NOTES

To read many of the source documents listed here, go to madinamerica.com or robertwhitaker.org

Chapter 1: A Modern Plague

1. J. Bronowski, The Ascent of Man (New York: Little, Brown & Co., 1973), 153.

2. IMS Health, “2007 top therapeutic classes by U.S. sales.”

3. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General (1999), 3, 68, 78.

4. E. Shorter, A History of Psychiatry (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997), 255.

5. R. Friedman, “On the Horizon, Personalized Depression Drugs,” New York Times, June 19, 2007.

6. Boston Globe editorial, “When Kids Need Meds,” June 22, 2007.

7. Address by Carolyn Robinowitz, APA Annual Conference, Washington, D.C., May 4, 2008.

8. C. Silverman, The Epidemiology of Depression (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1968), 139.

9. Social Security Administration, annual statistical reports on the SSDI and SSI programs, 1987–2008. To calculate a total disability number for 1987 and 2007, I added the number of recipients under age sixty-five receiving an SSI payment that year and the number receiving an SSDI payment due to mental illness, and then I adjusted the total to reflect the fact that one in every six SSDI recipients also receives an SSI payment. Thus, mathematically speaking: SSI recipients + (.833 × SSDI recipients) = total number of disabled mentally ill.

10. Silverman, The Epidemiology of Depression, 139.

11. The annual Social Security Administration reports don’t provide data on the specific diagnoses of SSI and SSDI recipients disabled by mental illness. However, various researchers have reported that affective disorders now make up 37 percent (or more) of the disabled mentally ill. See, for instance, J. Cook, “Results of a multi-site clinical trials study of employment models for mental health consumers,” available at: psych.uic.edu/EIDP/eidp-3–20–03.pdf.

12. U.S. Government Accountability Office, “Young adults with serious mental illness” (June 2008).

13. Social Security Administration, annual statistical reports on the SSI program, 1996–2008; and Social Security Bulletin, Annual Statistical Supplement, 1988–1992.

Chapter 2: Anecdotal Thoughts

1. Adlai Stevenson, speech at University of Wisconsin, October 8, 1952. As cited by L. Frank, Quotationary (New York: Random House, 2001), 430.

Chapter 3: The Roots of an Epidemic

1. J. Young, The Medical Messiahs (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1967), 281.

2. Chemical Heritage Foundation, “Paul Ehrlich, Pharmaceutical Achiever,” accessed at chemheritage.org.

3. P. de Kruif, Dr. Ehrlich’s Magic Bullet (New York: Pocket Books, 1940), 387.

4. L. Sutherland, Magic Bullets (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1956), 127.

5. L. Garrett, The Coming Plague (New York: Penguin, 1995), 49.

6. T. Mahoney, The Merchants of Life (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1959), 14.

7. “Mind Is Mapped in Cure of Insane,” New York Times, May 15, 1937.

8. “Surgery Used on the Soul-Sick,” New York Times, June 7, 1937.

9. A. Deutsch, The Shame of the States (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1948), 41.

10. E. Torrey, The Invisible Plague (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2001), 295.

11. G. Grob, The Mad Among Us (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994), 189.

12. “Need for Public Education on Psychiatry Is Stressed,” New York Times, November 16, 1947.

Chapter 4: Psychiatry’s Magic Bullets

1. E. Valenstein, Blaming the Brain (New York: The Free Press, 1998), 38.

2. J. Swazey, Chlorpromazine in Psychiatry (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1974), 78.

3. Ibid, 79.

4. Ibid, 105.

5. Ibid, 134–35.

6. F. Ayd Jr., Discoveries in Biological Psychiatry (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1970), 160.

7. Symposium proceedings, Chlorpromazine and Mental Health (Philadelphia: Lea and Fabiger, 1955), 132.

8. Ayd, Discoveries in Biological Psychiatry, 121.

9. M. Smith, Small Comfort (New York: Praeger, 1985), 23.

10. Ibid, 26.

11. Ibid, 72.

12. “TB and Hope,” Time, March 3, 1952.

13. Valenstein, Blaming the Brain, 38.

14. “TB Drug Is Tried in Mental Cases,” New York Times, April 7, 1957.

15. M. Mintz, The Therapeutic Nightmare (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1965), 166.

16. Ibid, 488.

17. Ibid, 481.

18. Ibid, 59, 62.

19. T. Mahoney, The Merchants of Life (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1959), 4, 16.

20. Mintz, The Therapeutic Nightmare, 83.

21. Swazey, Chlorpromazine in Psychiatry, 190.

22. “Wonder Drug of 1954?” Time, June 14, 1954.

23. “Pills for the Mind,” Time, March 7, 1955.

24. “Wonder Drugs: New Cures for Mental Ills?” U.S. News and World Report, June 17, 1955.

25. “Pills for the Mind,” Time, March 7, 1955.

26. “Don’t-Give-a-Damn Pills,” Time, February 27, 1956.

27. Smith, Small Comfort, 67–69.

28. “To Nirvana with Miltown,” Time, July 7, 1958.

29. “Wonder Drug of 1954?” Time, June 14, 1954.

30. “TB Drug Is Tried in Mental Cases,” New York Times, April 7, 1957.

31. Smith, Small Comfort, 70.

32. “Science Notes: Mental Drug Shows Promise,” New York Times, April 7, 1957.

33. “Drugs and Depression,” New York Times, September 6, 1959.

34. H. Himwich, “Psychopharmacologic drugs,” Science 127 (1958): 59–72.

35. Smith, Small Comfort, 110.

36. Ibid, 104.

37. The NIMH Psychopharmacology Service Center Collaborative Study Group, “Phenothiazine treatment in acute schizophrenia,” Archives of General Psychiatry 10 (1964): 246–61.

38. Valenstein, Blaming the Brain, 70–79. Also see David Healy, The Creation of Psychopharmacology (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002), 106, 205–206.

39. J. Schildkraut, “The catecholamine hypothesis of affective disorders,” American Journal of Psychiatry 122 (1965): 509–22.

40. Valenstein, Blaming the Brain, 82.

41. A. Baumeister, “Historical development of the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia,” Journal of the History of the Neurosciences 11 (2002): 265–77.

42. Swazey, Chlorpromazine in Psychiatry, 4.

43. Ibid, 8.

44. Ayd, Discoveries in Biological Psychiatry, 215–16.

45. Ibid, 127.

46. Ibid, 195.

Chapter 5: The Hunt for Chemical Imbalances

1. T. H. Huxley, Critiques and Addresses (London: Macmillan & Co., 1873), 229.

2. E. Azmitia, “Awakening the sleeping giant,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 52 (1991), suppl. 12: 4–16.

3. M. Bowers, “Cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and homovanillic acid in psychiatric patients,” International Journal of Neuropharmacology 8 (1969): 255–62.

4. R. Papeschi, “Homovanillic and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in cerebrospinal fluid of depressed patients,” Archives of General Psychiatry 25 (1971): 354–58.

5. M. Bowers, “Lumbar CSF 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and homovanillic acid in affective syndromes,” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 158 (1974): 325–30.

6. D. L. Davies, “Reserpine in the treatment of anxious and depressed patients,” Lancet 2 (1955): 117–20.

7. J. Mendels, “Brain biogenic amine depletion and mood,” Archives of General Psychiatry 30 (1974): 447–51.

8. M. Asberg, “Serotonin depression: A biochemical subgroup within the affective disorders?” Science 191 (1976): 478–80; M. Asberg, “5-HIAA in the cerebrospinal fluid,” Archives of General Psychiatry 33 (1976): 1193–97.

9. H. Nagayama, “Postsynaptic action by four antidepressive drugs in an animal model of depression,” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 15 (1981): 125–30. Also see H. Nagayama, “Action of chronically administered antidepressants on the serotonergic postsynapse in a model of depression,” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 25 (1986): 805–11.

10. J. Maas, “Pretreatment neurotransmitter metabolite levels and response to tricyclic antidepressant drugs,” American Journal of Psychiatry 141 (1984): 1159–71.

11. J. Lacasse, “Serotonin and depression: a disconnect between the advertisements and the scientific literature,” PloS Medicine 2 (2005): 1211–16.

12. C. Ross, Pseudoscience in Biological Psychiatry (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1995), 111.

13. Lacasse, “Serotonin and depression.”

14. D. Healy, “Ads for SSRI antidepressants are misleading,” PloS Medicine news release, November 2005.

15. I. Creese, “Dopamine receptor binding predicts clinical and pharmacological potencies of antischizophrenic drugs,” Science 192 (1976): 481–83; P. Seeman, “Antipsychotic drug doses and neuroleptic/dopamine receptors,” Nature 261 (1976): 177–79.

16. “Schizophrenia: Vast effort focuses on four areas,” New York Times, November 13, 1979.

17. M. Bowers, “Central dopamine turnover in schizophrenic syndromes,” Archives of General Psychiatry 31 (1974): 50–54.

18. R. Post, “Cerebrospinal fluid amine metabolites in acute schizophrenia,” Archives of General Psychiatry 32 (1975): 1063–68.

19. J. Haracz, “The dopamine hypothesis: an overview of studies with schizophrenic patients,” Schizophrenia Bulletin 8 (1982): 438–58.

20. T. Lee, “Binding of 3H-neuroleptics and 3H-apomorphine in schizophrenic brains,” Nature 374 (1978): 897–900.

21. D. Burt, “Antischizophrenic drugs: chronic treatment elevates dopa mine receptor binding in brain,” Science 196 (1977): 326–27.

22. M. Porceddu, “[3H]SCH 23390 binding sites increase after chronic blockade of d-1 dopamine receptors,” European Journal of Pharmacology 118 (1985): 367–70.

23. A. MacKay, “Increased brain dopamine and dopamine receptors in schizophrenia,” Archives of General Psychiatry 39 (1982): 991–97.

24. J. Kornhuber, “3H-spiperone binding sites in post-mortem brains from schizophrenic patients,” Journal of Neural Transmission 75 (1989): 1–10.

25. J. Martinot, “Striatal D2 dopaminergic receptors assessed with positron emission tomography and bromospiperone in untreated schizophrenic patients,” American Journal of Psychiatry 147 (1990): 44–50; L. Farde, “D2 dopamine receptors in neuroleptic-naïve schizophrenic patients,” Archives of General Psychiatry 47 (1990): 213–19; J. Hietala, “Striatal D2 dopamine receptor characteristics in neuroleptic-naïve schizophrenic patients studied with positron emission tomography,” Archives of General Psychiatry 51 (1994): 116–23.

26. P. Deniker, “The neuroleptics: a historical survey,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 82, suppl. 358 (1990): 83–87. Also: “From chlorpromazine to tardive dyskinesia,” Psychiatric Journal of the University of Ottawa 14 (1989): 253–59.

27. J. Kane, “Towards more effective antipsychotic treatment,” British Journal of Psychiatry 165, suppl. 25 (1994): 22–31.

28. E. Nestler and S. Hyman, Molecular Neuropharmacology (New York: McGraw Hill, 2002), 392.

29. J. Mendels, “Brain biogenic amine depletion and mood,” Archives of General Psychiatry 30 (1974): 447–51.

30. P. Deniker, “The neuroleptics: a historical survey,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 82, suppl. 358 (1990): 83–87. Also: “From chlorpromazine to tardive dyskinesia,” Psychiatric Journal of the University of Ottawa 14 (1989): 253–59.

31. D. Healy, The Creation of Psychopharmacology (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2002), 217.

32. E. Valenstein, Blaming the Brain (New York: The Free Press, 1998), 96.

33. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Mental Health: A Report of the Surgeon General (1999), 3, 68, 78.

34. J. Glenmullen, Prozac Backlash (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000), 196.

35. Lacasse, “Serotonin and depression.”

36. R. Fuller, “Effect of an uptake inhibitor on serotonin metabolism in rat brain,” Life Sciences 15 (1974): 1161–71.

37. D. Wong, “Subsensitivity of serotonin receptors after long-term treatment of rats with fluoxetine,” Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology 32 (1981): 41–51.

38. J. Wamsley, “Receptor alterations associated with serotonergic agents,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 48, suppl. (1987): 19–25.

39. A. Schatzberg, Textbook of Psychopharmacology (Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1995), 8.

40. C. Montigny, “Modification of serotonergic neuron properties by long-term treatment with serotonin reuptake blockers,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 51, suppl. B (1990): 4–8.

41. D. Wong, “Subsensitivity of serotonin receptors after long-term treatment of rats with fluoxetine,” Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology 32 (1981): 41–51.

42. C. Montigny, “Modification of serotonergic neuron properties by long-term treatment with serotonin reuptake blockers,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 51, suppl. B (1990): 4–8.

43. R. Fuller, “Inhibition of serotonin reuptake,” Federation Proceedings 36 (1977): 2154–58.

44. B. Jacobs, “Serotonin and behavior,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 52, suppl. (1991): 151–62.

45. Schatzberg, Textbook of Psychopharmacology, 619.

46. S. Hyman, “Initiation and adaptation: A paradigm for understanding psychotropic drug action,” American Journal of Psychiatry 153 (1996): 151–61.

Chapter 6: A Paradox Revealed

1. E. Stip, “Happy birthday neuroleptics!” European Psychiatry 17 (2002): 115–19.

2. M. Boyle, “Is schizophrenia what it was?” Journal of the History of Behavioral Science 26 (1990): 323–33; M. Boyle, Schizophrenia: A Scientific Delusion? (New York: Routledge, 1990).

3. P. Popenoe, “In the melting pot,” Journal of Heredity 14 (1923): 223.

4. J. Cole, editor, Psychopharmacology (Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 1959), 142.

5. Ibid, 386–87.

6. N. Lehrman, “Follow-up of brief and prolonged psychiatric hospitalization,” Comprehensive Psychiatry 2 (1961): 227–40.

7. R. Warner, Recovery from Schizophrenia (Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1985), 74.

8. L. Epstein, “An approach to the effect of ataraxic drugs on hospital release rates,” American Journal of Psychiatry 119 (1962): 246–61.

9. C. Silverman, The Epidemiology of Depression (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1968), 139.

10. J. Swazey, Chlorpromazine in Psychiatry (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1974), 247.

11. Cole, Psychopharmacology, 144, 285.

12. Ibid, 285.

13. Ibid, 347.

14. R. Baldessarini, Chemotherapy in Psychiatry (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1977), 29.

15. A. Schatzberg, editor, Textbook of Psychopharmacology (Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1995), 624.

16. P. Gilbert, “Neuroleptic withdrawal in schizophrenic patients,” Archives of General Psychiatry 52 (1995): 173–88.

17. J. Geddes, “Prevention of relapse,” New England Journal of Medicine 346 (2002): 56–58.

18. L. Dixon, “Conventional antipsychotic medications for schizophrenia.” Schizophrenia Bulletin 21 (1995): 567–77.

19. Stip, “Happy birthday, neuroleptics!”

20. N. Schooler, “One year after discharge,” American Journal of Psychiatry 123 (1967): 986–95.

21. R. Prien, “Discontinuation of chemotherapy for chronic schizophrenics,” Hospital and Community Psychiatry 22 (1971): 20–23.

22. G. Gardos and J. Cole, “Maintenance antipsychotic therapy: is the cure worse than the disease?” American Journal of Psychiatry 133 (1977): 32–36.

23. G. Gardos and J. Cole, “Withdrawal syndromes associated with antipsychotic drugs,” American Journal of Psychiatry 135 (1978): 1321–24. Also see Gardos and Cole, “Maintenance antipsychotic therapy.”

24. J. Bockoven, “Comparison of two five-year follow-up studies,” American Journal of Psychiatry 132 (1975): 796–801.

25. W. Carpenter, “The treatment of acute schizophrenia without drugs,” American Journal of Psychiatry 134 (1977): 14–20.

26. M. Rappaport, “Are there schizophrenics for whom drugs may be unnecessary or contraindicated?” International Pharmacopsychiatry 13 (1978): 100–11.

27. S. Mathews, “A non-neuroleptic treatment for schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin 5 (1979): 322–32.

28. J. Bola, “Treatment of acute psychosis without neuroleptics,” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 191 (2003): 219–29.

29. Carpenter, “The treatment of acute schizophrenia.”

30. G. Paul, “Maintenance psychotropic drugs in the presence of active treatment programs,” Archives of General Psychiatry 27 (1972): 106–14.

31. T. Van Putten, “The board and care home: does it deserve a bad press?” Hospital and Community Psychiatry 30 (1979): 461–64.

32. Gardos and Cole, “Maintenance antipsychotic therapy.”

33. P. Deniker, “Are the antipsychotic drugs to be withdrawn?” in C. Shagass, editor, Biological Psychiatry (New York: Elsevier, 1986), 1–9.

34. G. Chouinard, “Neuroleptic-induced supersensitivity psychosis,” American Journal of Psychiatry 135 (1978): 1409–10.

35. G. Chouinard, “Neuroleptic-induced supersensitivity psychosis: Clinical and pharmacologic characteristics,” American Journal of Psychiatry 137 (1980): 16–20.

36. G. Chouinard, “Neuroleptic-induced supersensitivity psychosis, the ‘Hump Course,’ and tardive dyskinesia,” Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 2 (1982): 143–44.

37. G. Chouinard, “Severe cases of neuroleptic-induced supersensitivity psychosis,” Schizophrenia Research 5 (1991): 21–33.

38. P. Muller, “Dopaminergic supersensitivity after neuroleptics,” Psychopharmacology 60 (1978): 1–11.

39. L. Martensson, “Should neuroleptic drugs be banned?” Proceedings of the World Federation of Mental Health Conference in Copenhagen, 1984, accessed via www.larsmartensson.com, 10/30/08.

40. P. Breggin, Brain Disabling Treatments in Psychiatry (New York: Springer Publishing Company, 1997), 60.

41. S. Snyder, Drugs and the Brain (New York: Scientific American Library, 1986), 88.

42. C. Harding, “The Vermont longitudinal study of persons with severe mental illness,” American Journal of Psychiatry 144 (1987): 727–34; C. Harding, “The Vermont longitudinal study of persons with severe mental illness, II,” American Journal of Psychiatry 144 (1987): 727–35.

43. P. McGuire, “New hope for people with schizophrenia,” APA Monitor 31 (February 2000).

44. C. Harding, “Empirical correction of seven myths about schizophrenia with implications for treatment,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 384, suppl. (1994): 14–16.

45. A. Jablensky, “Schizophrenia: manifestations, incidence and course in different cultures,” Psychological Medicine 20, monograph (1992): 1–95.

46. Ibid. See tables on page 60 for medication usage by individual centers; see table on page 64 for medication usage by developing and developed countries.

47. K. Hopper, “Revisiting the developed versus developing country distinction in course and outcome in schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin 26 (2000): 835–46.

48. J. Wade, “Tardive dyskinesia and cognitive impairment,” Biological Psychiatry 22 (1987): 393–95.

49. M. Myslobodsky, “Central determinants of attention and mood disorder in tardive dyskinesia,” Brain and Cognition 23 (1993): 56–70.

50. H. Wisniewski, “Neurofibrillary pathology in brains of elderly schizophrenics treated with neuroleptics,” Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders 8 (1994): 211–27.

51. M. Chakos, “Increase in caudate nuclei volumes of first-episode schizophrenic patients taking antipsychotic drugs,” American Journal of Psychiatry 151 (1994): 1430–36; A. Madsen, “Neuroleptics in progressive structural brain abnormalities in psychiatric illness,” Lancet 352 (1998): 784–85; R. Gur, “A follow-up of magnetic resonance imaging study of schizophrenia,” Archives of General Psychiatry 55 (1998): 145–52.

52. R. Gur, “Subcortical MRI volumes in neuroleptic-naïve and treated patients with schizophrenia,” American Journal of Psychiatry 155 (1998): 1711–17.

53. P. Seeman, “Dopamine supersensitivity correlates with D2 HIGH states, implying many paths to psychosis,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 102 (2005): 3513–18.

54. B. Ho, “Progressive structural brain abnormalities and their relationship to clinical outcome,” Archives of General Psychiatry 60 (2003): 585–94.

55. N. Andreasen, “Longitudinal changes in neurocognition during the first decade of schizophrenia illness,” International Congress on Schizophrenia Research (2005): 348.

56. C. Dreifus, “Using imaging to look at changes in the brain,” New York Times, September 16, 2008.

57. T. McGlashan, “Rationale and parameters for medication-free research in psychosis,” Schizophrenia Bulletin 32 (2006): 300–302.

58. M. Harrow, “Factors involved in outcome and recovery in schizophrenia patients not on antipsychotic medications,” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 195 (2007): 406–14.

59. National Institute of Mental Health, “The Numbers Count,” accessed at www.nimh.nih.gov on 3/7/2008.

Chapter 7: The Benzo Trap

1. S. Garfield, “Valium’s 40th Birthday,” Observer, February 2, 2003.

2. E. Shorter, A History of Psychiatry (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997), 161, 181.

3. A. Tone, The Age of Anxiety (New York: Basic Books, 2009), 15.

4. American Psychiatry Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (1952), 31.

5. C. Silverman, The Epidemiology of Depression (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1968), 139.

6. L. Hollister, “Drugs for emotional disorders,” Journal of the American Medical Association 234 (1975): 942–47.

7. F. Ayd Jr., Discoveries in Biological Psychiatry (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1970), 127.

8. D. Greenblatt, “Meprobamate: a study of irrational drug use,” American Journal of Psychiatry 127 (1971): 33–39.

9. C. Essig, “Addiction to nonbarbiturate sedative and tranquillizing drugs,” Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 5 (1964): 334–43.

10. “Letdown for Miltown,” Time, April 30, 1965.

11. Tone, The Age of Anxiety, 171.

12. M. Smith, Small Comfort (New York: Praeger, 1985), 78.

13. Tone, The Age of Anxiety, 172.

14. G. Cant, “Valiumania,” New York Times, February 1, 1976.

15. R. Hughes, The Tranquilizing of America (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1979), 8.

16. Tone, The Age of Anxiety, 176.

17. Committee on the Review of Medicines, “Systematic review of the benzodiazepines,” British Medical Journal 280 (1980): 910–12.

18. Editorial, “Benzodiazepines on trial,” British Medical Journal 288 (1984): 1101–12.

19. Smith, Small Comfort, 32.

20. S. Stahl, “Don’t ask, don’t tell, but benzodiazepines are still the leading treatments for anxiety disorder,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 63 (2002): 756–67.

21. IMS Health, “Top therapeutic classes by U.S. dispensed prescriptions,” 2006 and 2007 reports.

22. K. Solomon, “Pitfalls and prospects in clinical research on antianxiety drugs,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 39 (1978): 823–31.

23. A. Shapiro, “Diazepam: how much better than placebo?” Journal of Psychiatric Research 17 (1983): 51–73.

24. C. Gudex, “Adverse effects of benzodiazepines,” Social Science & Medicine 33 (1991): 587–96.

25. J. Martin, “Benzodiazepines in generalized anxiety disorder,” Journal of Psychopharmacology 21 (2007): 774–82.

26. Malcolm Lader interview, January 12, 2009.

27. B. Maletzky, “Addiction to diazepam,” International Journal of Addictions 11 (1976): 95–115.

28. A. Kales, “Rebound insomnia,” Science 201 (1978): 1039–40.

29. H. Petursson, “Withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine treatment,” British Medical Journal 283 (1981): 643–35.

30. H. Ashton, “Benzodiazepine withdrawal,” British Medical Journal 288 (1984): 1135–40.

31. H. Ashton, “Protracted withdrawal syndromes from benzodiazepines,” Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 9 (1991): 19–28.

32. P. Cowen, “Abstinence symptoms after withdrawal of tranquillising drugs,” Lancet 2, 8294 (1982): 360–62.

33. H. Ashton, “Benzodiazepine withdrawal,” British Medical Journal 288 (1984): 1135–40.

34. H. Ashton, Benzodiazepines: How They Work and How to Withdraw (Newcastle upon Tyne: University of Newcastle, 2000), 42.

35. H. Ashton, “Protracted withdrawal syndromes from benzodiazepines,” Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 9 (1991): 19–28.

36. K. Rickels, “Long-term benzodiazepine users 3 years after participation in a discontinuation program,” American Journal of Psychiatry 148 (1991): 757–61.

37. K. Rickels, “Psychomotor performance of long-term benzodiazepine users before, during, and after benzodiazepine discontinuation,” Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 19 (1999): 107–13.

38. S. Patten, “Self-reported depressive symptoms following treatment with corticosteroids and sedative-hypnotics,” International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 26 (1995): 15–24.

39. Ashton, Benzodiazepines, 8.

40. A. Pelissolo, “Anxiety and depressive disorders in 4,425 long term benzodiazepine users in general practice,” Encephale 33 (2007): 32–38.

41. Hughes, The Tranquilizing of America, 17.

42. S. Golombok, “Cognitive impairment in long-term benzodiazepine users,” Psychological Medicine 18 (1988): 365–74.

43. M. Barker, “Cognitive effects of long-term benzodiazepine use,” CNS Drugs 18 (2004): 37–48.

44. WHO Review Group, “Use and abuse of benzodiazepines,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization 61 (1983): 551–62.

45. Maletzky, “Addiction to diazepam.”

46. R. Caplan, “Social effects of diazepam use,” Social Science & Medicine 21 (1985): 887–98.

47. H. Ashton, “Tranquillisers,” British Journal of Addiction 84 (1989): 541–46.

48. Ashton, Benzodiazepines, 12.

49. Stevan Gressitt interview, January 9, 2009.

50. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, SAMHSA, Mental Health, United States (2002).

51. Government Accountability Office, Young Adults with Serious Mental Illness, June 2008.

52. R. Vasile, “Results of a naturalistic longitudinal study of benzodiazepine and SSRI use in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder and social phobia,” Depression and Anxiety 22 (2005): 59–67.

53. Malcolm Lader interview, January 12, 2009.

Chapter 8: An Episodic Illness Turns Chronic

1. C. Dewa, “Depression in the workplace,” A Report to the Ontario Roundtable on Appropriate Prescribing, November 2001.

2. A. Solomon, The Noonday Demon (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2001), 289.

3. C. Goshen, editor, Documentary History of Psychiatry (New York: Philosophical Library, 1967), 118–20.

4. Solomon, The Noonday Demon, 286.

5. E. Wolpert, editor, Manic-Depressive Illness (New York: International Universities Press, 1997), 34.

6. C. Silverman, The Epidemiology of Depression (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1968), 44, 139. The first-admission and residence data in Silverman’s book is for all manic-depressive patients; the unipolar patients comprised about 75 percent of that total.

7. Ibid, 79, 142.

8. F. Ayd, Recognizing the Depressed Patient (New York: Grune & Stratton, 1961), 13.

9. A. Zis, “Major affective disorder as a recurrent illness,” Archives of General Psychiatry 36 (1979): 835–39.

10. G. Winokur, Manic Depressive Illness (St. Louis: The C.V. Mosby Company, 1969), 19–20.

11. T. Rennie, “Prognosis in manic-depressive psychoses,” American Journal of Psychiatry 98 (1941): 801–14. See table on page 811.

12. G. Lundquist, “Prognosis and course in manic-depressive psychoses,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, suppl. 35 (1945): 7–93.

13. D. Schuyler, The Depressive Spectrum (New York: Jason Aronson, 1974), 49.

14. J. Cole, “Therapeutic efficacy of antidepressant drugs,” Journal of the American Medical Association 190 (1964): 448–55.

15. N. Kline, “The practical management of depression,” Journal of the American Medical Association 190 (1964): 122–30.

16. Winokur, Manic Depressive Illness, 19.

17. Schuyler, The Depressive Spectrum, 47.

18. Medical Research Council, “Clinical trial of the treatment of depressive illness,” British Medical Journal 1 (1965): 881–86.

19. A. Smith, “Studies on the effectiveness of antidepressant drugs,” Psychopharmacology Bulletin 5 (1969): 1–53.

20. A. Raskin, “Differential response to chlorpromazine, imipramine, and placebo,” Archives of General Psychiatry 23 (1970): 164–73.

21. R. Thomson, “Side effects and placebo amplification,” British Journal of Psychiatry 140 (1982): 64–68.

22. I. Elkin, “NIMH treatment of depression collaborative research program,” Archives of General Psychiatry 47 (1990): 682–88.

23. A. Khan, “Symptom reduction and suicide risk in patients treated with placebo in antidepressant clinical trials,” Archives of General Psychiatry 57 (2000): 311–17.

24. E. Turner, “Selective publication of antidepressant trials and its influence on apparent efficacy,” New England Journal of Medicine 358 (2008): 252–60.

25. I. Kirsch, “Initial severity and antidepressant benefits,” PLoS Medicine 5 (2008): 260–68.

26. G. Parker, “Antidepressants on trial,” British Journal of Psychiatry 194 (2009): 1–3.

27. C. Barbui, “Effectiveness of paroxetine in the treatment of acute major depression in adults,” Canadian Medical Association Journal 178 (2008): 296–305.

28. J. Ioannidis, “Effectiveness of antidepressants,” Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 3 (2008): 14.

29. Hypericum Trial Study Group, “Effect of Hypericum perforatum in major depressive disorder,” Journal of the American Medical Association 287 (2002): 1807–14.

30. J.D. Van Scheyen, “Recurrent vital depressions,” Psychiatria, Neurologia, Neurochirurgia 76 (1973): 93–112.

31. Ibid.

32. R. Mindham, “An evaluation of continuation therapy with tricyclic antidepressants in depressive illness,” Psychological Medicine 3 (1973): 5–17.

33. M. Stein, “Maintenance therapy with amitriptyline,” American Journal of Psychiatry 137 (1980): 370–71.

34. R. Prien, “Drug therapy in the prevention of recurrences in unipolar and bipolar affective disorders,” Archives of General Psychiatry 41 (1984): 1096–1104. See table 6 and figure 2.

35. M. Shea, “Course of depressive symptoms over follow-up,” Archives of General Psychiatry 49 (1992): 782–87.

36. A. Viguera, “Discontinuing antidepressant treatment in major depression,” Harvard Review of Psychiatry 5 (1998): 293–305.

37. P. Haddad, “Antidepressant discontinuation reactions,” British Medical Journal 316 (1998): 1105–6.

38. G. Fava, “Do antidepressant and antianxiety drugs increase chronicity in affective disorders?” Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 61 (1994): 125–31.

39. G. Fava, “Can long-term treatment with antidepressant drugs worsen the course of depression?” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 64 (2003): 123–33.

40. Ibid.

41. G. Fava, “Holding on: depression, sensitization by antidepressant drugs, and the prodigal experts,” Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 64 (1995): 57–61; G. Fava, “Potential sensitizing effects of antidepressant drugs on depression,” CNS Drugs 12 (1999): 247–56.

42. R. Baldessarini, “Risks and implications of interrupting maintenance psychotropic drug therapy,” Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 63 (1995): 137–41.

43. R. El-Mallakh, “Can long-term antidepressant use be depressogenic?” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 60 (1999): 263.

44. “Editorial sparks debate on effects of psychoactive drugs,” Psychiatric News, May 20, 1994.

45. Consensus Development Panel, “Mood disorders,” American Journal of Psychiatry 142 (1985): 469–76.

46. R. Hales, editor, Textbook of Psychiatry (Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1999), 525.

47. J. Geddes, “Relapse prevention with antidepressant drug treatment in depressive disorders,” Lancet 361 (2003): 653–61.

48. L. Judd, “Does incomplete recovery from first lifetime major depressive episode herald a chronic course of illness?” American Journal of Psychiatry 157 (2000): 1501–4.

49. R. Tranter, “Prevalence and outcome of partial remission in depression,” Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience 27 (2002): 241–47.

50. Hales, Textbook of Psychiatry, 547.

51. J. Rush, “One-year clinical outcomes of depressed public sector outpatients,” Biological Psychiatry 56 (2004): 46–53.

52. Ibid.

53. D. Warden, “The star*d project results,” Current Psychiatry Reports 9 (2007): 449–59.

54. NIMH, Depression (2007): 3. (NIH Publication 07–3561.)

55. D. Deshauer, “Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for unipolar depression,” Canadian Medical Association Journal 178 (2008): 1293–1301.

56. C. Ronalds, “Outcome of anxiety and depressive disorders in primary care,” British Journal of Psychiatry 171 (1997): 427–33.

57. E. Weel-Baumgarten, “Treatment of depression related to recurrence,” Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 25 (2000): 61–66.

58. S. Patten, “The impact of antidepressant treatment on population health,” Population Health Metrics 2 (2004): 9.

59. D. Goldberg, “The effect of detection and treatment on the outcome of major depression in primary care,” British Journal of General Practice 48 (1998): 1840–44.

60. Dewa, “Depression in the workplace.”

61. W. Coryell, “Characteristics and significance of untreated major depressive disorder,” American Journal of Psychiatry 152 (1995): 1124–29.

62. J. Moncrieff, “Trends in sickness benefits in Great Britain and the contribution of mental disorders,” Journal of Public Health Medicine 22 (2000): 59–67.

63. T. Helgason, “Antidepressants and public health in Iceland,” British Journal of Psychiatry 184 (2004): 157–62.

64. R. Rosenheck, “The growth of psychopharmacology in the 1990s,” International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 28 (2005): 467–83.

65. M. Posternak, “The naturalistic course of unipolar major depression in the absence of somatic therapy,” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 194 (2006): 324–49.

66. Ibid. Also see M. Posternak, “Untreated short-term course of major depression,” Journal of Affective Disorders 66 (2001): 139–46.

67. J. Cole, editor, Psychopharmacology (Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences, 1959), 347.

68. NIMH, “The numbers count,” accessed at www.nimh.nih.gov on 3/7/2008; W. Eaton, “The burden of mental disorders,” Epidemiologic Reviews 30 (2008): 1–14.

69. M. Fava, “A cross-sectional study of the prevalence of cognitive and physical symptoms during long-term antidepressant treatment,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 67 (2006): 1754–59.

70. M. Kalia, “Comparative study of fluoxetine, sibutramine, sertraline and defenfluramine on the morphology of serotonergic nerve terminals using serotonin immunohistochemistry,” Brain Research 858 (2000): 92–105. Also see press release by Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, “Jefferson scientists show several serotonin-boosting drugs cause changes in some brain cells,” 2/29/2000.

Chapter 9: The Bipolar Boom

1. D. Healy, Mania (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008), 16, 41, 43.

2. I calculated these estimates by applying the 25 percent figure to the 1955 data on patients in state and county mental hospitals with a diagnosis of manic-depressive illness.

3. C. Silverman, The Epidemiology of Depression (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1968), 139.

4. G. Winokur, Manic Depressive Illness (St. Louis: The C.V. Mosby Company, 1969), 19.

5. F. Wertham, “A group of benign chronic psychoses,” American Journal of Psychiatry 9 (1929): 17–78.

6. G. Lundquist, “Prognosis and course in manic-depressive psychoses,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, suppl. 35 (1945): 7–93.

7. M. Tsuang, “Long-term outcome of major psychoses,” Archives of General Psychiatry 36 (1979): 1295–1301.

8. Winokur, Manic Depressive Illness, 21.

9. NIMH, The Numbers Count: Mental Disorders in America, accessed at www.nimh.nih.gov on 3/7/2008.

10. C. Baethge, “Substance abuse in first-episode bipolar I disorder,” American Journal of Psychiatry 162 (2005): 1008–10; E. Frank, “Association between illicit drug and alcohol use and first manic episode,” Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 86 (2007): 395–400.

11. S. Strakowski, “The effects of antecedent substance abuse on the development of first-episode psychotic mania,” Journal of Psychiatric Research 30 (1996): 59–68.

12. J. Goldberg, “Overdiagnosis of bipolar disorder among substance use disorder inpatients with mood instability,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 69 (2008): 1751–57.

13. M. Van Laar, “Does cannabis use predict the first incidence of mood and anxiety disorders in the adult population?” Addiction 102 (2007): 1251–60.

14. G. Crane, “The psychiatric side effects of iproniazid,” American Journal of Psychiatry 112 (1956): 494–501.

15. J. Angst, “Switch from depression to mania,” Psychopathology 18 (1985): 140–54.

16. American Psychiatric Association, Practice Guidelines for Major Depressive Disorder in Adults (Washington, DC: APA, 1993), 22.

17. A. Martin, “Age effects on antidepressant-induced manic conversion,” Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 158 (2004): 773–80.

18. J. Goldberg, “Risk for bipolar illness in patients initially hospitalized for unipolar depression,” American Journal of Psychiatry 158 (2001): 1265–70.

19. R. El-Mallakh, “Use of antidepressants to treat depression in bipolar disorder,” Psychiatric Services 53 (2002): 58–84.

20. Interview with Fred Goodwin, “Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder,” Primary Psychiatry, accessed via Internet on 3/6/09 at primarypsychiatry.com.

21. G. Fava, “Can long-term treatment with antidepressant drugs worsen the course of depression?” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 64 (2003): 123–33.

22. L. Judd, “The prevalence and disability of bipolar spectrum disorders in the US population,” Journal of Affective Disorders 73 (2003): 123–31.

23. J. Angst, “Toward a re-definition of subthreshold bipolarity,” Journal of Affective Disorders 73 (2003): 133–46.

24. Ibid; Judd, “The prevalence and disability.”

25. R. Fieve, Moodswing (New York: William Morrow and Company, 1975), 13.

26. For a history of lithium, see Healy, Mania, and J. Moncrieff, The Myth of the Chemical Cure (New York: Palgrave MacMillan, 2008).

27. S. Tyrer, “Lithium in the treatment of mania,” Journal of Affective Disorders 8 (1985): 251–57.

28. J. Baker, “Outcomes of lithium discontinuation,” Lithium 5 (1994): 187–92.

29. R. Baldessarini, “Discontinuing lithium maintenance treatment in bipolar disorders,” Bipolar Disorders 1 (1999): 17–24.

30. G. Faedda, “Outcome after rapid v. gradual discontinuation of lithium treatment in bipolar disorders,” Archives of General Psychiatry 50 (1993): 448–55.

31. J. Himmelhoch, “On the failure to recognize lithium failure,” Psychiatric Annals 24 (1994): 241–50.

32. J. Moncrieff, The Myth of the Chemical Cure (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2008), 199.

33. G. Goodwin, “Recurrence of mania after lithium withdrawal,” British Journal of Psychiatry 164 (1994): 149–52.

34. H. Markar, “Efficacy of lithium prophylaxis in clinical practice,” British Journal of Psychiatry 155 (1989): 496–500; J. Moncrieff, “Lithium revisited,” British Journal of Psychiatry 167 (1995): 569–74.

35. J. Goldberg, “Lithium treatment of bipolar affective disorders under naturalistic followup conditions,” Psychopharmacology Bulletin 32 (1996): 47–54.

36. M. Gitlin, “Relapse and impairment in bipolar disorder,” American Journal of Psychiatry 152 (1995): 1635–40.

37. J. Moncrieff, “Lithium: evidence reconsidered,” British Journal of Psychiatry 171 (1997): 113–19.

38. F. Goodwin, Manic-Depressive Illness (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990), 647.

39. A. Zis, “Major affective disorder as a recurrent illness,” Archives of General Psychiatry 36 (1979): 835–39.

40. A. Koukopoulos, “Rapid cyclers, temperament, and antidepressants,” Comprehensive Psychiatry 24 (1983): 249–58.

41. N. Ghaemi, “Diagnosing bipolar disorder and the effect of antidepressants,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 61 (2000): 804–809.

42. N. Ghaemi, “Antidepressants in bipolar disorder,” Bipolar Disorders 5 (2003): 421–33.

43. R. El-Mallakh, “Use of antidepressants to treat depression in bipolar disorder,” Psychiatric Services 53 (2002): 580–84.

44. A. Koukopoulos, “Duration and stability of the rapid-cycling course,” Journal of Affective Disorders 72 (2003): 75–85.

45. R. El-Mallakh, “Antidepressant-associated chronic irritable dysphoria in bipolar disorder,” Journal of Affective Disorders 84 (2005): 267–72.

46. N. Ghaemi, “Treatment of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder,” American Journal of Psychiatry 165 (2008): 300–301.

47. C. Schneck, “The prospective course of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder,” American Journal of Psychiatry 165 (2008): 370–77.

48. L. Judd, “The long-term natural history of the weekly symptomatic status of bipolar I disorder,” Archives of General Psychiatry 59 (2002): 530–37.

49. L. Judd, “A prospective investigation of the natural history of the long-term weekly symptomatic status of bipolar II disorder,” Archives of General Psychiatry 60 (2003): 261–69.

50. R. Joffe, “A prospective, longitudinal study of percentage of time spent ill in patients with bipolar I or bipolar II disorders,” Bipolar Disorders 6 (2004): 62–66.

51. R. Post, “Morbidity in 258 bipolar outpatients followed for 1 year with daily prospective ratings on the NIMH life chart method,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 64 (2003): 680–90.

52. L. Judd, “Residual symptom recovery from major affective episodes in bipolar disorders and rapid episode relapse/recurrence,” Archives of General Psychiatry 65 (2008): 386–94.

53. C. Zarate, “Functional impairment and cognition in bipolar disorder,” Psychiatric Quarterly 71 (2000): 309–29.

54. Gitlin, “Relapse and impairment.”

55. P. Keck, “12-month outcome of patients with bipolar disorder following hospitalization for a manic or a mixed episode,” American Journal of Psychiatry 155 (1998): 646–52.

56. D. Kupfer, “Demographic and clinical characteristics of individuals in a bipolar disorder case registry,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 63 (2002): 120–25.

57. N. Huxley, “Disability and its treatment in bipolar disorder patients,” Bipolar Disorders 9 (2007): 183–96.

58. T. Goldberg, “Contrasts between patients with affective disorders and patients with schizophrenia on a neuropsychological test battery,” American Journal of Psychiatry 150 (1993): 1355–62.

59. J. Zihl, “Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and affective disorders,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 97 (1998): 351–57.

60. F. Dickerson, “Outpatients with schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder,” Psychiatry Research 102 (2001): 21–27.

61. G. Malhi, “Neuropsychological deficits and functional impairment in bipolar depression, hypomania and euthymia,” Bipolar Disorders 9 (2007): 114–25.

62. V. Balanza-Martinez, “Persistent cognitive dysfunctions in bipolar I disorder and schizophrenic patients,” Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 74 (2005): 113–19; A Martinez-Aran, “Functional outcome in bipolar disorder,” Bipolar Disorders 9 (2007): 103–13.

63. M. Pope, “Determinants of social functioning in bipolar disorder,” Bipolar Disorders 9 (2007): 38–44.

64. C. Zarate, “Antipsychotic drug side effect issues in bipolar manic patients,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 61, suppl. 8 (2000): 52–61.

65. C. Zarate, “Functional impairment and cognition in bipolar disorder,” Psychiatric Quarterly 71 (2000): 309–29.

66. D. Kupfer, “The increasing medical burden in bipolar disorder,” Journal of the American Medical Association 293 (2005): 2528–30.

67. L. Citrome, “Toward convergence in the medication treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia,” Harvard Review of Psychiatry 13 (2005): 28–42.

68. Huxley, “Disability and its treatment.”

69. M. Harrow, “Factors involved in outcome and recovery in schizophrenia patients not on antipsychotic medications,” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders 195 (2007): 406–14.

70. W. Eaton, “The burden of mental disorders,” Epidemiology Review 30 (2008): 1–14.

Chapter 10: An Epidemic Explained

1. Interview with Amy Upham, June 14, 2009.

2. M. Morgan, “Prospective analysis of premature mortality in schizophrenia in relation to health service engagement,” Psychiatry Research 117 (2003): 127–35; C. Colton, “Congruencies in increased mortality rates, years of potential life lost, and causes of death among public mental health clients in eight states,” Preventing Chronic Disease 3 (April 2006).

3. S. Saha, “A systematic review of mortality in schizophrenia,” Archives of General Psychiatry 64 (2007): 1123–31; L. Appleby, “Sudden unexplained death in psychiatric in-patients,” British Journal of Psychiatry 176 (2000): 405–406; M. Joukamaa, “Schizophrenia, neuroleptic medication, and mortality,” British Journal of Psychiatry 188 (2006): 122–27.

Chapter 11: The Epidemic Spreads to Children

1. B. Carey, “What’s wrong with a child? Psychiatrists often disagree,” New York Times, November 11, 2006.

2. R. Kessler, “Mood disorders in children and adolescents,” Biological Psychiatry 49 (2001): 1002–14.

3. J. O’Neal, Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology Made Simple (Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, 2006), 6.

4. R. Mayes, Medicating Children (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009), 46.

5. G. Jackson, “Postmodern psychiatry,” unpublished paper, September 2, 2002.

6. Mayes, Medicating Children, 54.

7. Ibid, 61.

8. R. Mayes, “ADHD and the rise in stimulant use among children,” Harvard Review of Psychiatry 16 (2008): 151–66.

9. G. Golden, “Role of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in learning disabilities,” Seminars in Neurology 11 (1991): 35–41.

10. NIH Consensus Development Conference statement, “Diagnosis and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,” November 16–18, 1998.

11. P. Breggin, Talking Back to Ritalin (Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing, 2001), 180.

12. S. Hyman, “Initiation and adaptation: a paradigm for understanding psychotropic drug action,” American Journal of Psychiatry 153 (1996): 151–61.

13. Breggin, Talking Back to Ritalin, 83.

14. H. Rie, “Effects of methylphenidate on underachieving children,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 44 (1976): 250–60.

15. C. Cunningham, “The effects of methylphenidate on the mother-child interactions of hyperactive identical twins,” Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology 20 (1978): 634–42.

16. N. Fiedler, “The effects of stimulant drugs on curiosity behaviors of hyperactive boys,” Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 11 (1983): 193–206.

17. T. Davy, “Stimulant medication and short attention span,” Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics 10 (1989): 313–18.

18. D. Granger, “Perceptions of methylphenidate effects on hyperactive children’s peer interactions,” Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 21 (1993): 535–49.

19. J. Swanson, “Effects of stimulant medication on learning in children with ADHD,” Journal of Learning Disabilities 24 (1991): 219–30.

20. Breggin, Talking Back to Ritalin, 92.

21. J. Richters, “NIMH Collaborative Multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD,” Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 34 (1995): 987–1000.

22. T. Spencer, “Pharmacotherapy of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder across the life cycle,” Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 35 (1996): 409–32.

23. E. Sleator, “How do hyperactive children feel about taking stimulants and will they tell the doctor?” Clinical Pediatrics 21 (1982): 474–79.

24. D. Jacobvitz, “Treatment of attentional and hyperactivity problems in children with sympathomimetic drugs,” Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 29 (1990): 677–88.

25. A. Sroufe, “Treating problem children with stimulant drugs,” New England Journal of Medicine 289 (1973): 407–13.

26. Ibid.

27. Rie, “Effects of methylphenidate.”

28. R. Barkley, “Do stimulant drugs improve the academic performance of hyperkinetic children?” Clinical Pediatrics 8 (1978): 137–46.

29. Swanson, “Effects of stimulant medication.”

30. C. Whalen, “Stimulant pharmacotherapy for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders,” in S. Fishberg and R. Greenberg, eds., From Placebo to Panacea (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997), 329.

31. R. Schachar, “Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder,” Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 47 (2002): 337–48.

32. Whalen, “Stimulant pharmacotherapy,” 327.

33. P. Breggin, “Psychostimulants in the treatment of children diagnosed with ADHD,” International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine 12 (1993): 3–35.

34. Ibid.

35. Richters, “NIMH Collaborative Multisite.”

36. P. Jensen, “3-year follow-up of the NIMH MTA study,” Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 46 (2007): 989–1002. See chart on page 997 for medication use.

37. The MTA Cooperative Group, “A 14-month randomized clinical trial of treatment strategies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder,” Archives of General Psychiatry 56 (1999): 1073–86.

38. Jensen, “3-year follow-up.”

39. B. Molina, “Delinquent behavior and emerging substance use in the MTA at 36 months,” Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 46 (2007): 1028–39.

40. B. Molina, “MTA at 8 years,” Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 48 (2009): 484–500.

41. C. Miranda, “ADHD drugs could stunt growth,” Daily Telegraph (UK), November 12, 2007.

42. Breggin, Talking Back to Ritalin; K. Bolla, “The neuropsychiatry of chronic cocaine abuse,” Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences 10 (1998): 280–89.

43. S. Castner, “Long-lasting psychotomimetic consequences of repeated low-dose amphetamine exposure in rhesus monkeys,” Neuropsychopharmacology 20 (1999): 10–28.

44. W. Carlezon, “Enduring behavioral effects of early exposure to methylphenidate in rats,” Biological Psychiatry 54 (2003): 1330–37.

45. C. Bolanos, “Methylphenidate treatment during pre- and periadolescence alters behavioral responses to emotional stimuli at adulthood,” Biological Psychiatry 54 (2003): 1317–29.

46. J. Zito, “Rising prevalence of antidepressants among US youths,” Pediatrics 109 (2002): 721–27.

47. R. Fisher, From Placebo to Panacea (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1997), 309.

48. T. Delate, “Trends in the use of antidepressants in a national sample of commercially insured pediatric patients, 1998 to 2002,” Psychiatric Services 55 (2004): 387–91.

49. Editorial, “Depressing research,” Lancet 363 (2004): 1335.

50. T. Laughren, Memorandum, “Background comments for Feb. 2, 2004 meeting of psychopharmacological drugs advisory committee,” January 5, 2004. Accessed at fda.gov.

51. J. Leo, “The SSRI trials in children,” Ethical Human Psychology and Psychiatry 8 (2006): 29–41.

52. C. Whittington, “Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in childhood depression,” Lancet 363 (2004): 1341–45.

53. Editorial, “Depressing research,” Lancet 363 (2004): 1335.

54. J. Jureidini, “Efficacy and safety of antidepressants for children and adolescents,” British Medical Journal (2004): 879–83.

55. T. Wilens, “A systematic chart review of the nature of psychiatric adverse events in children and adolescents treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors,” Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 13 (2003): 143–52.

56. T. Gualtieri, “Antidepressant side effects in children and adolescents,” Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology 16 (2006): 147–57.

57. P. Breggin, Brain-Disabling Treatments in Psychiatry (New York: Springer Publishing Company, 2008), 153.

58. D. Papolos, The Bipolar Child (New York: Broadway Books, 2000), xiv.

59. C. Moreno, “National trends in the outpatient diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder in youth,” Archives of General Psychiatry 64 (2007): 1032–39.

60. J. Kluger, “Young and Bipolar,” Time, August 19, 2002.

61. L. Lurie, “Psychoses in children,” Journal of Pediatrics 36 (1950): 801–9.

62. Ibid.

63. B. Hall, “Our present knowledge about manic-depressive states in childhood,” Nervous Child 9 (1952): 319–25.

64. J. Anthony, “Manic-depressive psychosis in childhood,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 1 (1960): 53–72.

65. W. Weinberg, “Mania in childhood,” American Journal of Diseases of Childhood 130 (1976): 380–85.

66. R. DeLong, “Lithium carbonate treatment of select behavior disorders in children suggesting manic-depressive illness,” Journal of Pediatrics 93 (1978): 689–94.

67. M. Strober, “Bipolar illness in adolescents with major depression,” Archives of General Psychiatry 39 (1982): 549–55.

68. P. Lewinsohn, “Bipolar disorders in a community sample of older adolescents,” Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 34 (1995): 454–63.

69. G. Carlson, “Manic symptoms in psychiatrically hospitalized children—what do they mean?” Journal of Affective Disorders 51 (1998): 123–35.

70. J. Kluger, “Young and Bipolar.”

71. D. Janowsky, “Proceedings: effect of intravenous d-amphetamine, l-amphetamine and methylphenidate in schizophrenics,” Psychopharmacology Bulletin 19 (1974): 15–24.

72. E. Cherland, “Psychotic side effects of psychostimulants,” Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 44 (1999): 811–13.

73. K. Gelperin, “Psychiatric adverse events associated with drug treatment of ADHD,” FDA, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, March 3, 2006.

74. D. Papolos, “Bipolar disorder, co-occuring conditions, and the need for extreme caution before initiating drug treatment,” Bipolar Child Newsletter 1 (November 1999).

75. M. DelBello, “Prior stimulant treatment in adolescents with bipolar disorder,” Bipolar Disorders 3 (2001): 53–57.

76. J. Biederman, “Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and juvenile mania,” Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 35 (1996): 997–1008.

77. J. Jain, “Fluoxetine in children and adolescents with mood disorders,” Journal of Child & Adolescent Psychopharmacology 2 (1992): 259–65.

78. G. Emslie, “A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of fluoxetine in children and adolescents with depression,” Archives of General Psychiatry 54 (1997): 1031–37.

79. P. Breggin, The Anti-Depressant Fact Book (Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing, 2001), 116.

80. A. Martin, “Age effects on antidepressant-induced manic conversion,” Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 158 (2004): 773–80.

81. G. Faedda, “Pediatric onset bipolar disorder,” Harvard Review of Psychiatry 3 (1995): 171–95.

82. B. Geller, “Bipolar disorder at prospective follow-up of adults who had prepubertal major depressive disorder,” American Journal of Psychiatry 158 (2001): 125–27.

83. D. Cicero, “Antidepressant exposure in bipolar children,” Psychiatry 66 (2003): 317–22.

84. D. Papolos, “Antidepressant-induced adverse effects in juvenile-onset bipolar disorder,” paper presented at the Fifth International Conference on Bipolar Disorder, June 12–14, 2003, Pittsburgh, PA.

85. G. Faedda, “Pediatric bipolar disorder,” Bipolar Disorders 6 (2004): 305–13.

86. M. Hellander, “Children with bipolar disorder,” Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 38 (1999): 495.

87. H. Marano, “Crisis on the campus,” Psychology Today, May 2, 2002.

88. C. Reichart, “Earlier onset of bipolar disorder in children by antidepressants or stimulants,” Journal of Affective Disorders 78 (2004): 81–84. Also see abstracts presented at the Fourth International Conference on Bipolar Disorder in Pittsburgh, June 2001.

89. B. Geller, “Child and adolescent bipolar disorder,” Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 36 (1997): 1168–76.

90. Papolos, “Antidepressant-induced adverse effects.”

91. G. Faedda, “Treatment-emergent mania in pediatric bipolar disorder,” Journal of Affective Disorders (82): 149–58.

92. R. Perlis, “Long-term implications of early onset in bipolar disorder,” Biological Psychiatry 55 (2004): 875–81.

93. B. Birmaher, “Course and outcome of bipolar spectrum disorder in children and adolescents,” Development and Psychopathology 18 (2006): 1023–35.

94. M. DelBello, “Twelve-month outcome of adolescents with bipolar disorder following first hospitalization for a manic or mixed episode,” American Journal of Psychiatry 164 (2007): 582–90.

95. T. Goldstein, “Psychosocial functioning among bipolar youth,” Journal of Affective Disorders 114 (2009): 174–83.

96. B. Geller, “Two-year prospective follow-up of children with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype,” American Journal of Psychiatry 159 (2002): 927–33.

97. “Hayes says new treatments for pediatric bipolar disorder not ready for prime time” (December 3, 2008 press release), accessed at hayesinc.com, August 2, 2009.

98. Social Security Administration, annual statistical reports on the SSI program, 1996–2008; Social Security Bulletin, Annual Statistical Supplement, 1988–1992.

99. Pediatric Academic Societies, “Pediatric psychiatry admissions on the rise,” May 16, 2000, press release.

100. D. Satcher, Report of Surgeon General’s Conference on Children’s Mental Health (U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, 2001).

101. B. Whitford, “Depression, eating disorders and other mental illnesses are on the rise,” Newsweek, August 27, 2008.

102. U.S. Government Accountability Office, “Young adults with serious mental illness” (June 2008).

Chapter 12: Suffer the Children

1. J. Zito, “Psychotropic medication patterns among youth in foster care,” Pediatrics 121 (2008): 157–63.

Chapter 13: The Rise of an Ideology

1. C. Ross, Pseudoscience in Psychiatry (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1995).

2. G. Klerman, “A debate on DSM-III,” American Journal of Psychiatry 141 (1984): 539–42.

3. M. Sabshin, “Report of the medical director,” American Journal of Psychiatry 137 (1980): 1308.

4. See blurbs for second edition of The Myth of Mental Illness, published by Harper & Row in 1974.

5. B. Nelson, “Psychiatry’s anxious years,” New York Times, November 2, 1982.

6. D. Adler, “The medical model and psychiatry’s tasks,” Hospital and Community Psychiatry 32 (1981): 387–92.

7. Sabshin, “Report of the medical director.”

8. Nelson, “Psychiatry’s anxious years.”

9. Copy from a Smith Kline and French advertisement that ran monthly in Mental Hospitals in 1962.

10. L. Thorne, “Inside Russia’s psychiatric jails,” New York Times Magazine, June 12, 1977.

11. U.S. Senate, Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee to Investigate Juvenile Delinquency, Drugs in Institutions, 94th Cong., 1st sess., 1975.

12. A. Tone, The Age of Anxiety (New York: Basic Books, 2009), 176.

13. M. Smith, Small Comfort (New York: Praeger, 1985), 32.

14. Interview with Arthur Platt, June 8, 2009.

15. M. Sabshin, “On remedicalization and holism in psychiatry,” Psychosomatics 18 (1977): 7–8.

16. A. Ludwig, “The medical basis of psychiatry,” American Journal of Psychiatry 134 (1977): 1087–92.

17. P. Blaney, “Implications of the medical model and its alternatives,” American Journal of Psychiatry 132 (1975): 911–14.

18. S. Guze, “Nature of psychiatric illness,” Comprehensive Psychiatry 19 (1978): 295–307.

19. Adler, “The medical model.”

20. M. Wilson, “DSM-III and the transformation of American psychiatry,” American Journal of Psychiatry 150 (1993): 399–410.

21. S. Kirk, The Selling of DSM (New York: Aldine de Gruyter, 1992), 114.

22. Ibid, 134.

23. M. Sabshin, “Turning points in twentieth-century American psychiatry,” American Journal of Psychiatry (1990): 1267–74.

24. Klerman, “A debate on DSM-III.”

25. J. Maxmen, The New Psychiatrists (New York: New American Library, 1985), 35, 31.

26. H. Kutchins, Making Us Crazy (New York: The Free Press, 1997), 248.

27. Kirk, The Selling of DSM, 115.

28. M. Sabshin, “Report of the medical director” (1980), 1308.

29. L. Havens, “Twentieth-century psychiatry,” American Journal of Psychiatry 138 (1981): 1279–87.

30. B. Bursten, “Rallying ’round the medical model,” Hospital and Community Psychiatry 32 (1981): 371.

31. Sources for this political battle include reviews by NIMH’s “Clinical Programs Projects Research Review Committee” on April 27, 1970; April 1–2, 1973; April 1974; April 21, 1975; June 27, 1977; December 1, 1977; February 17–18, 1978; and June 26–27, 1978.

32. Interview with Loren Mosher, December 1, 2000.

33. M. Sabshin, “Report of the medical director,” American Journal of Psychiatry 138 (1981): 1418–21.

34. P. Breggin, Toxic Psychiatry (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1991), 360.

35. Sabshin, “Report of the medical director” (1981).

36. M. Sabshin, “Report of the medical director,” American Journal of Psychiatry 140 (1983): 1398–1403.

37. R. Peele, “Report of the speaker-elect,” American Journal of Psychiatry 143 (1986): 1348–50.

38. M. Sabshin, “Report of the medical director,” American Journal of Psychiatry 143 (1986): 1342–46.

39. M. Sabshin, “Report of the medical director,” American Journal of Psychiatry 145 (1988): 1338–42.

40. Sabshin, “Report of the medical director” (1981).

41. M. Sabshin, Changing American Psychiatry (Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc., 2008), 78.

42. Sabshin, “Report of the medical director” (1983).

43. Sabshin, “Report of the medical director” (1986).

44. New York Times, November 26, 1981; September 7, 1982; July 29, 1984.

45. J. Franklin, “The Mind-Fixers,” Baltimore Evening Sun, July 1984.

46. M. Gold, The Good News About Depression (New York: Villard Books, 1987), xi–xiii.

47. N. Andreasen, The Broken Brain (New York: Harper & Row, 1984), 29–30.

48. Ibid, 138.

49. Franklin, “The Mind-Fixers.”

50. Sabshin, Changing American Psychiatry, 194.

51. M. Dumont, “In bed together at the market,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 60 (1990): 484–85.

52. F. Gottlieb, “Report of the speaker,” American Journal of Psychiatry 142 (1985): 1246–49.

53. Breggin, Toxic Psychiatry, 46, 357.

54. P. Breggin, Medication Madness (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2008), 150.

55. S. Boseley, “Scandal of scientists who take money for papers ghostwritten by drug companies,” Guardian, February 7, 2002.

56. M. Angel, “Is academic medicine for sale?” New England Journal of Medicine 342 (2000): 1516–18.

57. D. Regier, “The NIMH depression awareness, recognition, and treatment program,” American Journal of Psychiatry 145 (1988): 1351–57.

58. Breggin, Toxic Psychiatry, 14.

59. E. Foulks, “Advocating for persons who are mentally ill,” Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research 27 (2000): 353–67.

60. A. Hatfield, “The National Alliance for the Mentally Ill,” Community Mental Health Journal 27 (1991): 95–103.

61. E. Benedek, “Report of the secretary,” American Journal of Psychiatry 144 (1987): 1381–88.

62. Breggin, Toxic Psychiatry, 363.

63. Foulks, “Advocating for persons.”

64. K. Silverstein, “Prozac.org,” Mother Jones, November/December 1999.

65. R. Behar, “The thriving cult of greed and power,” Time, May 6, 1991.

Chapter 14: The Story That Was … and Wasn’t Told

1. D. Healy, Mania (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008), 132.

2. G. Carson, The Roguish World of Doctor Brinkley (New York: Rinehart & Co., 1960).

3. P. Breggin, Brain-Disabling Treatments in Psychiatry (New York: Springer Publishing Co., 2008), 390.

4. “Fluoxetine project team meeting,” July 31, 1978, accessed at healyprozac.com.

5. “Fluoxetine project team meeting,” July 23, 1979, accessed at healyprozac.com.

6. J. Cornwell, The Power to Harm (New York: Viking, 1996), 147–48.

7. D. Healy, Let Them Eat Prozac (New York: New York University Press, 2004), 39.

8. Ibid, 128.

9. Ibid, 249.

10. BGA letter to Eli Lilly, May 25, 1984, Forsyth v. Eli Lilly trial documents, exhibit 42. See baumhedlundlaw.com/media/timeline.

11. Forsyth v. Eli Lilly trial documents, exhibit 58.

12. Cornwell, The Power to Harm, 198.

13. Healy, Let Them Eat Prozac, 35.

14. P. Breggin, Talking Back to Prozac (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1994), 41.

15. Ibid, 46.

16. Ibid, 90. Also see P. Breggin, Brain-Disabling Treatments in Psychiatry, 79, 86, 91.

17. D. Graham, “Sponsor’s ADR submission on fluoxetine dated July 17, 1990,” FDA document, September 1990.

18. T. Moore, “Hard to Swallow,” Washingtonian, December 1997.

19. D. Kessler, “Introducing MEDWatch,” Journal of the American Medical Association 269 (1993): 2765–68.

20. J. Bremner, “Fluoxetine in depressed patients,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 45 (1984): 414–19.

21. J. Feigner, “A comparative trial of fluoxetine and amitriptyline in patients with major depressive disorder,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 46 (1985): 369–72.

22. J. Cohn, “A comparison of fluoxetine, imipramine, and placebo in patients with major depressive disorder,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 46 (1985): 26–31.

23. J. Wernicke, “The side effect profile and safety of fluoxetine,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 46 (1985): 59–67.

24. P. Stark, “A review of multicenter controlled studies of fluoxetine vs. imipramine and placebo in outpatients with major depressive disorder,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 46 (1985): 53–58.

25. S. Levine, “A comparative trial of a new antidepressant, fluoxetine,” British Journal of Psychiatry 150 (1987): 653–55.

26. R. Pary, “Fluoxetine: prescribing guidelines for the newest antidepressant,” Southern Medical Journal 82 (1989): 1005–9.

27. D. Regier, “The NIMH depression awareness, recognition and treatment program,” American Journal of Psychiatry 145 (1988): 1351–57.

28. Healy, Let Them Eat Prozac, 9.

29. F. Schumer, “Bye-Bye, Blues,” New York, December 18, 1989.

30. G. Cowley, “Prozac: A Breakthrough Drug for Depression,” Newsweek, March 26, 1990.

31. N. Angier, “New antidepressant is acclaimed but not perfect,” New York Times, March 29, 1990.

32. B. Duncan, “Exposing the mythmakers,” Psychotherapy Networker, March/April 2000.

33. M. Waldholz, “Prozac said to spur idea of suicide,” Wall Street Journal, July 18, 1990.

34. Ibid. Also see S. Shellenbarger, “Eli Lilly stock plunges $4.375 on news of another lawsuit over Prozac drug,” Wall Street Journal, July 27, 1990.

35. Memo from Leigh Thompson to Allan Weinstein, February 7, 1990, accessed at healyprozac.com

36. Memo from Mitch Daniels to Leigh Thompson, “Upcoming TV appearance,” April 15, 1991, accessed at healyprozac.com.

37. Ibid.

38. T. Burton, “Medical flap: Anti-depression drug of Eli Lilly loses sales after attack by sect,” Wall Street Journal, April 19, 1991.

39. L. Garnett, “Prozac revisited,” Boston Globe, May 7, 2000.

40. R. Behar, “The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power,” Time, May 6, 1991.

41. T. Burton, “Panel finds no credible evidence to tie Prozac to suicides and violent behavior,” Wall Street Journal, September 23, 1991.

42. S. Begley, “Beyond Prozac,” Newsweek, February 7, 1994.

43. P. Breggin, Toxic Psychiatry (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1991), 348–50. In this book, Breggin detailed the bad science involved in the Xanax trials, the co-opting of academic psychiatry, and the involvement of the APA in marketing the drug.

44. “High Anxiety,” Consumer Reports, January 1993.

45. C. Ballenger, “Alprazolam in panic disorder and agoraphobia,” Archives of General Psychiatry 45 (1988): 413–22.

46. R. Noyes, “Alprazolam in panic disorder and agoraphobia,” Archives of General Psychiatry 45 (1988): 423–28.

47. J. Pecknold, “Alprazolam in panic disorder and agoraphobia,” Archives of General Psychiatry 45 (1988): 429–36.

48. Ballenger, “Alprazolam in panic disorder.”

49. Noyes, “Alprazolam in panic disorder.”

50. Pecknold, “Alprazolam in panic disorder.”

51. I. Marks, “The ‘efficacy’ of alprazolam in panic disorder and agoraphobia,” Archives of General Psychiatry 46 (1989): 668–72.

52. I. Marks, “Reply to comment on the London/Toronto study,” British Journal of Psychiatry 162 (1993): 790–94.

53. Breggin, Toxic Psychiatry, 344–53.

54. F. Pollner, “Don’t overlook panic disorder,” Medical World News, October 1, 1991.

55. J. Randal, “In a panic?” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, October 7, 1990.

56. H. Brown, “Panic attacks keeps thousands from malls, off roads,” Associated Press, November 19, 1990.

57. R. Davis, “When panic is disabling,” Chicago Sun-Times, June 29, 1992.

58. “High Anxiety,” Consumer Reports.

59. FDA reviews of risperidone data included the following written commentaries: reviews by Andrew Mosholder, May 11, 1993, and November 7, 1993; David Hoberman, April 20, 1993; and Thomas Laughren, December 20, 1993.

60. Approval letter from Robert Temple to Janssen Research Foundation, December 29, 1993.

61. S. Marder, “The effects of risperidone on the five dimensions of schizophrenia derived by factor analysis,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 58 (1997): 538–46.

62. “New hope for schizophrenia,” Washington Post, February 16, 1993.

63. “Seeking safer treatments for schizophrenia,” New York Times, January 15, 1992.

64. FDA reviews of olanzapine data included the following written commentaries: reviews by Thomas Laughren on September 27, 1996; by Paul Andreason on July 29 and September 26, 1996; and by Paul Leber on August 18 and August 30, 1996.

65. C. Beasley, “Efficacy of olanzapine,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 58, suppl. 10 (1997): 7–12.

66. “Psychosis drug from Eli Lilly racks up gains,” Wall Street Journal, April 14, 1998.

67. “A new drug for schizophrenia wins approval from the FDA,” New York Times, October 2, 1996.

68. “Schizophrenia, close-up of the troubled brain,” Parade, November 21, 1999.

69. “Mental illness aid,” Chicago Tribune, June 4, 1999.

70. “Lives recovered,” Los Angeles Times, January 30, 1996.

71. P. Weiden, Breakthroughs in Antipsychotic Medications (New York: W.W. Norton, 1999), 26

72. Wall Street Journal, “Psychosis drug from Eli Lilly.”

73. “High Anxiety,” Consumer Reports.

74. J. Lieberman, “Effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs in patients with schizophrenia,” New England Journal of Medicine (2005): 1209–33.

75. L. Davies, “Cost-effectiveness of first-v. second-generation antipsychotic drugs.” British Journal of Psychiatry 191 (2007): 14–22.

76. P. Tyrer, “The spurious advance of antipsychotic drug therapy,” Lancet 373 (2009): 4–5.

77. Interview with Peter Breggin, October 10, 2008.

78. Healy interview on CBS News and Current Affairs, June 12, 2001.

79. D. Healy, “Psychopharmacology and the government of the self,” talk given November 30, 2000, at the University of Toronto.

80. E-mail from David Goldbloom to David Healy, December 7, 2000.

81. Interview with Healy by e-mail, July 4, 2009.

82. Memo from Larry Carpman to Steve Kurkjian, April 11, 2000.

83. “Science News from 2007,” NIMH website, accessed on July 2, 2009.

84. NIMH press release, July 20, 2007.

85. J. Sharkey, “Delusions; paranoia is universal,” New York Times, August 2, 1998.

86. Search of NAMI website on July 7, 2009.

87. R. Hales, The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Psychiatry (Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, 2008).

Chapter 15: Tallying Up the Profits

1. D. Carlat, “Dr. Drug Rep,” New York Times, November 25, 2007.

2. NAMI IRS 990 Form, 2000.

3. B. Koerner, “First you market the disesase, then you push the pills to treat it,” Guardian, July 30, 2002.

4. E. Tanouye, “Antidepressant makers study kids’ market,” Wall Street Journal, April 4, 1997.

5. B. Strauch, “Use of antidepression medicine for young patients has soared,” New York Times, August 10, 1997.

6. Tanouye, “Antidepressant makers.”

7. Deposition of Joseph Biederman in legal case of Avila v. Johnson & Johnson Co., February 26, 2009, pages 139, 231, 232, 237.

8. J. Biederman, “Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and juvenile mania,” Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 35 (1996): 997–1008.

9. Deposition of Joseph Biederman, p. 158.

10. Margaret Williams, report on a sales call, May 17, 2002.

11. J. J. Zorc, “Expenditures for psychotropic medications in the United States in 1985,” American Journal of Psychiatry 148 (1991): 644–47

12. “Top therapeutic classes by U.S. sales, 2008,” IMS Health.

13. S. Giled, “Better but not best,” Health Affairs 28 (2009): 637–48.

14. These calculations are based on Eli Lilly’s annual 10-K reports filed with the SEC from 1987 to 2000. Capitalization figures for 1987 and 2000 are based on prices in the fourth quarter of each year.

15. J. Pereira, “Emory professor steps down,” Wall Street Journal, December 23, 2008.

16. C. Schneider, “Emory psychiatrist reprimanded over outside work,” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, June 11, 2009.

17. G. Harris, “Radio host has drug company ties,” New York Times, November 22, 2008.

18. GlaxoSmithKline internal memo, “Seroxat/Paxil adolescent depression. Position piece on the phase III studies,” October 1998.

19. M. Keller, “Efficacy of paroxetine in the treatment of adolescent major depression,” Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 40 (2001): 762–72.

20. E. Ramshaw, “Senator questions doctors’ ties to drug companies,” Dallas Morning News, September 24, 2008.

21. L. Kowalczyk, “US cites Boston psychiatrist in case vs. drug firm,” Boston Globe, March 6, 2009.

22. G. Harris, “Lawmaker calls for registry of drug firms paying doctors,” New York Times, August 4, 2007.

23. G. Harris, “Researchers fail to reveal full drug pay,” New York Times, June 8, 2008.

24. Avila v. Johnson & Johnson, deposition of Joseph Biederman, February 26, 2009, 119.

25. J. Biederman, Annual Report 2002: The Johnson & Johnson Center for Pediatric Psychopathology at the Massachusetts General Hospital.

26. J. Olson, “Drug makers step up giving to Minnesota psychiatrists,” Pioneer Press, August 27, 2007.

27. Margaret Williams, reports on sales calls, April 20, 2001, and April 8, 2002.

28. Eli Lilly grant registry, 2009, 1st quarter.

29. E. Mundell, “U.S. spending on mental health care soaring,” HealthDay, August 6, 2009.

30. T. Mark, “Mental health treatment expenditure trends, 1986–2003,” Psychiatric Services 58 (2007): 1041–48. Seven percent of national health expenditures in 2008 went to mental health services; by 2015, this figure is expected to rise to 8 percent. Data on national health expenditures in 2008, and projected expenditures in 2015, are from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Chapter 16: Blueprints for Reform

1. MindFreedom, “Original statement by the fast for freedom in mental health,” July 28, 2003.

2. Letter from James Scully to David Oaks, August 12, 2003.

3. Letter from MindFreedom scientific panel to James Scully, August 22, 2003.

4. APA statement on “diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders,” September 26, 2003.

5. Letter from MindFreedom scientific panel to James Scully, December 15, 2003.

6. Interview with David Oaks, October 4, 2009.

7. J. Modrow, How to Become a Schizophrenic (Seattle: Apollyon Press, 1992), ix.

8. Interview with David Healy in Bangor, Wales, September 4, 2009.

9. D. Healy, “Psychiatric bed utilization,” Psychological Medicine 31 (2001): 779–90; D. Healy, “Service utilization in 1896 and 1996,” History of Psychiatry 16 (2005): 37–41. Also, Healy, unpublished data on readmission rates for first-episode psychosis, 1875–1924, and 1994–2003.

10. Interviews with Yrjö Alanen, Jukka Aaltonen, and Viljo Räkköläinen in Turku, Finland, September 7, 2009.

11. V. Lehtinen, “Two-year outcome in first-episode psychosis treated according to an integrated model,” European Psychiatry 15 (2000): 312–20.

12. Interview with Jaakko Seikkula in Jyväskylä, Finland, September 9, 2009.

13. J. Seikkula, “Five year experience of first-episode nonaffective psychosis in open-dialogue approach,” Psychotherapy Research 16 (2006): 214–28. Also see: J. Seikkula, “A two-year follow-up on open dialogue treatment in first episode psychosis,” Society of Clinical Psychology 10 (2000): 20–29; J. Seikkula, “Open dialogue, good and poor outcome,” Journal of Constructivist Psychology 14 (2002): 267–86; J. Seikkula, “Open dialogue approach: treatment principles and preliminary results of a two-year follow-up on first episode schizophrenia,” Ethical Human Sciences Services 5 (2003): 163–82.

14. Interviews with staff at Keropudas Hospital in Tornio, Finland, September 10 and 11, 2009.

15. Outcomes for 2002–2006 study and for spending in western Lapland on psychiatric services from interviews with Jaakko Seikkula and Birgitta Alakare. See also the published papers by Seikkula, op. cit.

16. J. Cullberg, “Integrating intensive psychosocial therapy and low dose medical treatment in a total material of first episode psychotic patients compared to treatment as usual,” Medical Archives 53 (1999): 167–70.

17. W. Buchan, Domestic Medicine (Boston: Otis, Broaders, and Co., 1846), 307.

18. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, “Depression,” December 2004.

19. Interview with Andrew McCulloch in London, September 3, 2009.

20. F. Dimeo, “Benefits from aerobic exercise in patients with major depression,” British Journal of Sports Medicine 35 (2001): 114–17; K. Knubben, “A randomized, controlled study on the effects of a short-term endurance training programme in patients with major depression,” British Journal of Sports Medicine 41 (2007): 29–33; A. Ströhle, “Physical activity, exercise, depression and anxiety disorders,” Journal of Neural Transmission 116 (2009): 777–84.

21. J. Blumenthal, “Effects of exercise training on older patients with major depression,” Archives of Internal Medicine 159 (1999): 2349–56.

22. Ibid.

23. Interviews with Tony Stanton and staff at Seneca Center in San Leandro, California, July 13 and 14, 2009.

24. Interviews with Keith Scott and Chris Gordon, Framingham, Massachusetts, October 1, 2009.

25. Ibid.

26. Interview with Jim Gottstein in Anchorage, Alaska, May 10, 2009.

27. M. Ford, “The psychiatrist’s double bind,” American Journal of Psychiatry 137 (1980): 332–39.

28. Myers v. Alaska Psychiatric Institute, Alaska Supreme Court No. S-11021.

29. Interview with Susan Musante in Anchorage, Alaska, May 10, 2009.

Epilogue

1. E. Whipple, Character and Characteristic Men (Boston: Ticknor & Fields, 1866), 1.

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