Glossary

alim (plural ulema)

Religious scholar learned in the Shariah.

badal, badla

Revenge.

baraka, barkat

Spiritual power.

Barelvi

Islamic religious tradition tracing its descent from the madrasah of Bareilly in the United Provinces (now Uttar Pradesh) of India, and including rever ence for shrines and saints.

biradiri

Local kinship group.

Caliphate

The ideal universal government of the world’s Mus lim community; assumed to be the epitome of just and righteous rule. The title held by the Ottoman sultans until 1923.

Chaudhury

A term of respect among the Jats.

dacoit

Bandit, brigand.

Deobandi

Islamic religious tradition tracing its descent from the madrasah of Deoband in the United Provinces (now Uttar Pradesh) of India, focused on strict adherence to the Koran and generally hostile to the worship of saints.

diya

Compensation paid by the guilty party for murder or injury.

dupattas

Scarves.

encounter killing

Extra-judicial execution by the police or intelligence services.

Frontier Force

Paramilitary force staffed by military officers but under the control of the Federal Ministry of the Interior, responsible for external and border security in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas and Balo chistan. Recruited from local Pathans.

ghairat

Honour, pride; (in women): modesty, purity, respect ability.

hadith

An established and recorded saying or story of the Prophet.

Hajj

The pilgrimage to Mecca, incumbent on all Muslims of sufficient means.

hujra

Traditional Pathan male gathering place.

ijtihad

The process of making a decision on a case of Sha riah law by individual interpretation of the scriptural sources. More broadly, reinterpretation of the Mus lim tradition in the light of reason.

izzat

Honour, prestige, reputation.

jawan

Lad, youth; informal term for the military rank and file.

jihad

Struggle for the sake of Islam; divided between the ‘Greater Jihad’, for personal and social purity, faith and justice, and the ‘Lesser Jihad’ of armed struggle.

jirga

(Pathan, Baloch and Sindhi), a council of elders and notables.

kafir

Infidel, pagan.

khan

Lord (Turkic); the formal or informal title of a respected man among the Pathans and other Paki stani ethnicities and tribes.

madrasah

Religious school.

malangs

Dervishes, devotees of a Sufi saint.

malik

A Pathan notable. In the tribal areas, one officially recognized by the state as one of the representatives of a given clan.

maulana

Graduate of a religious school, a learned cleric.

Mohajir

A person who migrates for the sake of Islam; in Paki stan, applied to those who migrated from India after partition.

Moharram

The first month of the Islamic calendar, especially sacred to Shia because of the anniversary of the death of Imam Hussain on the 10th Moharram (Ashura).

mujahid

A warrior of Islam.

mullah

Muslim cleric; usually, the cleric of a village mosque.

murid

Follower of a saint.

nom (Pashto)

Name, reputation, prestige.

panchayat

(Punjabi), a village council.

pashtunwali

The traditional moral and behavioural code of the Pathan tribes.

pir

A hereditary saint (in the Maghrib, marabout).

qaum

Community, ethnicity, nation.

qazi

Islamic judge.

Quaid-e-Azam

Great Leader: The honorary title of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, founder of Pakistan.

Raj

Rule, kingdom.

Rangers

Paramilitary force under the Ministry of the Interior, responsible for internal and border security in Sindh and Punjab.

sajjada nashin

Literally, he who sits on the prayer carpet; the her editary guardian of a shrine.

Sardar

A hereditary tribal chieftain.

Sayyid (or Syed)

A descendant of the Prophet.

Seraiki

Language widely spoken in southern Punjab and part of northern Sindh.

Shariah

Islamic law.

Talib

A religious student.

taqiyya

Shia tradition permitting the concealing of your true faith in times of persecution.

tehsil

Administrative sub-division of a district.

thana

Local police station.

Ummah

The universal world community of Muslims.

urs

Death anniversaries of saints

wadero

A hereditary landowner in Sindh.

Wahabi

Islamic tradition based in Saudi Arabia, adhering to an ultra-strict version of the Koran and Shariah and bitterly hostile both to Shia and to the worship of shrines.

zamindar

A landowner (in Punjab and northern India).

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