art NOTES art

THEFT

1. There were an estimated 275,000 works in the museum’s possession, not all of which were on display.

2. It began as a fortress constructed by Philip Augustus around the year 1190, but many alterations and additions had been made since then.

3. Lawrence Jeppson, The Fabulous Frauds: Fascinating Tales of Great Art Forgeries (New York: Weybright and Talley, 1970), 44.

CHAPTER ONE: THE CITY OF LIGHT

1. Vincent Cronin, Paris on the Eve: 1900–1914 (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1990), 36.

2. Ibid., 35.

3. Malcolm Gee, Dealers, Critics, and Collectors of Modern Painting: Aspects of the Parisian Art Market between 1910 and 1930 (New York: Garland, 1981), 158.

4. Theodore Dreiser, “Paris,” Century Magazine 86, no. 6 (October 1913): 910–11.

5. Norma Evenson, Paris: A Century of Change, 1878–1978 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1979), 1.

6. Susan Quinn, Marie Curie: A Life (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995), 91.

7. Joshua Zeitz, Flapper: A Madcap Story of Sex, Style, Celebrity, and the Women Who Made America Modern (New York: Three Rivers Press, 2006), 129.

8. Theodore Zeldin, France, 1848–1945: Taste and Corruption (New York: Oxford University Press, 1980), 23.

9. Nigel Gosling, The Adventurous World of Paris, 1900–1914 (New York: Morrow, 1978), 18.

10. Zeldin, France, 358.

11. Mary Ellen Jordan Haight, Paris Portraits, Renoir to Chanel: Walks on the Right Bank (Salt Lake City: Peregrine Smith Books, 1991), 108.

12. Arthur Gold and Robert Fizdale, Misia: The Life of Misia Sert (New York: Knopf, 1980), 41.

13. Ibid., 42.

14. Johannes Willms, Paris: Capital of Europe; From the Revolution to the Belle Epoque, trans. Eveline L. Kanes (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1997), 335–36.

15. Frankfort Sommerville, The Spirit of Paris (London: Black, 1913), 62.

16. Ellen Williams, Picasso’s Paris: Walking Tours of the Artist’s Life in the City (New York: Little Bookroom, 1999), 56.

17. Samuel L. Bensusan, Souvenir of Paris (London: Jack, 1911), 51–52.

18. Its name came from the lavender and white lilacs that grew outside.

19. Patrice Higonnet, Paris: Capital of the World, trans. Arthur Goldhammer (Cambridge: Belknap Press, 2002), 68.

20. Carolyn Burke, Becoming Modern: The Life of Mina Loy (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1996), 80.

21. Charles Douglas, Artist Quarter: Reminiscences of Montmartre and Montparnasse in the First Two Decades of the Twentieth Century (London: Faber and Faber, 1941), 140.

22. Gino Severini, The Life of a Painter: The Autobiography of Gino Se-verini, trans. Jennifer Franchina (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1995), 25.

23. Christopher Green, Art in France, 1900–1940 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000), 150.

24. Cronin, Paris on the Eve, 275.

25. Jules Bertaut, Paris, 1870–1935, trans. R. Millar (New York: Appleton-Century, 1936), 186.

26. Cronin, Paris on the Eve, 284.

27. Ibid., 285.

28. Quinn, Marie Curie, 137.

29. Cronin, Paris on the Eve, 20.

30. William Fleming, Art and Ideas, 6th ed. (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1980), 403.

31. Bergson’s wife was a cousin of Proust’s.

32. Bernice Rose, “Picasso, Braque and Early Film in Cubism” (notes for exhibition at Pace Wildenstein Gallery, New York City, 2007).

33. Jean-Paul Sartre, The Words, trans. Bernard Frechtman (New York: Vintage, 1981), 119–25.

34. Fleming, Art and Ideas, 400.

35. The Bourbon monarchy; the First Republic established by the Revolution; the Directory; the First Empire under Napoleon Bonaparte; the restoration of the monarchy in 1815; the 1830 revolution that gave France a constitutional monarchy under the Citizen King, Louis-Philippe; the short-lived Second Republic in 1848; and the Second Empire under Napoleon III.

36. Alexander Varias, Paris and the Anarchists: Aesthetes and Subversives during the Fin-de-Siècle (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996), 41–42.

37. Jay Robert Nash, Encyclopedia of World Crime: Criminal Justice, Criminology, and Law Enforcement (Wilmette, IL: CrimeBooks, 1990), 633.

38. Richard D. Sonn, “Marginality and Transgression: Anarchy’s Subversive Allure,” in Montmartre and the Making of Mass Culture, ed. Gabriel P. Weisber (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2001), 130.

39. Charles Rearick, Pleasures of the Belle Époque: Entertainment and Festivity in Turn-of-the-Century France (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985), 199.

40. Martin P. Johnson, The Dreyfus Affair: Honour and Politics in the Belle Époque (Basingstoke, UK: Macmillan, 1999), 6.

41. Jean-Denis Bredin, The Affair: The Case of Alfred Dreyfus, trans. Jeffrey Mehlman (New York: Braziller, 1986), 68.

42. Ibid.

43. Ann-Louise Shapiro, Breaking the Codes: Female Criminality in Fin-de-Siècle Paris (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1996), 2.

44. Sanche de Gramont, The French: Portrait of a People (New York: Putnam’s, 1969), 390.

45. The French pronounce the term apache as “ah POSH.”

46. Daniel Gerould, Guillotine: Its Legend and Lore (New York: Blast Books, 1992), 179.

47. Mel Gordon, The Grand Guignol: Theatre of Fear and Terror, rev. ed. (New York: De Capo Press, 1997), 22.

48. Agnes Peirron, “House of Horrors,” http://www.GrandGuignol.com/history.htm.

49. John Ashbery, “Introduction of Marcel Allain and Pierre Souvestre’s Fantômas,” in Selected Prose, ed. Eugene Richie (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2004), 185.

50. Ibid.

CHAPTER TWO: SEARCHING FOR A WOMAN

1. Jürgen Thorwald, The Century of the Detective, trans by Richard Winston and Clara Winston (New York: Harcourt, Brace, and World, 1965), 85.

2. Seymour Reit, The Day They Stole the Mona Lisa (New York: Summit Books, 1981), 78.

3. Francis Steegmuller, Apollinaire: Poet among the Painters (New York: Farrar, Straus, 1963), 188–89.

4. Milton Esterow, The Art Stealers (New York: Macmillan, 1966), 107.

5. The French version of La Gioconda, an Italian name for the Mona Lisa, referring to the fact that the subject of the painting is thought to be the wife of Francesco del Giocondo.

6. Molly Nesbit, “The Rat’s Ass,” October 56 (Spring 1991): 13–14.

7. Steegmuller, Apollinaire, 188.

8. Aaron Freundschuh, “Crime Stories in the Historical Landscape: Narrating the Theft of the Mona Lisa,” Urban History 33, no. 2 (2006): 281.

9. E. E. Richards, The Louvre (Boston: Small, Maynard, 1912), 96.

10Los Angeles Times, August 26, 1911.

11. About twice the annual wage of a skilled worker at the time.

12. Esterow, Art Stealers, 101.

13. Donald Sassoon, Becoming Mona Lisa: The Making of a Global Icon (San Diego: Harcourt, 2001), 174.

14. Freundschuh, “Crime Stories,” 286.

15. Barbara Gardner Conklin, Robert Gardner, and Dennis Shortelle, Encyclopedia of Forensic Science: A Compendium of Detective Fact and Fiction (Westport, CT: Oryx Press, 2002), 282–83.

16. Esterow, Art Stealers, 117.

17. Steegmuller, Apollinaire, 187–88.

18. Freundschuh, “Crime Stories,” 287.

19. Ibid., 285.

20. “A Hint to Mr. Morgan,” New York Times, January 18, 1912.

21Los Angeles Times, September 6, 1911.

22New York Times, March 3, 1912.

23. Darian Leader, Stealing the Mona Lisa: What Art Stops Us from Seeing (New York: Counterpoint, 2002), 66.

24. Max Brod, ed., The Diaries of Franz Kafka, vol. 2, 1914–1923, trans. Martin Greenberg with the cooperation of Hannah Arendt (New York: Schocken, 1949), 276.

25. Sassoon, Becoming Mona Lisa, 179.

26. Nesbit, “Rat’s Ass,” 7.

27. Ibid., 7.

28. Théophile Homolle, director of the national museums, had been fired shortly after the theft.

29. Contemporary photographs show four hooks at the space on the wall where the painting had hung.

30. Hanns Zischler, Kafka Goes to the Movies, trans. Susan H. Gillespie (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003), 49–51.

31. Esterow, Art Stealers, 102.

32New York Times, October 1, 1911.

33. Ibid.

34. Esterow, Art Stealers, 108.

35New York Times, October 1, 1911.

36. Ibid.

37Mona is a diminutive of Madonna, used as a term of respect for a married woman.

38. The sitter in the Mona Lisa appears to have no eyebrows.

39. Renaud Temperini, Leonardo da Vinci at the Louvre (Paris: Éditions Scala, 2003), 56.

40. Roy McMullen, Mona Lisa: The Picture and the Myth (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1975), 116.

41. Sassoon, Becoming Mona Lisa, 39.

42. Temperini, Leonardo da Vinci, 56.

43. Sassoon, Becoming Mona Lisa, 26.

44. Ibid., 27.

45. Ibid., 61.

46. Ibid., 54.

47. Ibid., 89.

48. Ibid., 95.

49. Ibid., 110.

50. Ibid., 111.

51. Walter Pater, “Leonardo da Vinci,” in Three Major Texts, ed. William E. Buckley (New York: New York University Press, 1986), 149.

52. Sigmund Freud, Leonardo da Vinci and a Memory of His Childhood, trans. Alan Tyson (New York: Norton, 1964), 65.

53. Ibid., 69.

54. Freud presumes that Leonardo, as a homosexual, had an unhappy erotic life. No one seriously argues this today.

55. Ibid., 77.

56. Sassoon, Becoming Mona Lisa, 108.

57. Steegmuller, Apollinaire, 188.

58Boston Daily Globe, September 10, 1911.

59. Freundschuh, “Crime Stories,” 287.

60. Pater, “Leonardo da Vinci,” 150.

CHAPTER THREE: SYMPATHY FOR THE DEVIL

1. Steegmuller, Apollinaire, 182 (see chap. 2, n. 3).

2. R. D. Collins, The Origins of Detective Fiction: A Brief History of Crime and Mystery Books,http://www.classiccrimefiction.com/historydf.htm.

3. François-Eugène Vidocq, Memoirs of Vidocq: Master of Crime (Edinburgh: AK Press, 2003), 1.

4. Ibid.

5. Ibid., 7.

6. Ibid., 57.

7. Ibid., 192.

8. Ibid., 185.

9. Julian Symons, Bloody Murder: From the Detective Story to the Crime Novel; A History, 2nd ed. (London: Pan Books, 1992), 37.

10. Joseph Geringer, Vidocq: Convict Turned Detective Magnifique: Police Spy,http://www.crimelibrary.com/gangsters_outlaws/cops_others/vidocq/3.html.

11. The brand was “TF,” for travaux forcés, forced work.

12. Geringer, Vidocq,http://www.crimelibrary.com/gangsters_outlaws/cops_-others/vidocq/4.html.

13. Vidocq, Memoirs, 204.

14. Ibid., 368.

15. Alfred Morain, The Underworld of Paris: Secrets of the Sûreté (London: Jarrolds, 1929), 233–34.

16. Vidocq, Memoirs, xiii.

17. Geringer, Vidocq,http://www.crimelibrary.com/gangsters_outlaws/cops_-others/vidocq/7.html.

18. Honoré de Balzac, Père Goriot, trans. Burton Raffel (New York: Norton, 1994), 39.

19. Ibid., 90.

20. Edward Berenson, The Trial of Madame Caillaux (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992), 216.

21. According to Poe’s biographer Arthur Hobson Quinn, Poe took the name of his fictional detective from Marie Dupin, the heroine of a story that appeared in a collection titled “Unpublished Passages in the Life of Vidocq, the French Minister of Police.” Published in the magazine Burton’sfrom September to December 1838 and signed J. M. B., these stories capitalized on Vidocq’s fame and portrayed him in action capturing criminals. Edgar Allan Poe: A Critical Biography (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998), 310–11.

22. A. E. Murch, The Development of the Detective Novel (Port Washington, NY: Kennikat Press, 1968), 68.

23. Quinn, Edgar Allan Poe, 430.

24. Symons, Bloody Murder, 46.

25. Keith Parkins, Edgar Allan Poe,http://www.huerka.clara.net/art/poe.htm.

26. Edmund Wilson, Axel’s Castle: A Study in the Imaginative Literature of 1870–1930 (New York: Scribner’s, 1959), 12.

27. Ibid.

28. Parkins, Edgar Allan Poe, 4.

29New York Times, December 13, 1991.

30. Parkins, Edgar Allan Poe, 2–3.

31. LeRoy Lad Panek, An Introduction to the Detective Story (Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1987), 71.

32. Janet Pate, The Book of Sleuths (Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1977), 18.

33. Ibid.

34. Henry Douglas Thomson, Masters of Mystery: A Study of the Detective Story (1931; repr., New York: Dover, 1978), 96.

35. Ibid., 101.

36. Ibid., 102.

37. Gaboriau, Émile, Monsieur Lecoq, ed. and intro. E. F. Bleiler (New York: Dover, 1975), v.

38. Murch, Detective Novel, 12.

39. J. Kenneth Van Dover, You Know My Method: The Science of the Detective (Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1994), 24.

40. Jean-Marc Lofficier and Randy Lofficier, Shadowmen: Heroes and Villains of French Pulp Fiction (Encino, CA: Black Coat Press, 2003), 231.

41. Ibid., 233.

42. Pierre Souvestre and Marcel Allain, Fantômas (New York: Morrow, 1986), 80.

43. Ibid., 11.

44. Robin Walz, Pulp Surrealism: Insolent Popular Culture in Early Twentieth-Century Paris (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000), 62.

CHAPTER FOUR: SCIENCE VS. CRIME

1. Shapiro, Breaking the Codes, 41 (see chap. 1, n. 43).

2. Nash, Jay Robert, Encyclopedia of World Crime (Wilmette, IL: History, Inc., 1999), 1868.

3. Gerould, Guillotine, 96 (see chap. 1, n. 46).

4. Ibid., 96.

5. Nash, Encyclopedia of World Crime, 1868.

6. Ibid.

7. Canler would later serve as head of the Sûreté himself and write his memoirs, which were suppressed by the authorities for being too frank. They were published seventeen years after his death.

8. Higonnet, Paris, 79 (see chap. 1, n. 19).

9. Nash, Encyclopedia of World Crime, 1869.

10. The Cour d’Assises assembled to hear specific cases; it usually consisted of a three-judge panel and nine jurors.

11. Gerould, Guillotine, 96.

12. The Memoirs, published posthumously, met with acclaim. Stendhal, Hugo, Flaubert, and Dostoevsky were all fascinated with the man, particularly his sense of himself as a genius warring against society. Dostoevsky later published Lacenaire’s memoirs in Russian in a magazine he edited, and he used him as a model for Raskolnikov, the double murderer in Crime and Punishment. Lacenaire also served as the model for the character Montparnasse in Victor Hugo’s Les misérables. The 1943 movie Children of Paradise, regarded as one of the peaks of French cinema, includes a character named Lacenaire, who is loosely based on the real person.

13. Gerould, Guillotine, 97.

14. Nash, Encyclopedia of World Crime, 1869.

15. Thorwald, Century of the Detective, 275 (see chap. 2, n. 1).

16. Ibid., 276.

17. Jay Robert Nash, Look for the Woman (New York: Evans, 1981), 236.

18. Ibid., 237.

19. Ibid.

20. Ibid., 240.

21. Ibid., 242.

22. Ibid., 243.

23. Ibid., 244.

24. Thorwald, Century of the Detective, 285.

25. Ibid., 286.

26. Nash, Look for the Woman, 244.

27. Ibid., 245.

28. Lassiter Wren, Master Strokes of Crime Detection (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran, 1929), 70.

29. Ibid., 75–76.

30. Ibid., 93.

31. Shapiro, Breaking the Codes, 40.

32. Colin Wilson and Damon Wilson, The Giant Book of True Crime (London: Magpie Books, 2006), 389–90.

33. Thorwald, Century of the Detective, 46.

34. Shapiro, Breaking the Codes, 18.

35. Ibid., 40.

36. Yvonne Deutsch, ed., Science against Crime (New York: Exeter Books, 1982), 72.

37. Thorwald, Century of the Detective, 128.

38. Ibid., 131.

39. Ibid., 117.

40. Henry B. Irving, A Book of Remarkable Criminals (London: Cassell, 1918), 310.

41. Ibid., 318.

42. Nash, Encyclopedia of World Crime, 122.

43. Thorwald, Century of the Detective, 137.

44. Coincidentally, Bram Stoker’s novel Dracula, about a bloodsucking vampire, was published in the year Vacher was caught.

45. “The Ripper Is Dead,” Iowa State Press, January 30, 1899, http://www.casebook.org/press_reports/iowa_state_press/990130.html.

46. Ibid.

47. Ibid.

48. Timothy B. Smith, “Assistance and Repression: Rural Exodus, Vagabondage, and Social Crisis in France, 1880–1914,” Journal of Social History 32, no. 4 (Summer 1999): 822.

49. Angus McLaren, The Trials of Masculinity: Policing Sexual Boundaries, 1870–1930 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997), 160.

50. Matt K. Matsuda, The Memory of the Modern (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), 141.

51. Jean Belin, Secrets of the Sûreté: The Memoirs of Commissioner Jean Belin (New York: Putnam’s, 1950), 7–8.

52. “Paris Slayer Wore Armored Sleeves,” New York Times, January 16, 1910.

53. Ibid.

54. James Morton, Gangland: The Early Years (London: Time Warner Paperbacks, 2004), 531.

55. Hans Gross (1847–1915) was an Austrian judge whose 1893 handbook for examining magistrates, police officials, etc., was a milestone in the field of criminalistics, the application of science to crime investigation.

56. Henry Morton Robinson, Science versus Crime (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1935), 201.

57. “Locard’s Exchange Principle,” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Locard’s_-exchange_principle.

CHAPTER FIVE: THE MAN WHO MEASURED PEOPLE

1. Jennifer Michael Hecht, The End of the Soul: Scientific Modernity, Atheism, and Anthropology in France (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003), 165.

2. Ibid., 148.

3. Ibid.

4. Jennifer Michael Hecht, “French Scientific Materialism and the Liturgy of Death: The Invention of a Secular Version of Catholic Last Rites (1876–1914),” French Historical Studies 20, no. 4 (Fall 1997): 709.

5. Ibid., 971.

6. He came up with the concept of the cephalic index — the breadth of the head above the ears expressed as a percentage of its length from forehead to back.

7. Brian Baker, “Darwin’s Gothic Science and Literature in the Late Nineteenth Century,” in Literature and Science: Social Impact and Interaction, ed. John H. Cartwright and Brian Baker (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2005), 212.

8. Fingerprinting was still in the future.

9. Henry T. F. Rhodes, Alphonse Bertillon: Father of Scientific Detection (New York: Greenwood, 1968), 91.

10. Colin Beavan, Fingerprints: The Origins of Crime Detection (New York: Hyperion, 2001), 83.

11. Rhodes, Alphonse Bertillon, 88.

12. Ibid., 95.

13. Ibid., 218.

14. Robinson, Science versus Crime, 142 (see chap. 4, n. 56).

15. Matsuda, Memory of the Modern, 136 (see chap. 4, n. 50).

16. Ibid., 136.

17. Hecht, End of the Soul, 164.

18. Thorwald, Century of the Detective, 28 (see chap. 2, n. 1).

19. Ibid., 29.

20. Ibid., 30.

21. Gerould, Guillotine, 195 (see chap. 1, n. 46).

22. Thorwald, Century of the Detective, 31.

23. George Dilnot, Triumphs of Detection: A Book about Detectives (London: Bles, 1929), 108.

24. Ibid., 108–9.

25. Ibid., 109–10.

26. In the Conan Doyle story “The Naval Treaty,” Dr. Watson summarizes a talk with Holmes: “His conversation, I remember, was about the Bertillon system of measurements, and he expressed his enthusiastic admiration of the French savant.”

27. Harry Ashton-Wolfe, The Forgotten Clue: Stories of the Parisian Sûreté with an Account of Its Methods (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1930), 115.

28. Ibid., 115–16.

29. Ibid., 116.

30. Ibid., 117.

31. Ibid., 118.

32. Ibid., 120.

33. Ibid., 123.

34. Ibid., 127–28.

35. Their daughter interviewed Alphonse late in his life and wrote a favorable biography of him.

36. Hecht, End of the Soul, 63.

37. Bredin, Affair, 74 (see chap. 1, n. 41).

38. Ibid., 74.

39. Louis L. Snyder, The Dreyfus Case: A Documentary History (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1973), 190.

40. Bredin, Affair, 262.

41. Snyder, Dreyfus Case, 303.

42. Nash, Encyclopedia of World Crime, 306 (see chap. 1, n. 37).

43. Colin Evans, Casebook of Forensic Detection: How Science Solved 100 of the World’s Most Baffling Crimes (New York: Wiley, 1996), 95.

44. Thorwald, Century of the Detective, 83.

45. Nash, Encyclopedia of World Crime, 351.

46. Ida Tarbell, “Identification of Criminals: The Scientific Method in Use in France,” McClure’s Magazine 2, no. 4 (March 1894): 165–66.

47. Ibid., 160.

48. Ibid., 169.

49. Michelle Perrot, ed., A History of Private Life, vol. 4, From the Fires of Revolution to the Great War (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1990), 473.

50. Katherine Blackford, “An Afternoon with Bertillon,” Outlook 100, no. 7 (February 24, 1912): 427–28.

51. Rhodes, Alphonse Bertillon, 193.

CHAPTER SIX: THE SUSPECTS

1. Steegmuller, Apollinaire, 168 (see chap. 2, n. 3).

2. Ibid., 168.

3. Ibid.

4. Ibid., 169.

5. Ibid., 170.

6. Ibid.

7. Arianna Stassinopoulos Huffington, Picasso: Creator and Destroyer (New York: Avon, 1989), 58.

8. Ibid., 77.

9. Steegmuller, Apollinaire, 125.

10. Ibid., 126.

11. Huffington, Picasso, 80.

12. Ibid., 85.

13. Roger Shattuck, The Banquet Years: The Origins of the Avant Garde in France, 1885 to World War I, rev. ed. (New York: Vintage, 1968), 254.

14. Ibid., 256.

15. Robert Tombs, “Culture and the Intellectuals,” in Modern France, 1880–2002, ed. James McMillan (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), 181.

16. Although the ancient Greek Democritus of Abdera posited atoms as fundamental elements of matter in the fifth century B.C.E., his idea was not generally accepted for more than two thousand years.

17. Eric Temple Bell, Men of Mathematics (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1965), 526.

18. Arthur I. Miller, Einstein, Picasso: Space, Time and the Beauty That Causes Havoc (New York: Basic Books, 2001), 103–4.

19. Linda Dalrymple Henderson, The Fourth Dimension and Non-Euclidean Geometry in Modern Art (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1983), 38.

20. In the book, he also dies in 820 places simultaneously.

21. Patricia Dee Leighten, Re-ordering the Universe: Picasso and Anarchism, 1897–1914 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1989), 63.

22. Ibid., 53.

23. Ibid., 58.

24. Ibid., 65.

25. Huffington, Picasso, 83.

26. Ibid., 86.

27. Ibid., 88.

28. Ibid., 89.

29. Ibid.

30. Ibid., 89–90.

31. Leighten, Re-ordering the Universe, 87.

32. Steegmuller, Apollinaire, 166.

33. The name Avignon, later applied to the painting, was said by André Salmon to refer to a particular street in Barcelona, the carrer d’Avinyó (Avignon in French), but Picasso denied that this was true, and his biographer John Richardson confirms that the carrer d’Avinyó was quite respectable.

34. Dan Franck, The Bohemians: The Birth of Modern Art, Paris 1900–1930, trans. Cynthia Hope LeBow (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 2001), 132–33.

35. Jarry died in November 1907, apparently without having seen the painting.

36. Leighten, Re-ordering the Universe, 90.

37. Steegmuller, Apollinaire, 191.

38. Franck, Bohemians, 102.

39. Lael Wertenbaker and the editors of Time-Life Books, The World of Picasso, 1881–1973 (Alexandria, VA: Time-Life Books, 1980), 54.

40. Henderson, Fourth Dimension, 80.

41. William R. Everdell, The First Moderns: Profiles in the Origins of Twentieth-Century Thought (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997), 248.

42. Ibid.

43. George Heard Hamilton, Painting and Sculpture in Europe, 1880–1940, The Pelican History of Art (Baltimore: Penguin Books, 1972), 238.

44. Everdell, First Moderns, 249.

45. John Richardson, with the collaboration of Marilyn McCully, A Life of Picasso, vol. 2, 1907–1917 (New York: Random House, 1996), 211.

46. Fernande Olivier, Picasso and His Friends, trans. Jane Miller (New York: Appleton-Century, 1965), 133.

47. Ibid., 139.

48. Steegmuller, Apollinaire, 167.

49. Ibid., 173.

50. Olivier, Picasso and His Friends, 148.

51. Steegmuller, Apollinaire, 173.

52. Ibid., 174

53. Ibid., 175.

54. Ibid., 177.

55. Ibid., 176.

56. Ibid.

57. Ibid., 211.

58. Ibid., 212.

59. Ibid., 217.

60. Olivier, Picasso and His Friends, 148–49.

61. Ibid., 149.

62. Steegmuller, Apollinaire, 218–19.

63. Ibid., 213.

64. Ibid., 207.

65. Ibid., 207–8.

66. He was Polish.

67. Willard Bohn, Apollinaire and the International Avant-Garde (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997), 6.

CHAPTER SEVEN: THE MOTOR BANDITS

1. Richard Parry, The Bonnot Gang (London: Rebel Press, 1987), 35.

2. Victor Serge, Memoirs of a Revolutionary, 1901–1941, trans. and ed. Peter Sedgwick (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1980), 30.

3. Ibid., 18.

4. Ibid., 38–39.

5. Ibid., 39.

6. Ibid., 40.

7. Serge, Memoirs, 32–33.

8. Parry, Bonnot Gang, 70.

9. Ibid., 79.

10. Ashton-Wolfe, Forgotten Clue, 51–52 (see chap. 5, n. 27).

11. Serge, Memoirs, 20–21.

12. Parry, Bonnot Gang, 90.

13. Serge, Memoirs, 35.

14. Parry, Bonnot Gang, 97.

15. Ibid., 101.

16. Ibid., 111.

17. Ibid.

18. Maurice Leblanc, “The Most Amazing True Crime Story Ever Told: The Auto-Bandits of Paris,” New York Times, May 5, 1912.

19. Belin, Secrets of the Sûreté, 29–30 (see chap. 4, n. 51).

20. Parry, Bonnot Gang, 123.

21. Ibid., 125.

22. Ibid.

23. Ibid., 126.

24. Belin, Secrets of the Sûreté, 31–32.

25. Harry Ashton-Wolfe, Crimes of Violence and Revenge (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1929), 115.

26. Parry, Bonnot Gang, 128.

27. Ashton-Wolfe, Crimes, 116.

28. Ibid.

29. Parry, Bonnot Gang, 136.

30. Ibid., 137.

31. Ibid., 139.

32. Ibid., 150.

33. Ibid., 160.

34. Thirteen years later, in 1928, he escaped and made his way to Brazil, where the authorities refused to extradite him to France. His wife had never ceased her attempts to prove his innocence, and a year later he received a pardon.

35. Gerould, Guillotine, 129 (see chap. 1, n. 46).

CHAPTER EIGHT: THE THIEF

1. James Henry Duveen, Art Treasures and Intrigue (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Doran, 1935), 316–17.

2. Reit, Day They Stole, 134 (see chap. 2, n. 2).

3. Ibid., 135.

4. Ibid., 136.

5. Ibid., 137.

6. Ibid., 168.

7. Ibid., 137.

8. Esterow, Art Stealers, 147 (see chap. 2, n. 4).

9. Ibid., 147.

10. Ibid.

11. Ibid.

12. Ibid., 148.

13. Reit, Day They Stole, 143.

14. Esterow, Art Stealers, 149–50.

15. The last name is spelled Perruggia on the Bertillon card in police files, but most authorities regard that as an error.

16New York Times, December 13, 1913.

17. Reit, Day They Stole, 142.

18. Esterow, Art Stealers, 150.

19. Ibid.

20. Jérôme Coignard, Loin du Louvre: Le vol de la Joconde, trans. Lyn Nosker (Paris: Éditions Olbia, 1998), 121.

21. Reit, Day They Stole, 155.

22. Ibid., 163.

23. Coignard, Loin du Louvre, 126.

24. Ibid., 127.

25. Reit, Day They Stole, 165.

26. Esterow, Art Stealers, 169.

CHAPTER NINE: CHERCHEZ LA FEMME

1. Irving Wallace, “France’s Greatest Detective,” Reader’s Digest, February 1950, 106.

2. Lucia Zedner, “Women, Crime and Penal Responses: A Historical Account,” in History of Criminology, ed. Paul Rock (Aldershot, UK: Dartmouth, 1994), 339.

3. Berenson, Trial of Madame Caillaux, 268–69 (see chap. 3, n. 20).

4. Shapiro, Breaking the Codes, 14 (see chap. 1, n. 43).

5. Ibid., 38.

6. Ibid.

7. Ibid., 34.

8. Benjamin F. Martin, The Hypocrisy of Justice in the Belle Epoque (Baton Rouge: Louisiana University Press, 1984), 35.

9. Ibid., 46.

10. Ibid., 48.

11. Ibid., 49.

12. Ibid., 52.

13. Ibid., 63–64.

14. Ibid., 66.

15. Ibid., 68.

16. Ernest Dudley and Marguerite Steinheil, The Scarlett Widow (London: Muller, 1960), 192.

17. Ibid., 193.

18. Ibid., 197.

19. Ibid., 193.

20. Ibid., 194.

21. Berenson, Trial of Madame Caillaux, 63.

22. Even in the rough-and-tumble world of French journalism, it was an unwritten rule that the foibles of politicians’ personal lives were off limits. Calmette had to defend his decision to print the “Ton Jo” letter. He published a statement: “This is the first time in my thirty years of journalism that I am publishing a private, intimate letter, against the wishes of its author, its owner, or its receiver. My dignity experiences true suffering at this act.” Martin, Hypocrisy of Justice, 170.

23. Berenson, Trial of Madame Caillaux, 23.

24. Martin, Hypocrisy of Justice, 172.

25. Berenson, Trial of Madame Caillaux, 24.

26. Martin, Hypocrisy of Justice, 173.

27. Ibid., 151–52.

28. Ibid., 152.

29. James Trager, The Women’s Chronology: A Year-by-Year Record from Prehistory to the Present (New York: Holt, 1994), 400.

30. Boucard ignored the possibility that Henriette wanted to prevent Calmette from publishing other documents, such as the Fabre memo, because that would have shown a more political motive on her part.

31. Berenson, Trial of Madame Caillaux, 35.

32. Ibid., 33.

33. Alister Kershaw, Murder in France (London: Constable, 1955), 94.

34. Martin, Hypocrisy of Justice, 180–81.

35. Ibid., 181.

36. Ibid.

37. French law permitted them to take part in the criminal trial, in addition to the prosecution and defense attorneys.

38. Martin, Hypocrisy of Justice, 185.

39. Ibid., 191.

40. Ibid.

41. Berenson, Trial of Madame Caillaux, 173.

42. Ibid., 171.

43. Ibid., 208–9.

44. Martin, Hypocrisy of Justice, 197.

45. Ibid., 198.

46. Ibid., 199.

47. Ibid.

48. Ibid., 200.

49. Ibid., 201.

CHAPTER TEN: THE GREATEST CRIME

1. Arthur Gold and Robert Fizdale, Misia: The Life of Misia Sert (New York: Knopf, 1980), 162.

2. Ibid.

3. Arthur I. Miller, Insights of Genius: Imagery and Creativity in Science and Art (New York: Copernicus, 1996), 419.

4. Jay Robert Nash, Encyclopedia of World Crime: Criminal Justice, Criminology, and Law Enforcement (Wilmette, IL: CrimeBooks, 1990), 35.

5. Ibid.

6. Ibid.

7. Adam Liptak, “Driver’s License Emerges as Crime-Fighting Tool, but Privacy Advocates Worry,” New York Times, February 17, 2007.

8. Forgetting the proper month, Apollinaire wrote “August 1914.”

9. Francis Steegmuller, Apollinaire: Poet among the Painters (New York: Farrar, Straus, 1963), 233.

10. Ibid., 235.

11. Ibid., 249.

12. Ibid., 259.

13. Stephen Kern, The Culture of Time and Space 1880–1918 (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003), 302.

14. Billy Klüver, A Day with Picasso: Twenty-four Photographs by Jean Cocteau (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1997), 65.

15. The painting was not sold to anyone until 1924, when the Paris couturier Jacques Doucet purchased it.

16. Brassaï, Picasso and Company, trans. Francis Price (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1966), 119.

17. Heartfield’s original name was Helmut Herzfeld, which he changed during the war as a protest to anti-British propaganda.

18. Wolfgang Beutin et al., A History of German Literature from the Beginnings to the Present Day, 4th ed., trans. Clare Krojzl (London: Routledge, 1993), 452.

19. The name has a variety of explanations. One is that it was a French word for “hobbyhorse.” Another was that it was Russian for “yes, yes,” meant sarcastically.

20. H. R. Rookmaaker, Modern Art and the Death of a Culture (Downers Grove, IL: Inter-Varsity Press, 1970), 130.

21. Norbert Lynton, The Story of Modern Art (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1980), 127.

AFTERWORD: THE MASTERMIND

1. Karl Decker, “Why and How the Mona Lisa Was Stolen,” Saturday Evening Post, June 25, 1932, 14.

2. Ibid., 14.

3. Ibid., 15.

4. Ibid., 89.

5. Ibid.

6. Ibid.

7. Ibid.

8. Ibid.

9. Ibid., 91.

10. Ibid., 89.

11. Ibid., 91.

12. Ibid.

13. Ibid.

14. Ibid.

15. Jana Seely, e-mail message to authors, September 26, 2005.

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