This part shows how struggle gave birth to strong rule which gave way to struggle which gave way to .... You get the idea. Napoleon seized power after the French Revolution and almost conquered Europe. After Europe’s armies and the Russian winter finally defeated him, the leaders of Europe reinstated strict controls. Oppressed peoples struggled to revolt and create nations where they had some input, but the revolutions were shortlived. Brilliant politicians also harnessed that desire for nation status to create two modern nations, Italy and Germany. Competition increased among the European powers and that competition led to imperialism, entangling alliances, and plenty of tension. The rise of machines both simplified and complicated lives, resulting in an industrialized continent with new, work- related challenges. Socialists attempted to address these issues and, as a result, socialist thought would dominate Europe for the next 200 years.