINETEEN

  1.  See Psalm 139

  2.  Proverbs 16: 9

  3.  Jeremiah 10: 23

  4.  Ephesians 6: 11

  5.  This is a reference to the monastic practice of self-mortification by flagellation.

  6.  Romans 8: 18

  7.  Luke 12: 43–4; cf. Matthew 24: 47

TWENTY

  1.  Seneca, Epistolae Morales VII. The Roman writer Seneca lived at the time of Christ and died in AD 65. There are 124 of his letters on morals.

  2.  Mark 6: 31

  3.  Matthew 6: 6

  4.  Psalm 4: 4; Isaiah 26: 20 The author is relying on a translation in the Vulgate.

  5.  Ecclesiasticus 39: 1–3

  6.  Psalm 6: 6; Psalm 51: 7

  7.  1 John 2: 17

  8.  Proverbs 23: 31–2

  9.  Ecclesiastes 1: 10

10.  Ecclesiastes 2: 11

11.  Psalm 121: 1; Isaiah 40: 26

12.  Matthew 6: 6; Isaiah 26: 20

TWENTY-ONE

  1.  Proverbs 1: 7; 19: 23

  2.  Matthew 25: 41. This passage reflects the belief of the time about purgatory.

  3.  Psalm 80: 5. It is interesting that the Psalmist is called ‘the Prophet’ in this passage.

TWENTY-TWO

  1.  Luke 12: 19

  2.  Luke12: 15

  3.  Romans 7: 24; 2 Corinthians 5: 2

  4.  Psalm 25: 16

  5.  Romans 8: 21

  6.  Romans 8: 5

  7.  1 Peter 1: 4

  8.  Hebrews 10: 35

  9.  2 Corinthians 6: 2; cf. Ephesians 5: 14

10.  Psalm 66: 11–12

11.  Hebrews 10: 36

12.  2 Corinthians 5: 4; 1 Corinthians 15: 54

13.  Genesis 6: 5

14.  This whole passage is a reflection on Romans 7: 21–5

15.  1 Thessalonians 5: 3

TWENTY-THREE

  1.  1 Maccabees 2: 63

  2.  Luke 12: 37

  3.  Wisdom 4: 16

  4.  Matthew 24: 44

  5.  Hebrews 9: 27

  6.  Luke 21: 36

  7.  Matthew 24: 44

  8.  The comment on pilgrimage is an example of how the devotio moderna was critical of current religious practices. See J. Sumption and J. G. Davies.

  9.  2 Corinthians 6: 2

10.  Romans 6: 8

11.  Luke 12: 20

12.  Ecclesiastes 7: 2

13.  Psalm 39: 7; 144: 4

14.  Luke 12: 33; Galatians 6: 8

15.  Luke 16: 9

16.  1 Peter 2: 11

17.  Hebrews 13: 14

TWENTY-FOUR

  1.  Hebrews 10: 31

  2.  Isaiah 11: 4

  3.  Job 31: 14

  4.  Wisdom 11: 16

  5.  Wisdom 5: 1

  6.  1 Corinthians 4: 10

  7.  Psalm 107: 42

  8.  1 Corinthians 9: 27

  9.  Romans 8: 39

TWENTY-FIVE

  1.  1 Peter 5: 8. These are words from the Office of Compline, which would be familiar to everyone in a Religious Community.

  2.  Ecclesiasticus 51: 30

  3.  1 Corinthians 9: 25

  4.  This passage is probably autobiographical.

  5.  Romans 12: 2

  6.  2 Timothy 3: 17

  7.  Psalm 37: 3

  8.  Matthew 7: 3

  9.  Psalm 133: 1

10.  1 Corinthians 2: 1–2

11.  À Kempis also wrote a book of Meditations on the Life of Jesus Christ.

12.  The Carthusians were a very strict Order founded by St Bruno in 1084. They lived in silence and in solitary cells, only joining together for worship and on special days for meals. The Cistercians wore white robes and were founded at Cîteaux in 1095. They lived a strict silent and secluded life. St Bernard of Clairvaux (1090–1153), who greatly influenced the devotio moderna, was the most famous monk of the Order. The community spread very rapidly in the thirteenth century. Thomas is here pointing out that the Augustinian Order, by comparison, lived an easy life.

13.  1 Thessalonians 5: 17

14.  Colossians 3: 11

15.  Colossians 1: 17

16.  Ecclesiasticus 7: 36

17.  Ecclesiasticus 19: 1

PART TWO: THE CHAPTERS OF BOOK TWO

ONE

  1.  Luke 17: 21

  2.  Joel 2: 12

  3.  Matthew 11: 29

  4.  Romans 14: 17

  5.  Revelation 21: 3

  6.  Psalm 45: 12–14

  7.  This reflects the biblical Song of Songs. Cf. the early medieval French abbot Bernard of Clairvaux (1090–1153), and also à Kempis’ fellow countryman John van Ruysbroeck’s (1293–1381) The Adornment of the Spiritual Marriage.

  8.  John 14: 23

  9.  Revelation 3: 20

10.  John 12: 34

11.  Proverbs 3: 5; 1 Peter 5: 7. Cf. Psalms 31: 6; 118: 8; and 143: 8.

12.  Hebrews 13: 14

13.  Hebrews 11: 13; 1 Peter 2: 11

14.  Philippians 3: 20

15.  1 Thessalonians 5: 17

16.  See the prayer Anima Christi. This prayer, written in the early fourteenth century and commended for use at the Elevation of the Host in the Mass, would have been known by à Kempis. It contains the line, ‘Within Thy wounds I feign would hide, ne’er to be parted from Thy side.’ St Ignatius Loyola encouraged its use as part of the Spiritual Exercises.

17.  It was St Francis (1181–1226) who received the wounds of Christ in his body, hence the use of the word ‘stigmata’ here.

18.  Isaiah 53: 7–9

19.  2 Timothy 2: 12

20.  Isaiah 54: 13

21.  Romans 8: 28

TWO

  1.  Romans 8: 31

  2.  2 Corinthians 7: 6

  3.  Psalm 46: 1

  4.  1 Peter 5: 5

THREE

  1.  Galatians 6: 2; 1 Corinthians 13: 7; Ephesians 4: 2

  2.  Romans 12: 18; 2 Corinthians 13: 11

  3.  Hebrews 6: 12

FOUR

  1.  Matthew 5: 8

  2.  Romans 2: 9

  3.  2 Corinthians 5: 17

FIVE

  1.  Matthew 7: 5

  2.  Matthew 16: 26

  3.  1 Corinthians 4: 3

  4.  Mark 8: 36

  5.  Jeremiah 23: 24

SIX

  1.  2 Corinthians 1: 12

  2.  1 John 3: 21

  3.  Isaiah 57: 21

  4.  Romans 5: 3; Galatians 6: 14

  5.  1 Corinthians 13: 6

  6.  2 Corinthians 10: 18

SEVEN

  1.  John 15: 4

  2.  Isaiah 36: 6; Matthew 11: 7; Luke 7: 24

  3.  Isaiah 40: 6; Ecclesiasticus 14: 18; James 1: 10; 1 Peter 1: 24

EIGHT

  1.  John 11: 28. The author is making a mistake: Mary the sister of Martha is not the same person as Mary Magdalene. Mary Magdalene was a key figure in later medieval spirituality.

  2.  John 15: 7

  3.  Psalm 34: 8

  4.  Psalm 107: 29–30; Matthew 8: 26

NINE

  1.  Deuteronomy 1: 30

  2.  St Laurence was a deacon reputed to have been martyred in AD 258. Sixtus II was the Pope (257–8) at the time, who was also martyred. The Prefect of Rome ordered Laurence to hand over the treasures of the Church, so he collected the poor people and said to the Prefect, ‘These are the treasures of the Church.’ See also The Golden Legend.

  3.  Psalm 30: 6

  4.  Psalm 30: 7

  5.  Psalm 30: 8

  6.  Psalm 30: 10

  7.  Psalm 30: 11

  8.  Job 7: 18

  9.  Psalm 51: 10

10.  Revelation 2: 7

11.  1 Peter 5: 8

12.  Romans 8: 3–13

TEN

  1.  Matthew 5: 8

  2.  Matthew 22: 21

  3.  Luke 14: 10

  4.  John 5: 44

ELEVEN

  1.  Luke 14: 27; Matthew 16: 24

  2.  Cf. the prayer of St Ignatius Loyola (1491–1556).

  3.  This is a quotation from an unknown source but it is similar to passages from Proverbs.

  4.  Luke 10: 42

  5.  Luke 17: 10

  6.  Psalm 25: 16

  7.  Luke 14: 7–11

TWELVE

  1.  Matthew 16: 24

  2.  Matthew 25: 41

  3.  1 Corinthians 1: 18

  4.  This may well be a reference to the vision of Constantine (272–337) at the Battle of Milvian Bridge when he saw a cross in the sky and heard the words ‘Conquer in this sign’, thus giving Christians official status.

  5.  Romans 8: 29

  6.  Matthew 16: 24, John 11: 16

  7.  Matthew 25: 46

  8.  John 19: 17

  9.  Romans 6: 8

10.  It seems probable that this section may have influenced John Donne’s poem ‘The Crosse’.

11.  Revelation 21: 4

12.  Luke 24: 26

13.  Job 14: 1

14.  2 Corinthians 4: 10

15.  1 Corinthians 9: 27

16.  Ephesians 6: 10–13

17.  Matthew 20: 23; 26: 42

18.  Romans 8: 18

19.  2 Corinthians 12: 4

20.  Acts 9: 16

21.  Romans 6: 9. This whole paragraph seems to be a reflection on Romans 6.

22.  Mark 8: 34

23.  Acts 14: 22

PART THREE: THE CHAPTERS OF BOOK FOUR

THE VOICE OF CHRIST

  1.  Matthew 11: 28

  2.  John 6: 51

  3.  Luke 22: 19; 1 Corinthians 11: 24

  4.  John 6: 56

  5.  John 6: 63

ONE

  1.  Matthew 11: 28

  2.  1 Kings 8: 27

  3.  Psalm 51: 4

  4.  Genesis 6: 9

  5.  1 Peter 3: 20

  6.  Exodus 25: 10

  7.  1 Kings 5: 7

  8.  Luke 7: 6

  9.  1 Samuel 6: 14

10.  2 Samuel 6: 12–16

11.  This reflects the views of the devotio moderna.

12.  1 Corinthians 1: 30

TWO

  1.  Psalm 36: 9

  2.  Luke 1: 43

  3.  Ephesians 2: 4

  4.  Psalm 23: 5

  5.  Psalm 78: 25

  6.  John 6: 35

  7.  Psalm 148: 5; John 1: 1–3

  8.  Cf. the Athanasian Creed.

  9.  2 Maccabees 14: 35

10.  Romans 12: 2

11.  There are a few places where the author refers to ‘the Mass’. ‘The Eucharist’ is used mainly in this translation.

12.  Cf. the Nicene Creed.

THREE

  1.  Frequent Communion was rare at this time. Most people were simply expected to be present at the Mass for the Elevation of the Host. Frequent Communion was brought in by the Pope in the nineteenth century.

  2.  Psalm 46: 1

  3.  Psalm 86: 4

  4.  Luke 19: 9. The story of Zacchaeus was used in the Middle Ages as a Gospel for the dedication of a church.

  5.  Psalm 42: 1–2

  6.  Matthew 15: 32

  7.  Genesis 8: 21

  8.  The concept of the Sacrament as medicine which appears here was a common understanding of the time. Christ was seen as a pharmacist providing spiritual remedies. See B. Lang, pp. 336–7.

  9.  Psalm 107: 9

10.  Zechariah 2: 13

11.  Psalm 147: 5

FOUR

  1.  Psalm 21: 3

  2.  Psalm 106: 4

  3.  Psalm 34: 8

  4.  1 Chronicles 29: 17

  5.  Isaiah 12: 3

  6.  The Cherubim and Seraphim in the Old Testament are winged sphinxes with human heads. They came into Hebrew religion through Canaanite influence and were seen as divine guardians at the entrance to Eden and in visions of the divine in the prophets Isaiah and Ezekiel. They also appear in the visions in the Book of Revelation.

  7.  Genesis 3: 19

  8.  Psalm 51

FIVE

  1.  Psalm 78: 25

  2.  Wisdom 12: 18

  3.  1 Timothy 4: 14

  4.  1 Timothy 3: 2; 2 Peter 3: 14

  5.  Titus 2: 7

  6.  Philippians 3: 20

  7.  Hebrews 5: 3; 7: 27

  8.  This passage is a description of the priest’s vestment, the chasuble, worn when celebrating the Eucharist. It is derived from a Roman outer cloak and has changed in size at various times. The description here naturally refers to the pre-Reformation period. They were often highly decorated and usually had a cross on the front and the back. Different colours were used at different seasons.

  9.  1 Peter 2: 21

SIX

  1.  Psalm 119: 105ff. There are echoes of Psalm 119 throughout the whole of the Imitation, probably due to the fact that the psalm was said daily in its entirety in monastic communities.

SEVEN

  1.  Psalm 32: 5

  2.  This refers to the monastic offices of prayer said through the day: Prime, Terce, None, Sext, Vespers and Compline.

  3.  The author makes a distinction between the offering of the Mass and the receiving of Communion because the Mass was offered daily, but people only received Communion on special days.

  4.  Ezekiel 18: 22; Isaiah 43: 25; Hebrews 10: 17

  5.  Ezekiel 33: 11; cf. 18: 23

EIGHT

  1.  Isaiah 53: 7; Hebrews 9: 28

  2.  The author does not investigate the theology of the Atonement. In the Old Testament propitiation relates to the offerings at the Mercy Seat in the Temple, done to please God. There are many theories of the Atonement but no interpretation is definitive. But all Christians regard the sacrifice of Jesus on the Cross as final and definitive.

  3.  Romans 12: 1

  4.  Philippians 4: 17

  5.  Ecclesiasticus 35: 7

  6.  Luke 14: 33

NINE

  1.  1 Chronicles 29: 11

  2.  1 Chronicles 29: 17

  3.  Psalm 51: 9; 1 John 1: 7

  4.  Hebrews 9: 14

  5.  Romans 16: 16

  6.  This refers to the Sacrament of Confession.

  7.  Psalm 25: 11

  8.  1 Peter 1: 19

  9.  1 Maccabees 13: 46

10.  Psalm 123: 3

TEN

  1.  Job 1: 7

  2.  There were special devotions for an act of spiritual Communion when it was not possible to attend church.

  3.  These instructions are clearly for a priest to observe local custom and not to impose personal practices on a congregation.

ELEVEN

  1.  Luke 7: 38; John 12: 3. Neither passage refers to Mary Magdalene. The writer is simply following the medieval tradition about her.

  2.  Psalm 42: 3

  3.  Hebrews 1: 6

  4.  2 Corinthians 5: 7

  5.  Song of Songs 2: 17

  6.  1 Corinthians 13: 10

  7.  1 Corinthians 13: 12

  8.  2 Corinthians 3: 18

  9.  John 1: 14

10.  1 Peter 1: 25

11.  Romans 1: 9

12.  Hebrews 6: 12

13.  Hebrews 11: 39–40

14.  Psalm 119: 105

15.  John 6: 35

16.  1 Samuel 21: 4

17.  Hebrews 6: 19; 9: 3

18.  Ephesians 4: 11

19.  Luke 14: 16

20.  Psalm 116: 13; cf. Psalm 23: 5

21.  1 Timothy 2: 8

22.  Leviticus 19: 2

TWELVE

  1.  Acts 7: 49; Isaiah 66: 1

  2.  Mark 14: 15; Luke 22: 12

  3.  1 Corinthians 5: 7

  4.  John 6: 56; 14: 7

  5.  Psalm 102: 7

  6.  Isaiah 38: 15

  7.  Luke 14: 12–14

  8.  Matthew 11: 28

  9.  Matthew 7: 7; Luke 11: 9

10.  2 Maccabees 14: 35

11.  1 Timothy 4: 14

12.  Proverbs 10: 19

13.  John 15: 4; Galatians 2: 20

THIRTEEN

  1.  Exodus 33: 11

  2.  John 20: 28

  3.  John 17: 21

  4.  Song of Songs 5: 10

  5.  Psalm 23: 6

  6.  Psalm 89: 46; Isaiah 45: 15

  7.  Proverbs 3: 33–4

  8.  Wisdom 16: 20; John 6: 32–5

  9.  Deuteronomy 4: 7

10.  Psalm 116: 12

11.  Cf. John 15: 4–10

FOURTEEN

  1.  Psalm 31: 19

  2.  Jeremiah 2: 13; Psalm 42: 2; Revelation 7: 17; John 4: 10

  3.  Luke 24: 32

FIFTEEN

  1.  Matthew 5: 8

  2.  2 Corinthians 4: 7

  3.  Isaiah 60: 5

  4.  Psalm 119: 2

SIXTEEN

  1.  John 21: 17

  2.  John 1: 5; 2 Corinthians 4: 6

  3.  1 Peter 2: 11; Ephesians 2: 19

  4.  1 Corinthians 6: 17

  5.  Leviticus 6: 13

  6.  James 4: 8

SEVENTEEN

  1.  Luke 1: 38

  2.  Luke 1: 44

  3.  John 1: 36

  4.  John 3: 29

  5.  Song of the Three Holy Children 68

  6.  Psalm 150: 2

  7.  Revelation 7: 9

EIGHTEEN

  1.  Proverbs 25: 27

  2.  This is a reference to the writings of the early Fathers of the Church who helped to formulate Christian doctrine.

  3.  Psalm 119: 35

  4.  James 4: 17

  5.  Psalm 119: 130

  6.  Matthew 11: 25

  7.  This reflects St Anselm’s (1033–1109) comment, ‘Credo ut intelligam’, which translates as ‘I believe in order that I may understand.’

  8.  Job 5: 9

  9.  Psalm 135: 6

10.  Isaiah 40: 28

PART FOUR: THE CHAPTERS OF BOOK THREE

ONE

  1.  Psalm 85: 8

  2.  1 Samuel 3: 19

  3.  Matthew 13: 16

  4.  1 Kings 19: 12

  5.  Psalm 27: 1; Psalm 35: 3

TWO

  1.  1 Samuel 3: 9

  2.  Psalm 119: 125

  3.  Psalm 119: 36; 78: 1

  4.  Deuteronomy 32: 2

  5.  Exodus 20: 19

  6.  1 Corinthians 3: 7

  7.  John 6: 68

THREE

  1.  John 6: 63

  2.  Ecclesiastes 9: 17

  3.  Psalm 94: 12

  4.  Hebrews 1: 1

  5.  Isaiah 23: 4

  6.  Psalm 119: 11

  7.  John 12: 48

  8.  Genesis 18: 27

  9.  2 Corinthians 12: 10

10.  Job 42: 2

11.  Psalm 25: 6

12.  Psalm 143: 7

13.  Psalm 143: 6

14.  Psalm 143: 10

15.  Colossians 1: 17

FOUR

  1.  Genesis 17: 1

  2.  John 8: 32

  3.  1 John 3: 22

  4.  Tobit 3: 5

  5.  Psalm 119: 120

  6.  2 Maccabees 7: 38

  7.  Isaiah 29: 13

  8.  Matthew 10: 20; John 16: 13

FIVE

  1.  2 Corinthians 1: 3

  2.  Psalm 3: 3

  3.  Psalm 119: 111

  4.  Psalm 59: 16; 46: 1

  5.  Isaiah 40: 4

  6.  1 John 4: 7

  7.  1 Corinthians 13: 7. The whole chapter may be seen as a meditation on 1 Corinthians 13.

  8.  2 Corinthians 11: 22–8

  9.  Isaiah 5: 1

10.  1 Corinthians 13: 4

SIX

  1.  Philippians 4: 12

  2.  Hebrews 12: 2

  3.  Matthew 4: 10

  4.  Jeremiah 20: 11

  5.  Psalm 27: 1

  6.  Psalm 27: 3

  7.  Psalm 19: 14

  8.  2 Timothy 2: 3

SEVEN

  1.  Jeremiah 10: 23

  2.  Isaiah 14: 13

  3.  Psalm 91: 4

  4.  Romans 12: 16

  5.  James 4: 6

  6.  Psalm 13: 1

  7.  Psalm 15: 4; 131: 1–2

EIGHT

  1.  Genesis 18: 27

  2.  John 12: 25

  3.  Matthew 5: 45

  4.  Psalm 80: 19

NINE

  1.  Ecclesiasticus 1: 1–9

  2.  John 4: 14

  3.  John 1: 16

  4.  1 Corinthians 1: 29

  5.  Psalm 119: 39–40

  6.  Corinthians 13: 8

  7.  Luke 18: 19

TEN

  1.  Psalm 31: 19

  2.  Isaiah 57: 15

  3.  Luke 23: 42

  4.  Psalm 116: 12

  5.  1 Corinthians 4: 7

  6.  Psalm 91: 11

  7.  Psalm 23: 6

  8.  Revelation 4: 11

  9.  Romans 13: 11–14

10.  Matthew 7: 14

ELEVEN

  1.  Matthew 6: 10

  2.  1 Corinthians 9: 27

TWELVE

  1.  Hebrews 10: 36

  2.  Psalm 31: 10

  3.  James 1: 2

  4.  Purgatory was seen as the place where people were purified before being fit to enter into heaven.

  5.  Psalm 68: 2

  6.  Ecclesiasticus 18: 30

  7.  Psalm 37: 4

  8Confessions of St Augustine, VIII, xi, 25

  9.  Revelation 12: 9

THIRTEEN

  1.  Genesis 3: 19

  2.  John 13: 14; Philippians 2: 5–10

  3.  Psalm 18: 42

  4.  Ezekiel 20: 17

FOURTEEN

  1.  Job 15: 15

  2.  Job 4: 18

  3.  2 Peter 2: 4

  4.  Revelation 6: 13

  5.  Psalm 78: 25

  6.  Psalm 127: 1

  7.  Matthew 8: 25

  8.  Psalm 36: 6

  9.  1 Corinthians 1: 29

10.  Isaiah 45: 9

11.  Isaiah 29: 16; 64: 8

12.  Psalm 117: 2; 1 Peter 1: 25

FIFTEEN

  1.  James 4: 15

  2.  Psalm 119: 125

  3.  Wisdom 9: 10

  4The Confessions of St Augustine, V, i

  5.  Psalm 4: 8

SIXTEEN

  1.  Matthew 16: 26

  2.  Matthew 6: 19–21

  3.  St Augustine, Sermons, 36, 6; City of God, Book 11, 25.

  4.  Philippians 3: 20; Matthew 5: 8

  5.  Cf. Psalm 103: 9; Isaiah 57: 16

SEVENTEEN

  1.  1 Peter 5: 7

  2.  Job 2: 10

  3.  Psalm 23: 4; Romans 8: 38

  4.  Psalm 77: 7

  5.  Revelation 3: 5

EIGHTEEN

  1.  John 3: 17

  2.  Isaiah 53: 3

  3.  Hebrews 12: 2

  4.  John 8: 12; 12: 46; Psalm 27: 1

NINETEEN

  1.  Hebrews 12: 4

  2.  Hebrews 11: 37

  3.  2 Timothy 2: 3; Revelation 2: 10

TWENTY

  1.  Psalm 32: 5; 51: 4

  2.  Psalm 25: 16; 69: 14

  3.  Luke 11: 24–6

  4.  1 John 2: 16

  5.  Job 30: 7

  6.  Psalm 34: 8

TWENTY-ONE

  1.  Romans 8: 19

  2.  Cf. St Augustine’s well-known prayer, ‘You have made us for Yourself and our hearts are restless until they find their rest in You.’

  3.  The concept of the spiritual marriage was popular at this time; see The Adornment of the Spiritual Marriage by à Kempis’ fellow countryman, John van Ruysbroeck.

  4.  Psalm 55: 6

  5.  Psalm 34: 8

  6.  Revelation 22: 20

  7.  Psalm 27: 8

  8.  Psalm 119: 65; 106: 45

  9.  Psalm 86: 8

10.  Psalm 19: 9

TWENTY-TWO

  1.  Psalm 119: 1; 2 Maccabees 1: 4

  2.  James 1: 17

  3.  Romans 2: 11

  4.  Romans 11: 36

  5.  John 15: 15; 1 Corinthians 1: 27

  6.  Psalm 45: 16

  7.  Acts 5: 41

  8.  Luke 14: 10

TWENTY-THREE

  1.  Matthew 26: 39

  2.  Matthew 10: 10

  3.  Luke 14: 10

  4.  Matthew 6: 10

  5.  Isaiah 45: 2

  6.  Psalm 122: 7

  7.  Matthew 8: 26

  8.  Psalm 89: 9

  9.  Psalm 43: 3

10.  Genesis 1: 2

11.  Genesis 27: 28; Daniel 4: 15ff.; Isaiah 18: 4

12.  Genesis 2: 6

TWENTY-FOUR

  1.  1 Timothy 5: 13

  2.  John 21: 22

  3.  Romans 14: 12

  4.  Matthew 6: 6

  5.  Revelation 3: 20

  6.  Luke 22: 46

TWENTY-FIVE

  1.  John 14: 27

  2.  Matthew 11: 29

  3.  Luke 11: 9

  4.  John 16: 13

  5.  Job 33: 26

  6.  Psalm 72: 7

TWENTY-SIX

  1.  Genesis 3: 17; Romans 7: 11

  2.  Romans 12: 21; Galatians 1: 16

  3.  Matthew 6: 25

TWENTY-SEVEN

  1.  Matthew 6: 21

  2.  Matthew 7: 24–7

  3.  Psalm 51: 12

  4.  Ephesians 3: 16

  5.  Matthew 6: 34

  6.  Ecclesiastes 1: 14; 2: 11

  7.  Ephesians 4: 14

TWENTY-NINE

  1.  1 Peter 1: 3

  2.  John 12: 27

  3.  Psalm 37: 40

  4.  Matthew 6: 10

  5.  Psalm 77: 10

THIRTY

  1.  Nahum 1: 7

  2.  Matthew 11: 28

  3.  Psalm 17: 7

  4.  John 15: 5

  5.  Ecclesiasticus 35: 20

  6.  Jeremiah 32: 27

  7.  Matthew 6: 34

  8.  John 14: 27

  9.  Psalm 91: 2

10.  James 1: 17

11.  John 16: 20

12.  Job 6: 10

13.  John 15: 9

14.  Luke 8: 15

THIRTY-ONE

  1.  Psalm 55: 6

  2.  Matthew 6: 22

  3.  Genesis 6: 12

  4.  Matthew 5: 8

THIRTY-TWO

  1.  2 Timothy 3: 2

  2.  This could be a reference to the Superior of the community or possibly the Bishop or the Pope.

  3.  Revelation 3: 18

  4.  Romans 12: 16

  5.  Matthew 13: 46

THIRTY-THREE

  1.  Romans 8: 20

  2.  Matthew 6: 22

  3.  John 12: 9

THIRTY-FOUR

  1.  1 Corinthians 15: 28; John 20: 28

  2.  This is a reference to the Jesus Prayer, which was used a lot in Eastern Christianity. It is the simple repetition of the phrase ‘Lord Jesus Christ, Son of the Living God, have mercy on me.’ See R. M. French, The Way of a Pilgrim.

  3.  Romans 8: 5

  4.  Psalm 27: 1; John 8: 12

  5.  1 Corinthians 15: 28

  6.  Romans 6: 6

  7.  Psalm 89: 9

  8.  Psalm 68: 30

  9.  Psalm 68: 28

10.  Psalm 31: 2

THIRTY-FIVE

  1.  Ephesians 6: 11

  2.  Revelation 2: 17

  3.  Romans 8: 18

  4.  Psalm 27: 14

  5.  Psalm 91: 15; Matthew 28: 20

  6.  Matthew 16: 27

THIRTY-SIX

  1.  Corinthians 9: 22

  2.  Corinthians 4: 3

  3.  Acts 26: 1; Philippians 1: 14

  4.  Isaiah 51: 12

  5.  Hebrews 12: 1

  6.  Romans 2: 6–7

THIRTY-SEVEN

  1.  Matthew 16: 24

  2.  Exodus 33: 11; John 15: 14–15

THIRTY-EIGHT

  1.  Romans 8: 21

  2.  Exodus 33: 8

  3.  Joshua 9: 22

THIRTY-NINE

  1.  1 Peter 5: 8

  2.  Matthew 26: 41

FORTY

  1.  Psalm 8: 4

  2.  Psalm 102: 27

  3.  Daniel 4: 16. This verse reads: ‘Let his mind be changed from that of a human, and let the mind of an animal be given to him. And let seven times pass over him.’

  4.  Corinthians 12: 5

  5.  John 5: 44

  6.  1 Timothy 1: 17

FORTY-TWO

  1.  1 Peter 5: 5

FORTY-THREE

  1.  1 Corinthians 4: 20

  2.  Psalm 94: 10; 119: 130

  3.  Colossians 3: 4

  4.  1 Corinthians 4: 5

  5.  1 Corinthians 12: 11

FORTY-FOUR

  1.  Colossians 3: 3; Galatians 6: 14

FORTY-FIVE

  1.  Psalm 60: 11

  2.  Psalm 37: 39

  3.  Matthew 5: 8

  4.  St Agatha was martyred in Sicily and her name is in the Canon of the Roman Mass. It is not clear where this saying comes from, but it is probably from the legendary Acts of her martyrdom (sixth century); see also The Golden Legend.

  5.  Romans 3: 4

  6.  Matthew 10: 17

  7.  Micah 7: 5

  8.  Matthew 24: 23

  9.  Ephesians 4: 14

FORTY-SIX

  1.  Galatians 6: 14

  2.  Luke 21: 18; Acts 27: 34

  3.  Luke 2: 35

  4.  Proverbs 12: 21

  5.  John 7: 24

  6.  1 Corinthians 4: 4

  7.  Psalm 143: 2

FORTY-SEVEN

  1.  Matthew 20: 7

  2.  Genesis 15: 1

  3.  Revelation 22: 5

  4.  Romans 7: 24

  5.  Psalm 120: 5

  6.  Isaiah 25: 8

  7.  Wisdom 3: 1; 5: 16

  8.  Psalm 22: 6

  9.  Hebrews 10: 32; 11: 34

10.  Revelation 14: 13

11.  John 14: 3

FORTY-EIGHT

  1.  Revelation 21: 2

  2.  Hebrews 11: 13

  3.  1 Corinthians 13: 12

  4.  Genesis 4: 12

  5.  Job 7: 6

  6.  Psalm 90: 10

  7.  Romans 7: 24

  8.  Psalm 71: 16

  9.  Psalm 51: 11

10.  1 Corinthians 15: 28; Colossians 3: 11

11.  Matthew 25: 34

12.  Psalm 27: 9; 71: 12

13.  Psalm 144: 6

14.  Matthew 6: 21

15.  Galatians 5: 24

FORTY-NINE

  1.  John 17: 24

  2.  Romans 8: 21

  3.  Joshua 1: 7

  4.  Ephesians 4: 24

  5.  1 Samuel 10: 6

  6.  Isaiah 61: 3

  7.  Philippians 1: 20

FIFTY

  1.  1 Corinthians 4: 7

  2.  Psalm 88: 15

  3.  Psalm 119: 35

  4.  Job 29: 3

  5.  Psalm 17: 8

  6.  John 16: 32

  7.  John 11: 14

  8.  Psalm 119: 71

  9.  Psalm 69: 7

10.  1 Samuel 2: 6

11.  Psalm 51: 7

12.  This is a reference to the practice of using a discipline (whip) as part of penitential devotion.

13.  From The Life of St Francis by St Bonaventure (1217–74).

FIFTY-ONE

  1.  Psalm 119: 32

  2.  Romans 8: 18

FIFTY-TWO

  1.  Romans 9: 23

  2.  Matthew 18: 8; 25: 41

  3.  Psalm 51: 3

  4.  Job 10: 21

  5.  Matthew 3: 7

  6.  Romans 16: 16

  7.  Luke 7: 46

  8.  Psalm 51: 17

FIFTY-THREE

  1.  Matthew 6: 6

  2.  1 Peter 2: 11

  3.  1 Corinthians 2: 14–15

  4The Ladder of Perfection by Walter Hilton was a popular devotional work of the time.

  5.  Matthew 3: 10; Luke 3: 9

FIFTY-FOUR

  1.  1 Peter 2: 13

  2.  1 Corinthians 10: 33

  3.  Psalm 29: 2; 96: 7

  4.  Acts 5: 41

  5.  Matthew 6: 20

  6.  Acts 20: 35

  7.  This may be the origin of the prayer of St Ignatius Loyola including the words: ‘To labour and not to ask for any reward save that of knowing that we do Your will.’

  8.  Matthew 5: 44; Luke 6: 27

  9.  1 Corinthians 12: 31

10.  Genesis 3: 14–20

11.  Ephesians 2: 8

12.  Ephesians 1: 14

13.  Colossians 3: 10

FIFTY-FIVE

  1.  Genesis 1: 27

  2.  Romans 7: 23. The argument of this chapter lies chiefly in Romans 7.

  3.  Genesis 8: 21

  4.  Romans 7: 22

  5.  Romans 7: 12

  6.  Romans 7: 25

  7.  Romans 7: 18

  8.  Philippians 4: 13

  9.  1 Corinthians 13: 1–3

10.  Psalm 90: 14

11.  2 Corinthians 12: 9

12.  Psalm 23: 4

13.  Ecclesiasticus 6: 3

14.  From an ancient prayer which is used for Trinity 17 in the Book of Common Prayer: ‘We pray that Thy grace may always go before and follow us.’

FIFTY-SIX

  1.  Matthew 9: 9

  2.  John 14: 6

  3.  John 8: 32

  4.  John 8: 12; 1 Timothy 6: 12

  5.  Matthew 19: 17

  6.  Matthew 19: 21

  7.  Matthew 16: 24

  8.  Matthew 10: 24

  9.  John 13: 17

10.  John 15: 12

11.  John 14: 21

12.  Revelation 3: 21

13.  Hebrews 12: 2

14.  1 Maccabees 3: 59

15.  1 Maccabees 9: 10

FIFTY-SEVEN

  1.  Isaiah 49: 18

  2.  Baruch 4: 30

  3.  This is a reference to the tradition that the Devil was a fallen Angel.

  4.  Job 5: 11

  5.  Psalm 19: 10; 119: 103

  6.  Luke 23: 42

FIFTY-EIGHT

  1.  Psalm 119: 137

  2.  Romans 11: 33

  3.  2 Timothy 2: 23

  4.  1 Corinthians 14: 33

  5.  Psalm 21: 3

  6.  Romans 8: 29

  7.  John 15: 19

  8.  Galatians 1: 15

  9.  Matthew 18: 10

10.  Wisdom 6: 7

11.  John 17: 21

12.  Revelation 4: 10

13.  Matthew 18: 1

14.  Matthew 5: 9

15.  Isaiah 60: 22; 65: 20

16.  Matthew 18: 3–4

17.  Luke 6: 24

18.  2 John 4

FIFTY-NINE

  1.  Psalm 91: 2

  2.  Philippians 2: 21

  3.  Romans 8: 28

  4.  Psalm 123: 1; 141: 8

  5.  Psalm 23: 4; Isaiah 9: 2

  6.  Luke 1: 79

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