Exam preparation materials

Part V: Practice Tests

12 Practice Test 1

13 Answers and Explanations for Practice Test 1

14 Practice Test 2

15 Answers and Explanations for Practice Test 2


Practice, practice, practice! Now that you have reviewed the high points of world history and learned some strategies for cracking each type of question on the AP World History Exam, it’s time to put your knowledge into action. The final step to being totally prepared for your AP exam is to do some trial runs.

Part V of this book comprises two full-length practice tests and explanations for each of the multiple-choice sections. During the weeks leading up to your exam, set aside time to take each of these practice tests (not on the same night, of course). Try to simulate real testing conditions. Once you have completed a practice test, go back over it and use the explanations for further review. Also, ask a classmate to score your essays using the scoring rubrics contained in Chapters 3 and 4.

While you cannot convert your raw score to a score on the 1 to 5 scale, remember our rough guidelines for making sure you are on track.

AP World History Raw Score Goals to Get a 3 or Above


Raw Score Points


50 or more


7 or above

Change-Over-Time Essay

6 or above

Comparative Essay

6 or above

Good luck!

Chapter 12. Practice Test 1 

SECTION I: Multiple-Choice Questions


At a Glance

Total Time

55 minutes

Number of Questions 70

Percent of Total Grade 50%

Writing Instrument

Pencil required


Section I of this examination contains 70 multiple-choice questions. Fill in only the ovals for numbers 1 through 70 on your answer sheet.

Indicate all of your answers to the multiple-choice questions on the answer sheet. No credit will be given for anything written in this exam booklet, but you may use the booklet for notes or scratch work. After you have decided which of the suggested answers is best, completely fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet. Give only one answer to each question. If you change an answer, be sure that the previous mark is erased completely. Here is a sample question and answer.

Sample Question

Chicago is a

(A) state

(B) city

(C) country

(D) continent

Sample Answer

Use your time effectively, working as quickly as you can without losing accuracy. Do not spend too much time on any one question. Go on to other questions and come back to the ones you have not answered if you have time. It is not expected that everyone will know the answers to all the multiple-choice questions.

About Guessing

Many candidates wonder whether or not to guess the answers to questions about which they are not certain. Multiple choice scores are based on the number of questions answered correctly. Points are not deducted for incorrect answers, and no points are awarded for unanswered questions. Because points are not deducted for incorrect answers, you are encouraged to answer all multiple-choice questions. On any questions you do not know the answer to, you should eliminate as many choices as you can, and then select the best answer among the remaining choices.



Time—55 minutes

70 Questions

Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by four suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in each case and then fill in the corresponding oval on the answer sheet.

Note: This examination uses the chronological designations B.C.E. (before the common era) and C.E. (common era). These labels correspond to b.c. (before Christ) and a.d. (anno Domini), which are used in some world history textbooks.

1. Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of all early civilizations?

(A) Written communication

(B) Agricultural surplus

(C) Some economic specialization

(D) Water resources

2. “The books of those heresiarchs ... are absolutely forbidden. The books of other heretics, however, which deal professedly with religion are absolutely condemned. Those on the other hand, which do not deal with religion ... are permitted. Likewise, Catholic books written by those who afterward fell into heresy ... may be permitted ...”

Source: Internet Modern History Sourcebook, Council of Trent, “Rules on Prohibited Books.”

Why was the above ruling issued by the Council of Trent in 1545?

(A) It was a response to the scientific advances made by Copernicus and Galileo.

(B) It was part of the reforms to Roman Catholicism called for by Luther and Calvin.

(C) It was part of the strict behavioral code endorsed by Calvinists.

(D) It was an attempt during the Catholic Reformation to respond to Protestantism.

3. Which of these were considered the Gunpowder Empires in the Islamic world?

(A) Ming China, Mughal India, Seljuk Turks

(B) Tokugawa Shogunate, Ming China, Yuan China

(C) Ottoman Turkey, Delhi Sultanate, Khmer Cambodia

(D) Safavid Persia, Ottoman Turkey, Mughal India

4. All of the following were features of the civilizations in Mesopotamia, Mesoamerica, the Indus River Valley, and the Yellow River Valley EXCEPT

(A) a degree of craft specialization

(B) development of irrigation systems

(C) construction of architectural monuments

(D) religious systems that included sacrifice rituals

5. Which of the following statements about the rule of Peter the Great is accurate?

(A) Under Peter the Great, Russia became a strong military nation but failed to modernize or industrialize.

(B) Peter the Great was able to build a strong, centralized government based on militaristic principles.

(C) The lives of ordinary Russian citizens were greatly improved as a result of the Western influences imported by Peter the Great.

(D) Peter the Great was considered the first enlightened despot in the history of Russia.

6. During the Victorian Age, the British Empire included all of the following possessions EXCEPT

(A) United States

(B) New Zealand

(C) South Africa

(D) India

7. Which of the following terms is NOT associated with the Cold War?

(A) Brinkmanship

(B) Peaceful coexistence

(C) Mutual assured destruction

(D) Appeasement

8. A major difference between Spanish and French colonization efforts was

(A) only the Spanish were interested in resource extraction in their colonies

(B) while Spain sent expeditions around the world, French exploration was limited to North America

(C) the French did not form as many permanent settlements in their colonies as the Spanish

(D) the French were less successful than the Spanish at religious conversion of people in their colonies

9. One major difference between European and Japanese feudalism during the Middle Ages was that

(A) there was no Japanese equivalent to the position of the European lord

(B) European feudalism was far more militaristic than Japanese feudalism

(C) while Japanese emperors maintained power during feudalism, European kings were symbolic leaders only

(D) there were far fewer agricultural workers in the Japanese feudal system than in the European system

10. The Glorious Revolution was unique because it

(A) was the first time England had seen a leader deposed

(B) was the first instance of the removal of a sitting monarch

(C) resulted in Europe’s first completely secular government

(D) did not involve a significant amount of violence

11. The globalization of American culture has resulted in

(A) anti-Western backlash in some developing nations

(B) increased access to health care and education

(C) additional tariffs on American-made goods

(D) more cultural tolerance around the world

12. The major impact of the Delhi Sultanate on India was the

(A) introduction of a new religion into Indian culture

(B) decline in importance of sub-Saharan trade routes

(C) elimination of the caste system

(D) decline in importance of overland trade routes

13. As a result of Bismarck’s Berlin Congress’ plan to partition Africa

(A) Germany controlled a substantial portion of Africa

(B) the United States entered the scramble for Africa

(C) the slave trade with Europe, North America, and South America was halted

(D) only two African nations remained free at the beginning of the twentieth century

14. The ability of nations to industrialize required all of the following conditions EXCEPT

(A) a reliable source of fuel

(B) surplus population

(C) improved farming techniques

(D) a network of colonies

15. In which of the following ways was the Hindu Upanishad movement similar to the Protestant Reformation?

(A) Neither was considered a significant threat to the established religion and its authorities.

(B) Over time, both became more concerned with rituals and dogma than with individualistic expression.

(C) Neither involved episodes of violence.

(D) A factor behind both movements was the perceived exploitation of power by religious leaders.

16. The Four Noble Truths are associated with

(A) Buddhism

(B) Legalism

(C) Judaism

(D) Islam

17. Which of the following is an accurate characterization of both the Incan and Yuan dynasties?

(A) Both civilizations developed strict social class hierarchies, in which upward mobility was difficult.

(B) Peasant uprisings were responsible for the establishment of both civilizations.

(C) Both the Yuan and the Inca depended on trade as their primary economic activity.

(D) Both civilizations flourished under the control of outside invaders.

18. The movement to industrialize Russia was most dependent on

(A) emancipating serfs to provide a substantial labor pool for industry

(B) becoming more active in colonizing other lands to obtain raw materials and develop new markets

(C) importing coal and other fuel sources plus the equipment necessary to build manufacturing factories

(D) developing a capitalistic system with laissez-faire and free market economic policies

19. Which of the following was NOT a result of the Black Death?

(A) Labor shortages in agriculture and industry in England

(B) Population decline in China

(C) Scarcity of goods throughout Europe

(D) Rise of feudalism in western Europe

20. During the latter half of the 20th century, wealth and prosperity began to emerge in the Middle East. This was largely due to which of the following?

(A) An Industrial Revolution in the region

(B) Political reform among the Middle Eastern states

(C) Large scale production of oil and petroleum products

(D) Religious reform among the Middle Eastern states

Population Pyramids for Botswana 2000-2050

Population Pyramids for Botswana 2000-2050

21. In the chart above, the reason for the predicted population decline between 2000 and 2050 could be attributed to any of the following reasons EXCEPT

(A) increased use of birth control and reproductive planning

(B) increased economic development activities

(C) more women entering the workforce

(D) better access to medical care

22. The Mongol Empire was divided into four Khanates, which governed all of the following lands EXCEPT

(A) Russia

(B) Persia

(C) Japan

(D) Ukraine

23. Which of the following is an accurate statement about the Heian period in Japan in the ninth century?

(A) The Heian period was a time of exploration and conquest for Japan.

(B) The focus of Heian civilization was on cultural independence.

(C) Mongol invaders, under the rule of Ghengis Khan, ruled Japan during the Heian period.

(D) Shintoism was replaced by Confucianism in Japan during the Heian period.

24. The changes brought about by the Council of Trent did NOT include

(A) outlawing the sale of indulgences

(B) the commissioning of art and architecture

(C) the rejection of predestination

(D) less emphasis on saints in religious ceremonies

25. “The capacities of women are supposed to be greater, and their senses quicker than those of the men; and what they might be capable of being bred to, is plain from some instances of female wit, which this age is not without.”

Source: Daniel Dafoe, On the Education of Women, 1719

The author of this passage would agree most with which of these statements?

(A) Because of their ability, women are stronger than men.

(B) It is acceptable for women to display humor in public.

(C) The intelligence of women is hypothetical only and not supported by evidence.

(D) With the proper education, women have the ability to be as smart as men.

26. All of the following contributed to the participation of much of the modern world in World War I EXCEPT

(A) Most of the world had either than be colonized or formerly colonized by Europe.

(B) Alliances had been established to maintain the balance of power in Europe.

(C) The Industrial Revolution resulted in new advances in technology, which allowed for more weapons and means of transporting them.

(D) Most of the monarchs of Europe were now genetically related to one another.

27. In order to hold onto their territory, the Ottomans instituted the Tanzimat Reforms, which included

(A) access to western education

(B) universal suffrage

(C) nationalization of private industries

(D) emancipation of slaves

28. Which of the following statements is NOT true about Akbar the Great?

(A) Despite gaining power through military might, he was known for being a benevolent ruler.

(B) He expanded Mughal control over all of north India.

(C) He tried to establish a new religion, Divine Faith, to unite Muslim, Hindu, and Christian tenets.

(D) He constructed the Taj Mahal as a Muslim holy place.

29. The Magna Carta

(A) created a system of common law in Anglo-Saxon England

(B) established a Model Parliament with advisory powers

(C) eliminated heredity as a requirement to hold the throne

(D) did little to stop the growth of centralized government in England

30. Both Gandhi and Mao Zedong

(A) agreed on the desirability of effecting change nonviolently

(B) worked to reform the social order in their respective nations

(C) believed that change must begin at the level of the individual and would involve a spiritual component

(D) believed in unity among different religious groups

31. One similarity between the Vikings and the Mamluks was

(A) both groups had been slaves in the lands they eventually conquered

(B) neither group was able to move into western Europe

(C) both groups converted to the dominant religion of the land that they conquered

(D) both groups were known for their seafaring prowess

32. A similarity between Song China and the Italian states was that

(A) both were able to support numerous large cities

(B) neither had a strong, centralized government

(C) both had strong secular and religious leaders

(D) neither was home to a major religious movement

33. Which of the following is an accurate example of Hellenism?

(A) The adoption of gothic architecture in India

(B) Constructing buildings and monuments in stone in southwest Asia

(C) The spread of monotheism through central Eurasia and the Far East

(D) The expansion of international trade into northern Africa and western Mediterranean lands

34. Monasticism is a characteristic of which of the following religions?

(A) Judaism

(B) Hinduism

(C) Confucianism

(D) Catholicism

Good-by. You Certainly Have Been Good to Me.

Good-by. You Certainly Have Been Good to Me.

35. Which of the following statements is an accurate interpretation of this political cartoon?

(A) Labor unions could not have arisen in the nineteenth century without specific economic and social policies and problems.

(B) The workplace problems that gave rise to labor unions in the 1800s had mostly been remedied by the end of the century.

(C) By the end of the nineteenth century, labor union membership was declining.

(D) Labor union leaders were anxious for the start of the twentieth century.

36. Which of the following statements about neo-Confucianism is NOT correct?

(A) Additional restrictions were placed on the power of the merchant class.

(B) It gained prominence not only in China but also in Korea and Japan.

(C) It synthesized elements of Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism.

(D) Loyalty to government became more important than familial ties.

37. What was the Cuban Missile Crisis?

(A) The seizure of Soviet missiles by Cuban forces loyal to Fidel Castro that were used as leverage to broker monetary support from the United States.

(B) Standoff between Soviet and American forces over the placement of missiles on the shores of Soviet-backed Cuba.

(C) The accidental launch of Soviet missiles deployed in Cuba into the waters off the coast of Key West in Florida.

(D) A period of political instability caused by warfare between Cuba and Haiti.

38. Which of the following statements about Spanish colonies in the New World is accurate?

(A) The Spanish did not engage in mercantilism with their colonies.

(B) Spanish immigration to colonies in Central and South America was low.

(C) The main economic contribution of Spain’s colonies came from gold and salt.

(D) Sugarcane production was the primary economic activity in Spanish colonies.

39. Which of the following is accurate about the T’ang Dynasty and the Byzantine Empire?

(A) While the Byzantine Empire had a large urban center, the T’ang Dynasty was more decentralized with small towns along trading routes.

(B) Both of their governments consisted of bureaucrats who received a standardized education.

(C) There was considerable overlap between church and state both in governmental affairs and everyday life in both societies.

(D) Silk weaving was the major industry only in the T’ang Dynasty.

40. Which of the following is NOT an accurate statement about the Middle East in the late twentieth century?

(A) The discovery of new sources of petroleum diluted the political power and military importance of OPEC member nations.

(B) A resurgence of religious fundamentalism was responsible for the political revolutions in a number of nations, such as Iran.

(C) There was increased tension between efforts to modernize and basic tenets of Islamic law and practice.

(D) Nationalistic extremism was responsible for genocide and civil war in numerous nations.

41. Marxism found few supporters in the late nineteenth century in Europe because

(A) working conditions in factories improved due to union demands

(B) the middle class gained additional political representation

(C) improvements in farming technology increased crop yields

(D) union organizing was outlawed in a majority of industries

42. Which of the following statements about Sun Yat-sen is accurate?

(A) The People’s Republic of China founded by Sun Yat-sen was based on a Five Year Plan for economic growth.

(B) The Chinese Republic was successful in expelling the British from China and creating an economically and politically strong nation.

(C) One of Sun Yat-sen’s first tasks as ruler was to purge communists from high-ranking government positions.

(D) Sun Yat-sen was the first leader of China who was neither a foreign invader nor part of an imperial dynasty.

43. Which of the following statements about the Code of Hammurabi and the Justinian Code are accurate?

(A) Both sets of laws derived their core philosophies from the Bible.

(B) The importance of each was that they attempted to organize laws in ways that people could understand.

(C) While the Justinian Code contained harsh provisions for those convicted of crimes, the Code of Hammurabi was less punitive.

(D) Neither Code applied to women, foreigners, peasants, or slaves.

44. Which of these factors played the greatest role in European interest in South Africa in the late 1800s?

(A) The need for additional sources of African slaves

(B) The desire for new markets for European goods

(C) The discovery of precious metal resources

(D) Political turmoil along northern European trade routes

45. “It is the highest impertinence and presumption, therefore, in kings and ministers, to pretend to watch over the economy of private people, and to restrain their expense, either by sumptuary laws, or by prohibiting the importation of foreign luxuries.”

Source: Adam Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, 1775.

The author of this quotation would most likely agree with which of the following governmental programs?

(A) Increased tariffs on imported items

(B) Laissez-faire economic policies

(C) Institution of social welfare systems

(D) Minimum wage laws for unionized workers

46. The image above depicts James Watt’s improved steam engine. The steam engine was significant because it provided a mechanical system to generate power. All of the following technologies benefited from the invention of the steam engine EXCEPT

(A) Invention of railway locomotives

(B) Design of turbines

(C) Engineering of steamboats

(D) Invention of the cotton gin

47. The European event that had the most direct impact on the growth of civilizations such as Mali and Ghana was the

(A) split between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches

(B) revival of the Silk Route during the rule of Kublai Khan

(C) Slav migration into the Balkans and Greece

(D) establishment of a money-based economy with minted coins

48. Before World War II, both Japan and Germany

(A) withdrew from the League of Nations over land disputes

(B) embraced social reform movements such as universal suffrage

(C) rebuilt their economies from the impacts of the Great Depression and significant war debts

(D) had been penalized for their roles in World War I

49. The encomienda system in Spanish colonies was most similar to

(A) mercantilism

(B) feudalism

(C) a corporate colony

(D) chattel slavery

50. Which of the following was NOT a direct outcome of the Reconquista?

(A) Spanish invasion of northern Africa and southern Italy

(B) Sometimes-violent persecution of other religions

(C) Creation of small, independent states within Spain

(D) A civil war over succession to the throne

51. In which of these societies were merchants and traders placed in a lower social class than farmers and artisans?

(A) Han China

(B) Tudor England

(C) Japan

(D) Rome

52. Which of the following is a major difference between the classic periods in Rome and the Islamic civilizations?

(A) While Roman society had strict social class delineations and little mobility, Islam was egalitarian with few barriers to social mobility.

(B) The Islamic civilization was more dependent on agriculture and therefore more susceptible to fluctuations in food supply.

(C) While the Roman Empire fell as a result of internal warfare over succession to the throne, Islamic dynasties faced few internal divisions.

(D) Islamic scientific thought and art forms borrowed heavily from Hellenistic sources, while Rome’s scientific, philosophical, and artistic advancements were unique to its culture.

53. After the Peloponnesian War, the Macedonians took control of Greece and spread Greek culture throughout much of the known world under the leadership of

(A) Alexander the Great

(B) Julius Caesar

(C) Pericles

(D) Socrates

54. Which of the following is NOT a correct generalization about Islamic societies between 1500 and 1700?

(A) There was no intellectual movement corresponding to the Renaissance and Islamic political and scientific progress lagged behind the Europeans.

(B) Economic depression and government corruption led to the weakening of many Islamic states during the sixteenth century.

(C) The Ottoman Empire, Safavid Turks, and Mughal India were linked by their common faith in Islam, as well as by historic trade routes.

(D) By the late 1700s, Islamic influence had ended everywhere except in North Africa.

55. Which of the following decisions ultimately led to Napoleon’s downfall in his attempt to conquer Europe?

(A) Orchestrating the sale of the Louisiana Purchase to the United States

(B) Crowning himself emperor in 1804

(C) Attempting to conquer Russia

(D) Attempting to conquer the Iberian peninsula

56. Which of the following is an accurate statement about modern sub-Saharan independence movements?

(A) In most nations, cultural and ethnic harmony was achieved when imperialism ended.

(B) In a majority of new nations, European whites dominated the governmental system.

(C) The process of gaining independence was easier in nations that did not have a large European minority.

(D) Substantial foreign investment helped the transition from colony to independent nation.

57. Which of the following was an impact of the theory of Social Darwinism?

(A) Industrialization led to worker revolts.

(B) Rulers were obligated to protect their citizens.

(C) Europeans justified their domination of colonized people.

(D) Science was viewed as more important than religious belief.

58. Which of the following did NOT happen in China during the Ming Dynasty?

(A) China was no longer under the control of Mongol leaders.

(B) Contact with other nations increased with the creation of a Chinese navy.

(C) Buddhism became the official state religion of China.

(D) Chinese foreign policy was based on collecting tribute instead of waging war.

59. Which of the following was an impact of modernization efforts in Egypt during the twentieth century?

(A) Egypt accumulated tremendous debt to European nations such as England and France.

(B) A Western-style democratic government was installed, although voting rights were not extended to women.

(C) A liberalization movement among the working and middle class began to remove Muhammad Ali from power.

(D) State-built infrastructure and public investment in industrialization enabled Egypt to withstand European imperialism.

60. The Chinese Communist Party adapted Marxist communism to

(A) accommodate a large peasant population

(B) allow for capitalistic economic programs

(C) prevent Russian-style education programs

(D) justify imperialistic policies in Japan, Taiwan, and Mongolia

61. In the Zhou dynasty, the Mandate of Heaven meant that rulers

(A) were allowed to keep their power if they ruled justly and wisely

(B) were appointed by Buddhist leaders

(C) rulers were required to make human sacrifices in order to keep their power

(D) were encouraged to spread Buddhism through the building of monasteries

62. Which of the following is the best explanation of this political cartoon?

(A) While the Marshall Plan was aimed at military assistance, the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) was directed at agricultural production.

(B) Marshall Plan participants were “imprisoned” by their association with Western political interests.

(C) Stalin could not offer farmers in Russia and its satellite states the level of technology offered by the Marshall Plan.

(D) Critics were unhappy with both the cost and the disappointing results of the Marshall Plan.

63. Which of the following is an accurate statement about Islamic art and architecture?

(A) Islamic art focused on abstract geometric patterns and ornate calligraphy in Arabic.

(B) Elaborate miniatures of historical figures and historical battles were created during the Abbasid and Umayyad Dynasties.

(C) The most important architectural contributions were elaborate pyramids and sculptures.

(D) Most Islamic art forms were derived from classic Greek and Roman examples.

64. In China, Confucianism emphasized the idea that

(A) equality should exist among all members of society

(B) salvation could be attained by prayer, meditation, and good deeds

(C) individual goals should be placed ahead of the needs of the group

(D) harmony could be achieved by the proper behavior of each member of the family or society

65. During the late 19th century, which of the following was built which played a key role in reshaping trade and shipping routes?

(A) Panama Canal

(B) Erie Canal

(C) Suez Canal

(D) Trans-Siberian Railway

66. The most direct result of the Protestant Reformation was

(A) Christianity spread into the Ottoman Empire and Southeast Asia

(B) the printing press was invented

(C) interest in the arts and scientific inquiry increased

(D) literacy rates across Europe rose

67. The Second Age of Islamic conquest, which began in the 1200’s, was a result of

(A) the translation of the Qu’ran into the vernacular that allowed Islam to move farther into Africa and Europe

(B) a period of peace and prosperity that enabled Islamic trade routes to spread farther north and west

(C) the Crusades and other invasions that led to the formation of new militaristic dynasties

(D) disorganization among western European nations that allowed for further Islamic empire-building

68. In which of these colonies did a private company have political authority?

(A) India

(B) Brazil

(C) Cuba

(D) Benin

European Railroads 1840-1900

European Railroads 1840-1900

European Railroads 1840-1900

69. Based on the information in the above chart, which of the following conclusions is accurate?

(A) Eastern Europe lagged behind western Europe in the development of national railroad systems.

(B) There were approximately the same number of people living in Germany in 1900 as in Russia.

(C) Russia’s Industrial Revolution occurred later than Great Britain’s.

(D) The greatest proportionate growth in miles of rail occurred in Germany between 1880 and 1900.

70. Which of the following was part of the Allied powers during WWI and Axis powers during WWII?

(A) Germany

(B) Japan

(C) France

(D) Turkey



You will have 10 minutes to read the contents of this green insert. You are advised to spend most of the 10 minutes analyzing the documents and planning your answer for the document-based question essay in Part A. You may make notes in this green insert. At the end of the 10-minute period, you will be told to break the seal on the pink free- response booklet and to begin writing your answers on the lined pages of the booklet. Do not break the seal on the pink booklet until you are told to do so. Suggested writing time is 40 minutes for the document-based essay question in Part A and 40 minutes for each of the essay questions in Part B and Part C.


Write your answers in the pink booklet with a pen. The green insert may be used for reference and/or scratchwork as you answer the free-response questions, but no credit will be given for the work shown in the green insert.




Part A

(Suggested writing time—40 minutes)

Percent of Section II score—33 1/3

Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Documents 1-7. (The documents have been edited for the purpose of this exercise.) Write your answer on the lined pages of the Section II free-response booklet.

This question is designed to test your ability to work with and understand historical documents. Write an essay that:

• Has a relevant thesis and supports that thesis with evidence from the documents.

• Uses all of the documents.

• Analyzes the documents by grouping them in as many appropriate ways as possible. Does not simply summarize the documents individually.

• Takes into account both the sources of the documents and the authors’ points of view.

• Explains the need for one type of additional document.

You may refer to relevant historical information not mentioned in the documents.

1. Using the following documents, discuss the barriers women have faced for more equal treatment in society. Consider the goals and methods of such campaigns. What additional kinds of documents would be useful in attempting to answer these questions?

Document 1

Source: Anna Manning Comfort, The Public 2, 1899.

Home Burdens of Uncle Sam

“Take up the white man’s burden” -

The Negro, once our slave!

Boast lightly of his freedom,

This problem still is grave.

We scoff and shoot and lynch him,

And yet, because he’s black,

We shove him out of office

And crowd him off the track.

“Take up the white man’s burden” -

Yes, one of them is sex.

Enslaved are your brave women,

No ballot, while you tax!

Your labors and your conflicts,

Columbia’s daughters share,

Yet still denied the franchise,

Quick give! be just! deal fair!

Document 2

Source: From the Women's Charter, adopted at the Founding Conference of the Federation of South African Women, Johannesburg, 1954.

This organisation is formed for the purpose of uniting women in common action for the removal of all political, legal, economic, and social disabilities. We shall strive for women to obtain:

1. The right to vote and to be elected to all State bodies, without restriction or discrimination.

2. The right to full opportunities for employment with equal pay and possibilities of promotion in all spheres of work.

3. Equal rights with men in relation to property, marriage and children, and for the removal of all laws and customs that deny women such equal rights.

4. For the development of every child through free compulsory education for all; for the protection of mother and child through maternity homes, welfare clinics, crèches and nursery schools, in countryside and towns; through proper homes for all, and through the provision of water, light, transport, sanitation, and other amenities of modern civilisation.

5. For the removal of all laws that restrict free movement, that prevent or hinder the right of free association and activity in democratic organizations, and the right to participate in the work of these organisations.

6. To build and strengthen women’s sections in the National Liberatory movements, the organisation of women in trade unions, and through the peoples’ varied organisation.

7. To cooperate with all other organisations that have similar aims in South Africa as well as throughout the world.

8. To strive for permanent peace throughout the world.

Document 3

Source: Livy, a Roman Historian, wrote the following description of the women’s demonstration supporting the repeal of the Oppian Law, 195 B.C.E., which limited women’s use of expensive goods.

The matrons, whom neither counsel nor shame nor their husbands’ orders could keep at home, blockaded every street in the city and every entrance to the Forum. As the men came down to the Forum, the matrons besought them to let them, too, have back the luxuries they had enjoyed before, giving as their reason that the republic was thriving and that everyone’s private wealth was increasing with every day. This crowd of women was growing daily, for now they were even gathering from the towns and villages. Before long they dared go up and solicit consuls, praetors and other magistrates.

When the speeches for and against the law had been made, a considerably larger crowd of women poured forth in public the next day; as a single body they besieged the doors of the tribunes, who were vetoing their colleagues’ motion, and they did not stop until the tribunes took back their veto. After that there was no doubt that all the tribes would repeal the law.

Document 4

Source: Ban Zhao, leading female Confucian and imperial historian under Emperor Han Hedi, from Lessons for a Woman, an instructional manual in feminine behavior, c. 100 C.E.

Whenever the mother-in-law says, “Do not do that,” and if what she says is right, unquestionably the daughter-in-law obeys. Whenever the mother-in-law says, “Do that,” even if what she says is wrong, still the daughter-in-law submits unfailingly to the command. Let a woman act not contrary to the wishes and the opinions of the parents-in-law about right and wrong; let her not dispute with them what is straight and what is crooked. Such docility may be called obedience which sacrifices personal opinion. “A Pattern for Women” says: “If a daughter-in-law who follows the wishes of her parents-in-law is like an echo and shadow, how could she not be praised?”

Document 5

Source: The Plight of Women's Work in the Early Industrial Revolution in England and Wales, evidence taken by Children’s Employment Commission, 1841.

Miss—has been for several years in the dress-making business. The common hours of business are from 8 a.m. ’til 11. p.m. in the winters; in the summer from 6 or half past 6 a.m. ’til 12 at night. During the fashionable season, that is from April ’til the later end of July, it frequently happens that the ordinary hours are greatly exceeded; if there is a drawing room or grand fete, or mourning to be made, it often happens that the work goes on for 20 hours out of the 24, occasionally all night.... The general result of the long hours and sedentary occupation is to impair seriously and very frequently to destroy the health of the young women. The digestion especially suffers, and also the lungs: pain to the side is very common, and the hands and feet die away from want of circulation and exercise.

Miss—is sure that there are some thousands of young women employed in the business in London and in the country. If one vacancy were to occur now there would be 20 applicants for it. Thinks that no men could endure the work enforced from the dress-makers.

Document 6

Source: Aung San Suu Kyi, Nobel Prize Laureate, excerpts from keynote address at APC Conference, 1995.

For millennia women have dedicated themselves almost exclusively to the task of nurturing, protecting, and caring for the young and old, striving for the conditions of peace that favour life as a whole. To this can be added the fact that, to the best of my knowledge, no war was ever started by women. But it is women and children who have always suffered most in situations of conflict. Now that we are gaining control of the primary historical role imposed on us of sustaining life in the context of the home and family, it is time to apply in the arena of the world the wisdom and experience thus gained in activities of peace over so many thousands of years. The education and empowerment of women throughout the world cannot fail to result in a more caring, tolerant, just, and peaceful life for all.

Document 7

Source: Raja Rammohan Roy, A Second Conference Between an Advocate for, and an Opponent of the Practice of Burning Widows Alive, 1820.


I alluded ... to the real reason for our anxiety to persuade widows to follow their husbands, and for our endeavors to burn them pressed down with ropes: viz., that women are by nature of inferior understanding, without resolution, unworthy of trust, subject to passions, And void of virtuous knowledge; they, according to the precepts of the Sastra, are not allowed to marry again after the demise of their husbands, and consequently despair at once of all worldly pleasure; hence it is evident, that death to these unfortunate widows is preferable to existence; for the great difficulty which a widow may experience by living a purely ascetic life, as prescribed by the Sastras, is obvious; may bring disgrace upon her paternal and maternal relations, and those that may be connected with her husband. Under these circumstances, we instruct them from their early life in the idea of the beatitude of their relations, both by birth and marriage, and their reputation in this world. From this many of them, on the death of their husbands, become desirous of accompanying them; but to remove every chance of their trying to escape from the blazing fire, in the burning them we first tie them down to the pile.




Part B

(Suggested planning and writing time—40 minutes)

Percent of Section II score—33 1/3

Directions: You are to answer the following question. You should spend 5 minutes organizing or outlining your essay. Write an essay that:

• Has a relevant thesis and supports that thesis with appropriate historical evidence.

• Addresses all parts of the question.

• Uses historical context to show change over time and/or continuities.

• Analyzes the process of change and/or continuity over time.

2. Discuss how technological changes since 1750 have had an impact on family structure in one of the following nations. Be sure to include continuities as well as changes.




Great Britain


Part C

(Suggested planning and writing time—40 minutes)

Percent of Section II score—33 1/3

Directions: You are to answer the following question. You should spend 5 minutes organizing or outlining your essay. Write an essay that:

• Has a relevant thesis and supports that thesis with appropriate historical evidence.

• Addresses all parts of the question.

• Makes direct, relevant comparisons.

• Analyzes reasons for similarities and differences.

3. Karl Marx asserted, “Religion is the opiate of the masses.” Using ONE of the religions below, compare and contrast the role the religion has played in promoting or impeding societal change. Consider specific revolutions, texts, and religious leaders in answering the question.








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