Rapid Review Guide
To achieve the perfect 5, you should be able to explain the following:
• The election of Thomas Jefferson in 1800 is called the “Revolution of 1800,” as the new president had a completely different vision of America than the Federalists whom he replaced.
• Thomas Jefferson was one of the most brilliant men ever to serve as president, and he instituted many “Republican” policies during his eight years in office.
• The role of the federal courts was greatly strengthened during the tenure of John Marshall as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
• The Louisiana Purchase more than doubled the size of the United States and allowed the “empire of liberty” to continue to expand.
• The case of Aaron Burr showed the deep political divisions that existed in the United States during this period.
• The Napoleonic wars greatly impacted the relationship between the United States, England, and France.
• American entered the War of 1812 because President Madison convinced the nation that America’s rights as a neutral power had been violated and because many in Congress felt that the British were encouraging resistance by Native American tribes.
• The American System of Henry Clay and others was proposed after the War of 1812 and outlined a plan for broad economic growth for the United States.
• The Missouri Compromise temporarily solved the issue of the number of slave versus the number of free states.
1800: Thomas Jefferson elected president in “Revolution of 1800”
1801: John Marshall named as Chief Justice of Supreme Court Alien and Sedition Acts not renewed
1803: Louisiana Purchase
Marbury v. Madison case established federal judicial review
1804: Alexander Hamilton killed in duel with Aaron Burr
Thomas Jefferson reelected
Twelfth Amendment ratified (separate voting for president, vice president)
Beginning of Lewis and Clark expedition
1807: Embargo Act greatly harms foreign trade
1808: James Madison elected president
Further importation of slaves into United States made illegal
1812: Beginning of War of 1812
1814: British army sacks Washington
Treaty of Ghent formally ends War of 1812
Indian removal from Southern territories begins in earnest
1814—1815: Hartford Convention (meeting of Federalists)
1815: Victory of Andrew Jackson at Battle of New Orleans (after War of 1812 was officially over)
Henry Clay proposes the “American System”
1816: James Monroe elected president 1816-1823: Era of Good Feelings
1820: Missouri Compromise
1. The Marbury v. Madison decision
A. gave powers to the president that the Republicans of Thomas Jefferson claimed he didn’t have
B. gave broad judicial power to the state courts
C. declared that the Alien and Sedition Acts were constitutional
D. established the principle of judicial review
E. legalized the removal of Native Americans from western lands
(Correct Answer: D. The decision stated that the Supreme Court had the right to decide on the constitutionality of federal rulings and laws.)
2. As a result of the election of
Thomas Jefferson in 1800,
A. more assistance was given to the commercial sector
B. politicians in New York, Boston, and Philadelphia gained power
C. American foreign policy became more pro-British
D. the federal debt rose dramatically
E. federal excise taxes were eliminated
(Correct Answer: E. All of the remaining answers would have been true if a Federalist had been elected president, Jefferson favored lessening the power of the federal government, and eliminating federal excise taxes was one way in which he did so.)
3. All of the following are reasons why America entered the War of 1812 except
A. the impressment of American naval crews
B. the existence of a strong American navy ready to demonstrate its capabilities
C. the relationship between the British and Native American tribes in the western territories of North America
D. the violation of America’s rights as a neutral power
E. the desire by American leaders to acquire additional western territories
(Correct Answer: B. The United States had an army of 6000 men and 17 ships when war began. All of the other choices are reasons that Americans supported the War of 1812.)
4. The Hartford Convention demonstrated that
A. the Federalist party had remained a dominant party in American political life
B. the War of 1812 brought political union to the United States
C. the concept of nullification was not exclusively a Southern one
D. the legacy of John Adams was large
E. the Treaty of Ghent was a controversial treaty
(Correct Answer: C. Kentucky and Virginia spoke of nullification after the Sedition Act; New England Federalists saw the War of 1812 as a disaster and at the Hartford Convention also spoke of nullification.)
5. The American System of Henry Clay
A. favored strong economic growth and a Second National Bank
B. wanted to make the United States the military equivalent of Great Britain or France
C. wanted to place a ceiling on the national debt
D. favored lowering tariffs, so that more goods could be purchased from abroad
E. advocated the elimination of slavery
(Correct Answer: A. The American System favored American economic growth, a national bank, and increased tariffs to protect American businesses and finance new transportation systems within the United States.)