Exam preparation materials


Rapid Review Guide

To achieve a perfect 5, you should be able to explain the following:

• America became the economic and imperialistic equal of the major European powers by the beginning of the twentieth century.

• The United States acquired territory in the years immediately following the Civil War, but then entered a period where little foreign expansion took place.

• Americans and natives friendly to America increased the economic and political control of Hawaii by the United States, signaling a new trend in foreign policy.

• America desired trade in China; these desires were represented in John Hay’s Open-Door policy.

• Economic, political, and strategic motives pushed America to pursue imperialist goals in the 1890s.

• Many in this era also opposed imperialism, often on moral or humanitarian grounds.

• The Spanish-American War allowed American imperialistic impulses to flourish; religious figures also supported imperialism in this era.

• Spanish incompetence and the strength of the American navy were important factors in the American victory in the Spanish-American War.

• America was deeply conflicted but finally decided to annex the Philippines, with three years of fighting between Americans and Filipino rebels to follow.

• The Panama Canal was built by the United States for military, strategic, and economic reasons; its construction began in 1904 and was completed in 1914.

• The Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine increased American control over Latin America.

Time Line

1867: United States purchases Alaska from Russia

United States annexes Midway Islands

1871: Beginning of European “Scramble for Africa”

1875: Trade agreement between United States and Hawaii signed

1885: Publication of Our Country by Josiah Strong; book discusses role of Anglo-Saxons in the world

1890: Captain Alfred T. Mahan’s The Influence of Sea Power upon History published

1893: Pro-American sugar planters overthrow Queen Liliuokalani in Hawaii

1895: Revolt against Spanish in Cuba; harsh Spanish reaction angers many in United States

1898: Explosion of USS Maine in Havana harbor; beginning of Spanish-American War

Annexation of Hawaii receives final approval from Congress Anti-Imperialist League formed

1899: Secretary of State John Hay asks European leaders for an Open- Door policy in China

First fighting between American army forces and Filipino rebels in Manila

1900: Naval Act of 1900 authorizes construction of offensive warships requested by navy

1901: Assassination of President McKinley; Theodore Roosevelt becomes president

1904: Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe Doctrine announced United States begins construction of Panama Canal

1905: Roosevelt mediates conflict between Japan, Russia in Portsmouth, New Hampshire

1914: Completion of the Panama Canal

Review Questions

1. The intent of the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine was

A. to prevent European powers from becoming directly involved in affairs of the Western Hemisphere

B. to allow the United States to intervene in Latin American countries causing “trouble” for the United States

C. to allow the United States to “assist” countries in the area that demonstrated economic or political instability

D. to allow the United States to remove “unfriendly governments” in the Western Hemisphere

E. All of the above

(Correct Answer: E. The Roosevelt Corollary allowed the United States to intervene in affairs of Latin American countries under several circumstances, but was also intended to keep the European powers out of Latin America.)

2. Many humanitarians in the United States initially supported the Spanish-American War because

A. they were appalled at the Spanish policy of reconcentration in Cuba

B. they were able to ignore editorial comments found in most American newspapers

C. they were following the lead of the Anti-Imperialist League

D. they desired to assist the Filipino natives

E. of American economic interests in Cuba

(Correct Answer: A. The Spanish policy of placing civilians in camps horrified many Americans, Most American newspapers initially supported the war as well.

Concern for the Filipinos only became an issue during the debate over whether or not the United States should annex the Philippines.)

3. The major criticism that some Americans had concerning the construction of the Panama Canal was that

A. the canal would force America to have a navy in both the Pacific and the Atlantic

B. the canal would be outlandishly expensive to build

C. the tactics that the Americans used to get the rights to build the canal were unsavory at best

D. a French construction team had agreed to build the canal first

E. American forces would have to be stationed indefinitely in Panama to guard the canal

(Correct Answer: C. The United States acquired the rights to territory to build the canal through the encouragement of a “revolt” by Panamanians against Colombia. The American navy wanted the canal. The French construction team had already been bankrupted by the excessive construction costs of the canal project.)

4. The United States Was able to annex Hawaii because

A. Queen Liliuokalani desired increased American investment in Hawaii

B. pro-American planters engineered a revolt in Hawaii

C. American marines had forcibly removed the queen from power

D. public opinion in Hawaii strongly favored annexation

E. Hawaii felt threatened by other Pacific powers

(Correct Answer: B. Queen Liliuokalani desired decreased American involvement in Hawaii. American marines were involved in the removal of the queen from power, but only in a supporting role. Public opinion in Hawaii supported the queen.)

5. American missionary leaders supported imperialism in this era because

A. they thought their involvement would temper the excess zeal of other imperialists

B. they admired the “pureness of spirit” found in the Filipinos and other native groups

C. religious leaders in Europe favored imperialism

D. they saw imperialism as an opportunity to convert the “heathen” of newly acquired territories

E. American presidents, especially Theodore Roosevelt, strongly pressured them to take that stance

(Correct Answer: D. Missionary leaders worked in conjunction with other imperialists in this era. Little admiration of the natives was demonstrated by missionary leaders; the possibilities of conversions was the major reason for religious support for imperialism.)

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