Notes

1 INTRODUCTION: UNDERSTANDING PAKISTAN

1 Tariq Ali, Can Pakistan Survive? The Death of a State (Penguin, London, 1983).

2 Pierre Lafrance, in Christophe Jaffrelot (ed.), Pakistan: Nation, Nationalism and the State (Vanguard Books, Lahore, 2002), p. 339.

3 Interview with the author, Lahore, 8/1/2009.

4 My attention was drawn to this fascinating statistic by Dr Shandana Mohmand of the Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS).

5 Alison Shaw, Kinship and Continuity: Pakistani Families in Britain (Harwood Academic Publishers, Amsterdam, 2000), p. 99.

6 Ibid., p. 154.

7 Stephen M. Lyon, An Anthropological Analysis of Local Politics and Patronage in a Pakistani Village (Edwin Mellen, Lewiston, NY, 2004).

8 Quoted in Muhammad Azam Chaudhary, Justice in Practice: The Legal Ethnography of a Pakistani Punjabi Village (Oxford University Press, 1999).

9 Sudeep Chakravarti, Red Sun: Travels in Naxalite Country (Penguin, New Delhi, 2009).

10 Chaudhary, Justice in Practice; Lyon, Anthropological Analysis.

11 On the initiative of the ANP provincial government, the province was officially renamed Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa in April 2010, to reflect its majority Pathan population, known in their own language as Pakhtuns or Pashtuns. However, since it was known as the North West Frontier Province during the period of research for this book, and during the historical and recent events I describe, I have kept the old name.

12 See Joshua T. White, Pakistan’s Islamist Frontier: Islamic Politics and US Policy in Pakistan’s North-West Frontier (Centre on Faith and International Affairs, Washington, DC, 2007).

13 Graham Greene, Our Man in Havana (Penguin, London, 1978), p. 151.

14 Pervez Musharraf, In the Line of Fire: A Memoir (Free Press, New York, 2006), p. 126.

15 Broken System: Dysfunction, Abuse and Impunity in the Indian Police, published 4 August 2009, on http://www.hrw.org. See also a book on police and criminals in Mumbai: Suketu Mehta, Maximum City (Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 2005). And see also the reports of the International Committee of the Red Cross on the Indian treatment of Kashmiri detainees, as stated to US diplomats and revealed by WikiLeaks in the Guardian (London), 17 December 2010.

16 Figures from the Population Association of Pakistan website: http://www.pap.org.pk/statistics/

17 John Briscoe and Usman Qamar, Pakistan’s Water Economy: Running Dry (Oxford University Press, Oxford and the World Bank, Washington, DC, 2006), p. xiv.

18 Michael Kugelman and Robert M. Hathaway (eds), Running on Empty: Pakistan’s Water Crisis (Woodrow Wilson Center, Washington, DC, 2009), Introduction, p. 24.

19 This point is made well in an engaging memoir about an American student’s life in Pakistan: Ethan Casey, Alive and Well in Pakistan: A Human Journey in a Difficult Time (Grand Central Publishing, New York, 2005).

20 The answer, I eventually discovered, is the charmingly named demoiselle crane. In an interesting example of human (male) minds working in the same way across very different cultures, while some Western naturalist named them after young French girls, in Baloch poetry they are used to symbolize girls bathing (French or otherwise).

21 John Wyndham, The Kraken Wakes (Penguin, London, 1956), pp. 203 – 6.

22 Sir Denzil Ibbetson, Panjab Castes (Civil and Military Gazette Press, Lahore, 1883, reprinted Sang-e-Meel, Lahore, 2001), p. 1.

2 THE STRUGGLE FOR MUSLIM SOUTH ASIA

1 Faiz Ahmed Faiz, ‘You tell us what to do’, in The True Subject: Selected Poems of Faiz Ahmed Faiz, translated by Naomi Lezard (Vanguard Books, Lahore, 1988), p. 63.

2 Iqbal Akhund, Trial and Error: The Advent and Eclipse of Benazir Bhutto (Oxford University Press, Karachi, 2000), p. 116.

3 This was true both of architecture and of human cultural resources. At partition, India got to keep the greater part of the Muslim cultural intelligentsia and – most miserably of all for most Pakistanis – of the nascent film world. India’s Bollywood film industry would not exist in its present form without the contribution of great Muslim actors, actresses, directors and composers: Nargis, Waheeda Rehman, Shabana Azmi, Naseeruddin Shah, the greatest male hearthrob of the present age Shah Rukh Khan, and many others. On the other hand, in Saadat Hasan Manto, who left for Pakistan, Bollywood lost what could have been its greatest writer.

4 Indeed, Muslim forces were as responsible for the fall of the Mughal empire as Hindus, Sikhs or the British. The single most shattering moment in the Mughal collapse was the capture and sack of Delhi itself in 1739 by the Persian and Afghan forces of Nadir Shah, an event so ghastly that it is still commemorated by an Urdu word for atrocity, nadirshahi. In 1761, the city was sacked again by the founder of Afghanistan, Ahmed Shah Durrani.

5 This belief also permeates the Pakistani diaspora in Britain; and not just ordinary people, but members of the educated elites as well. Thus at a meeting of the Pakistan Society of University College London which I addressed on 3 February 2010, the great majority of students who spoke thought that the US or Israel had carried out the 9/11 attacks. If this is true of students in Britain, then the chances of the West persuading students in Pakistan to support Western policy would seem negligible.

6 Cited in Penderel Moon, Divide and Quit (Chatto & Windus, London, 1964), p. 11.

7 Cited by S. M. Burke, Landmarks of the Pakistan Movement (Punjab University Press, Lahore, 2001), p. 182.

8 Ayesha Jalal, The Sole Spokesman: Jinnah, the Muslim League and the Demand for Pakistan (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1985).

9 A curious last echo of Muslim League hopes for a united confederal India is to be found in the fact that the inscriptions on the tombs of Jinnah and his deputy Liaquat Ali in Karachi are in both Urdu and Hindi.

10 Peter Hardy, The Muslims of British India (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1972), p. 239.

11 Ian Talbot, Pakistan: A Modern History (Hurst & Co., London, 2005), p. 120.

12 Cited in Shafqat Tanveer Mirza, Resistance Themes in Punjabi Literature (Sang-e-Meel, Lahore, 1992), p. 162. I have changed the English translation slightly to eliminate bad grammar.

13 Liaquat’s assassination in 1951 was the first in a long series of unexplained killings of Pakistani politicians, which have contributed greatly to the conspiracy-mindedness which is one of the biggest curses of intellectual life and public debate in Pakistan.

14 Figures at http://www.tradingeconomics.com/Economics/GDP-Growth.aspx?Symbol=PKR.

15 For a description and analysis of the concept of modern ‘Sultanism’, see H. E. Chehabi and Juan J. Linz, Sultanistic Regimes (Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, 1998).

16 Interview with the author, Lahore, 15/10/1988.

3 JUSTICE

1 Cited in G. C. J. J. van den Bergh, ‘The Concept of Folk Law in Historical Context: A Brief Outline’, in Alison Dundes Renteln and Alan Dundes (eds), Folk Law: Essays in the Theory and Practice of Lex Non Scripta, vol. I (University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI, 1995), p. 7.

2 Interview with the author, Mohmand Agency, 2/9/2008.

3 Ibid.

4 Akbar Hussain Allahabadi (1846 – 1921), in The Best of Urdu Poetry, translated with an introduction by Khushwant Singh (Penguin Viking, New Delhi, 2007), p. 81. And he, by the way, was a British judge in India!

5 Interview with the author, Karachi, 17/4/2009.

6 Sir Cecil Walsh, KC, Crime in India (Ernest Benn, London, 1930), p. 31.

7 Ibid., p. 45.

8 Muhammad Azam Chaudhary, Justice in Practice (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1999), pp. 25 – 6.

9 Interview with the author, Karachi, 17/4/2009.

10 Cited in C. van Vollenhoven, ‘Aspects of the Controversy on Customary Law’, in Renteln and Dundes (eds), Folk Law, vol. I, p. 254.

11 Interview with the author, Peshawar, 25/7/2009. See also Aurangzaib Khan, ‘Judge Thy Neighbour’, The Herald (Karachi), 40 (4), April 2009.

12 M. P. Jain, ‘Custom as a Source of Law in India’, in Renteln and Dundes (eds), Folk Law, vol. I, p. 75.

13 W. H. Sleeman, Rambles and Recollections of an Indian Official, ed. Vincent A. Smith (1844; reprinted Oxford University Press, Karachi, 1980), p. 388.

14 Interview with the author, Karachi 2/5/2009.

15 Interview with the author, Multan, 18/1/2009.

16 James Traub, ‘Lawyers’ Crusade’, New York Times magazine, 1 June 2008.

17 District Gazetteers of Balochistan, 1906, edited and compiled by Mansoor Bokhari (reprinted Gosha-e-Adab, Quetta, 1997), vol. I, p. 94.

18 Jain, ‘Custom as a Source of Law’, p. 70.

19 Stephen M. Lyon, An Anthropological Analysis of Local Politics and Patronage in a Pakistani Village (Edwin Mellen, Lewiston, NY, 2004), p. 24.

4 RELIGION

1 Muhammad Iqbal, Mazhab, cited in Ayesha Jalal, Self and Sovereignty: Individual and Community in South Asian Islam since 1850 (Routledge, London, 2000), p. 578.

2 Koran, Sura 2 (The Cow), verse 172.

3 Major Aubrey O’Brien, ‘The Mohammedan Saints of the Western Punjab’, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, 41 (1911), p. 511.

4 Francis Robinson, Islam and Muslim History in South Asia (Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 2006), p. 52.

5 Ian Talbot and Shinder Thandi, People on the Move: Punjabi Colonial and Post-Colonial Migration (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2004), p. 183.

6 Saifur Rehman Sherani, ‘Ulema and Pir in Pakistani Politics’, in Hastings Donnan and Pnina Werbner (eds), Economy and Culture in Pakistan: Migrants and Cities in a Muslim Society (Macmillan, London, 1991), p. 221.

7 Interview with the author, Karachi, 7/11/1988.

8 Pnina Werbner, ‘Stamping the Earth with the Name of Allah: Zikr and the Sacralising of Space among British Muslims’, Cultural Anthropology, 11 (1996), pp. 309 – 38.

9 Interview with the author, Lahore, 1/8/2009.

10 Carl W. Ernst, The Shambhala Guide to Sufism (Shambhala, London, 1997), p. 213.

11 Interview with the author, Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS), 4/1/2009.

12 O’Brien, ‘The Mohammedan Saints’, p. 509.

13 Katherine Pratt Ewing, ‘Malangs of the Punjab: Intoxication or Adab as the Path to God?’ in Barbara Daly Metcalf (ed.), Moral Conduct and Authority: The Place of Adab in South Asian Islam (California University Press, Berkeley, 1984), p. 363.

14 Hasan al-Banna, cited in Hamid Enayat, Modern Islamic Political Thought, with an introduction by Roy P. Mottahedeh (I. B. Tauris, London, 2005), p. 85.

15 http://www.jamaat.org.

16 Interview with the author, Abbotabad, NWFP, 12/8/2008.

17 Interview with the author, Faisalabad, 12/1/2009.

18 http://www.jamaat.org/new/english.

19 Interview with the author, Mansura, Lahore, 4/1/2009

20 Ibid.

21 Interview with the author, Islamabad, 30/4/2007.

22 Interview with the author, Peshawar, 2/5/2007.

5 THE MILITARY

1 Interview with the author, Karachi, 1/5/2009.

2 Interview with the author, Quetta, 1/8/2009.

3 Hasan-Askari Rizvi, Military, State and Society in Pakistan (Sang-e-Meel, Lahore, 2003), p. 8.

4 Shuja Nawaz, Crossed Swords: Pakistan, Its Army and the Wars Within (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2008), pp. 446 – 58.

5 As recorded by US diplomats and revealed by WikiLeaks. See the Guardian (London), 1 December 2010.

6 Figures from The Military Balance 2009, published by the International Institute for Strategic Studies, London, and Owen Bennett-Jones, Pakistan, Eye of the Storm (Yale University Press, London, 2009), pp. 270 – 72.

7 See Ayesha Siddiqa, Military Inc. Inside Pakistan’s Military Economy (Oxford University Press, Karachi, 2007).

8 Ibid., p. 212.

9 Interview with the author, Karachi, 1/5/2009.

10 Adnan Adil, ‘Pakistan’s Post 9/11 Economic Boom’, 21 September 2006, cited in Brian Cloughley, War, Coups and Terror: Pakistan’s Army in Years of Turmoil (Pen and Sword Books, Barnsley, 2008), p. 157.

11 Interview with the author, Rawalpindi, 27/7/2009.

12 Interview with the author, Peshawar, 28/7/2009.

13 Tan Tai Yong, The Garrison State: Military, Government and Society in Colonial Punjab, 1849 – 1947 (Sage Publications, Lahore, 2005), p. 26.

14 Quoted in Rizvi, Military, State and Society in Pakistan, p. 62.

15 Zahid Hussain, ‘Kayani Spells out Terms for Regional Stability’, Dawn.com, 2 February 2010.

16 Interview with the author, Lahore, 2/8/2009.

17 Nawaz, Crossed Swords, pp. 570 – 71.

18 As Abida Husain once remarked to me, ‘All our military capos have been personally pleasant, unassuming people, easy to get on with – very different from many of our politicians with their arrogance and edginess. Probably this is something to do with the democracy of the officers’ mess, and not seeming to be too clever. Zia was the cleverest of them all, but got where he did precisely by pretending to be stupid.’

19 Stephen M. Lyon, An Anthropological Analysis of Local Politics and Patronage in a Pakistani Village (Edwin Mellen, Lewiston, NY, 2004), p. 2. Things were just the same in Europe in the past. Nonetheless, the Pakistani (and Indian) style of deference to superiors can become a little tiresome to modern Western ears, and certainly does not encourage the free exchange of ideas. A typical telephone conversation between an inferior and superior in the bureaucracy or any political party goes ‘Ji Sir, ji Sir, ji ... Bilkul [absolutely] Sir, bilkul, bilkul ... Sain [right] Sir, sain ... Yes, Sir, yes ...’ Sometimes the inferiors run out of breath altogether and are reduced to little orgasmic gasps of deference and submission, until you want to slap both parties over the head with alternate volumes of Das Kapital.

20 Interview with the author, Karachi, 1/5/2009.

21 Interview with the author, Rawalpindi, 9/10/2001.

22 This is derived from Aristotle via Hegel, though somewhat misrepresents both.

23 Z. A. Bhutto, Foreign Policy of Pakistan (Pakistan Institute of International Affairs, Karachi, 1964), p. 13.

24 Ibid.

25 For a small example of the inflexible mindset of many Pakistani soldiers concerning Kashmir, see an article in the Pakistan military’s monthly magazine, Hilal, of August 2009: Colonel Dr Muhammad Javed, ‘Kashmir: An Unfinished Agenda of Partition’.

26 Interview with the author, Islamabad, 4/8/2008.

27 Stephen Tankel, Storming the World Stage: The Story of Lashkar-e-Taiba (Columbia University Press, New York, 2010).

28 Hafiz Abdul Salam bin Muhammad, ‘Jihad in the Present Time’, http://web.archive.org/web/20030524100347/www.markazdawa.org.

29 Tankel, Storming the World Stage.

30 Nawaz, Crossed Swords, p. 551.

31 Mark Fitzpatrick (ed.), Nuclear Black Markets: Pakistan, A. Q. Khan and the Rise of Proliferation Networks (IISS, London, 2007), p. 116.

6 POLITICS

1 Lewis Namier, The Structure of Politics at the Accession of George III (Macmillan, London, 1970), p. 2.

2 Sir William Sleeman, Rambles and Recollections of an Indian Official (1844; reprinted Oxford University Press, Karachi, 1980), p. 238.

3 Interview with the author, Jhang, 5/10/2002.

4 On Akram Khan Alizai; Mountstuart Elphinstone, An Account of the Kingdom of Caubul (1819; reprinted Sang-e-Meel, Lahore, 1998), vol. II, p. 285.

5 Interview with the author, Islamabad, 3/11/1990.

6 Interview with the author, Karachi, 23/10/1990.

7 Iqbal Akhund, Trial and Error: The Advent and Eclipse of Benazir Bhutto (Oxford University Press, Karachi, 2000), p. 135.

8 Interview with the author, Gujrat, 9/11/1988.

9 Interview with the author, Islamabad, 10/12/1988.

10 Readers may have noticed one inevitable omission, which did not even begin to approach the subconscious depths of our conversation and which I certainly wasn’t going to drag to the surface – namely, the idea that she might use a vacuum-cleaner herself.

11 Interview with the author, Jhang, 5/10/2002.

12 Interview with the author, Rawalpindi, 17/7/2009.

13 This may be apocryphal. I have heard it repeated many times, but have never been able to track down the original.

14 Interview with the author, Mirpur Bhutto, 24/4/2009. On the other hand, he had used almost exactly the same words to me twenty years earlier, and not a great deal appears to have changed in the meantime as far as wadero power in Sindh is concerned.

15 Gazetteer of the Attock District (Government Printing, Lahore, 1930; reprinted Sang-e-Meel, Lahore, 2003), p. 95.

16 Akhund, Trial and Error, p. 53.

17 Interview with the author, Shikarpur, 15/11/1990.

18 As I wrote in my notebook while accompanying Abida Husain, an elderly ‘feudal’ from a Shia pir family in Jhang, in baking heat, during the 2002 elections: ‘These feudal politicians are not spoiled aristocrats. Some can show iron discipline when politics requires. I’m lounging in my seat half asleep, with flies settling on my nose, kept awake only by the state of my bladder. This is the eighth meeting we’ve been to and there she is, bolt upright on the platform for the past hour, looking cool as a cucumber, completely attentive to what the audience is saying.’

19 Mosharraf Zaidi, ‘When the News Becomes News’, The News, Karachi, 5 January 2010.

20 Interview with the author, Karachi 17/4/2009.

21 Interview with the author, Karachi, 3/10/1990.

22 Interview with the author, Islamabad 4/12/1988.

23 Maqsood Jafri, The Ideals of Bhutto (privately published, 2002), pp. 55, 59.

24 Special supplement ‘honouring anniversary of birth of Shaheed Z. A. Bhutto’, Pakistan Times, 5 January 1990.

25 Interview with the author, Karachi, 2/10/1990.

26 For accounts of these cases, see Human Rights Watch, World Report 2009, Pakistan section, pp. 290 – 91; Asian Human Rights Commission statement of 4 March 2009: ‘Order an honour killing – become a minister’; Rubina Saigol, ‘Women and Democracy’, Dawn News, 3 December 2008; ‘Sindh High Court Adjourns Saira Jatoi’s Case’, Daily Times, 30 October 2008; Hasan Mansoor, ‘Pakistani couple married for love, hiding in fear of tribal justice’, Hindustan Times, 11 June 2009.

27 Interview with the author, Karachi, 3/5/2009.

28 Interview with the author, Lahore, 30/12/2008.

29 Interview with the author, Lahore, 2/8/2009.

30 ‘Pak government should hold talks with Taliban’, Dawn.com, 3 July 2010.

31 ‘C. M. Shahbaz Wants Taliban to Spare Punjab’, Dawn.com, 15 March 2010.

32 Interview with the author, Karachi, 17/4/2009.

33 Interview with the author, Karachi, 3/5/2009.

34 Iftikhar H. Malik, ‘Ethno-Nationalism in Pakistan: A Commentary on the Muhajir Qaumi Mahaz (MQM) in Sindh’, South Asia Bulletin, 18 (2) (1995), p. 44.

35 Interview with the author, Karachi, 3/5/2009.

36 Oskar Verkaaik, Migrants and Militants: ‘Fun’ and Urban Violence in Pakistan (Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2004), p. 62.

7 PUNJAB

1 Bapsi Sidhwa, The Bride (Futura, London, 1984), p. 19.

2 According to this award the allocation of revenue was divided up according to the following criteria: population, 82.00%; poverty, 10.30%; revenue, 5.00%; IPD (Inverse Population Density) 2.70%. See www.einfopedia.com/nfc-award-national-finance-commission-award-of-pakistan.php.

3 Quoted in Ayesha Jalal, Partisans of Allah: Jihad in South Asia (Sang-e-Meel Publications, Lahore, 2008), p. 41.

4 See, for example, Eugen Weber, Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France, 1870 – 1914 (Stanford University Press, Stanford, 1976).

5 The names are imaginary.

6 Moni Mohsin, Diary of a Social Butterfly (Random House, Karachi, 2009).

7 Figures in Ian Talbot, ‘The Punjabization of Pakistan: Myth or Reality?’, in Christophe Jaffrelot (ed.), Pakistan: Nation, Nationalism and the State (Vanguard, Lahore, 2005), p. 56.

8 Figures in J. Briscoe and U. Qamar, Pakistan’s Water Economy: Running Dry (Oxford University Press, Oxford, and the World Bank, Washington, DC, 2006); and ‘World Bank Report on Pakistan’s Water Resources’, Daily Times, Lahore, 18 January 2006.

9 Chaudhury Shujaat Hussain, interview with the author, Gujrat, 9/11/1988.

10 ‘Meat is very seldom eaten except by the better class, and except on occasions of rejoicing or by way of hospitality’, Gazetteer of the Multan District 1923 – 24 (Government Printing, Lahore, 1926; reprinted Sang-e-Meel, Lahore 2001), p. 129.

11 Interview with the author, Faisalabad, 14/1/2009.

12 Gazetteer of the Multan District, p. 121.

8 SINDH

1 Kamila Shamsie, Kartography (Bloomsbury Publishing, London, 2003), p. 259.

2 Samina Altaf, ‘Public Health, Clean Water and Pakistan: Why We Are Not There Yet’, in Michael Kugelman and Robert M. Hathaway (eds), Running on Empty: Pakistan’s Water Crisis (Woodrow Wilson Center, Washington, DC, 2009).

3 Captain Leopold von Orlich, Travels in India; quoted in H. T. Sorley, Shah Abdul Latif of Bhit: A Study of Literary, Social and Economic Conditions in 18th Century Sind (Ashish Publishing House, New Delhi, 1984), p. 95.

4 Sarah Ansari, Sufi Saints and State Power: The Pirs of Sind, 1843 – 1947 (Vanguard Books, Lahore, 1992), p. 22.

5 Oskar Verkaaik, A People of Migrants: Ethnicity, State and Religion in Karachi, Comparative Asian Studies, 15 (VU University Press, Amsterdam, 1994), p. 47.

6 Feroz Ahmed, ‘Ethnicity and Politics: The Rise of Muhajir Separatism’, South Asia Bulletin, 8 (1988), pp. 37 – 8.

7 Interview with the author, Karachi, 28/4/2009.

8 Interview with the author, Karachi, 28/4/2009.

9 Interview with the author, Karachi, 29/4/2009.

10 Interview with the author, Karachi, 30/4/2009.

11 Interview with the author, Mirpur Bhutto, 17/4/2009.

12 Interview with the author, Hyderabad, 20/4/2009.

9 BALOCHISTAN

1 District Gazetteers of Balochistan, 1906 (ed. and compiled by Mansoor Bokhari), 2 vols (reprinted Gosha-e-Adab, Quetta, 1997), vol. II, p. 1028.

2 ‘Balochistan Militants Killing Teachers’, report by Human Rights Watch, issued 13/12/2010 at http://www.hrw.org/en/news/2010/12/13/pakistanbalochistan-militants-killing-teachers.

3 District Gazetteers of Balochistan, vol. I, p. 128.

4 Ibid., p. 102.

5 Ibid., vol. II, p. 994.

6 Sylvia Matheson, The Tigers of Balochistan (Oxford University Press, Karachi, 1967), pp. 1 – 3.

7 Paul Titus, ‘Whither the Tigers?’, Introduction to the 1995 edition of The Tigers of Balochistan by Sylvia Matheson, p. 25.

8 Matheson, Tigers, p. 204.

9 Ibid., p. 48.

10 See ‘A Statement by the Asian Human Rights Commission’, 4 March 2009 (at www.humanrightsblog.org/pakistan).

11 Quoted in Human Rights Watch World Report, 2009, pp. 290 – 1.

12 Interview with the author, Quetta, 12/8/2009.

13 Interview with the author, Quetta, 16/8/2009.

14 Interview with the author, Miangundi, Balochistan, 14/8/2009.

15 District Gazetteers, vol. II, p. 1001.

16 See also Brigadier (retd) Tughral Yamin, ‘Chamalang: Winning Hearts and Minds’, Hilal (Pakistan armed forces magazine), May 2009.

17 http://pakalert.wordpress.com/2009/06/06/reko-diq-mystery.

18 Interview with the author, Quetta, 15/8/2009.

10 THE PATHANS

1 Khushal Khan Khattak, translated by Sir Olaf Caroe, in Caroe, The Pathans (1958; reprinted Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006), p. 238.

2 For an explanation of why I have chosen to use the Hindustani name (taken over by the British) ‘Pathan’ to describe this people, rather than ‘Pakhtun’ or ‘Pashtun’ (depending on which Pathan dialect you are using), see the Introduction, p. 22.

3 T. L. Pennel and Earl Roberts, Among the Wild Tribes of the Afghan Frontier: A Record of Sixteen Years’ Close Intercourse with the Natives of the Indian Marches (1908; reprinted Kessinger Publishing, Whitefish, MT, 2005).

4 Report on Waziristan and its Tribes (Punjab Government Press, 1901, republished by Sang-e-Meel Publications, Lahore, 2005), p. 9.

5 See Brian Robson, Crisis on the Frontier: The Third Afghan War and the Campaign in Waziristan, 1919 – 20 (Spellmount, Staplehurst, 2004), p. xiii. ‘Butcher and Bolt’ was also taken by the BBC correspondent David Loyn as the title of his book on outside interventions in Afghanistan and its borderlands, published in 2008.

6 Juma Khan Sufi, Bacha Khan, Congress and Nationalist Politics in NWFP (Vanguard Books, Lahore, 2005), pp. 1 – 2.

7 Quoted in Ahmad Hasan Dani, Peshawar: Historic City of the Frontier (Sang-e-Meel Publications, Lahore, 2002), p. 172.

8 Interview with the author, Peshawar, 24/8/2008.

9 Joshua T. White, Pakistan’s Islamist Frontier: Islamic Politics and US Policy in Pakistan’s North-West Frontier (Centre on Faith and International Affairs, Washington, DC, 2007), p. 39.

10 Interview with the author, Peshawar, 21/7/2009.

11 Interview with the author, Peshawar, 26/8/2008.

11 THE PAKISTANI TALEBAN

1 Sir Olaf Caroe, The Pathans (1958; reprinted Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006), p. 300.

2 Abdul Salam Zaeef, My Life with the Taleban, ed. Alex Strick van Linschoten and Felix Kuehn (Hurst & Co., London, 2010), pp. 21 – 80.

3 Interview with the Indian Observer online, 16/11/2009, at www.observerindia.com.

4 Pervez Musharraf, In the Line of Fire: A Memoir (Free Press, New York, 2006), p. 201.

5 Seymour Hersh, ‘The Getaway’, New Yorker, 28 January 2002; Ahmed Rashid, Descent into Chaos: How the War against Islamic Extremism is Being Lost in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Central Asia (Allen Lane, London, 2008), pp. 91 – 3.

6 Text of speech at transcripts.cnn.com/TRANSCRIPTS/0201/12/smn.21.html.

7 Meeting with the media and experts in London, 28/1/2008 (my notes).

8 Matt Waldman, ‘The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship between Pakistan’s ISI and Afghan Insurgents’, Discussion Paper no. 18, Crisis States Discussion Papers, London School of Economics, June 2010.

9 Report on Waziristan and its Tribes (Punjab Government Press, 1901; reprinted Sang-e-Meel Publications, Lahore, 2005), p. 22.

10 Some vivid anecdotes of this approach (albeit carried out by a Pathan official in the British service) are to be found in John Bowen, Plain Tales of the Afghan Border (Springwood Books, London, 1982).

11 Interview with the author, Islamabad, 2/5/2007.

12 Quoted in Claudio Franco, ‘The Tehrik-e-Taleban Pakistan’, in Antonio Giustozzi (ed.), Decoding the New Taleban: Insights from the Afghan Field (Hurst, London, 2009), p. 272.

13 Ernest Gellner, ‘Flux and Reflux in the Faith of Men’, in Gellner, Muslim Society (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1981), p. 45.

14 Ibn Khaldun, The Muqadmimah: An Introduction to History, trans. Franz Rosenthal, ed. N. J. Dawood (Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1967), p. 118.

15 Gellner, Muslim Society, p. 53.

16 Fredrik Barth, Political Leadership among Swat Pathans (London School of Economics Monographs on Social Anthropology, London, 1959), pp. 61 – 2.

17 Brian Robson, Crisis on the Frontier: The Third Afghan War and the Campaign in Waziristan, 1919 – 20 (Spellmount, Staplehurst, 2004), p. 212.

18 Sana Haroon, Frontier of Faith: Islam in the Indo-Afghan Borderland (Hurst, London, 2007), p. 3.

19 Ibid., p. 79.

20 W. R. H. Merk, The Mohmands (1898; reprinted Vanguard Books, Lahore, 1984), p. 12.

21 Barth, Political Leadership, pp. 98 – 9.

22 Hussain Ahmad Madni, 1953, quoted in Haroon, Frontier of Faith, p. 93.

23 Caroe, Pathans, pp. 305 – 6.

24 Merk, The Mohmands, p. 33.

25 In Winston S. Churchill, Frontiers and Wars (reprinted Eyre & Spottiswoode, London, 1962).

12 DEFEATING THE TALEBAN?

1 Quoted in J. G. Elliott, The Frontier 1839 – 1947 (London, Cassell, 1968), p. 229.

2 My notebook, 28/8/2008.

3 Interview with the author, Faisalabad, 12/1/2009.

4 Interview with the author, Islamabad, 19/1/2009.

5 See, for example, Brian Robson, Crisis on the Frontier (Spellmount, Staplehurst, 2004), pp. 84, 98; and Sir Olaf Caroe’s reminiscences of an incident of mutiny in the South Waziristan Militia in 1905 with which he was personally involved, in his The Pathans (1958; reprinted Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2006), Appendix D, pp. 468 – 78.

6 Interview with the author, Peshawar, 19/8/2008.

7 Andrew Small, ‘China’s Caution on Afghanistan-Pakistan’, Washington Quarterly (July 2010), pp. 81 – 97.

8 Interview with the author, Mingora, Swat, 7/8/2009.

9 Interview with the author, Peshawar, 10/8/2008.

10 Sultan-i-Rome, Swat State from Genesis to Merger, 1915 – 1969 (Oxford University Press, Karachi, 2008), pp. 323 – 4.

11 Interview with the author, Mingora, Swat, 8/8/2009.

12 Human Rights Watch, ‘Pakistan: Extrajudicial Executions by Army in Swat’, 16 July 2010, at www.hrw.org.

13 http://www.ummid.com/news/2010/February/18.02.2010/cost_of_war_against_terror.htm.

CONCLUSIONS

1 Cable from US Embassy in Islamabad to State Department, 25/9/2010, WikiLeaks extract 224303, published in the Guardian (London), 1 December 2010, p. 6.

2 Reported via WikiLeaks in the Guardian (London), 1 December 2010, p. 7.

3 Ibid.

4 US Embassy cable of 23/9/2010.

5 Ewen MacAskill and Simon Tisdall, ‘Barack Obama Shifts Towards Talks with Taliban’, Guardian online, 19 July 2010, at www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/jul/19/obama-afghanistan-strategy-taliban-negotiate.

6 US Embassy cable of 23/9/2010.

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