Notes

List of abbreviations

ADM

Admiralty documents

C

Chancery documents

CO

Colonial Office documents

CSPC

Calendar of State Papers, Colonial, America, and West Indies

Oxford DNB

Oxford Dictionary of National Biography

NMM

National Maritime Museum, London

PRO

Public Record Office, Kew, London

Prologue

  1. Post Boy, London, Thursday, 24 October 1717.

  2. Nathaniel Uring, quoted from The Voyages and Travels of Captain Nathaniel Uring, ed. A. Dewar (London, 1928), p. 241.

  3. Governor Johnson to Council of Trade and Plantations, Charles Town, South Carolina, 18 June 1718. CSPC, vol. 1717–1718.

  4. Sir Nicholas Lawes to Council of Trade and Plantations, Jamaica, 21 June 1718. CSPC, vol. 1717–1718.

  5. Council of Trade and Plantations to Secretary Addison, Whitehall, 21 November 1717. CSPC, vol. 1717–1718.

  6. Captain Woodes Rogers, A Cruising Voyage Round the World, ed. G. E. Manwaring (New York and London, 1928), p. 91.

  7. Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The History of the Atlantic Slave Trade 1440–1870 (London, 1997; edn. cited 1998), pp. 211, 794; and O. H. K. Spate, The Spanish Lake (London, 1979), p. 193.

  8. Neville Williams, The Sea Dogs: Privateers, Plunder and Piracy in the Elizabethan Age (London, 1975), p. 130.

  9. Calendar of State Papers, Spanish, IV, 1587–1603, pp. 491–2.

10. For the origins and early history of the buccaneers see John Esquemeling, Bucaniers of America (London, 1684), vol. 1, part 1.

11. Quoted by the French missionary the Abbé Jean Baptiste Du Tertre. Peter Wood, The Spanish Main (Amsterdam, 1980), p. 110.

12. The Treaty of Madrid had been signed in July 1670. The sacking of Panama took place in January 1671. For a detailed account of Morgan’s campaigns see Peter Earle, The Sack of Panama (London, 1981) and Dudley Pope, Harry Morgan’s Way: The Biography of Sir Henry Morgan(London, 1977).

13. Quoted in A Buccaneer’s Atlas: Basil Ringrose’s South Sea Waggoner, ed. Derek Howse and Norman Thrower (Berkeley and Oxford, 1992), p. 29.

Chapter One: Raiding the South Seas

  1. The printed edition of the journal of Basil Ringrose in Bucaniers of America, by John Esquemeling (London, 1684), vol. 2, p. 33.

  2. Ringrose, in Bucaniers of America, vol. 2, pp. 15–16.

  3. John Cox, in The Voyages and Adventures of Capt. Barth. Sharp, and Others in the South Sea (London, 1684), p. 13.

  4. For a detailed description of the buccaneers’ muskets and other weapons see William Gilkerson, Boarders Away II: Firearms of the Age of Fighting Sail (Lincoln, Rhode Island, 1993), pp. 160–2, 171–3.

  5. Ringrose, in Esquemeling, Bucaniers of America, vol. 2, p. 29.

  6. Ibid., p. 30.

  7. Ibid., p. 31.

  8. A Collection of Original Voyages … published by Capt. William Hacke (London, 1699), p. 12.

  9. Ringrose, in Esquemeling, Bucaniers of America, vol. 2, p. 30.

10. Peter Bradley, The Lure of Peru: Maritime Intrusions into the South Sea, 1598–1710 (London, 1989), pp. 126–7.

11. The principal source for the democratic methods of the buccaneers is John Exquemeling, Bucaniers of America, vol. 1, part 1, p. 42.

12. From Woodes Rogers’ Introduction in the Narrative Press edn. of A Cruising Voyage Round the World (Santa Barbara, California, 2004), p. 5.

13. Ringrose in Bucaniers of America, vol. 2, p. 119.

14. For an excellent description of the Miskito Indians see Tim Severin, Seeking Robinson Crusoe (London, 2002), pp. 103–87. Severin tracked down the descendants of Will and his companions on the Caribbean coast of Nicaragua.

15. John Masefield (ed.), Dampier’s Voyages (London, 1906), vol. 1, p. 39.

16. Dampier, quoted in Howse and Thrower, A Buccaneer’s Atlas, p. 19.

17. Ibid., p. 22.

18. Ibid., p. 22.

19. Masefield (ed.), Dampier’s Voyages, vol. 1, pp. 285–6.

20. Ibid., p. 114.

21. Ibid., p. 112.

22. See Joel H. Baer, ‘William Dampier at the Crossroads: New Light on the “Missing Years,” 1691–1697’, International Journal of Maritime History, 8 (1996), pp. 97–117; and Diana and Michael Preston, A Pirate of Exquisite Mind: Explorer, Naturalist and Buccaneer: The Life of William Dampier (New York, 2004), pp. 220–4.

23. John Evelyn, Diary (Oxford, 1959), p. 1027.

Chapter Two: The Sea Captain

  1. John Callander, Terra Australis Cognita: or Voyages to the Terra Australis or Southern Hemisphere (Edinburgh, 1768), vol. 3, p. 232.

  2. Glyndwr Williams, in The Great South Sea: English Voyages and Encounters, 1570–1750 (London and New Haven, 1997), points out the shortcomings in Rogers’ character which are entirely overlooked in Brian Little’s Crusoe’s Captain: Being the Life of Woodes Rogers, Seaman, Trader, Colonial Governor (London, 1960) and other accounts of Rogers’ life.

  3. Dr Thomas Dover to John Batchelor & Company … Cape of Good Hope, 11 February 1711. PRO: C.104/160.

  4. John Masefield (ed.), Dampier’s Voyages (London, 1906), vol. 2, p. 321. The other references to Captain Rogers are in vol. 2, pp. 202, 246.

  5. Captain Woodes Rogers, A Cruising Voyage Round the World, ed. G. E. Manwaring (New York and London, 1928), p. 99.

  6. Daniel Defoe, A Tour through the Whole Island of Great Britain (London, 1724–7), vol. II, letter III, p. 54.

  7. John Macky, A Journey through England (London, 1722), vol. 2, pp. 133–4.

  8. The logbooks of the Dreadnought indicate that Whetstone was in command of the ship from July 1696 to June 1699. PRO: ADM. 51/4170.

  9. Benbow’s Action of 1702 and the subsequent court martial proved controversial and have been the subject of some debate among naval historians. The transcript of the court martial and related documents are bound into one volume and make fascinating reading. PRO: ADM. 1/5263.

10. Observator, quoted by David J. Starkey, British Privateering Enterprise in the Eighteenth Century (Exeter, 1990), p. 86.

11. Starkey, British Privateering Enterprise, p. 100.

12. An Act for the better securing the Trade of this Kingdom by Cruisers and Convoys (6 Annae, c.65, AD. 1707), Statutes of the Realm, vol. VIII, pp. 811–13.

13. Capt. Edward Cooke, A Voyage to the South Sea, and Round the World (London, 1712), vol. 1, p. xv.

14. Callander, Terra Australis Cognita, vol. 3, p. 231.

15. Declaration by Woodes Rogers before William Whitehead, Mayor, 26 April 1708. PRO: HCA. 25/20.

16. PRO: HCA. 25/20.

17. PRO: C.104/36, part 2.

18. Ibid.

19. Callander, Terra Australis Cognita, vol. 3, p. 232.

20. Deposition of Alexander Selkirk, 18 July 1712. This is mostly devoted to the voyage of the St George and the Cinque Ports and is somewhat confused and illegible in places. It does contain the memorable passage that Selkirk thought ‘that Dampier & Morgan & Stradling … managed all things hugger mugger among themselves without the knowledge of any of the ships company …’. PRO: C.24/13221, part 1.

21. Richard Steele’s interview with Selkirk was published in The Englishman in December 1713. The text is also reproduced in R. L. Mégroz, The Real Robinson Crusoe: Being the Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Alexander Selkirk of Largo, Fife, Mariner (London, 1939), pp. 193–7.

Chapter Three: From Bristol to Cape Horn

  1. Thomas Cox, Magna Britannia et Hibernia: Somersetshire (1720–31), p. 745.

  2. George Sherburn (ed.), Correspondence of Alexander Pope (Oxford, 1956), vol. IV, p. 201.

  3. Captain Woodes Rogers, A Cruising Voyage Round the World, ed. G. E. Manwaring (New York and London, 1928), p. 8.

  4. Robert C. Davis, Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters (London, 2003), pp. 3–26.

  5. Rogers, A Cruising Voyage Round the World, ed. G. E. Manwaring, p. 18.

  6. The major developments for calculating longitude accurately were John Hadley’s reflecting quadrant of 1731; the publication of Maskelyne’s Nautical Almanac of 1767; and the series of chronometers invented and perfected by John Harrison, notably the large watch known as H4 which he completed in 1759 and which won him the Longitude Prize in 1773.

  7. Capt. Edward Cooke, A Voyage to the South Sea, and Round the World (London, 1712), vol. 1, p. 33.

  8. Pascoe Thomas, A True and Impartial Journal of a Voyage to the South Seas and Round the Globe in His Majesty’s Ship the Centurion (London, 1745), p. 142.

  9. On their arrival at Juan Fernández, Rogers notes that Selkirk supplied the sick men with an excellent broth of goat meat mixed with turnip tops and greens. He later notes the effect of this on ‘our sick men, by which with the help of the greens and the goodness of the air they recovered very fast of the scurvy’. A Cruising Voyage Round the World, ed. G. E. Manwaring, p. 74.

Chapter Four: A Man Clothed in Goat-Skins

  1. It is named ‘Windy Bay’ on William Hack’s map of 1685, and in an illustration in Edward Cooke’s book A Voyage to the South Sea, and Round the World (London, 1712) it is called ‘Duke and Dutchess Bay’. According to Tim Severin in Seeking Robinson Crusoe (London, 2002), p. 32, it was named ‘Cumberland Bay’ by the commanding officer of a Royal Navy expedition.

  2. Cooke, A Voyage to the South Sea, vol. 2, p. xx.

  3. Ibid.

  4. See ‘Excavation at Aguas Buenas, Robinson Crusoe Island, Chile of a gunpowder magazine and the supposed campsite of Alexander Selkirk, together with an account of early navigational dividers’ by Daisuke Takhashi, David H. Caldwell, Ivan Caceras, Mauricio Calderon, A. D. Morrison-Low and Jim Tate, in Post Medieval Archaeology, vol. 41, no. 2 (December 2007), pp. 270–304. My thanks to David Caldwell for supplying me with a copy of this excavation report.

  5. Captain Woodes Rogers, A Cruising Voyage Round the World, ed. G. E. Manwaring (New York and London, 1928), p. 92.

  6. It is interesting to note that in the first volume of his book Cooke only wrote a few sentences describing the rescue of the castaway but so great was the public interest in Selkirk engendered by Rogers’ excellent account in his A Cruising Voyage Round the World which came out three months later that Cooke produced his own extended account in the second volume of his book.

  7. Rogers, A Cruising Voyage Round the World, ed. G. E. Manwaring, p. 94.

  8. Ibid., p. 117.

  9. Ibid., p. 131.

10. Ibid., p. 141. The courteous treatment of prisoners by Rogers and his men is in stark contrast to the methods of some of the earlier buccaneers who frequently subjected prisoners to torture, rape and death.

11. Rogers, A Cruising Voyage Round the World, ed. G. E. Manwaring, p. 173.

Chapter Five: The Manila Galleons

  1. According to the royal treasurer at Manila the galleon carried 2,300 marks of gold, as well as pearls and silks, and the total value of her cargo on arrival at Acapulco would have been over 2 million pesos. William Lytle Schurz, The Manila Galleon (Manila, 1985), p. 250.

  2. Schurz, The Manila Galleon, p. 207.

  3. Ibid., pp. 205–6.

  4. Captain Woodes Rogers, A Cruising Voyage Round the World, ed. G. E. Manwaring (New York and London, 1928), p. 214.

  5. Ibid., p. 215.

  6. Capt. Edward Cooke, A Voyage to the South Sea, and Round the World (London, 1712), vol. 1, p. 347.

  7. Rogers, A Cruising Voyage Round the World, ed. G. E. Manwaring, p. 217.

  8. Cooke, A Voyage to the South Sea, p. 351.

  9. Ibid., p. 349.

10. Rogers, A Cruising Voyage Round the World, ed. G. E. Manwaring, p. 220.

11. Rogers to Alderman Batchelor and Company, California, 31 December 1709. PRO: C.104/160.

12. Rogers, A Cruising Voyage Round the World, ed. G. E. Manwaring, p. 228.

13. Ibid., p. 230.

14. Rogers to Alderman Batchelor and Company, Batavia, 25 July 1710. PRO: CO. 104/160.

15. Rogers, A Cruising Voyage Round the World, p. 286.

16. Rogers to Alderman Batchelor and Company, Cape of Good Hope, 8 February 1710/11. PRO: 104/160.

17. East India Company: Minutes of Court of Directors, 1710–1712. British Library: Asian & African Studies, B/15, f. 450.

18. Admiral Hardy to John Batchelor, 9 October 1711. PRO: CO. 104/160.

Chapter Six: The Voyagers Return

  1. From captain’s log of HMS Essex, 23 September 1711. PRO: ADM.51/317.

  2. Daily Courant, London, Thursday 4 October 1711.

  3. Giles Batchelor and Edward Acton to John Batchelor, Sheerness, 6 October 1711. PRO: CO. 104/160.

  4. B. M. H. Rogers, ‘Woodes Rogers’s Privateering Voyage of 1708–11’, Mariner’s Mirror, XIX (1933), p. 199.

  5. Ibid., p. 198.

  6. The total sum received in 1710 from sales of the prize goods was £147,975 12s. 4d. See B. M. H. Rogers, Mariner’s Mirror, XIX (1933), p. 203. According to the National Archives currency converter this would be worth £11,333,405 in 2010.

  7. Ibid., p. 205.

  8. Ibid., p. 209.

  9. For information about Dampier’s last days see entry by Joel Baer in Oxford DNB; Anton Gill, The Devil’s Mariner: William Dampier Pirate and Explorer (London, 1997), p. 364; and Diana and Michael Preston, A Pirate of Exquisite Mind … The Life of William Dampier (New York, 2004), pp. 322–3.

10. R. L. Mégroz, The Real Robinson Crusoe: Being the Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Alexander Selkirk of Largo, Fife, Mariner (London, 1939), p. 171.

11. PRO: CO. 104/160.

12. B. M. H. Rogers, Mariner’s Mirror, XIX (1933), p. 208.

13. London Gazette, Saturday 10 January to Tuesday 13 January 1712.

14. Post Boy, London, Thursday 27 March 1712.

15. Brian Little, in Crusoe’s Captain: Being the Life of Woodes Rogers, Seaman, Trader, Colonial Governor (London, 1960), pp. 156–8, makes a strong case for Defoe’s involvement in Rogers’ Introduction but can produce no evidence to support his theory.

16. See Glyndwr Williams, The Great South Seas: English Voyages and Encounters, 1570–1750 (London and New Haven, 1997), pp. 172–3.

17. The number was made up of 959 prizes and 726 ransoms. See David J. Starkey, British Privateering Enterprise in the Eighteenth Century (Exeter, 1990), p. 86.

18. The Boston News-Letter, 24–31 August 1713.

19. Quoted in Felix Barker and Peter Jackson, London: 2000 Years of a City and its People (London, 1974), p. 173.

20. The veracity of this interview has been questioned by R. W. Lovett in ‘Sir Richard Steele’s “frequent conversations” with Alexander Selkirk’, English Language Notes, 25/1 (1987), pp. 49–50. But Steele mentions a number of facts which were not included in the accounts of Woodes Rogers and Cooke, such as the great quantities of turtles on Juan Fernández; the numerous sealions with their dreadful howlings; Selkirk’s laming of young goats so that he could catch them when they grew up; and the useful and entirely credible information that Selkirk on his return to London was ‘now worth eight hundred pounds …’. Steele’s comments on Selkirk’s appearance also ring true. Steele’s article was published in The Englishman, 1–3 December 1713.

21. Quoted by Mégroz, The Real Robinson Crusoe, p. 149, from details published by W. H. Hart in Notes and Queries, 2nd series, XI, 30 March 1861.

22. The two wills of Selkirk are quoted in full by Mégroz, The Real Robinson Crusoe, pp. 153–8.

23. Quoted by Mégroz, The Real Robinson Crusoe, p. 212, from Chancery Proceedings 1714–1758, The Petition of Sophia Selkirke widow of Alexander Selkirke late of Largo in the Sheir of Fife in North Brittain Marriner deceased, 6 December 1723. PRO: C.11/297/61.

24. Captain’s log of HMS Enterprise, March 1719–October 1720. PRO: ADM.51/312, part 3.

25. The entry in the register is quoted by Mégroz, The Real Robinson Crusoe, p. 160.

26. Mégroz, The Real Robinson Crusoe, p. 161.

27. Quoted by Mégroz, The Real Robinson Crusoe, p. 173, from The Monthly Repository, V, 1810, p. 531.

28. David Cordingly, Heroines and Harlots: Women at Sea in the Great Age of Sail (London, 2001), pp. 171, 181–2.

29. East India Company: Correspondence 1712–13. British Library, India Office records: D/93, f. 511.

30. Captain Charles Johnson, A General History of the Pyrates, ed. Manuel Schonhorn (London, 1972; edn. cited New York, 1999), p. 61.

31. East India Company: Minutes of Court of Directors, 1716–18. British Library, India Office records: B/54, f. 22.

32. Rogers to Sir Hans Sloane, 7 May 1716. British Library, Sloane collection, no. 4044, f.155.

Chapter Seven: Sugar, Slaves and Sunken Treasure

  1. Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade: The History of the Atlantic Slave Trade 1440–1870 (London, 1997; edn. cited 1998), p. 92.

  2. Ibid., p. 226. Thomas takes his figures from the source he regards as most accurate, which is Philip Curtin, The Atlantic Slave Trade: A Census (Madison, 1969), p. 119.

  3. Ralph Davis, The Rise of the English Shipping Industry in the 17th and 18th Centuries (Newton Abbot, 1962), p. 275.

  4. Ibid., pp. 419–21.

  5. Richard Sheridan, ‘Caribbean Plantation Society, 1689–1748’ in The Oxford History of the British Empire: The Eighteenth Century, ed. P. J. Marshall (Oxford, 1998), p. 400.

  6. Davis, The Rise of the English Shipping Industry, p. 280.

  7. Peter Earle, Sailors: English Merchant Seamen, 1650–1775 (London, 1998), p. 42.

  8. Captain Charles Johnson, General History of the Pyrates, ed. Manuel Schonhorn (London, 1972; edn. cited New York, 1999), p. 35.

  9. Governor Handasyd in Spanish Town to Council of Trade and Plantations, London, 25 March 1710. PRO: CO. 137/8, no. 80, i–iii.

10. Lieutenant Governor Hodges of Montserrat to Council of Trade and Plantations, 4 February 1710. CSPC, vol. 1710–1711.

11. Lieutenant General Hamilton of Antigua to Council of Trade and Plantations, 5 April 1711. PRO: CO. 152, no. 70. The privateers and pirates were no different from other Europeans in treating African slaves as saleable commodities. Governor Parke of St Christopher (St Kitts) wrote on 9 December 1706: ‘The privateers used to plague us by taking off our negroes in the night.’ He instituted a system of guards all around the island to prevent the thefts taking place. PRO: CO. 152/6. no 75.

12. Ibid.

13. Jonathan Dickenson of Antigua to John Askew in London, March 1710. PRO: CO. 152/9, no. 27.

14. Mr Dummer to Mr Popple, 17 January 1709. PRO: CO. 323/6, no. 74.

15. Mr Dummer to Mr Popple, 31 January 1710. PRO: CO. 323/6, no. 96.

16. Mr Dummer to Mr Popple, 1 April 1709. PRO: CO. 137/8, no. 35.

17. See report from Governor Lord Hamilton to Council of Trade and Plantations, 28 April 1712. CSPC, vol. 1712–1714, no. 94.

18. The survivor quoted here was the chaplain of the Hampton Court, and the quote is taken from records in the Mel Fisher Museum, Key West, Florida.

19. The Hampton Court was originally built at Deptford Dockyard in 1678 but in 1701 she was completely rebuilt at Blackwall. She was captured by Forbin’s Dunkirk squadron in 1707 but in 1711 she was sold to the Spanish and renamed Nuestra Señora Del Carmen Y San Antonio. See David Lyon, The Sailing Navy List (London, 1993), pp. 12, 20.

20. Quoted by Colin Woodard, The Republic of Pirates: Being the True and Surprising Story of the Caribbean Pirates and the Man Who Brought Them Down (New York and London, 2007), p. 207, from Captain Balchen’s letter to the Admiralty, PRO: ADM. 1/147, f.24.

21. For the details of the ten vessels given privateering commissions by Lord Hamilton in 1715 see PRO: CO. 137/12, no. 78, i–v. In addition to Jennings and Wills, the named commanders of these vessels include Captain Jonathan Barnet, who captured Calico Jack Rackam and the female pirates in 1718.

22. There is a detailed description of this incident in Woodard, The Republic of Pirates, pp. 126–34.

23. Quoted by Woodard, The Republic of Pirates, p. 130, from a letter of Captain D’Escoubet to Lord Hamilton, 4 April 1716.

24. Johnson, General History of the Pyrates, ed. Manuel Schonhorn, p. 37.

Chapter Eight: Governor of the Bahamas

  1. Deposition of John Vickers, late of the Island of Providence, sworn before Thomas Nelson, Virginia, July 1716. PRO: CO. 5/1317, f.247.

  2. Alexander Spotswood to Harry Beverley, 15 June 1716. PRO: CO. 5/1317.

  3. Alexander Spotswood to Council of Trade and Plantations, 3 July 1716. PRO: CO. 5/1317.

  4. Captain Howard to Mr Burchett, Admiralty Office, 15 October 1716. PRO: CO. 137/12.

  5. R. Methuen to Council of Trade and Plantations, 30 November 1716. PRO: CO. 137/12.

  6. Memorial from the Copartners for carrying on a trade and settling the Bahama Islands, 19 May 1721. PRO: CO. 23/1, part 2.

  7. The company or corporation they formed had the title of ‘The CoPartners for Carrying on a Trade & Settling the Bahama Islands’.

  8. Remarks of the most material transactions relating to the Bahama Islands from their original settlement to this time, 1717. PRO: CO. 5/1265, ff. 159–62.

  9. Woodes Rogers to the Lords Proprietors of the Bahama Islands, July 1717. PRO: CO. 5/1265, f.151.

10. Petition of Woodes Rogers to the King, 19 July 1717. PRO: CO. 5/1265, f.149.

11. The humble petition of sundry merchants to the King, July 1717. PRO: CO. 5/1265, f.155.

12. Memorial to Joseph Addison from sundry merchants, July 1717. PRO: CO. 5/1265, f.157.

13. Mr Secretary Addison to the Council of Trade and Plantations, 3 September 1717. CSPC, vol. 1717–1718, no. 64.

14. In London alone 1,242 men and women were hanged between 1703 and 1772. See Peter Linebaugh, The London Hanged: Crime and Civil Society in the Eighteenth Century (London, 1991), p. 91.

15. Post Boy, London, Saturday 19 October 1717.

16. The pirate attacks of Bellamy, Vane, England, Teach, Moody etc. at this period are recorded in numerous depositions of merchant sea captains and sailors (PRO: CO. 37/10) and in the Calendar of State Papers, Colonial America and West Indies for 1717–18, and in reports in The Boston News-Letter.

17. Peter Heywood to Council of Trade and Plantations, 21 December 1717. CSPC, vol. 1717–18, no. 271.

18. Memorial from the Copartners for carrying on a trade and settling the Bahama Islands to the Lords Commissioners of Trade and Plantations, 19 May 1721. PRO: CO. 23/1, part 2.

19. Ibid.

20. Remarks of the most material transactions relating to the Bahama Islands from their original settlement to this time, 1717. PRO: CO. 5/1265, f.159.

21. Ibid.

22. Lieutenant Governor Bennet of Bermuda to the Council of Trade and Plantations, 29 October 1708. CSPC, vol. 1708–1709, no. 176.

23. Lieutenant Governor Pulleine to Council of Trade and Plantations, 22 April 1713. CSPC, vol. 1712–1714, no. 651.

24. Colin Woodard, The Republic of Pirates: Being the True and Surprising Story of the Caribbean Pirates and the Man Who Brought Them Down (New York and London, 2007), p. 89.

25. Deposition of John Vickers, late of the Island of Providence, sworn before Thomas Nelson, Virginia, July 1716. PRO: CO. 5/1317, f.247.

26. Deposition of Henry Bostock, 19 December 1717. PRO: CO. 152/12, no. 67 (iii).

27. Quoted by Angus Konstam, Blackbeard: America’s Most Notorious Pirate (Hoboken, 2006), from a letter sent to the Council of Trade and Plantations. CSPC, vol. 1716–1717.

28. Captain Charles Johnson, General History of the Pyrates, ed. Manuel Schonhorn (London, 1972; edn. cited New York, 1999), p. 72.

29. The Boston News-Letter, 11 November 1717.

30. See Konstam, Blackbeard, p. 81.

31. Research on the wreck and its artefacts has been carried out by Dave Moore of the North Carolina Maritime Museum and his colleagues. For an excellent summary of the excavation and the artefacts recovered see Konstam, Blackbeard, pp. 286–93.

32. The Boston News-Letter, 3–10 March 1718.

33. Deposition of Henry Bostock, 19 December 1717. PRO: CO. 152/12, no. 67 (iii).

34. Ibid.

35. The details of the visit to Nassau of Captain Pearce are taken from the logbook of HMS Phoenix. PRO: ADM 51/690; and letters from Pearce to the Admiralty, 4 February, 4 March, 3 June 1718. PRO: ADM. 1/2282.

36. Captain Pearce to Admiralty, 3 June 1718. PRO: ADM. 1/2282.

37. Deposition of Nathaniel Catling, 17 May 1718. PRO: CO. 37/10, no. 10 (v). See also the depositions of John Tibby, 24 May 1718, PRO: CO. 37/10; and of Samuel Cooper, 24 May 1718, PRO: CO. 37/10.

38. Deposition of Edward North, 22 May 1718, PRO: CO. 37/10, no. 10 (ii). See also the deposition of Nathaniel North, 22 May 1718, CO. 37/10.

39. Deposition of Joseph Bossa, 28 May 1718, PRO: CO. 37/10.

40. Johnson, General History of the Pyrates, ed. Manuel Schonhorn, p. 142.

41. Ibid.

Chapter Nine: Welcome to Nassau

  1. The details for the arrival of Woodes Rogers and his squadron at Nassau are taken from: log of HMS Milford, PRO: ADM.51/606, part 4; log of HMS Rose, ADM.51/801, part 4; log of HM sloop Shark, ADM.51/892, part 2; letter from Captain Pomeroy to Admiralty, 3 September 1718, PRO: ADM. 1/2282; Memorial from Samuel Buck, 3 December 1719, The state of the Island of Providence, PRO: CO. 23/1, part 1; Woodes Rogers’ first report to Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations, Nassau, 31 October 1718, PRO: CO. 23/1, part 1; and the Appendix to Captain Charles Johnson, General History of the Pyrates, ed. Manuel Schonhorn (London, 1972; edn. cited New York, 1999), pp. 615–18.

  2. Log of HMS Rose, Friday 25 July 1718. PRO: ADM.51/801, part 4.

  3. A letter received from on board HMS Milford at New York, and published in the Whitehall Evening Post, 18–21 October 1718.

  4. Johnson, General History of the Pyrates, ed. Manuel Schonhorn, p. 616.

  5. The state of the Island of Providence and other Bahama Islands: Memorial from Samuel Buck, 3 December 1719. PRO: CO. 23/1, part 1.

  6. To the King from the General Officers of the Army, Horse Guards, 15 July 1726. The Case of Captain Woodes Rogers, late Governor of the Bahama Islands. PRO: CO. 23/12, part 2, f.56.

  7. Log of HMS Milford, 6 to 13 August 1718, PRO: ADM.51/606, part 4.

  8. Minutes of Assembly of Several of the Principal Inhabitants of the Bahama Islands, 1 August 1718; and subsequent reports on the Councils held between 5 August and 28 September 1718. PRO: CO. 23/1, part 1.

  9. An Estimate of what is wanting and necessary for the Fortifications here, Nassau on Providence, 31 October 1718. PRO: CO. 23/1, part 1, f.40.

10. Governor Woodes Rogers to Rt Hon James Craggs, 24 December 1718. PRO: CO. 23/13.

11. Woodes Rogers to Council of Trade and Plantations, 31 October 1718. PRO: CO. 13/1, part 1.

12. The Boston News-Letter, 13–20 October 1718.

13. Johnson, General History of the Pyrates, ed. Manuel Schonhorn, p. 137.

14. The protest of Captain King, commander of the Neptune, Hagboat, sworn before Woodes Rogers, 5 February 1719. Reproduced in Johnson, General History of the Pyrates, ed. Manuel Schonhorn, pp. 144–7.

15. Ibid., p. 145.

16. For details of the capture, trial and execution of Charles Vane, see pages 182–3 and Chapter 12, note 17.

17. Woodes Rogers report to Council of Trade and Plantations, 31 October 1718. PRO: CO. 23/1, part 1.

18. Rogers to Craggs, 24 December 1718. PRO: CO. 23/13.

19. A Private Consultation held on Friday the 18 November 1718 at the Secretary’s Office in the City of Nassau. PRO: CO. 23/1, no. 18, f.75.

Chapter Ten: Hanged on the Waterfront

  1. The full text of the ‘Act for the more effectual Suppression of Piracy’ (11 Gul. III, chapter VII, AD. 1698–9) can be seen in Statutes of the Realm, vol. VII, pp. 590–4.

  2. Remarks on the condition of the fortifications at New Providence when Governor Rogers arrived the 25th August 1729. PRO: CO. 23/14, item 71, f.141.

  3. Trial and Condemnation of Ten Persons for Piracy at New Providence, Nassau. PRO: CO. 23/1, no. 18, ff. 75–82. A transcript of the trial is reprinted in Captain Charles Johnson, General History of the Pyrates, ed. Manuel Schonhorn (London, 1972; edn. cited New York, 1999).

  4. Johnson, General History of the Pyrates, ed. Manuel Schonhorn, p. 648.

  5. Ibid., p. 653.

  6. Ibid., p. 657.

  7. Ibid., p. 659.

  8. Woodes Rogers to James Craggs, 24 December 1718. PRO: CO. 23/13, f.22 verso.

  9. The full transcript of the trial (like that of the trial of Bartholomew Roberts’ pirates) was reproduced in later editions of Johnson, General History of the Pyrates.

10. See David Cordingly, Life among the Pirates: The Romance and Reality (London, 1995), pp. 207, 233–4.

11. Johnson, General History of the Pyrates, ed. Manuel Schonhorn, p. 85.

12. Ibid., p. 84.

13. Angus Konstam, Blackbeard: America’s Most Notorious Pirate (Hoboken, 2006), p. 142.

14. Governor and Council of South Carolina to Council of Trade and Plantations, 21 October 1718. CSPC, vol. 1717–1718, no. 730.

15. Most of the trial of Bonnet and his crew is reproduced in Johnson, General History of the Pyrates, ed. Manuel Schonhorn, pp. 103–10.

16. Ibid., p. 111.

Chapter Eleven: Blackbeard’s Last Stand

  1. This chapter has an abbreviated account of Blackbeard’s last days. For a more detailed account see Angus Konstam, Blackbeard: America’s Most Notorious Pirate (Hoboken, 2006), pp. 239–65, and Colin Woodard, The Republic of Pirates: Being the True and Surprising Story of the Caribbean Pirates and the Man Who Brought Them Down (New York and London, 2007), pp. 288–98.

  2. For a useful biography of Spotswood see Oxford DNB.

  3. Lieutenant Governor Spotswood to Council of Trade and Plantations, 22 December 1718. CSPC, vol. 1717–1718, no. 800, p. 431.

  4. See The present Disposal of all His Majesties Ships and Vessels in Sea Pay, issued by the Admiralty Office, 1 May 1718. PRO: ADM. 8/14.

  5. Lieutenant Maynard’s log of HMS Pearl, entry for 17 November 1718. NMM: ADM/L/P22.

  6. The Boston News-Letter, Monday 23 February to Monday 2 March 1719.

  7. Ibid.

  8. Captain Charles Johnson, General History of the Pyrates, ed. Manuel Schonhorn (London, 1972; edn. cited New York, 1999), p. 82.

  9. Letter from Lieutenant Maynard to Mr Symonds, Lieutenant of HMS Phoenix, written from North Carolina, 17 December 1718. Reproduced in Robert E. Lee, Blackbeard the Pirate: A Reappraisal of His Life and Times (Winston-Salem, 1974; edn. cited 1995), p. 234.

10. Lieutenant Maynard’s log of HMS Pearl. Hicks evidently took over Maynard’s duties and his logbook while he was away at Ocracoke. Entry for 3 January 1719. NMM: ADM/L/P32.

11. Spotswood’s proclamation of 24 November 1718 is reproduced in full by Johnson in General History of the Pyrates, ed. Manuel Schonhorn, pp. 78–9.

12. Ibid., p. 84.

13. Rogers to Craggs, 24 January 1719. PRO: CO. 23/13.

14. Rogers to Craggs, 3 March 1719. PRO: CO. 23/13.

15. Captain’s log of HMS Flamborough, 24 February 1720. PRO: ADM.51/357, part VIII.

16. Ibid.

17. Richard Farrell and W. Nicholson writing to Woodes Rogers from Moore Castle, Havana, 4 April 1720. PRO: CO. 23/1, f.127.

18. Captain Edward Vernon to the Admiralty, from Port Royal, 17 June 1720. PRO: ADM. 1/2624, part 6.

19. Rogers to Council of Trade and Plantations, 20 April 1720. PRO: CO. 23/1.

20. The humble petition of Samuel Buck of London, merchant, one of the undertakers for settling the Bahama Islands to the Lords Commissioners of Trade and Plantations, 3 December 1719, which is accompanied by The state of the Island of Providence and other Bahama Islands: memorial from Mr Samuel Buck. PRO: CO. 23/1, part 1.

21. CSPC, Volume 1720–1721, No. 167, p. 74.

22. Ibid., No. 167 iii, p. 75.

Chapter Twelve: Calico Jack and the Female Pirates

  1. The Boston Gazette, Monday 10 to Monday 17 October 1720.

  2. Anne Chambers, Granuaile: The Life and Times of Grace O’Malley c.1530–1603 (Dublin, 1979), p. 150.

  3. Captain Charles Johnson, General History of the Pyrates, ed. Manuel Schonhorn (London, 1972; edn. cited New York, 1999), p. 153.

  4. Lawes to Council of Trade and Plantations. CSPC, vol. 1719–1720, nos. 34 and 132. Johnson gives a detailed but rather different description of the capture and recovery of the Kingston. See Johnson, General History of the Pyrates, ed. Manuel Schonhorn, pp. 620–2.

  5. Johnson, General History of the Pyrates, ed. Manuel Schonhorn, p. 620. Calico is a type of cotton cloth which originated in India. It is finer and thinner than canvas. In American English ‘calico’ refers to a cotton fabric with a small, all-over, colourful pattern. In Britain the word describes a plain white or unbleached cotton cloth.

  6. The Tryals of Captain John Rackam, and other pirates. Printed by Robert Baldwin, Jamaica, 1721. PRO: CO. 137/14, p. 17.

  7. Ibid., p. 19.

  8. Ibid., p. 18.

  9. Commission and instructions for Captain Jonathan Barnet, commander of the snow Tyger, issued by the Governor of Jamaica, 24 November 1715. PRO: CO. 137/12, no. 78 (i), ff. 231–5.

10. Governor Lawes to Council of Trade and Plantations, 13 November 1720. CSPC, vol. 1720–1721, no. 288.

11. The description of the finding of Rackam’s sloop by Bonnevie and Barnet, and the subsequent action, is taken from the witness statement of James Spatchears, a mariner of Port Royal, who appears to have been a member of Barnet’s crew. The Tryals of Captain John Rackam. PRO: CO. 137/14, p. 10.

12. Ibid., p. 19.

13. Clinton Black, Pirates of the West Indies (Cambridge, 1989), p. 117. Clinton Black was for many years chief archivist of Jamaica.

14. For further reading on women at sea and in the army see: Linda Grant Depauw, Seafaring Women (Boston, 1982); Margaret S. Creighton and Lisa Norling, Iron Men, Wooden Women: Gender and Seafaring in the Atlantic World (London, 1989); David Cordingly, Women Sailors & Sailors’ Women (New York, 2001); Diane Dugaw, Warrior Women and Popular Balladry (Cambridge, 1989); Marcus Rediker, Villains of all Nations: Atlantic Pirates in the Golden Age (Boston, 2004); Jo Stanley, Bold in her Breeches: Women Pirates across the Ages (London, 1995); Suzanne J. Stark, Female Tars: Women aboard Ship in the Age of Sail (London, 1996); Marina Warner, Monuments and Maidens: The Allegory of the Female Form (London, 1985); Julie Wheelwright, Amazons and Military Maids (London, 1989).

15. See Rediker, Villains of all Nations, p. 119.

16. The theory that Defoe was the real author of Captain Charles Johnson’s General History of the Pyrates was first put forward by the American scholar John Robert Moore in 1932 but in 1988 it was convincingly challenged by P. N. Furbank and W. R. Owens in their book The Canonisation of Daniel Defoe (New Haven, 1988).

17. See letter from Jamaica, 31 March 1721: ‘Several pirates have been lately taken and brought in here and on trial most of them found guilty and executed, among them Chas. Vaine and one Racum, two notorious commanders of pirate vessels suffered and died most profligate impudent villains.’ CSPC, vol. 1720–1721, no. 295.

18. Johnson, General History of the Pyrates, ed. Manuel Schonhorn, p. 144.

Chapter Thirteen: Great Debts and Bills

  1. Woodes Rogers to Lords of Trade and Plantations, 20 April 1720. PRO: CO. 23/1, f.123.

  2. Woodes Rogers, William Fairfax and seven others to Mr Secretary Craggs, New Providence, 26 November 1720. PRO: CO. 23/13.

  3. John Lloyd to Secretary Craggs, 2 February 1720. CSPC, vol. 1720–1721, no. 372, p. 252.

  4. Captain Hildesley to the Admiralty, 25 March 1720. PRO: ADM. 1/1880, part 10.

  5. Ibid.

  6. Ibid.

  7. Captain Whitney to the Admiralty, 26 October 1719. PRO: ADM. 1/2649, part 11.

  8. Woodes Rogers to Craggs, from South Carolina, 20 December 1720. PRO: CO. 23/13.

  9. Woodes Rogers to Lords of Trade and Plantations, 25 February 1721. PRO: CO. 23/1, part 2.

10. CSPC, vol. 1720–1721, no. 455, p. 287.

11. The Case of Captain Woodes Rogers, late Governor of the Bahama Islands. Petition to the King from G. Macartney and seven other General Officers of the Army, Horse Guards, 15 July 1726. PRO: CO. 23/12, part 2, f.56.

12. The information about the South Sea Company is based on: Julian Hoppit, ‘The Myths of the South Sea Bubble’ in Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 12 (2002), pp. 141–65; Basil Williams, The Whig Supremacy 1714–1760 (Oxford, 1939), pp. 169–71; Chronicle of Britain and Ireland, ed. Henrietta Heald (London, 1992), pp. 665–7.

13. Quoted by Julian Hoppit from M. Macdonald and T. R. Murphy, Sleepless Souls: Suicide in Early Modern England (Oxford, 1990), pp. 276–8.

14. See the entry on John Aislabie in Oxford DNB.

15. Woodes Rogers to Craggs, CSPCS, vol. 1720–1721, pp. 217–18, no. 327.

16. Historical Register, 5 (1720), p. 382.

17. Petition to the King from General Officers of the Army, 15 July 1726. PRO: CO. 23/12, part 2.

18. The author has conducted extensive searches among the prison records in the Public Record Office, Kew (including the records for the Fleet, King’s Bench, Queen’s Bench and Marshalsea prisons listed under PRIS/1 to PRIS/10) as well as the records in the London Metropolitan Archives and the Guildhall Library. No record was found to indicate which prison Rogers was confined in, nor is it known exactly when and for how long he was confined.

19. Petition to the King from General Officers of the Army, 15 July 1726. PRO: CO. 23/12, part 2.

20. Woodes Rogers to Lord Townshend, 26 November 1726. British Library, Add. MSS. 32748, ff. 317–18.

21. British Library, Add. MSS. 4459, ff. 101–2.

22. Ibid.

23. PRO: CO. 23/14, ff. 45–52.

24. PRO: MPG. 1/254.

25. Plan of Fort Nassau in New Providence, 24 December 1723. PRO: MPG. 1/256.

26. Bahamas correspondence 1728–46. PRO: CO. 23/14, f.141.

27. The painting became the property of Woodes Rogers’ daughter Sarah. She died in 1743 and according to her will she bequeathed to ‘Mr Sergeant Eyre, the picture of her father, brother and herself in one frame’. The painting was engraved by W. Skelton in 1799.

Chapter Fourteen: Death on the Coast of Guinea

  1. John Atkins (1685–1757) joined the navy as surgeon’s mate of the Charles Galley in 1701, and subsequently served on the Somerset, the Tartar and the bomb ketch Lion. His entry in the Oxford DNB was compiled by the naval surgeon Vice-Admiral Sir James Watt.

  2. John Atkins, A Voyage to Guinea, Brazil, and the West Indies (London, 1735), p. 46.

  3. Ibid., p. 139.

  4. Jean Barbot, A Description of the Coasts of Guinea, quoted by Hugh Thomas in The Slave Trade: The History of the Atlantic Slave Trade 1440–1870 (London, 1997; edn. cited 1998), p. 346.

  5. Captain Herdman to Admiralty, from Barbados, 3 August 1722. PRO: ADM. 1/1880, part 3.

  6. Atkins, A Voyage to Guinea, Brazil, and the West Indies, p. 139.

  7. Captain Herdman to Admiralty, 8 April 1723. PRO: ADM. 1/1880, part 3.

  8. Captain Ogle to Admiralty, from Cape Coast Road, 5 April 1722. PRO: CO. ADM. 1/2242.

  9. Captain Charles Johnson, History of the Pyrates, ed. Manuel Schonhorn (London, 1972; edn. cited New York, 1999), p. 205.

10. Ibid., p. 223.

11. CSPC, vol. 1720–1721, no. 463, III.

12. Ibid.

13. Johnson, History of the Pyrates, ed. Manuel Schonhorn, p. 228.

14. Captain Chaloner Ogle to the Admiralty, 5 April 1722, HMS Swallow in Cape Coast Road. PRO: ADM. 1/2242.

15. For details of the Swallow’s actions against the pirates see: Captain Ogle’s letter to the Admiralty of 5 April 1722, 26 July 1722 and 8 September 1722, PRO: ADM. 1/2243; Captain Ogle’s log of the Swallow, PRO: ADM.51/954, part 7; log of Lieutenant Edward Chaloner of the Swallow, NMM: ADM/L/S564; Proceedings of Court held on the coast of Africa upon trying of 100 pyrates taken by HMS Swallow, PRO: HCA. 1/99.3; Atkins, A Voyage to Guinea, Brazil, and the West Indies, pp. 147, 191–4; Johnson, History of the Pyrates, ed. Manuel Schonhorn, pp. 237–87.

16. Captain’s log of HMS Swallow, 5 February 1722. PRO: ADM.51/954, part 7.

17. Ibid.

18. These figures are taken from Captain Ogle’s letter to the Admiralty. Johnson, General History of the Pyrates, ed. Manuel Schonhorn, p. 240, notes that the French Ranger was manned with sixteen Frenchmen, twenty Negroes and seventy-seven Englishmen.

19. Johnson, History of the Pyrates, ed. Manuel Schonhorn, p. 269.

20. Captain Ogle to the Admiralty, PRO: ADM. 1/2242.

21. Johnson, History of the Pyrates, ed. Manuel Schonhorn, p. 244.

22. These figures are from Captain Ogle’s letter to the Admiralty. Johnson, General History of the Pyrates, ed. Manuel Schonhorn, p. 245, notes that the Royal Fortune had a crew of 157, of whom forty-five were Negroes.

23. Atkins, A Voyage to Guinea, Brazil, and the West Indies, p. 192.

24. Ibid., p. 147.

25. Ibid., p. 98.

26. See Marcus Rediker, Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea: Merchant Seamen, Pirates, and the Anglo-American Maritime World, 1700–1750 (Cambridge, 1987), pp. 12, 260; N. A. M. Rodger, The Wooden World (London, 1986), p. 114.

27. PRO: HCA. 1/99.3.

28. Peter Linebaugh, The London Hanged: Crime and Civil Society in the Eighteenth Century (London and New York, 1991), pp. 80, 216–18, 244; and reports in London newspapers of this period such as the Daily Courant, the Post Boy and Applebee’s Original Weekly Journal.

29. PRO: HCA. 1/99.3.

30. These figures are taken from a list drawn up by Captain Ogle which is headed ‘An acct. of the men taken in the Royal Fortune and Great Ranger, Pyrate ships, by his Majtys ship Swallow under my command’. PRO: ADM. 1/2242.

31. Captain Chaloner Ogle to the Admiralty, 8 September 1722. PRO: ADM. 1/2242.

32. Ibid.

33. The London Gazette of 4 December 1722 carried reports of the hurricane received from Kingston, Port Royal, and from HMS Falkland.

Chapter Fifteen: Back to the Bahamas

  1. Rogers to Council of Trade and Plantations, 12 November 1729. CSPC, vol. 36, 1728–1729, no. 965.

  2. Remarks on the condition of the fortifications at New Providence when Governor Rogers arrived the 25th August 1729, prepared by the lieutenant, gunner and sergeant of the garrison. PRO: CO. 23/14, f.141.

  3. Queries from the Board of Trade for the year 1728. PRO: CO. 23/14, f.66.

  4. Taken from the census figures sent home by Woodes Rogers on 14 October 1731. PRO: CO. 23/2 and quoted by Michael Craton and Gail Saunders in Islanders in the Stream: a History of the Bahamian People (Athens, Georgia, USA, 1992), vol. 1, pp. 119–121.

  5. Estimated population of the English Sugar Islands in 1713, from Richard S. Dunn, Sugar and Slaves: The Rise of the Planter Class in the English West Indies, 1624–1713 (London, 1973), p. 312.

  6. Richard Sheridan, ‘Caribbean Plantation Society, 1689–1748’, in The Oxford History of the British Empire: The Eighteenth Century, ed. P. J. Marshall (Oxford, 1998; edn. cited 2001), vol. II, p. 401.

  7. Quoted by Brian Little, Crusoe’s Captain: Being the Life of Woodes Rogers, Seaman, Trader, Colonial Governor (London, 1960), pp. 214, 215.

  8. Bahamas Correspondence, 1728–1746. PRO: CO. 23/14, ff. 121. See also Harcourt Malcolm, A History of the Bahamas House of Assembly (Nassau, 1921).

  9. CSPC, vol. 38 (1731), nos. 419, 526.

10. These figures are taken from Marcus Rediker, Villains of All Nations: Atlantic Pirates in the Golden Age (Boston, 2004), p. 29. They are based on detailed studies made by Rediker and are confirmed by many contemporary estimates made by colonial governors, merchants and others.

11. Peter Earle, The Pirate Wars (London, 2003), p. 206.

12. Marcus Rediker, Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea: Merchant Seamen, Pirates, and the Anglo-American Maritime World, 1700–1750 (Cambridge, 1987), p. 283.

13. The Boston Gazette, 1–8 June 1724.

14. Governor Sir Nicholas Lawes to Council of Trade and Plantations, 12 June 1721. CSPC, 1720–1721, no. 523.

15. Governor Lawes, 18 May 1722. CSPC, 1722–1723, no. 142.

16. Governor Burnet to Lord Carteret, 25 June 1723. CSPCS, vol. 1722–1723, no. 606.

17. The present Disposal of all His Majesties Ships and Vessels in Sea Pay. PRO: ADM. 8/14.

18. See Earle, The Pirate Wars, p. 269, n.14.

19. Bahamas Correspondence, 1728–1746. PRO: CO. 23/14, f.157.

20. Lewis Bonnett to Charles Delafaye, New Providence, 10 February 1730. PRO: CO. 23/14, f.183.

21. Woodes Rogers to Council of Trade and Plantations, 10 February 1731. CSPC, vol. 38, 1731, no. 47.

22. Bahamas Correspondence, PRO: CO. 23/14, f.225.

23. Gentleman’s Magazine, September 1732, p. 979.

24. For details of the will of Woodes Rogers and the fate of his son William, see Brian Little, Crusoe’s Captain (London, 1960), pp. 199, 210, 219, 222, and G. E. Manwaring’s Introduction to Captain Woodes Rogers, A Cruising Voyage Round the World(London and New York, 1928), pp. xlv, xlvi.

Epilogue

  1. The reference to pirates was dropped when the Bahamas achieved independence in 1973 and adopted the new motto ‘Forward, upward and onward together’ to go along with a fine coat of arms which celebrates the sun, the sea and the fauna and flora of the islands.

  2. The following works were consulted for this chapter: Paula R. Backschreider, Daniel Defoe: His Life (Baltimore, 1989); Peter Earle, The World of Defoe (London, 1976); David Fausett, The Strange Surprising Sources of Robinson Crusoe (Amsterdam, 1994); John Robert Moore, Daniel Defoe: Citizen of the Modern World (Chicago, 1958); John Richetti, The Life of Daniel Defoe (Oxford, 2005); Pat Rogers, Robinson Crusoe (London, 1979); Arthur W. Secord, Studies in the Narrative Method of Defoe(Illinois, 1924); Tim Severin, Seeking Robinson Crusoe (London, 2002); James Sutherland, Daniel Defoe: A Critcal Study (Harvard, 1971); Ian Watt, The Rise of the Novel: Studies in Defoe, Richardson and Fielding (London, 1957).

  3. Coleridge’s Miscellaneous Criticism, ed. Thomas Middleton Raysor (London, 1936), pp. 194, 300.

  4. Richetti, The Life of Daniel Defoe, p. 185.

  5. Secord, Studies in the Narrative Method of Defoe, p. 31.

  6. Glyndwr Williams, The Great South Sea: English Voyages and Encounters, 1570–1750 (London and New Haven, 1997), p. 179.

  7. Quoted by Rogers in Robinson Crusoe, p. 142.

  8. Moore, Daniel Defoe: Citizen of the Modern World, p. 223.

  9. Daniel Defoe, The Compleat English Gentleman, ed. K. D. Bulbring (London, 1890), p. 225.

10. Secord, Studies in the Narrative Method of Defoe, p. 49.

11. Rogers, Robinson Crusoe, p. 22.

12. Captain Charles Johnson, General History of the Pyrates, ed. Manuel Schonhorn (London, 1972; edn. cited New York, 1999), p. 6.

13. Ibid., p. 62.

14. Ibid., p. 141.

15. Ibid., p. 143.

16. Ibid., p. 143.

17. Professor Schonhorn notes that Rogers probably contributed certain details to Johnson’s book. See Johnson, General History of the Pyrates, ed. Manuel Schonhorn, p. 673.

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