Books Consulted

CHAPTER 2 THE STRUGGLE FOR MUSLIM SOUTH ASIA

Iqbal Akhund, Trial and Error: The Advent and Eclipse of Benazir Bhutto (Oxford University Press, Karachi, 2000)

M. Athar Ali, Mughal India: Studies in Polity, Ideas, Society and Culture (Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2006)

Alyssa Ayres, Speaking Like a State: Language and Nationalism in Pakistan (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2009)

Sartaj Aziz, Between Dreams and Realities: Some Milestones in Pakistan’s History (Oxford University Press, Karachi, 2009)

Owen Bennett-Jones, Pakistan: Eye of the Storm (Yale University Press, London, 2009)

Benazir Bhutto: Daughter of the East: An Autobiography (Pocket Books, London, 2008)

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, If I Am Assassinated (Vikas, New Delhi, 1979)

Shahid Javed Burki, Pakistan: Fifty Years of Nationhood (Vanguard, Lahore, 2004)

M. Ikram Chagatai, Shah Waliullah: His Religious and Political Thought (Sang-e-Meel Publications, Lahore, 2005)

H. E. Chehabi and Juan J. Linz (eds), Sultanistic Regimes (Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, 1998)

Stephen P. Cohen, The Idea of Pakistan (Brookings Institution Press, Washington, DC, 2004)

William Dalrymple, The Last Mughal: Fall of a Dynasty, Delhi 1857 (Bloomsbury Publishing, London, 2007)

Emma Duncan, Breaking the Curfew: A Political Journey Through Pakistan (Michael Joseph, London, 1989)

Altaf Gauhar, Ayub Khan: Pakistan’s First Military Ruler (Sang-e-Meel Publications, Lahore, 1993)

Irfan Habib, The Agrarian System of Mughal India 1556 – 1707 (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1963)

Peter Hardy, The Muslims of British India (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1972)

Christophe Jaffrelot (ed.), A History of Pakistan and Its Origins (Anthem Press, London, 2004)

Ayesha Jalal, Partisans of Allah: Jihad in South Asia (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2008)

———, The Sole Spokesman: Jinnah, the Muslim League and the Demand for Pakistan (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1985)

John Keay, India: A History (Grove Press, Canongate, 2001)

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, The Causes of the Indian Revolt (Oxford University Press, Karachi, 2000)

Roedad Khan, Pakistan: A Dream Gone Sour (Oxford University Press, Karachi, 1997)

Dennis Kux, The United States and Pakistan 1947 – 2000: Disenchanted Allies (Woodrow Wilson Center Press, Washington, DC, 2001)

Christina Lamb, Waiting for Allah: Benazir Bhutto and Pakistan (Hamish Hamilton, London, 1991)

David Lelyveld, Aligarh’s First Generation: Muslim Solidarity in British India (Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2003)

Anthony Mascarenhas, The Rape of Bangladesh (Vikas, New Delhi, 1972)

T. R. Metcalf, The Aftermath of Revolt: India, 1857 – 1870 (Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1964)

William B. Milam, Bangladesh and Pakistan: Flirting with Failure in South Asia (Hurst, London, 2009)

Penderel Moon, The British Conquest and Dominion of India, Parts I and II (India Research Press, New Delhi 1999)

———, Divide and Quit (Chatto & Windus, London, 1964)

Sharif al Mujahid, The Ideology of Pakistan (Islamic Research Institute, Islamabad, 2001)

Shuja Nawaz, Crossed Swords: Pakistan, Its Army and the Wars Within (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2008)

Omar Noman, The Political Economy of Pakistan, 1947 – 85 (Kegan Paul International, London, 1985)

Francis Robinson, The Mughal Emperors and the Islamic Dynasties of India, Iran and Central Asia, 1206 – 1925 (Thames & Hudson, London, 2007)

———, Separatism Among Indian Muslims: The Politics of the United Province’s Muslims, 1860 – 1923 (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2008)

Farzana Shaikh, Making Sense of Pakistan (Hurst, London, 2009)

Ian Talbot, Pakistan: A Modern History (Hurst, London, 2005)

———, Provincial Politics and the Pakistan Movement: The Growth of the Muslim League in Northwest and Northeast India, 1937 – 1947 (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1988)

Romila Thapar, A History of India, Vol. I (Penguin, London, 1990)

Sir Archibald Wavell, The Viceroy’s Journal (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1973)

Stanley Wolpert, Jinnah of Pakistan (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998)

———, A New History of India (Oxford University Press, New York, 2008)

———, Shameful Flight: The Last Years of the British Empire in India (Oxford University Press, New York, 2006)

———, Zulfi Bhutto of Pakistan: His Life and Times (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1993)

Lawrence Ziring, Pakistan in the Twentieth Century: A Political History (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1997)

CHAPTER 3 JUSTICE

Paul Bohannon (ed.), Law and Warfare: Studies in the Anthropology of Conflict (Natural History Press, New York, 1967)

Muhammad Azam Chaudhary, Justice in Practice: The Legal Ethnography of a Punjabi Village (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1999)

Bernard S. Cohn, ‘Law and the Colonial State in India’, in Cohn, Colonialism and Its Forms of Knowledge (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1996)

A. S. Diamond, Primitive Law: Past and Present (Routledge, reprinted London, 1984)

Alison Dundes Renteln and Alan Dundes (eds), Folk Law: Essays in the Theory and Practice of Lex Non Scripta, 2 vols (University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI, 1995)

E. E. Evans-Pritchard, The Nuer: A Description of the Modes of Livelihood and Political Institutions of a Nilotic People (Oxford University Press, New York, 1987)

E. Adamson Hoebel, The Law of Primitive Man: A Study in Comparative Legal Dynamics (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1967)

Suketu Mehta, Maximum City: Bombay Lost and Found (Vintage Books, New York, 2005)

Sir Penderel Moon, Strangers in India (Faber & Faber, London, 1945)

V. S. Naipaul, Among the Believers: An Islamic Journey (Picador, London, 2003)

Major-General Sir W. H. Sleeman, KCB, Rambles and Recollections of an Indian Official, ed. by Vincent A. Smith (1844; reprinted Oxford University Press, Karachi, 1980)

Harry Holbert Turney-High, Primitive War: Its Practice and Concepts (University of South Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1991)

Sir Cecil Walsh, KC, Crime in India (Ernest Benn, London, 1930)

CHAPTER 4 RELIGION

Imtiaz Ahmad (ed.), Ritual and Religion among Muslims in India (Manohar, New Delhi, 1981)

Khurshid Ahmad (ed.), Islamic Perspectives: Studies in Honour of Mawlana Sayyid Abul Ala Mawdudi (Islamic Foundation, Leicester, 1979)

Aziz Ahmed, Islamic Modernism in India and Pakistan (Oxford University Press, London, 1967)

———, Studies in Islamic Culture in the Indian Environment (Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 1998)

Sarah Ansari, Sufi Saints and State Power: The Pirs of Sind, 1843 – 1947 (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1992)

Abdul Sattar Edhi, A Mirror to the Blind: An Autobiography, as narrated to Tehmina Durrani (Edhi Foundation, Karachi, 1996)

Hamid Enayat, Modern Islamic Political Thought, with an introduction by Roy P. Mottahedeh (I. B. Tauris, London, 2005)

Carl W. Ernst, The Shambhala Guide to Sufism (Shambhala, London, 1997)

Clifford Geertz, Islam Observed: Religious Development in Morocco and Indonesia (Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1968)

Ernest Gellner, Muslim Society (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1981)

———, Saints of the Atlas (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1969)

David Gilmartin, ‘Religious Leadership and the Pakistan Movement in the Punjab’, Modern Asian Studies, 13 (1979), pp. 485 – 517

Ayesha Jalal, Partisans of Allah: Jihad in South Asia (Sang-e-Meel, Lahore, 2008)

———, Self and Sovereignty: Individual and Community in South Asian Islam since 1850 (Routledge, London, 2000)

Gilles Kepel, Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2002)

———, The War for Muslim Minds: Islam and the West (Harvard University Press, London, 2004)

Peter Mayne, Saints of Sind (J. Murray, London, 1956)

Barbara Daly Metcalf (ed.), Moral Conduct and Authority: The Place of Adab in South Asian Islam (California University Press, Berkeley, CA, 1984)

Sharif Al Mujahid, Ideology of Pakistan (Islamic Research Institute, Islamabad, 2001)

Katherine Pratt Ewing, ‘The Politics of Sufism: Redefining the Saints of Pakistan’, Journal of Asian Studies, 42 (1983), pp. 251 – 68

Muhammad Amir Rana, A to Z of Jehadi Organizations in Pakistan, translated by Saba Ansari (Mashal, Lahore, 2009)

Francis Robinson, Islam and Muslim History in South Asia (Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2006)

Olivier Roy, The Failure of Political Islam (I.B. Tauris, London, 1994)

Annemarie Schimmel, Mystical Dimensions of Islam (University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC, 1975)

Farzana Shaikh, Making Sense of Pakistan (Hurst, London, 2009)

Ian Talbot (ed.), The Deadly Embrace: Religion, Politics and Violence in India and Pakistan, 1947 – 2001 (Oxford University Press, Karachi, 2007)

Anita Weiss (ed.), Islamic Reassertion in Pakistan: The Application of Islamic Laws in a Modern State (Vanguard, Lahore, 1987)

CHAPTER 5 THE MILITARY

Sumantra Bose, Kashmir: Roots of Conflict, Paths to Peace (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2003)

Shahid Javed Burki and Craig Baxter, Pakistan Under the Military (Westview Press, Boulder, CO, 1991)

Pervaiz Iqbal Cheema, The Armed Forces of Pakistan (Oxford University Press, Karachi, 2002)

Brian Cloughley, War, Coups and Terror: Pakistan’s Army in Years of Turmoil (Pen and Sword Books, Barnsley, 2008)

Stephen P. Cohen, The Pakistan Army (Oxford University Press, Karachi 1999)

Gordon Correra, Shopping for Bombs: Nuclear Proliferation, Global Insecurity, and the Rise and Fall of the A. Q. Khan Network (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006)

Mahmud Ali Durrani, India and Pakistan: The Cost of Conflict and the Benefits of Peace (Oxford University Press, Karachi, 2001)

Ayesha Jalal, The State of Martial Rule (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1990)

Mohammad Ayub Khan, Diaries, 1966 – 72, ed. Craig Baxter (Oxford University Press, Karachi, 2007)

Alastair Lamb, Crisis in Kashmir, 1947 – 1966 (Pan Books, London, 2000)

Adrian Levy and Catherine Scott-Clark, Deception: Pakistan, the United States and the Global Nuclear Weapons Conspiracy (Atlantic Books, London, 2007)

Pervez Musharraf, In the Line of Fire: A Memoir (Free Press, New York, 2006)

Shuja Nawaz, Crossed Swords: Pakistan, Its Army and the Wars Within (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2008)

Sher Ali Pataudi, The Story of Soldiering and Politics in India and Pakistan (Bakhtyar Press, Lahore, 1983)

George Perkovich, India’s Nuclear Bomb: The Impact on Global Proliferation (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2000)

Hasan-Askari Rizvi, Military, State and Society in Pakistan (Sang-e-Meel, Lahore, 2003)

Victoria Schofield, Kashmir in Conflict: India, Pakistan and the Unending War (I. B.Tauris, London, 2002)

Ayesha Siddiqa, Military Inc. Inside Pakistan’s Military Economy (Oxford University Press, Karachi, 2007)

Sten Widmalm, Kashmir in Comparative Perspective (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2002)

Tan Tai Yong, The Garrison State: Military, Government and Society in Colonial Punjab, 1849 – 1947 (Vanguard Books, Lahore, 2005)

CHAPTER 6 POLITICS

Saghir Ahmad, Class and Power in a Punjabi Village (New York and London, 1977)

Iqbal Akhund, Trial and Error: The Advent and Eclipse of Benazir Bhutto (Oxford University Press, Karachi, 2000)

Hamza Alavi, ‘Kinship in West Punjabi Villages’, Contributions to Indian Sociology (1972)

———and F. Halliday (eds), State and Ideology in the Middle East and Pakistan (Macmillan, London, 1977)

Sartaj Aziz, Between Dreams and Realities: Some Milestones in Pakistan’s History (Oxford University Press, Karachi, 2009)

Owen Bennett-Jones, Pakistan: Eye of the Storm (Yale University Press, London, 2009)

Benazir Bhutto: Daughter of the East: An Autobiography (Pocket Books, London, 2008)

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, If I Am Assassinated (Vikas, New Delhi, 1979)

Zekiye Eglar, A Punjabi Village in Pakistan (Columbia University Press, New York, 1960)

Michael D. Fischer, ‘Marriage and Power: Tradition and Transition in an Urban Punjabi Community’, in H. Donnan and P. Werbner (eds), Economy and Culture in Pakistan: Migrants and Cities in a Muslim Society (London: Macmillan, 1991)

Richard G. Fox, From Zamindar to Ballot Box (Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, 1969)

Michael Gilsenan, Lords of the Lebanese Marches (I. B. Tauris, London, 1996)

Husain Haqqani, Pakistan between Mosque and Military (Carnegie Endowment, Washington, DC, 2005)

Michael Hicks, Bastard Feudalism (Longman, London, 1995)

David C. Kang, Crony Capitalism: Corruption and Development in South Korea and the Philippines (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2002)

Roedad Khan, Pakistan: A Dream Gone Sour (Oxford University Press, Karachi, 1997)

Charles Lindholm, Generosity and Jealousy: The Swat Pukhtun of Northern Pakistan (Columbia University Press, New York, 1982)

Harban Mukhia, ‘Was There Feudalism in Indian History?’, Journal of Peasant Studies, 8 (3) (1981)

Omar Noman, The Political Economy of Pakistan, 1947 – 85 (Kegan Paul International, London, 1985)

J. G. Peristiany (ed.), Honour and Shame: The Values of Mediterranean Society (Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1965)

Joyce Pettigrew, Robber Noblemen: A Study of the Political System of Sikh Jats (Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1975)

Declan Quigley, The Interpretation of Caste (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1993)

L. Roniger and A. Günes-Ayata (eds), Democracy, Clientelism, and Civil Society (L. Rienner, London, 1994)

CHAPTER 7 PUNJAB

Muhammad Akbar, The Punjab under the Mughals (Ripon Press, Lahore, 1948)

Muhammad Azam Chaudhary, Justice in Practice: The Legal Ethnography of a Pakistani Punjabi Village (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1999)

W. L. Conran and H. D. Craik, The Punjab Chiefs (Civil and Military Gazette Press, Lahore, 1909; reprinted Sang-e-Meel, Lahore, 1993)

Zekiye Eglar, A Punjabi Village in Pakistan (Columbia University Press, New York, 1960)

H. L. O. Garrett, The Punjab a Hundred Years Ago (Government Printing, 1934; reprinted by Book House, Lahore, 2002)

Gazetteer of the Attock District (Government Printing, Lahore, 1930; reprinted Sang-e-Meel, Lahore, 2003)

Gazetteer of the Chenab Colony (Government Printing 1911; reprinted Sang-e-Meel, Lahore, 1996)

Gazetteer of the Multan District, 1923 – 24 (Government Printing, Lahore, 1926; reprinted Sang-e-Meel, Lahore, 2001)

Sir Denzil Ibbetson, Panjab Castes (Civil and Military Gazette Press, Lahore, 1883; reprinted Sang-e-Meel, Lahore, 2001)

Stephen M. Lyon, An Anthropological Analysis of Local Politics and Patronage in a Pakistani Village (Edwin Mellen, Lewiston, NY, 2004)

Joyce Pettigrew, Robber Noblemen: A Study of the Political System of the Sikh Jats (Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1975)

Bapsi Sidhwa (ed.), Beloved City: Writings on Lahore (Oxford University Press, Karachi, 2005)

Gurharpal Singh and Ian Talbot, Punjabi Identity: Continuity and Change (Manohar Publishers, New Delhi, 1996)

Ian Talbot and Shinder Thandi, People on the Move: Punjabi Colonial and Post-Colonial Migration (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2004)

Tan Tai Yong, The Garrison State: The Military, Government and Society in Colonial Punjab, 1849 – 1947 (Vanguard Books, Lahore, 2005)

CHAPTER 8 SINDH

Feroz Ahmed, ‘Ethnicity and Politics: The Rise of Muhajir Separatism’, South Asia Bulletin, 8 (1988)

Hamza Alavi, ‘Nationhood and the Nationalities in Pakistan’, in Hastings Donnan and Pnina Werbner (eds), Economy and Culture in Pakistan: Migrants and Cities in a Muslim Society (Macmillan, London, 1991)

Sarah Ansari, ‘Partition, Migration and Refugees: Responses to the Arrival of Muhajirs in Sind during 1947 – 48’, South Asia Bulletin, 18 (2) (1995)

———, Sufi Saints and State Power: The Pirs of Sind, 1843 – 1947 (Vanguard Books, Lahore, 1992)

Charles H. Kennedy, ‘The Politics of Ethnicity in Sindh’, Asian Survey, 31 (10) (1991)

Iftikhar H. Malik, ‘Ethno-Nationalism in Pakistan: A Commentary on the Muhajir Qaumi Mahaz (MQM) in Sindh’, South Asia Bulletin, 18 (2) (1995)

H. T. Sorley, Shah Abdul Latif of Bhit: A Study of Literary, Social and Economic Conditions in 18th Century Sind (Ashish Publishing House, New Delhi, 1984)

Oskar Verkaaik, Migrants and Militants: ‘Fun’ and Urban Violence in Pakistan (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2004)

———, A People of Migrants: Ethnicity, State and Religion in Karachi, Comparative Asian Studies, 15 (VU University Press, Amsterdam, 1994)

Akbar Zaidi, Regional Imbalances and the National Question in Pakistan (Vanguard Books, Lahore, 1992)

CHAPTER 9 BALOCHISTAN

Martin Axmann, Back to the Future: The Khanate of Kalat and the Genesis of Baloch Nationalism, 19151955 (Oxford University Press, New York, 2008)

Balochistan: Conflicts and Players (Pakistan Institute for Peace Studies, Islamabad, 2008)

Taj Mohammed Breseeg, Baloch Nationalism: Its Origin and Development (Royal Book Company, Karachi, 2004)

District Gazetteers of Balochistan, 1906 (ed. and compiled by Mansoor Bokhari), 2 vols (reprinted Gosha-e-Adab, Quetta, 1997)

Selig Harrison, In Afghanistan’s Shadow: Baloch Nationalism and Soviet Temptations (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1980)

Sylvia Matheson, The Tigers of Balochistan, Introduction by Paul Titus (Oxford University Press, Karachi, 1967)

Robert N. Pehrson, The Social Organisation of the Marri Baloch (Wenner-Gren Foundation, Chicago, 1966)

Paul Titus (ed.), Marginality and Modernity: Ethnicity and Change in Post-Colonial Balochistan (Oxford University Press, Karachi, 1996)

CHAPTERS 10, 11 AND 12 THE PATHANS, THE PAKISTANI TALEBAN, DEFEATING THE TALEBAN?

Akbar S. Ahmed, Millennium and Charisma among Pathans: A Critical Essay in Social Anthropology (Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1967)

Amineh Ahmed, Sorrow and Joy among Muslim Women: The Pukhtuns of Northern Pakistan (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2006)

Fredric Barth, Political Leadership among Swat Pathans (London School of Economics monographs on Social Anthropology, London, 1959)

John Bowen, Plain Tales of the Afghan Border (Springwood Books, London, 1982)

Sir Olaf Caroe, The Pathans (1958; reprinted Oxford University, Press, Oxford, 2006)

Winston S. Churchill, ‘The Malakand Field Force’, in Frontiers and Wars (Eyre & Spottiswoode, London, 1962)

Steve Coll, Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan and Bin Laden (Penguin, London, 2005)

Robert D. Crews and Amin Tarzi (eds), The Taliban and the Crisis of Afghanistan (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2008)

Ahmad Hasan Dani, Peshawar: Historic City of the Frontier (Sang-e-Meel Publications, Lahore, 2002)

Gilles Dorronsoro, Revolution Unending (Hurst, London, 2005)

David B. Edwards, Before Taliban: Genealogies of the Afghan Jihad (California University Press, Berkeley, 2002)

———, Heroes of the Age: Moral Fault Lines on the Afghan Frontier (University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, 2005)

Antonio Giustozzi (ed.), Decoding the New Taleban: Insights from the Afghan Field (Hurst, London, 2009)

———, Koran, Kalashnikov and Laptop: The Neo-Taleban Insurgency in Afghanistan (Hurst, London, 2007)

———and Noor Ullah, Tribes and Warlords in Southern Afghanistan 1980 – 2005 (Crisis States Research Centre, London, Working Paper series 2, no. 7)

Benedicte Grima, Secrets from the Field: An Ethnographer’s Notes from Northwest Pakistan (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2004)

Sana Haroon, Frontier of Faith: Islam in the Indo-Afghan Borderland (Hurst, London, 2007)

Miangul Jehanzeb, The Last Wali of Swat: An Autobiography as Told to Fredrik Barth (White Orchid Press, Bangkok, 1995)

Jehanzeb Khalil, The Mujahideen Movement in Malakand and Mohmand Agencies, 1900 – 1940 (Area Studies Centre, Peshawar University, 2000)

Are Knudsen, Violence and Belonging: Land, Love and Lethal Conflict in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan (NIAS Press, Copenhagen, 2007)

Anatol Lieven, Chechnya: Tombstone of Russian Power? (Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, 1998)

Magnus Marsden, Living Islam: Muslim Religious Experience in Pakistan’s North West Frontier (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2005)

John Masters, Bugles and a Tiger (Cassell, London, 2002)

W. R. H. Merk, The Mohmands (1898; reprinted Vanguard Books, Lahore, 1984)

T. L. Pennel and Earl Roberts, Among the Wild Tribes of the Afghan Frontier: A Record of Sixteen Years’ Close Intercourse with the Natives of the Indian Marches (1908; reprinted Kessinger Publishing, Whitefish, MT, 2005)

Muhammad Amir Rana, A to Z of Jehadi Organisations in Pakistan (Mashal Books, Lahore, 2009)

Brian Robson, Crisis on the Frontier: The Third Afghan War and the Campaign in Waziristan, 191920 (Spellmount, Staplehurst, 2004)

James W. Spain, The Pathans of the Latter Day (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1995)

—, The Way of the Pathans (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1962)

Sultan-i-Rome, Swat State from Genesis to Merger, 1915 – 1969 (Oxford University Press, Karachi, 2008)

Joshua T. White, Pakistan’s Islamist Frontier: Islamic Politics and US Policy in Pakistan’s North-West Frontier (Centre on Faith and International Affairs, Washington, DC, 2007)

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