Appendix I

CHRONOLOGY

Dates for sites in Rome during the fascist period are for completion or opening unless otherwise noted.

1860-70

Italian Unification

1860-61

Garibaldi’s Thousand conquer Sicily and southern Italy; proclamation of the kingdom of Italy

1870

Italy takes Rome from Pius IX and declares it the nation’s capital

1883

Birth of Benito Mussolini

1912

Mussolini, a member of the Socialist party, becomes editor of the party’s newspaper, Avanti!

1914

World War I begins; Italy remains neutral

Mussolini advocates intervention and is expelled from the Socialist party; he founds the newspaper, Il Popolo d’Italia

1915

Italy enters the war on the side of the Triple Entente: Great Britain, France, and Russia

1918

End of the War

1919

Mussolini founds the fascist movement in Milan

1922

March on Rome; King appoints Mussolini prime minister

1924

Murder of socialist deputy Giacomo Matteotti

1926

Mussolini establishes a one-party state

1926

Organization of the Balilla youth organization

1928

Cornerstone laid for the Foro Mussolini

Casa Madre dei Mutilati

Land reclamation of Agro Pontino begins

Ministry of the Navy

1929

Mussolini moves his office to the Palazzo Venezia

Ponte Littorio

 

Largo Argentina

1930

First stretch of Via del Mare opened; isolation of Theater of Marcellus

1931

Ministry of the Air Force

Widening of Via Navicella on Celio Hill

Piano Regolatore issued

1932

Opening of Parco Colle Oppio

Garibaldi celebrations: Garibaldian Exhibit, monument to Anita Garibaldi

Decennale, tenth anniversary of the March on Rome

Exhibition of the Fascist Revolution, the Mostra della Rivoluzione Fascista

Opening of the Via dell’Impero

Opening of obelisk and first buildings at Foro Mussolini

Monument and museum of the Bersagliere, Porta Pia

Ministry of Corporations

New town of Littoria in the Agro Pontino

1933

Via dei Trionfi

Opening of new school on Via Vetulonia

1934

Widening of Viale Aventino

New town of Sabaudia in the Agro Pontino

Post office at Ostia

Via del Circo Massimo and the clearing of the Circus Maximus

Four maps of the Roman Empire on Via dell’Impero

Mostra della Rivoluzione Fascista closes

New town of Pontinia in the Agro Pontino

Church of Cristo Re, Viale Mazzini

1935

Città Universitaria, University City

Post offices: Via Marmorata, Piazza Bologna, Via Taranto, Viale Mazzini

Gioventù Italiano del Littorio (GIL) building, Aventine Hill

1936

Conquest of Ethiopia and Declaration of the new empire

Rome-Berlin Axis

Spanish Civil War begins

Gioventù Italiana del Littorio (GIL) Building, Trastevere

Case delle Armi, Foro Mussolini

Via della Conciliazione project begins

Fifth map of the fascist empire on Via dell’Impero

Parco Traiano

1937

Cinecittà

Liceo Giulio Cesare

Groundbreaking for E’42

Mostra delle Colonie Estive, Circus Maximus

Second Mostra della Rivoluzione Fascista

Mostra Augustea della Romanità

Mussolini visits Germany

Addition to Casa Madre dei Mutilati

Obelisk of Axum

New town of Aprilia in the Agro Pontino

 

Mostra Tessile Nazionale, Circus Maximus

Stadio Olimpico, Foro Mussolini

1938

Groundbreaking for Casa Littoria, Foro Mussolini

Hitler annexes Austria

Stazione Ostiense

Hitler’s Visit to Rome

Work begins on the subway, the Metropolitana to E’42

Munich Conference

Work begins on Ponte XXVIII Ottobre

Office buildings on the Via del Mare

Mostra del Dopolavoro, Circus Maximus

Work begins on new Stazione Termini

Contest for Ministero dell’Africa Italiana

1939

Luce building

Mostra Autarchica del Minerale Italiano, Circus Maximus

Parco Cestio

Germany invades Poland; Italy remains neutral

1940

Italy enters the war

1942

Variante generale del Piano Regolatore

Ponte Principe Amedeo Savoia Aosta

Third version of Mostra della Rivoluzione Fascista

Battle of El Alamein

1943

Allies bomb Rome

Mussolini overthrown

Armistice; Germans occupy Rome

Germans rescue Mussolini

Organization of Repubblica Sociale Italiana, or “Salò Republic”

1944

Via Rasella action by resistance

Executions at Fosse Ardeatine

Allies liberate Rome

1945

Execution of Mussolini by partisans

War ends in Italy

1946

Referendum votes down monarchy

1948

New constitution, Italian Republic

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