Notes

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INTRODUCTION: ALBION

1.S.B. Greenfield and D. G. Calder, A New Critical History of Old English Literature, p. 58.

2. ibid., p. 61.

3. Michael Wood, In Search of England, p. 100.

4. ibid.

5. ibid., p. 16.

1. THE TREE

1. Joan Evans, English Art 1307–1461, p. 54.

2. Francis Spufford, The Child that Books Built, p. 24.

2. THE RADIATES

1. K. R. Dark, Civitas to Kingdom, p. 184.

2. ibid., p. 191.

3. LISTEN!

1. E. M. W. Tillyard, The English Epic and Its Background, p. 171.

2. Kenneth Sisam, Studies in the History of Old English Literature, p. 28.

4. WHY IS A RAVEN LIKE A WRITING DESK?

1. The Exeter Book Riddles, ed. and trans. Kevin Crossley-Holland, p. 68.

2. ibid., p. 24.

3. ibid., p. 28.

4. John Stephens, Music and Poetry in the Early Tudor Court, p. 17.

5. John Leyerle, “The Interlace Structure of Beowulf,” University of Toronto Quarterly, October 1967, p. 81.

6. The Owl and the Nightingale, trans. Brian Stone, p. 162.

7. John Caldwell, The Oxford History of English Music, Volume 2, p. 226.

8. ibid., Volume 1, p. 162.

9. A. R. Braunmuller, “The Arts of the Dramatist,” in The Cambridge Companion to English Renaissance Drama, ed. A. R. Braunmuller and Michael Hattaway, p. 73.

10. Graham Hough, A Preface to the Fairie Queen, p. 93.

11. Margaret Rickert, Painting in Britain: The Middle Ages, p. 47.

12. Joan Evans, English Art, 1307–1461, p. 5.

5. A RARE AND SINGULAR BEDE

1. A. H. Thompson (ed.), Bede, His Life, Times and Writings, p. 62.

2. Kevin Crossley-Holland (ed. and trans.), The Anglo-Saxon World, p. 241.

3. J. F. Webb (ed. and trans.), The Age of Bede, p. 203.

4. S. B. Greenfield and D. G. Calder, A New Critical History of Old English Literature, p. 8.

5. Bede, A History of he English Church and People, trans. Leo Sherley-Price, rev. R. E. Latham, p. 205.

6. Edwin Jones, The English Nation: The Great Myth, p. 2.

7. Webb, p. 23.

8. ibid., p. 178.

9. D. Talbot Rice, English Art, 871–1100, p. 36.

10. Greenfield and Calder, p. 31.

11. D. Parsons (ed.), Tenth-Century Studies, p. 44.

12. ibid., p. 8.

13. Talbot Rice, p. 47.

6. THE SONG OF THE PAST

1. Wilhelm Levison, “Bede as Historian,” in Bede, ed. A. H. Thompson, p. 142.

2. R. W. Southern, Medieval Humanism, p. 7.

3. All quotations are from Nennius, History of the Britons, ed. A. W. Wade-Evans.

4. Kevin Crossley-Holland (ed. and trans.), The Anglo-Saxon World, p. 35.

7. THE LIVES OF OTHERS

1. J. Boffey, “Middle English Lives.” In The Cambridge History of Medieval Literature, ed. D. Wallace, p. 617.

2. The Voyage of St. Brendan, ed. J. J. O’Meara, p. xiv.

3. J. F. Webb (ed. and trans.), The Age of Bede, p. 216.

4. ibid., p. 221.

5. John Wasson, “The Morality Plays: Ancestor of Elizabethan Drama,” in The Drama of the Middle Ages, ed. C. Davidson et al., p. 322.

6. ibid., p. 325.

8. A LAND OF DREAMS

1. Humphrey Carpenter, J. R. R. Tolkien: A Biography, p. 64.

2. R. W. Southern, Medieval Humanism, p. 146.

3. Bede, A History of the English Church and People, trans. Leo Sherley-Price, rev. R. E. Latham, p. 127.

4. ibid., p. 175.

5. ibid., p. 285.

6. ibid., p. 289.

7. J. F. Webb (ed. and trans.), The Age of Bede, p. 52.

8. M. Rickert, Painting in Britain: The Middle Ages, p. 172.

9. A NOTE ON ENGLISH MELANCHOLY

1. S. A. J. Bradley (ed.), Anglo-Saxon Poetry, p. 359.

2. John Caldwell (ed.), The Oxford History of English Music, Volume 1, p. 31.

3. ibid., pp. 73–4.

4. E. K. Chambers, Malory and Fifteenth-Century Drama, Lyrics and Ballads, p. 198.

5. Caldwell (ed.), Volume 1, p. 427.

6. Wilfred Mellers, “Music: Paradise and Paradox,” in Seventeenth-Century Britain, ed. Boris Ford, p. 196.

7. Ellis Waterhouse, Painting in Britain 1530–1790, p. 139.

8. John Murdoch, “Painting: From Astraea to Augustus,” in Seventeenth-Century Britain, ed. Boris Ford, p. 254.

9. Andrew Varney, Eighteenth-Century Writers in Their World, pp. 176–7.

10. Waterhouse, p. 235.

10. THE ROLLING HILLS

1. W. G. Hoskins, The Making of the English Landscape, p. 285.

2. J. F. Webb (ed. and trans.), The Age of Bede, p. 56.

3. ibid., p. 69.

4. Christopher Woodward, In Ruins, p. 119.

5. ibid., p. 120.

6. William Gaunt, A Concise History of English Painting, p. 111.

11. IT RAINED ALL NIGHT

1. Kevin Crossley-Holland (ed. and trans.), The Anglo-Saxon World, p. 242.

2. S. A. J. Bradley (ed. and trans.), Anglo-Saxon Poetry, p. 142.

3. ibid., p. 21.

4. ibid., p. 34.

5. Kenneth Sisam, Studies in the History of Old English Literature, p. 23.

6. Bede, A History of the English Church and People, trans. Leo Sherley-Price, rev. R. E. Latham, pp. 129–30.

7. Peter Conrad, The Everyman History of English Literature, p. 451.

8. Kenneth Clark, On the Painting of English Landscape, p. 14.

9. Margaret Drabble, A Writer’s Britain, p. 189.

10. Peter Woodcock, The Enchanted Isle, p. 25.

11. ibid., p. 16.

12. ibid., p. 31.

12. THE PROSE OF THE WORLD

1. A. P. Smyth, King Alfred the Great, p. 549.

2. ibid., p. 560.

3. Patrick Wormald, “Anglo-Saxon Society and Its Literature,” in The Cambridge Companion to Old English Literature, ed. Malcolm Godden and Michael Lapidge, p. 19.

4. Smyth, p. 525.

5. ibid., p. 531.

6. ibid., p. 530.

7. S. B. Greenfield and D. G. Calder, A New Critical History of Old English Literature, p. 61.

8. W. P. Ker, Medieval English Literature, p. 55.

9. K. H. Jackson, Language and History in Early Britain, p. 107.

10. ibid., p. 108.

13. THE FIRST INITIALS

1. Margaret Rickert, Painting in Britain: The Middle Ages, p. 19.

2. Christopher Kendrick, “Preaching Common Grounds,” in Writing and the English Renaissance, ed. William Zunder and Suzanne Trill, p. 179.

3. D. Talbot Rice, English Art, 871–1100, pp. 174–5.

4. ibid., p. 6.

5. Nikolaus Pevsner, The Englishness of English Art, p. 137.

6. ibid., p. 138.

7. Eric Mercer, English Art, 1553–1625, p. 156.

8. John Stephens, Music and Poetry in the Early Tudor Court, p. 100.

9. Margaret Whinney and Oliver Millar, English Art, 1625–1714 , p. 22.

10. David Watkin, English Architecture, p. 67.

11. William Gaunt, A Concise History of English Painting, p. 200.

12. Rickert, p. 65.

13. ibid., p. 95.

14. Walter Oakeshott, The Sequence of English Medieval Art, p. 44.

15. St. Erkenwald, trans. Brian Stone, p. 31.

14. ANGLO-SAXON ATTITUDES

1. J. W. Lever, “Paradise Lost and the Anglo-Saxon Tradition,” Review of English Studies, Vol. 23, No. 90, p. 100.

2. ibid., p. 98.

3. D. Talbot Rice, English Art, 871–1100, pp. 95–6.

15. THE ALTERATION

1. Derek Brewer, “Medieval European Literature,” in Pelican Guide to Medieval Literature, Volume 2, p. 74.

2. R. W. Southern, Medieval Humanism, p. 161.

3. G. Zarnecki, “1066 and Architectural Sculpture,” PBA , Vol. 52, 1966, p. 102.

4. Elizabeth Salter, English and International Studies in the Literature, Art and Patronage of Medieval England, p. 6.

5. D. Pearsall, Old English and Middle English Poetry, p. 76.

6. Lesley Johnson, “Dynastic Chronicles,” in The Arthur of the English, ed. W. R. J. Barron, p. 40.

7. W. F. Bolton, A Short History of Literary English, p. 35.

8. Norman Davies, The Isles, p. 425.

9. May McKisack, The Fourteenth Century, p. 525.

10. John Caldwell (ed.), The Oxford History of English Music, Volume 1, p. 108.

11. Sheila Lindbaum, “London Texts and Literary Practice,” in The Cambridge History of Medieval English Literature, ed. D. Wallace, p. 29.

12. ibid., pp. 284–5.

16. HE IS NOT DEAD

1. Ceridwen Lloyd-Morgan, “The Celtic Tradition,” in The Arthur of the English, ed. W. R. J. Barron, p. 3.

2. Richard Barber, King Arthur, p. 6.

3. ibid., p. 12.

4. Denis Hollier (ed.), A New History of French Literature, p. 41.

5. ibid., p. 51.

6. Barron (ed.), p. 24.

7. Rosamund Allen (trans. and intr.), Brut, p. 28.

8. ibid.

9. Barron (ed.), p. 71.

10. Hollier (ed.), p. 67.

11. Barron (ed.), p. 89.

12. Barber, p. 104.

13. Quoted in Barron (ed.), p. 195.

14. Thomas Malory, Works, ed. Eugene Vinaver, p. 7.

15. Barber, p. 122.

16. Barron (ed.), p. 245.

17. ibid.

18. W. P. Ker, quoted in E. K. Chambers, Malory and Fifteenth-Century Drama, Lyrics and Ballads, p. 198.

19. Chris Brooks and Inga Bryden, “The Arthurian Legacy” in Barron, p. 250.

20. Beverly Taylor and Elizabeth Brewer, The Return of King Arthur, p. 69.

21. ibid., pp. 15–16.

22. ibid., p. 26.

23. ibid., p. 135.

24. Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Letters, ed. C. Y. Lang and E. F. Shannon, Jr., Volume 2, p. 267.

25. Barron (ed.), p. 263.

17. FAITH OF OUR FATHERS

1. G. G. Coulton, Chaucer and His England, p. 282.

2. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, ed. Brian Stone, p. 147.

3. F. L. Utley, The Crooked Rib, p. 29.

4. R. P. Miller, “Allegory in The Canterbury Tales,” in Companion to Chaucer Studies, ed. Beryl Rowland, p. 348.

5. Jody Enders, Rhetoric and the Origins of Medieval Drama, p. 245.

6. Quoted in Martin Thornton, English Spirituality, p. 107.

7. J. A. W. Bennett and Douglas Gray (ed.), Middle English Literature, p. 268.

8. Thornton, p. 169.

9. ibid., p. 89.

10. W. K. Sorley, A History of British Philosophy to 1900, pp. 6–7.

11. T. S. R. Boase, English Art 1800–1870, p. 297.

12. R. W. Southern, Medieval Humanism, p. 177.

18. OLD STONE

1. Peter Brieger, English Art 1216–1307, p. 10.

2. Margaret Rickert, Painting in Britain: The Middle Ages, p. 181.

3. John Caldwell (ed.), The Oxford History of English Music, Volume 1, p. 174.

4. C. S. Lewis, The Discarded Image, p. 210.

5. Alex Clifton-Taylor, The Cathedrals of England, p. 88.

6. Brieger, p. 26.

7. Nikolaus Pevsner, The Englishness of English Art, p. 41.

8. Joan Evans, English Art 1307–1461, p. 9.

9. Quoted in Claude Rawson’s “Henry Fielding,” in The Cambridge Companion to the Eighteenth-Century Novel, ed. John Richetti, p. 130.

10. Derek Pearsall, “The Visual World of the Middle Ages,” in Medieval Literature, ed. Boris Ford, p. 312.

11. Morton W. Bloomfield, “Chaucerian Realism,” in The Cambridge Chaucer Companion, ed. Pierre Boitani and Jill Mann, p. 187.

12. Peter Happé, English Drama before Shakespeare, p. 29.

13. Kenneth Pople, Stanley Spencer, p. 67.

19. PART OF THE TERRITORY

1. Walter Oakeshott, The Sequence of English Medieval Art, p. 22.

2. J. C. Coldewey, “The Non-Cycle Plays and the East Anglian Tradition,” in The Cambridge Companion to Medieval English Theatre, ed. Richard Beadle, p. 189.

3. Alan MacFarlane, The Origins of English Individualism, p. 67.

4. ibid., p. 68.

5. Coldewey, p. 190.

6. ibid., p. 207.

7. Martin Thornton, English Spirituality, p. 203.

8. ibid., p. 214.

9. Coldewey, p. 193.

10. T. S. R. Boase, English Art 1800–1870, p. 35.

20. A SONG AND A DANCE

1. R. T. Davies (ed.), Medieval English Lyrics, p. 32.

2. J. A. W. Bennett and Douglas Gray (eds.), Middle English Literature 1100–1400, p. 202.

3. John Stephens, “Medieval Lyrics and Music,” in Medieval Literature, ed. Boris Ford, Volume 1, p. 270.

4. Bennett and Gray (eds.), p. 138.

5. Six Middle English Romances, ed. Maldwyn Mills, p. xxii.

6. W. R. J. Barron (ed.), The Arthur of the English, p. 132.

7. Bennett and Gray (eds.), p. 18.

8. Rosemary Woolf, “Later Poetry: The Popular Tradition,” in The Middle Ages, ed. W. F. Bolton, p. 277.

9. ibid.

10. ibid.

21. FATHERS AND SONS

1. William Empson, Seven Types of Ambiguity, p. 74.

2. Piero Boitani, “Old Books Brought to Life in Dreams,” in The Cambridge Chaucer Companion, ed. Piero Boitani and Jill Mann, p. 41.

3. ibid., p. 53.

4. Barry Windeatt, “Literary Structures in Chaucer,” in Boitani and Mann (eds.), p. 198.

5. L. D. Benson (ed.), The Riverside Chaucer, p. 840.

6. ibid., p. 885.

7. Derek Pearsall, The Life of Geo frey Chaucer, p. 245.

8. Nikolaus Pevsner, The Englishness of English Art, p. 31.

9. Paul Strohm, quoted in Pearsall, p. 132.

10. Pearsall, p. 112.

11. Pevsner, p. 79.

12. Paul G. Ruggiers, The Art of the Canterbury Tales, p. 17.

13. J. A. W. Bennett and Douglas Gray (eds.), Middle English Literature 1100–1400, p. 142.

14. John Caldwell (ed.), The Oxford History of English Music, Volume 2, p. 173.

15. Donald Cheney, “Narrative, Romance and Epic,” in The Cambridge Companion to English Literature 1500–1600, ed. A. P. Kinney, p. 207.

16. A. Easthope, Englishness and National Culture, p. 96.

23. THE MYSTERIOUS VOICE

1. E. K. Chambers, Malory and Fifteenth-Century Drama, Lyrics and Ballads, p. ci.

2. Richard Rolle, The Fire of Love, ed. and trans. Clifton Wolters, p. 32.

3. Frances Beer, Women and Mystical Experience in the Middle Ages, p. 110.

4. ibid., p. 112.

5. Marion Glasscoe, English Medieval Mystics, p. 165.

24. THE INHERITANCE

1. J. A. W. Bennett and Douglas Gray (eds.), Middle English Literature 1100–1400, p. 62.

2. ibid., p. 281.

3. John Carey, John Donne: His Mind and Art, p. 43.

4. ibid., p. 51.

5. Martin Thornton, English Spirituality, p. 226.

6. ibid., p. 236.

7. C. Palmer, Delius: Portrait of a Cosmopolitan, p. 160.

8. John Caldwell (ed.), The Oxford History of English Music, Volume 2, p. 477.

9. John Marshall, “Modern Productions of Medieval English Plays,” in The Cambridge Companion to Medieval English Theatre, ed. Richard Beadle, p. 290.

25. THE FEMALE RELIGION

1. M. W. Ferguson, “A Room Not Their Own,” in Renaissance Poetry, ed. Christina Malcolmson, p. 158.

2. ibid.

3. Three Old English Elegies, ed. R. F. Leslie, p. 10.

4. ibid., p. 12.

5. Christine Fell, Women in Anglo-Saxon England, p. 70.

6. Marilyn Desmond, quoted in L. A. Fincke, Women’s Writing in English: Medieval England, p. 88.

7. Doris Stenton, quoted in Fell, p. 13.

8. ibid., p. 57.

9. ibid., p. 111.

10. ibid., p. 114.

11. ibid.

12. B. Lewalski, Writing Women in Jacobean England, pp. 6–7.

13. L. Eckenstein, Women under Monasticism, p. 9.

14. J. M. Ferrante, “Marie de France,” in Medieval Women Writers, ed. K. M. Wilson, p. 65.

15. ibid., p. 67.

16. ibid., p. 65.

17. Denis Hollier (ed.), A New History of French Literature, p. 51.

18. ibid., p. 52.

19. Jocelyn Wogan-Browne, “Clerc u lai, muine u dame,” in Women and Literature in Britain: 1150–1500, ed. C. McMeale, p. 74.

20. The Oxford Companion to Christian Thought, ed. Adrian Hastings et al., p. 358.

21. Virginia Woolf, A Room of One’s Own, p. 90.

22. Stevie Davis, Emily Brontë: Heretic, p. 65.

23. Norman Davies, quoted in Felicity Riddy, “Women Talking about the Things of God,” in C. M. Meale (ed.), p. 114.

24. Claire Harman, Fanny Burney, p. 57.

25. Catherine F. Smith, “Jane Lead,” in Shakespeare’s Sisters, ed. S. M. Gilbert and S. Gubar, p. 4.

26. Elaine Hobby, quoted in B. S. Travitsky, “The Possibilities of Prose,” in Redeeming Eve: Women Writers of the English Renaissance, ed. E. V. Beilin, p. 249.

27. Beilin (ed.), p. 49.

28. ibid.

29. Germaine Greer, Slip-Shod Sibyls, p. 44.

30. Gary Waller, quoted in E. H. Hageman, “Women’s Poetry in Early Modern Britain,” in Women and Literature in Britain, 1500–1700, ed. H. Wilcox, p. 194.

31. Beilin (ed.), p. 152.

32. ibid., p. 61.

26. BUT NEWLY TRANSLATED

1. Joan Evans, English Art 1307–1461, p. 133.

2. Ezra Pound, Literary Essays, pp. 34–5.

3. Robin Sowerby, The Classical Legacy in Renaissance Poetry, p. 220.

27. THE ITALIAN CONNECTION

1. Nicholas Von Maltzahn, Milton’s History of Britain, p. 95.

2. Richard Helgerson, Forms of Nationhood, p. 1.

3. Graham Hough, A Preface to The Faerie Queene, p. 97.

4. Maurice Evans, (ed.) The Countess of Pembroke’s “Arcadia,” p. 21.

28. A SHORT HISTORY OF SHAKESPEARE

1. Kenneth Muir, The Sources of Shakespeare’s Plays, p. 12.

29. AND NOW FOR STREAKY BACON

1. D. G. Scragg, “The Nature of Old English Verse,” in The Cambridge Companion to Old English Literature, ed. Malcolm Godden and Michael Lapidge, p. 68.

2. John Caldwell (ed.), The Oxford History of English Music, Volume 1, p. 74.

3. David Watkin, English Architecture, p. 40.

4. Margot Heinemann, “Political Drama,” in The Cambridge Companion to English Renaissance Drama, ed. A. R. Braunmuller and Michael Hattaway, p. 173.

5. Lee Bliss, “Pastiche, Burlesque, Tragicomedy,” in Braunmuller and Hattaway (eds.), p. 244.

6. J. A. Winn, “Theatrical Culture: Theatre and Music,” in The Cambridge Companion to English Literature 1650–1740, ed. S. N. Zwicker, p. 112.

7. Margaret Whinney and Oliver Millar, English Art, 1625–1714 , p. 204.

8. William K. Wimsatt, in J. R. Damrosch (ed.), Modern Essays on Eighteenth- CenturyLiterature, p. 142.

9. Watkin, p. 123.

10. ibid., p. 139.

11. ibid., p. 146.

12. Sally Jeffery, “Architecture,” in Eighteenth-Century Britain, ed. Boris Ford, pp. 253–4.

13. Nikolaus Pevsner, The Englishness of English Art, p. 75.

14. ibid., p. 48.

30. AMONG THE RUINS

1. L. A. Cormican, “Milton’s Religious Verse,” in From Donne to Marvell, ed. Boris Ford, p. 233.

2. Nicholas Von Maltzahn, “Milton’s Readers,” in The Cambridge Companion to Milton, ed. Dennis Danielson, p. 247.

3. William Levison, “Bede as Historian,” in Bede, ed. A. H. Thompson, p. 142.

4. G. T. Shepherd, “Early Middle English Literature,” in The Middle Ages, ed. W. F. Bolton, p. 94.

5. Michael Wood, In Search of England, p. 118.

6. Melanie Hansen, “Identity and Ownership,” in Writing and the English Renaissance, ed. W. Zunder and S. Trill, p. 90.

7. James Sutherland, English Literature of the Late Seventeenth Century , p. 286.

8. Wood himself.

9. William Weber, The Rise of Musical Classics in Eighteenth-Century England, p. 56.

10. ibid., p. 5.

11. ibid., p. 3.

12. ibid., p. 73.

31. THE CONSERVATIVE TENDENCY

1. H. M. Taylor, “Tenth-Century Church Buildings in England and on the Continent,” in Tenth-Century Studies, ed. David Parsons, p. 167.

2. ibid., p. 195.

3. John Caldwell (ed.), The Oxford History of English Music, Volume 1, p. 27.

4. ibid., p. 379.

5. Andrew Saint, “The New Town,” in Modern Britain, ed. Boris Ford, p. 152.

6. Andor Gomme, “Architecture,” in Seventeenth-Century Britain , ed. Boris Ford, p. 28.

7. ibid., p. 79.

8. John Nelson Tarn, “New Homes for Barons and Artisans,” in Victorian Britain, ed. Boris Ford, p. 154.

9. Steen Eiler Rasmussen, London: The Unique City, p. 293.

10. ibid., p. 296.

32. A SHORT HISTORY LESSON

1. Bede, A History of the English Church and People, introduction by D. H. Farmer, p. 25.

2. Dorothy Whitelock, The Audience of Beowulf, p. 63.

3. Andrew Galloway, “Writing History in England,” in The Cambridge History of Medieval English Literature, ed. D. Wallace, p. 255.

4. Lesley Johnson, “Dynastic Chronicles,” in The Arthur of the English, ed. W. R. J. Barron, p. 34.

5. C. S. Lewis, The Discarded Image, p. 181.

6. Edwin Jones, The English Nation: The Great Myth, p. 151.

7. William Gaunt, A Concise History of English Painting, p. 163.

8. S. A. J. Bradley (ed. and trans.), Anglo-Saxon Poetry, p. 49.

33. THE SONG OF THE SEA

1. A. P. Smyth, King Alfred the Great, p. 570.

2. M. Godden and M. Lapidge, The Cambridge Companion to Old English Literature, p. 85.

3. D. Whitelock (ed.), English Historical Documents, p. 209.

4. S. B. Greenfield and D. G. Calder, A New Critical History of Old English Literature, p. 162.

5. Kevin Crossley-Holland (ed. and trans.), The Anglo-Saxon World, p. 53.

6. ibid., p. 288.

7. The Exeter Book Riddles, ed. and trans. Kevin Crossley-Holland, pp. 4 and 85.

8. J. A. W. Bennett (ed.), Selections from John Gower, p. xiv.

9. Harry Blamires, Twentieth-Century English Literature, p. 7.

10. C. Palmer, Delius: Portrait of a Cosmopolitan, p. 151.

11. ibid.

12. ibid., p. 158.

13. John Caldwell (ed.), The Oxford History of English Music, Volume 2, p. 409.

34. A BRIEF EXCURSION

1. J. F. Webb, The Age of Bede, p. 223.

2. Norman Davies, The Isles, p. 474.

3. Richard Helgerson, Forms of Nationhood, p. 153.

4. ibid., p. 165.

5. ibid.

6. ibid., p. 175.

7. ibid., p. 179.

8. C. Rawson and J. Mezciems, English Satire and the Satiric Tradition, p. 2.

9. John Mullan, “Swift, Defoe and Narrative Forms,” in The Cambridge Companion to English Literature, 1650–1740, ed. S. N. Zwicker, p. 254.

10. Roy Strong, The Spirit of Britain, p. 278.

35. A MINIATURE

1. “The Phoenix,” in Anglo-Saxon Poetry, ed. and trans. S. A. J. Bradley, p. 292.

2. Margaret Rickert, Painting in Britain: The Middle Ages, p. 44.

3. ibid., p. 47.

4. T. S. R. Boase, English Art, 1800–1870, p. 177.

5. Peter Brieger, English Art, 1216–1307, p. 79.

6. Boase, p. 299.

7. ibid.

8. Nicola Coldstream, “Architecture,” in Medieval Britain , ed. Boris Ford, p. 51.

9. J. A. W. Bennett and Douglas Gray (eds.), Middle English Literature 1100–1400, pp. 69 and 247.

10. Rickert, p. 178.

11. Joan Evans, English Art 1307–1461, pp. 7–8.

12. William Gaunt, A Concise History of English Painting, pp. 11–12.

13. Walter Oakeshott, The Sequence of English Medieval Art, p. 29.

14. Ellis Waterhouse, Painting in Britain, 1530–1790, p. 38.

15. Eric Mercer, English Art, 1553–1625, p. 5.

16. E. Auerbach, Tudor Artists, pp. 131–2.

17. Margaret Whinney and Oliver Millar, English Art, 1625–1714 , p. 90.

18. William Vaughan, British Painting: The Golden Age, p. 44.

19. Boase, p. 163.

20. N. P. Messenger and J. R. Watson (eds.), Victorian Poetry, p. xiii.

21. Colin Manlove, The Fantasy Literature of England, p. 116.

22. ibid.

23. ibid.

36. I SAW YOU, MISSIS

1. Gerald Frow, Oh Yes It Is: A History of Pantomime, p. 149.

2. Enid Welsford, The Fool, p. 51.

3. Roly Bain, “Clowns and Augustes,” in Victorian Britain , ed. Boris Ford, p. 300.

4. Frow, p. 109.

5. David Robinson, Chaplin, p. 71.

6. O. M. Busby, Studies in the Development of the Fool in Elizabethan Drama, p. 6.

7. Richard Axton, “Church Drama and Popular Drama,” in Medieval Literature, Part Two: The European Inheritance, p. 152.

8. ibid., p. 153.

9. Christopher Kendrick, “Preaching Common Grounds,” in Writing and the English Renaissance, ed. William Zunder and Suzanne Trill, p. 218.

10. ibid., p. 102.

37. IN THE BEGINNING

1. Alister McGrath, In the Beginning, p. 31.

2. L. H. Wild, The Romance of the English Bible, p. 43.

3. Roger Scruton, England: An Elegy, p. 84.

4. Wild, p. 139.

5. Scruton, p. 99.

6. Wild, p. 154.

7. McGrath, p. 125.

8. ibid., p. 11.

9. ibid., p. 342.

10. C. R. Herworth, The Literary Lineage of the King James Bible, pp. 229 and 235.

11. Benson Bobrick, The Making of the English Bible, p. 253.

12. James Sutherland, English Literature of the Late Seventeenth Century , p. 315.

13. ibid., p. 335.

14. John Bunyan, The Pilgrim’s Progress, ed. and intro. N. H. Keeble, p. xxi.

15. William Weber, The Rise of Musical Classics in Eighteenth-Century England, p. 121.

16. Winton Dean, quoted in Eighteenth-Century Britain, ed. Boris Ford, p. 291.

17. Weber, p. 121.

18. Helen Gardner, Religion and Literature, pp. 155–6.

19. ibid., p. 157.

38. LONDON CALLING

1. D. S. Brewer, “Chaucer’s Poetic Style,” in The Cambridge Chaucer Companion, ed. Piero Boitani and Jill Mann, p. 234.

2. ibid.

3. Andrew Gurr, Playgoing in Shakespeare’s London, p. 147.

4. Colin Burrow, “The Sixteenth Century,” in The Cambridge Companion to English Literature 1550–1600, ed. A. F. Kinney, p. 24.

5. Terry Castle, Masquerade and Civilisation, p. 204.

6. Wilfred Mellers, Harmonious Meeting, p. 227.

7. E. D. Mackerness, A Social History of English Music, p. 101.

8. James Sutherland, English Literature of the Later Seventeenth Century , p. 218.

9. Castle, p. 193.

10. Ronald Paulson, “Life as Pilgrimage and as Theatre,” in Modern Essays on Eighteenth-Century Literature, ed. L. Damrosch, p. 182.

39. AN ESSAY ON THE ESSAY

1. Jane H. Jack, “The Practical Essayists,” in From Dryden to Johnson, ed. Boris Ford, p. 183.

40. THE HOGARTHIAN MOMENT

1. James Sutherland, English Literature of the Later Seventeenth Century , p. 87.

2. William Vaughan, British Painting: The Golden Age, p. 25.

3. Ernest Barker, National Character, p. 101.

41. SOME EMINENT NOVELISTS

1. see Terry Castle, Masquerade and Civilisation.

2. John Richetti, in The Eighteenth-Century Novel, ed. John Richetti, p. 7.

3. Richard West, The Life and Strange, Surprising Adventures of Daniel Defoe, p. 70.

4. Ian Watt, “Defoe as Novelist,” in From Dryden to Johnson , ed. Boris Ford, p. 155.

5. William Vaughan, British Painting: The Golden Age, p. 144.

6. John Preston, “Fielding and Smollett,” in From Dryden to Johnson, ed. Boris Ford, p. 320.

7. ibid., p. 321.

8. Paul Langford, Englishness Identified, pp. 10–11.

9. ibid., p. 10.

10. ibid., p. 294.

42. ACHARACTER STUDY

1. John Wain, Samuel Johnson, p. 276.

2. ibid., p. 295.

3. Ernest Barker, National Character, p. 217.

4. ibid., p. 216.

5. ibid., p. 220.

6. William Vaughan, British Painting: The Golden Age, p. 38.

7. William Gaunt, A Concise History of English Painting, p. 19.

8. Roy Strong, The Spirit of Britain, p. 164.

9. Margaret Rickert, Painting in Britain: The Middle Ages, p. 221.

10. Pieter Brieger, English Art, 1216–1307, p. 129.

11. Rickert, p. 185.

12. Eric Mercer, English Art, 1553–1625, p. 149.

13. ibid., p. 156.

14. ibid., p. 164.

15. Margaret Whinney and Oliver Millar, English Art, 1625–1714 , p. 9.

16. ibid., p. 85.

17. Ellis Waterhouse, Painting in Britain 1530–1790, p. 60.

18. ibid.

19. Jean-Jacques Mayoux, English Painting, p. 14.

20. ibid., p. 23.

43. THE FINE ART OF BIOGRAPHY

1. Adam Sisman, Boswell’s Presumptuous Task, p. 165.

2. Richard Holmes, Dr. Johnson and Mr. Savage, p. 230.

3. ibid., p. 51.

4. ibid., p. 230.

5. Sisman, p. 174.

6. ibid.

7. ibid., p. 176.

8. William C. Dowling, in Modern Essays on Eighteenth-Century Literature, ed. L. Damrosch Jr, p. 370.

9. Sisman, p. 214.

10. Mrs. Gaskell, The Life of Charlotte Brontë, ed. Alan Shelston, p. 29.

11. Jenny Uglow, Elizabeth Gaskell, p. 399.

44. FEMALITY AND FICTION

1. S. M. Gilbert and S. Gubar (eds.), Shakespeare’s Sisters, p. xvi.

2. ibid., p. xxi.

3. J. Todd, The Sign of “Angellica,” p. 139.

4. Stuart Curran, “Women Readers, Women Writers,” in The Cambridge Companion to British Romanticism, ed. Stuart Curran, pp. 181–2.

5. Todd, p. 5.

6. S. M. Gilbert and S. Gubar, The Madwoman in the Attic, p. xi.

7. ibid., p. 476.

8. Betty S. Traviski, “The Possibilities of Prose,” in Women and Literature 1500–1700, ed. H. Wilcox, p. 259.

9. Curran, “Women Readers, Women Writers,” in Curran, p. 185.

10. Claire Harman, Fanny Burney, p. 58.

11. ibid., p. 385.

12. N. J. Waddell, quoted ibid., p. 58.

13. Todd, p. 127.

14. Elaine Showalter, A Literature of Their Own, p. 36.

15. M. Cixous, quoted in Authorship: From Plato to Post Modern, ed. S. Burke, pp. 175–6.

16. Felicity Riddy, “Women Talking about the Things of God,” in Women and Literature in Britain, 1150–1500, ed. C. M. Meale, p. 114.

17. J. Spencer, The Rise of the Woman Novelist from Aphra Behn to Jane Austen, p. 135.

18. Quoted in Persuasion, ed. D. W. Harding, p. 7.

19. Claire Tomalin, Jane Austen: A Life, p. 117.

20. ibid., p. 173.

21. ibid., p. 139.

22. Gilbert and Gubar, Madwoman, p. 338.

23. A. Trodd, Women’s Writing in English: Britain 1900–1945, p. 59.

45. BLOOD AND GORE

1. Tony Howard, quoted in Thomas Kyd, The Spanish Tragedy, ed. J. R. Mulryne, p. xxxiii.

2. F. P. Wilson, The English Drama, 1485–1585, p. 142.

3. John Donne: Selected Prose, ed. Neil Rhodes, p. 25.

4. The Penguin Book of Horror Stories, ed. J. A. Cudden, p. 37.

5. The Oxford Book of Gothic Tales, ed. Chris Baldick, p. xiii.

6. ibid., p. xxi.

7. ibid., p. xiv.

8. David Punter, “Romantics to Early Victorians,” in The Romantic Age in Britain, ed. Boris Ford, p. 23.

9. J. P. Carson, “Enlightenment, Popular Culture and Gothic Fiction,” in John Richetti (ed.), The Eighteenth-Century Novel, p. 262.

46. GHOSTS

1. M. R. James, “Casting the Runes” and Other Ghost Stories, ed. Michael Cox, p. xviii.

2. The Penguin Book of Horror Stories, ed. J. A. Cudden, p. 49.

3. Carole Weinberg, “Dynastic Romance,” in W. R. J. Barron, The Arthur of the English, p. 111.

4. Glen Cavaliero, The Supernatural and English Fiction, p. 122.

5. James, ed. Cox, p. xiii.

6. Jack Sullivan, Elegant Nightmares, p. 71.

7. James, ed. Cox, p. xxiii.

8. The Oxford Book of English Detective Stories, ed. P. Craig, p. xviii.

47. PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT

1. S. B. Greenfield and D. G. Calder, A New Critical History of Old English Literature, pp. 50–3.

2. ibid., p. 107.

3. ibid., p. 116.

4. C. L. Wren, A Study of Old English Literature, p. 14.

5. N. Watson, “Middle English Mysteries,” p. 549.

6. Edwin Jones, The English Nation: The Great Myth, p. 9.

7. J. A. W. Bennett and Douglas Gray, Middle English Literature 1100–1400, p. 335.

8. L. G. Salingar, “The Social Setting,” in The Age of Shakespeare, ed. Boris Ford, p. 25.

9. John Caldwell (ed.), The Oxford History of English Music, Volume 1, p. 4.

10. ibid., p. 6.

11. ibid., p. 7.

12. ibid., p. 12.

13. ibid., p. 15.

14. Antony Flew (ed.), A Dictionary of Philosophy, p. 34.

15. Perez Zagorin, Francis Bacon, p. 38.

16. Miles Hadfield, Gardening in Britain, p. 69.

17. Zagorin, p. 141.

18. ibid., p. 143.

19. A. Easthope, Englishness and National Culture, p. 90.

20. ibid., p. 64.

21. ibid., p. 202.

22. Flew (ed.), p. 141.

23. Easthope, p. 66.

24. Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, ed. Michael Oakeshott, p. xvii.

25. ibid., p. xxxix.

26. John Locke, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, abridged and ed. A. S. Pringle-Pattison, p. x.

27. ibid.

28. Bertrand Russell, The History of Western Philosophy, p. 619.

29. ibid., p. 621.

30. Easthope, p. 96.

31. W. K. Sorley, A History of British Philosophy to 1900, p. 112.

32. Locke, ed. Pringle-Pattison, p. ix.

33. ibid., p. xix.

34. ibid., p. 230.

35. David Simpson, “Romanticism, Criticism and Theory,” in The Cambridge Companion to British Romanticism, ed. Stuart Curran, p. 4.

36. Jean-Jacques Mayoux, English Painting, p. 97.

37. ibid., p. 115.

38. ibid., p. 258.

39. William Weber, The Rise of Musical Classics in Eighteenth-Century England, p. 15.

40. A. J. Ayer, Logical Positivism in Perspective, p. 9.

41. ibid., p. 5.

42. ibid., p. 8.

43. ibid.

44. Flew (ed.), p. 33.

45. W. T. Jones and R. J. Fogelin, A History of Western Philosophy: The Twentieth Century, p. 246.

46. Simpson, p. 4.

48. PROLIX AND PROLIFIC

1. L. D. Benson, The Riverside Chaucer, p. 936.

2. John Donne, Selected Prose, ed. Neil Rhodes, p. 10.

3. Nikolaus Pevsner, The Englishness of English Art, p. 48.

4. Stanley Fish, Self-Consuming Artefacts, p. 204.

5. ibid., p. 357.

6. M. Heusser, The Gilded Pill, p. 3.

7. ibid., p. 6.

8. Joan Bennett, Sir Thomas Browne, p. 10.

49. SOME MORE DUNCES

1. C. Kerby-Miller, The Memoirs of the Extraordinary Life, Works and Discoveries of Martin Scriblerus, p. 29.

2. ibid.

3. ibid.

4. Hugh Kenner, Jonathan Swift: A Critical Anthology, ed. Denis Donoghue, p. 265.

5. Ian Campbell Ross, Laurence Sterne: A Life, p. 407.

6. ibid., p. 410.

7. Claude Rawson, “Unparodying and Forgery: The Augustan Chatterton,” in Thomas Chatterton and Romantic Culture, ed. Nick Groom, p. 20.

8. Campbell Ross, p. 202.

9. Peter Vansittart, In Memory of England, p. 150.

50. THE SECRET GARDEN

1. Christopher Taylor, The Archaeology of Gardens, p. 25.

2. Jane Brown, The Pursuit of Paradise, p. 139.

3. ibid., p. 148.

4. ibid.

5. ibid., p. 3.

6. E. S. Rohde, The Story of the Garden, p. 235.

7. Brown, p. 82.

8. ibid., p. 90.

9. ibid.

10. ibid., p. 154.

11. ibid., p. 160.

12. ibid.

13. ibid., p. 67.

14. ibid., p. 138.

15. ibid., p. 303.

16. Rohde, p. 140.

17. Miles Hadfield, Gardening in Britain, p. 39.

18. Brown, p. 136.

19. Rohde, p. 12.

20. Charles Quest-Ritson, The English Garden, pp. 22–3.

21. Hadfield, p. 54.

22. ibid., p. 209.

23. ibid., p. 43.

24. ibid., p. 212.

25. ibid., pp. 170–80.

26. L. Whistler, quoted ibid., p. 210.

27. Quest-Ritson, p. 124.

28. ibid.

29. ibid., p. 221.

30. Rohde, p. 161.

31. Brown, p. 57.

32. Hadfield, p. 31.

33. ibid., p. 30.

34. Brown, p. 133.

35. ibid., p. 174.

36. ibid., p. 303.

37. Rohde, p. 172.

38. Hadfield, p. 46.

39. Rohde, p. 234.

40. Brown, p. 87.

51. FORGING A LANGUAGE

1. Roger Lonsdale (ed.), The Poems of Thomas Gray and William Collins , p. xvii.

2. ibid., p. xviii.

3. Paul Baines, The House of Forgery in Eighteenth-Century Britain, p. 7.

4. ibid., p. 11.

5. ibid., p. 13.

6. J. G. Pocock, quoted ibid., p. 14.

7. ibid., p. 15.

8. A. Preminger (ed.), Princeton Encyclopaedia of Poetry and Poetics , p. 819.

9. Nick Groom, “Fragments, Reliques, & MSS: Chatterton and Percy,” in Thomas Chatterton and Romantic Culture, ed. Nick Groom, p. 190.

10. Nick Groom, quoted in Groom, pp. 55–6.

11. Inga Bryden, “The Mythical Image: Chatterton, King Arthur and Heraldry,” in Groom, p. 64.

12. ibid., p. 65.

13. Nick Groom, “Introduction,” in Groom, p. 7.

14. Alexandra Wedgewood, “Architecture,” in The Romantic Age in Britain, ed. Boris Ford, p. 208.

15. Georges Lamoine, “The Originality of Chatterton’s Art,” in Groom, p. 38.

16. Quoted Stephen B. Dobranski, “Milton’s Social Life,” in The Cambridge Companion to Milton, ed. Dennis Danielson, p. 21.

17. Arden Reed, Romanticism and Language, p. 19.

52. THE ROMANTIC FALLACY

1. Eric Rothstein, Restoration and Eighteenth-Century Poetry, p. 145.

2. T. S. R. Boase, English Art 1800–1870, p. 12.

3. David Simpson, “Romanticism, Criticism and Theory,” in The Cambridge Companion to British Romanticism, ed. Stuart Curran, p. 17.

4. ibid.

5. Geoffrey Thurley, The Romantic Predicament, p. 113.

6. ibid., p. 139.

7. Terry Castle, Masquerade and Civilisation, p. 184.

8. ibid., p. 333.

9. Judith N. Shklar, After Utopia: The Decline of Political Faith, pp. 15–16.

10. Geoffrey Hartman, Beyond Formalism, pp. 300 and 303.

11. J. O. Hayden (ed.), William Wordsworth: Poems, Volume One.

12. Thurley, p. 138.

13. Thomas McFarland, Romantic Cruxes: The English Essayists and the Spirit of the Age, pp. 11 and 13.

53. ENGLISH MUSIC

1. A. L. Bacharach (ed.), British Music of Our Time, p. 52.

2. Fuller Maitland in The Times, quoted in Michael Kennedy, The Works of Ralph Vaughan Williams, p. 93.

3. R. Palmer (ed.), Folk Songs Collected by Ralph Vaughan Williams, p. ix.

4. John Caldwell (ed.), The Oxford History of English Music, Volume 1, p. 63.

5. ibid., p. 131.

6. ibid., p. 135.

7. ibid., p. 191.

8. ibid., p. 484.

9. ibid., p. 178.

10. ibid., Volume 2, p. 15.

11. Kennedy, p. 131.

12. ibid., p. 137.

13. ibid., p. 169.

14. ibid., p. 170.

15. ibid., p. 347.

16. J. Day, Englishness in Music, p. 18.

17. ibid., p. 25.

18. Simon Heffer, Vaughan Williams, p. 9.

19. Kennedy, p. 5.

20. C. Palmer, Delius: Portrait of a Cosmopolitan, p. 160.

21. ibid., p. 150.

22. Paul Holmes, Vaughan Williams, p. 57.

23. Kennedy, p. 370.

24. Palmer, p. 160.

25. ibid., p. 199.

26. ibid., p. 202.

27. Caldwell (ed.), Volume 1, p. 31.

28. ibid., Volume 2, p. 284.

29. Heffer, p. 37.

30. Kennedy, p. 157.

31. ibid.

32. ibid., p. 302.

33. Kennedy, p. 211.

34. Caldwell (ed.), Volume 1, p. 22.

35. ibid., p. 120.

36. Day, pp. 51 and 158.

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