This list covers only persons named, referred to, or quoted in the text of the Meditations itself.

AGRIPPA: Roman general; adviser and close associate of AUGUSTUS, whose daughter he married. (8.31)

ALCIPHRON: Not certainly identified, although the context makes it clear that he must be a contemporary of Marcus’s. He might be the Alciphron who authored a surviving collection of imaginary letters from courtesans, fishermen, etc., or a philosopher from Magnesia on the Maeander, quoted twice by the third-century antiquarian Athenaeus. (10.31)

ALEXANDER (1) “THE LITERARY CRITIC”: A Greek from Cotiaeum in Syria, teacher of the great orator Aelius Aristides, as well as Marcus. (1.10)

ALEXANDER (2) “THE PLATONIST”: A literary figure, mockingly dubbed Alexander Peloplaton (“The Play-Doh Plato”) by his rivals. He served as head of the Greek side of the imperial secretariat. (1.12)

ALEXANDER (3) “THE GREAT”: (356–323 B.C.), ruler of Macedon (336–323) who conquered much of the Near and Middle East before dying at the age of thirty-three. His career was a favorite topic for moralizers and rhetoricians. (3.3, 6.24, 8.3, 9.29, 10.27)

ANTISTHENES: Follower of SOCRATES and forerunner of the Cynic school (quoted 7.36).

ANTONINUS: Titus Aurelius Antoninus Pius, Roman emperor (138–161). He adopted Marcus in 138 at the age of sixteen (1.16, 1.17, 4.33, 6.30, 8.25, 9.21, 10.27). Marcus also refers to himself by this name (6.44).

APOLLONIUS: Apollonius of Chalcedon, Stoic philosopher and one of Marcus’s teachers. (1.8, 1.17)

ARCHIMEDES: Mathematician, scientist and engineer (c. 287–212 B.C.) from the Greek city of Syracuse in Sicily, known especially for his work on hydrostatics. (6.47)

AREIUS: Stoic philosopher prominent at the court of AUGUSTUS. (8.31)

ARISTOPHANES: Athenian comic playwright (c. 455–c. 386 B.C.). Eleven of his approximately forty comedies survive, and are characterized by fantastic plots, scatological dialogue, outrageous political satire, and elegant choral songs. (quoted 4.23, 7.66)

ASCLEPIUS: Greek god of medicine. (6.43; compare 5.8 and note)

ATHENODOTUS: A Stoic philosopher and teacher of FRONTO. (1.13)

AUGUSTUS: (63 B.C–A.D. 14). Born Gaius Octaviaus, great-nephew and adopted son of Julius CAESAR. He attained power following Caesar’s assassination and became sole ruler of the Roman world after defeating Caesar’s lieutenant Marcus Antonius at the battle of Actium in 31 B.C. Through his lieutenants AGRIPPA and MAECENAS he was responsible for major civic improvements and an active program of literary and artistic patronage. (4.33, 8.5, 8.31)

BACCHEIUS: Platonic philosopher. (1.6)

BENEDICTA: Unknown, but she and THEODOTUS were most likely household slaves. (1.17)

BRUTUS: Marcus Junius Brutus (85–42 B.C.), Roman aristocrat and politician who led the conspiracy to assassinate Julius CAESAR in 44 B.C. and committed suicide when the battle of Philippi ended hopes of restoring the Republic. (1.14)

CAEDICIANUS: Perhaps identical with a governor of Dacia in the 120s and 130s. (4.50)

CAESAR: Gaius Julius Caesar (100–44 B.C.), Roman politician and general who marched on Rome in 49 B.C., precipitating a civil war against forces loyal to POMPEY and the Senate. After the defeat of the Republican forces at the battle of Pharsalia and the murder of Pompey he was made dictator for life, but assassinated in 44 B.C. (3.3, 8.3)

CAESO: Unknown, though obviously a figure from Republican history.(4.33)

CAMILLUS: Marcus Furius Camillus, the (perhaps mythical) fourth-century B.C. general who saved Rome when it was under attack by invading Gauls. (4.33)

CATO (1): Marcus Porcius Cato “the Elder,” consul and censor in the second century B.C.; author of a surviving work on agriculture and a lost history. He was an emblem of Roman moral rectitude and rough virtue. (4.33)

CATO (2): Marcus Porcius Cato “the Younger” (95–46 B.C.), great-grandson of Cato (1), a senator and well-known Stoic in the late Republic. He fought on the Republican side against Julius CAESAR and committed suicide after the battle of Thapsus. He was immortalized in the poet Lucan’s epic The Civil War, and became an emblem of Stoic resistance to tyranny. (1.14)

CATULUS: Cinna Catulus is named, along with MAXIMUS, as a Stoic mentor of Marcus’s by the Historia Augusta, but nothing else is known of him. (1.13)

CECROPS: Legendary founder of Athens. (4.23)

CELER: Rhetorician who taught both Marcus and Lucius VERUS. (8.25)

CHABRIAS: Evidently an associate of HADRIAN (2), like DIOTIMUS, but not otherwise known. (8.37)

CHARAX: Perhaps Charax of Pergamum, a historian known from other sources to have been active in the second or third century. (8.25)

CHRYSIPPUS: Stoic philosopher (280–207 B.C.), succeeded Zeno and Cleanthes as leader of the school. His writings laid out the fundamental doctrines of early Stoicism. (6.42, 7.19)

CLOTHO: One of the three Fates of Greek mythology who are imagined as spinning or weaving human fortunes. (4.34)

CRATES: Cynic philosopher (c. 365–285 B.C.) and disciple of DIOGENES.(6.13)

CRITO: Most likely the physician Titus Statilius Crito, active under Trajan. (10.31)

CROESUS: Sixth-century king of Lydia, famous for his wealth and power until his kingdom fell to the Persians. (10.27)

DEMETER: Greek goddess of agriculture. (6.43)

DEMETRIUS (1) OF PHALERUM: Fourth-century B.C. philosopher, student of THEOPHRASTUS and governor of Athens under Macedonian rule.(9.29)

DEMETRIUS (2) THE PLATONIST: Probably not Demetrius (1), who was an adherent of the Peripatetic school, not a Platonist. A Cynic philosopher banished by VESPASIAN has also been suggested, but the reference is more likely to a contemporary figure now unknown. (8.25)

DEMOCRITUS: Pre-Socratic philosopher (c. 460–370 B.C.) best known for developing the theory of atoms later adopted by the Epicureans. (3.3; quoted 4.3, 4.24, 7.31a)

DENTATUS: Manius Curius Dentatus, third-century B.C. Roman general. (4.33)

DIOGENES: Greek philosopher (c. 400–c. 325 B.C.) and founder of the Cynic school, notable for his extreme ascetic lifestyle and contempt for social conventions. (8.3, 11.6)

DIOGNETUS: Marcus’s drawing teacher (according to the Historia Augusta), though the entry suggests that he played a greater role in Marcus’s development than this might suggest. (1.6)

DION: Sicilian aristocrat, a protégé of Plato, who saw in him a potential philosopher-king. (1.14)

DIOTIMUS: Evidently an associate of HADRIAN (2), not otherwise known.(8.25, 8.37)

DOMITIUS: Unidentified, perhaps a student of ATHENODOTUS. (1.13)

EMPEDOCLES: Fifth-century B.C. Greek philosopher and poet who regarded the natural world as the result of constant mingling and separating of four basic elements. (quoted 8.41, 12.3)

EPICTETUS: Stoic philosopher (c. 55–c. 135), a former slave from Phrygia who was among the most influential figures in later Stoicism. A record of his lectures and discussions (the Discourses) was published by his student Arrian, along with an abridged version (the Encheiridion, or “Handbook”). See also Introduction. (1.7, 7.19; quoted or paraphrased 4.41, 5.29, 7.63, 11.3334, 11.3638; cf. 4.49a and note)

EPICURUS: Greek philosopher (341–270 B.C.) and founder of one of the two great Hellenistic philosophical systems. Epicureans identified pleasure as the supreme good in life and viewed the world as a random conglomeration of atoms, not ruled by any larger providence. (quoted 7.64, 9.41; compare 11.26)

EPITYNCHANUS: Perhaps a slave or freedman of HADRIAN (2). (8.25)

EUDAEMON: Perhaps to be identified with a literary official prominent under Hadrian (2). (8.25)

EUDOXUS: Greek mathematician and astronomer active in the fourth century B.C. (6.47)

EUPHRATES: Perhaps the philosopher mentioned by Pliny the Younger (Letters1.10) and evidently close to HADRIAN (2), but he might be a later imperial official mentioned by Galen. (10.31)

EURIPIDES: Athenian playwright (480s–407/6 B.C.); some twenty of his tragedies are still extant. His plays were controversial in his lifetime, but in subsequent centuries he was among the most popular of Greek authors, thanks in large part to his quotability and accessible style. (quoted 7.38, 7.4042, 7.5051, 11.6)

EUTYCHES: Unknown; the comparison with SATYRON does not help us identify him. (10.31)

EUTYCHION: Not certainly identified, unless the name is a slip for the grammarian Eutychius Proculus. (10.31)

FABIUS: Unidentified, perhaps identical with FABIUS CATULLINUS. (4.50)

FABIUS CATULLINUS: Unknown. Perhaps to be identified with the FABIUS of 4.50. (12.27)

FAUSTINA: Wife of ANTONINUS Pius (8.25). Marcus married their daughter, also Faustina (1.17).

FRONTO: Marcus Cornelius Fronto (c. 95–c. 166), rhetorician from Cirta in North Africa, and a key figure in Marcus’s education. Portions of his letters to Marcus survive in two palimpsest manuscripts discovered in the early nineteenth century. (1.11)

HADRIAN (1): Prominent rhetorician; no relation to the emperor. (8.25)

HADRIAN (2): Roman emperor (117–138), best known for his travels and cultural interests; adopted ANTONINUS as his heir on the condition that the latter adopt Marcus and Lucius VERUS. (4.33, 8.5, 8.37, 10.27)

HELVIDIUS: Helvidius Priscus (died c. 75), son-in-law of THRASEA Paetus, exiled and later executed for his opposition to the emperor VESPASIAN. (1.14)

HERACLITUS: Pre-Socratic philosopher (active c. 500 B.C.) from the city of Ephesus, famous for his cryptic and paradoxical utterances. His exaltation of the logos as a cosmic power and his identification of fire as the primal substance were important influences on the Stoics (see also Introduction). According to the third-century A.D. biographer Diogenes Laertius, he died of dropsy, which he tried to cure by immersing himself in manure; this account is almost certainly a later fiction. (3.3, 6.47, 8.3; quoted or paraphrased 4.46, 6.42)

HIPPARCHUS: Second-century B.C. Greek astronomer. (6.47)

HIPPOCRATES: Greek doctor active in the fifth century B.C.; various medical writings are transmitted under his name, as is the Hippocratic Oath still administered to doctors. (3.3)

HYMEN: Unknown; the comparison with SATYRON does not help identify him. (10.31)

JULIAN: This may be a friend of FRONTO’S, Claudius Julianus, a proconsul of Asia at about this period. (4.50)

LEPIDUS: This might perhaps be the Roman aristocrat who briefly shared power with Marcus Antonius and the future emperor AUGUSTUS, but the context suggests an older contemporary of Marcus’s. (4.50)

LUCILLA: Marcus’s mother (d. 155/161). (1.3, 1.17, 8.25, 9.21)

LUSIUS LUPUS: Unknown. (12.27)

MAECENAS: Adviser and unofficial minister of culture to AUGUSTUS; patron of the poets Vergil and Horace, among others. (8.31) MARCIANUS: Unknown philosopher. (1.6)

MAXIMUS: Claudius Maximus. Roman consul in the early 140s. Governor of Upper Pannonia in the early 150s. Later in that decade he governed North Africa, where he served as judge in the trial of the novelist Apuleius for sorcery. (1.15, 1.16, 1.17, 8.25)

MENIPPUS: Cynic philosopher (early third century B.C.) from Gadara in Syria. He features as a character in many of the satirical dialogues of Lucian. (6.47)

MONIMUS: Fourth-century B.C. Cynic philosopher and student of DIOGENES. (2.15)

NERO: Roman emperor (54–68); his name was a byword for tyranny and cruelty. (3.16)

ORIGANION: Unknown; most likely an imperial slave or freedman. (6.47)

PANTHEIA: Mistress of Lucius VERUS, mentioned in several works by the satirist Lucian. (8.37)

PERDICCAS: King of Macedon (c. 450–413 B.C.). (11.25)

PERGAMOS: Evidently an associate of Lucius VERUS, perhaps a slave or lover. (8.37)

PHALARIS: Sixth-century B.C. dictator of Agrigento in Sicily, notorious for his cruelty. (3.16)

PHILIP: King of Macedon (359–336 B.C.) and father of ALEXANDER THE GREAT. (9.29, 10.27)

PHILISTION: Unknown, most likely an imperial slave or freedman, though a contemporary mime writer of this name is also known. (6.47)

PHOCION: Athenian general and statesman of the fourth century B.C. He was eventually sentenced to death for treason, and before his execution supposedly asked his son to forgive the Athenians for condemning him. (11.13)

PHOEBUS: Unknown, most likely an imperial slave or freedman. (6.47)

PLATO: Athenian philosopher (c. 429–347 B.C.), disciple of SOCRATES and author of philosophical dialogues in which the latter is portrayed debating with his disciples and other contemporary figures. The most famous of these is perhaps the Republic, in which he envisions an ideal society. (7.48, 9.29, 10.23; quoted 7.4446)

POMPEY: Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (106–48 B.C.), Roman politician and general who rose to power in the 60s on the basis of a series of successful campaigns in the East. His brief political alliance with Julius CAESAR gave way to mutual rivalry and suspicion. When Caesar’s march on Rome precipitated civil war in 49, Pompey led the senatorial resistance. Following his defeat at the battle of Pharsalus, he fled to Egypt, where he was murdered. (3.3, 8.3; family 8.31)

PYTHAGORAS: Greek mathematician, philosopher, and mystic of the late sixth century B.C. He founded a religious community in southern Italy whose members were known especially for their devotion to music and geometry. (6.47; compare 11.27)

RUSTICUS: Quintus Junius Rusticus, twice consul and city prefect of Rome in the mid-160s. His influence on Marcus is attested by the Historia Augusta, although the reference to him in 1.17 suggests that their relationship had its ups and downs. (1.7, 1.17)

SATYRON: Unknown, though evidently a contemporary of Marcus.(10.31)

SCIPIO: Either Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus (c. 235–183 B.C.), who defeated Hannibal in the Second Punic War, or his grandson by adoption, Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus (185/4–129 B.C.), the conqueror of Carthage in the Third Punic War. (4.33)

SECUNDA: Wife of MAXIMUS. (8.25)

SEVERUS (1): Lucius Catilius Severus, Marcus’s great-grandfather. (1.4)

SEVERUS (2): Gnaeus Claudius Severus Arabianus from Pompeiopolis in Asia Minor, consul in 146; his son (perhaps the Severus of 10.31) married one of Marcus’s daughters. He was an adherent of the Peripatetic school, which traced its heritage back to Aristotle. (1.14)

SEXTUS: Sextus of Chaeronea, Stoic philosopher, teacher of both Marcus and Lucius VERUS, and nephew of the great biographer and antiquarian Plutarch. (1.9)

SILVANUS: Perhaps Lamia Silvanus, a son-in-law of Marcus. (10.31)

SOCRATES: Athenian philosopher (469–399 B.C.), teacher of PLATO. He spent most of his life in his native city, and served with distinction in the Peloponnesian War against Sparta. Although associated with several members of the aristocratic junta that ruled Athens after its defeat in 404, he refused to participate in their atrocities. He was executed by the Athenians on a charge of impiety following the restoration of democracy; Plato’s Apology purports to give his speech at the trial. (1.16, 3.3, 3.6, 6.47, 7.19, 7.66, 8.3, 11.23, 11.25, 11.28, 11.39)

SOCRATICUS: Unknown; the comparison with SATYRON does not help identify him. (10.31)

STERTINIUS: Not certainly identified. Tacitus mentions an army officer of this name in the reign of Tiberius. But the reference to Baiae (a Roman resort on the Bay of Naples) suggests a more likely candidate a generation or so later: the wealthy Neapolitan physician Quintus Stertinius, mentioned by Pliny the Elder (Natural History 29.7). (12.27)

TANDASIS: Philosopher mentioned along with one Marcianus; neither is otherwise known. Some have suggested a scribe’s error for Basilides, listed among Marcus’s teachers by other sources. (1.6)

TELAUGES: Apparently a lesser disciple of SOCRATES, unless the reference is to the son of PYTHAGORAS by this name. (7.66)

THEODOTUS: Unknown, but he and BENEDICTA were most likely household slaves. (1.17)

THEOPHRASTUS: Philosopher (c. 371–c. 287 B.C.) who succeeded Aristotle as head of the Peripatetic school. (2.10)

THRASEA: Publius Clodius Thrasea Paetus (d. 66), Roman aristocrat (consul 56) and father-in-law of HELVIDIUS Priscus. His opposition to the regime of NERO (by whom he was eventually forced to commit suicide) was informed by Stoic philosophy and in particular by the example of the younger CATO (2), of whom he wrote a biography.(1.14)

TIBERIUS: Roman emperor (14–37) who succeeded AUGUSTUS. Late in his reign he withdrew to a private estate on the island of Capri; his alleged excesses there are recorded in the biography of him by Suetonius. (12.27)

TRAJAN: Marcus Ulpius Traianus, Roman general and emperor (98–117).(4.32)

TROPAEOPHORUS: Perhaps a contemporary senator named in an inscription from Perinthus. (10.31)

VELIUS RUFUS: Addressee of one of FRONTO’S letters, but otherwise unknown. (12.27)

VERUS (1): Marcus Annius Verus (d. 138), grandfather of Marcus. He was three times consul (the last two in 121 and 126); he also served as city prefect of Rome about this time. After the death of his wife he evidently took a concubine who helped raise Marcus. (1.1, 1.17, 9.21)

VERUS (2): Marcus Annius Verus, father of Marcus and husband of LUCILLA. He died sometime between 130 and 135. (1.2, 8.25)

VERUS (3): Lucius Aurelius Verus (130–169), son of HADRIAN (2)’s intended successor, Lucius Aelius. Originally named Lucius Ceionius Commodus, he was adopted along with Marcus by Antoninus Pius and on Antoninus’s death became co-emperor with Marcus. He was entrusted with the conduct of the Parthian War, and campaigned with Marcus on the northern frontier before his sudden death on the way back to Rome. (1.17, 8.37)

VESPASIAN: Roman emperor (69–79). His reign represented a period of stability after the power struggle that followed the death of NERO, but he came into conflict with some members of the senatorial class, notably the Stoic HELVIDIUS Priscus. (4.32)

VOLESUS: Traditional surname in the Valerius clan, which produced a number of figures prominent in early historical accounts. Which one Marcus has in mind is uncertain. (4.33)

XANTHIPPE: Wife of SOCRATES and proverbially a shrew. (11.28)

XENOCRATES: Platonic philosopher and head of the Academy at the end of the fourth century B.C. (6.13)

XENOPHON: Probably a contemporary doctor mentioned by Galen.(10.31)

ZEUS: Sky god and head of the Greek pantheon; Marcus refers to him only rarely and normally prefers a vaguer formulation such as “God” or “the gods.” (4.23, 5.7, 5.8, 11.8)

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