Common section

CHRONOLOGY

THE AGE OF POPE GREGORY VII

1073

Pope Gregory VII attacks corruption in the Church (especially simony, i.e. the payment of money to secure jobs and positions within the Church); he insists on clerical celibacy, and asserts his sole right to appoint bishops

1074

Henry IV of Germany rejects Gregory’s decrees as a threat to imperial power

1077

Henry submits and does penance to Gregory VII at Canossa

1084

Henry marches on Rome to make Wibert of Ravenna Pope Clement III

1085

Gregory VII dies in exile in Salerno

HILDEGARD’S EARLY YEARS

1096–9

First Crusade

1098

Beginnings of Cistercian monasticism

1098

Hildegard born at Bermersheim, Rheinhessen, south-west of Mainz

1106

Hildegard placed in the care of Jutta of Spanheim

1112(?)

Jutta and Hildegard become recluses attached to Disibodenberg monastery

1112–15

The enclosure becomes a convent; Hildegard takes monastic vows

early i2th C Honorius ‘of Autun’, Elucidarium and Imago mundi

1115

The Cistercian St Bernard founds the Abbey of Clairvaux

1120s

Hugh of St Victor at Paris, Didascalicon (Guide to the arts)

1140

Council of Sens; Bernard condemns Peter Abelard and Arnold of Brescia

1140s

Beginnings of the Catharist religious movement in Germany Lamprecht, Song of Alexander

THE WORK ON SCIVIAS

1136

Death of Jutta; the nuns elect Hildegard as abbess of their community (at this point still attached to the monastery of Disibodenberg)

1141

Hildegard starts work on Scivias, with clerical assistance from the Disibodenberg monk Volmar

1143–8

Bernard Silvester, Cosmographia

1145

A former monk of Clairvaux becomes Pope Eugenius III

1146–7

Bernard of Clairvaux takes up the papal call to preach the Second Crusade (1147–9)

1146/7

Hildegard petitions Bernard of Clairvaux to support her writings

1147

Bernard Silvester’s Cosmographia approved by Eugenius III

1147/8

Hildegard’s writings approved by Eugenius and Bernard at the Synod of Trier

1148

Odo of Soissons, Master at Paris, writes to Hildegard

1148

Council of Rheims; Gilbert of Poitiers withdraws controversial statements

1148

Bernard attacks the Cluniac order

1148

The reformist Arnold of Brescia excommunicated at Synod of Cremona

1148–50

Abbess Tengswich of Andernach criticizes Hildegard

c. 1150

Hildegard moves her nuns to a new monastery at Rupertsberg, near Bingen

1151

Hildegard completes Scivias, with secretarial assistance from the monk Volmar and the nun Richardis of Stade

THE MIDDLE PERIOD (115I-8)

1151–2

Hildegard opposes the election of Richardis of Stade as abbess of Bassum in the diocese of Archbisho Hartwi of Bremen

1151–8

Hildegard writes songs, scientific and medical writings and various minor works

1150–65

Ælred of Rievaulx, On Spiritual Friendship

1152

Election of Conrad III’s nephew Frederick (Barbarossa) as King of Germany

1153

Death of Bernard of Clairvaux

1154

Henry II becomes King of England

1154

Nicholas Breakspear becomes Pope Hadrian IV

c. 1154

Hildegard meets Frederick Barbarossa at Ingelsheim, near Rupertsberg

1155

Coronation of Frederick Barbarossa as Holy Roman Emperor

1155

Hildegard wins land ownership dispute with monks of Disibodenberg

1157

Diet of Besançon; conflict between Emperor and Pope over whether the imperial crown is a ‘benefice’ to be granted by the Pope

1157

Elisabeth of Schönau becomes abbess of her community of nuns

1158

Arnold Archbishop of Mainz confirms the financial agreement between Disibodenberg and Rupertsberg

THE PERIOD OF THE BOOK OF LIFE’S MERITS

1158

Hildegard begins The Book of Life’s Merits

c.1158

Hildegard’s first preaching tour; along the Main to Bamberg

1159

Election of Pope Alexander III. Beginning of eighteen-year schism between Emperor Barbarossa and the new pope. Barbarossa supports the antipope Victor IV and is excommunicated by Alexander

1160S

Marie de France, Lays

1160

Hildegard’s second preaching tour; to Trier and Lorraine

1161–3

Hildegard’s third preaching tour; down the Rhine to Siegburg and Cologne

1163

Hildegard obtains deed of protection for the Rupertsberg from Barbarossa

1163

Hildegard completes The Book of Life’s Merits

THE BOOK OF DIVINE WORKS

1163

Hildegard begins The Book of Divine Works; still assisted by Volmar

1164

Emperor Barbarossa elects a second antipope, Paschalis III; Hildegard protests

1165

Hildegard founds a second monastery at Eibingen

1165

Barbarossa installs Christian de Buch as Archbishop of Mainz, replacing Conrad, who flees the city

1160–70

Herrad of Landsberg, Hortus deliciarum

1167

Barbarossa invades Italy and takes Rome, but is eventually repulsed

1168

Hildegard writes a condemnatory letter to Barbarossa after his election of a third antipope, Callistus III

1170

Martyrdom of Thomas à Becket at Canterbury Cathedral

1170s

Konrad, Rolandslied; Heinrich of Veldeke, Eneit; birth of Walther von der Vogelweide

1170

Hildegard, Life of St Disibod

1170–1

Hildegard’s fourth preaching tour; through Swabia

1173

Volmar dies; secretarial assistance probably obtained now from Mainz

1173/4

Hildegard, The Book of Divine Works

LATER CAREER AND REPUTATION

1174

Gottfried arrives from Disibodenberg as secretary; begins Life of Hildegard

1175

Hildegard’s correspondence with Guibert of Gembloux

1176

Gottfried dies

1177

Peace of Venice between Alexander III and Frederick Barbarossa

1177

Joachim of Fiore becomes abbot of Corazzo

1177

Guibert of Gembloux becomes Hildegard’s secretary

1178–9

Hildegard’s dispute with the diocese of Mainz

1179

Hildegard dies aged 82

1180–90

Theodorich of Echternach completes Life of Hildegard

1220

Gebeno of Eberbach excerpts Hildegard’s writings in the Pentachronon

1233

Canonization protocol

1237

Demand for a revised version of the canonization protocol

1243

New protocol completed but canonization postponed indefinitely

from 15th C Hildegard’s festival fixed as 17 September

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