Some of the works I have used in researching and writing this book really could have been cited on almost every page. I hope I have credited their insights wherever I have made use of them. For those readers interested in pursuing their own researches, these are the works, along with those footnoted in the text, that were of most value to me.

Eleanor Anderson: “There Are Some Things in Life You Can’t Choose …: An Investigation into Discrimination Against People with Red Hair,” Sociology Working Papers, (2002).

Ruth Barton (ed.): Screening Irish-America: Representing Irish-America in Film and Television (Dublin, Irish Academic Press, 2009).

Beth Cohen (ed.): Not the Classical Ideal-Athens and the Construction of Other in Greek Art (Leiden: Brill’s Scholars’ List, 2000).

Michelle A. Erhardt and Amy M. Morris (eds.): Mary Magdalen, Iconographic Studies from the Middle Ages to the Baroque (Brill, 2012).

Susan Haskins: Mary Magdalen: Myth and Metaphor, (New York: Riverhead, 1995).

Druann Maria Heckert and Amy Best: “Ugly Duckling to Swan: Labeling Theory and the Stigmatization of Red Hair,” Symbolic Interaction 20, no. 4 (1997): 365–84.

Noel Ignatiev: How the Irish Became White (New York: Routledge, 2008).

Benjamin Isaac: The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2006).

Sandra R. Joshel: Slavery in the Roman World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010).

Tara MacDonald: “Red-headed Animal: Race, Sexuality and Dickens’s Uriah Heep,” Critical Survey 17, no. 2 (2005): 48–62.

Catherine Maxwell: Swinburne (Plymouth: Northcote House, 2004).

Grant McCracken: Big Hair: A Journey into the Transformation of Self (New York: Overlook Press, 1996).

Juliet McMaster: “Taking Control: Hair Red, Black, Gold, and Nut-Brown” in Making Avonlea, ed. Irene Gammel (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2002).

Ruth Mellinkoff: Outcasts: Signs of Otherness in Northern European Art of the Late Middle Ages (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and Oxford: University of California Press, 1993).

Marion Roach: The Roots of Desire: The Myth, Meaning, and Sexual Power of Red Hair (New York: Bloomsbury, 2005).

Anthony Synnott: “Shame and Glory: A Sociology of Hair,” The British Journal of Sociology 38, no. 3 (September 1987): 381–413.

Kelly L. Wrenhaven: Reconstructing the Slave: The Image of the Slave in Ancient Greece (London: Bristol Classical Press, 2012).

Kelly Wrenhaven, “A Comedy of Errors: The Comic Slave in Greek Art,” in Slaves and Slavery in Greek Comic Drama, eds. Ben Akrigg and Rob Tordoff (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013).


With some kind of organization, this list of names could stretch out to an extent that would be simply embarrassing, so …

At Black Dog & Leventhal, the wonderful J.P., and the just as wonderful Becky, Pam, Kara, Maureen, and Stephanie; also Becky Maines (“Red Becky”) and Andrea Santoro, Rena Kornbluh, Mike Olivo, Christopher Lin, Ankur Ghosh, Nicole Caputo, Cindy Joy, and (for his splendid redhead map) Stefan Chabluk. At Fox and Howard: Chelsey and Charlotte. Jonathan Clements and Barbara Schwepcke—in at the birth.

The staff of the British Library and of the LSE Library; of the National Portrait Gallery and of the Royal Collection Trust; indeed all the friends and colleagues, past and present, who have been kind enough to interest themselves in this. It would have been a lesser book without you.

For advice and assistance: Nikolay Genov; Jeroen Hindriks; J.T. Leedson; Yvette Leur; Chris, Mark and Sara of Papercut Films; Professor Jonathan Rees; Joe Schick; Karin Schnell; Kirsty Stonnell Walker; Julia Valeva; Irmgard and Sterra Vlamings; and Dr. Tim Wentel. Like poor Ralph Holinshed, battling the exigencies of deadlines, I can only say that I have done what I could, not what I would, and any errors are mine. Heartfelt thanks also to Thomas Knights, to Bart and all the staff of Redhead Days in Breda, and all those many redheads who responded to the idea of this book with such enthusiasm and have offered details of their lives and experiences to me with such generosity.

For Millie, for listening so patiently. For being there: my family, especially Alice, Sam, Emma, Jack, and Ellie, and of course Nick.

And for all the support, the encouragement, the patience, and the wisdom any writer could ask for—Mark. Neither this, nor its writer, would be here without you.

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!