Bibliographic Essay

The idea for this book came to me from some remarks by Nietzsche about the conflict between the serenely elitist Voltaire and the enviously plebeian Rousseau. They seemed to offer a fresh take on the modern world’s divisions since its inception in the late eighteenth century. Similar discoveries, inspirations and intuitions – about Rousseau’s influence on young German provincials, the latter’s world-historical encounter with France, and the significance of neglected figures like Bakunin, Mazzini and Sorel – guided me through the writing of Age of Anger. Their strengthening and elaboration required extensive reading and cross-referencing; and the bibliography of a book so wide-ranging can only be selective, shaped chiefly by my conscious intellectual debts and what I think may take the reader deeper into the subject.

The frequent recourse to Tocqueville, Herzen and Nietzsche in the preceding pages would, I hope, have demonstrated the need to read their writings both sympathetically and critically. Some later books that seem indispensable to understanding the intellectual and emotional tendencies of our age are: Karl Löwith, From Hegel to Nietzsche: The Revolution in Nineteenth-Century Thought, trans. David E. Green (New York, 1964); Louis Dumont, Essays on Individualism: Modern Ideology in Anthropological Perspective (Chicago, 1986); Carl Schorske, Fin-de-Siècle Vienna: Politics and Culture (New York, 1980); Hannah Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism (New York, 1951); Simone Weil, Oppression and Liberty, trans. Arthur Wills and John Petrie (London, 1958); Karl Polanyi, The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time(London, 1944); Franco Venturi, Roots of Revolution: A History of the Populist and Socialist Movements in Nineteenth-Century Russia (Chicago, 1983); Fritz Stern, The Politics of Cultural Despair: A Study in the Rise of Germanic Ideology (Berkeley, 1963); John Gray, Enlightenment’s Wake: Politics and Culture at the Close of the Modern Age (London, 1995); Marshall Berman, All that is Solid Melts into Air: The Experience of Modernity (London, 1982); Christopher Bayly, The Birth of the Modern World, 1870–1914: Global Connections and Comparisons (London, 2004); and Charles Taylor, A Secular Age (Cambridge, MA, 2007).

1. Prologue

The most recent biography of D’Annunzio is Lucy Hughes-Hallett, The Pike: Gabriele D’Annunzio, Poet, Seducer and Preacher of War (London, 2013). It is also worth looking up Michael A. Ledeen, The First Duce: D’Annunzio at Fiume (London, 1977), and John Woodhouse, Gabriele D’Annunzio: Defiant Archangel (Oxford, 1998). The chapter on D’Annunzio in William Pfaff’s The Bullet’s Song: Romantic Violence and Utopia (New York, 2004) is an insightful introduction to this figure. John A. Thayer, Italy and the Great War: Politics and Culture, 1870–1915(Madison, 1964), remains an analytically powerful pre-history of Italian fascism. See also R. J. Bosworth, Italy and the Approach of the First World War (London, 1983). On the ferment in nineteenth-century Germany, see George L. Mosse, The Crisis of German Ideology: Intellectual Origins of the Third Reich (New York, 1964). William D. Irvine, The Boulanger Affair Reconsidered: Royalism, Boulangism, and the Origins of the Radical Right in France (New York, 1989), is a fascinating guide to the promptings of fascism in late nineteenth-century France. Carol A. Horton, Race and the Making of American Liberalism (New York, 2005), offers an insightful account of anti-immigration solidarity in the United States. It is worth returning to the original contention that racism could be a form of democracy: Gunnar Myrdal, An American Dilemma: The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy, 2 vols (New York, 1944). On Tocqueville and Algeria, see Alexis de Tocqueville: Writings on Empire and Slavery, ed. and trans. Jennifer Pitts (Baltimore, 2003). Marinetti’s pronouncements can be sampled in F. T. Marinetti: Critical Writings, ed. Günter Berghaus, trans. Doug Thompson (New York, 2006). Hans Magnus Enzensberger has some penetrating reflections on the perils of the post-Cold War era in Civil Wars: From L.A. to Bosnia, trans. Piers Spence and Martin Chalmers (New York, 1994). A handy digest of bien pensant thinking about globalization is Thomas Friedman’s The Lexus and the Olive Tree (New York, 1999). For a counter-critique, see Edward Luttwak’s Turbo-Capitalism: Winners and Losers in the Global Economy (New York, 1998). Two revealing genealogies of neo-liberalism are Angus Burgin, The Great Persuasion: Reinventing Free Markets since the Depression (Cambridge, MA, 2012), and Philip Mirowski and Dieter Plehwe (eds), The Road from Mont Pèlerin: The Making of the Neoliberal Thought Collective (Cambridge, MA, 2009). On the loss of political spaces, see Saskia Sassen, Losing Control? Sovereignty in the Age of Globalization (New York, 1996). On Arendt’s notion of the common present and negative solidarity, see her essay on Karl Jaspers in Men in Dark Times (New York, 1970). On ressentiment, see Max Scheler, Ressentiment, trans. Lewis B. Coser and William W. Holdheim (Milwaukee, 1994). Fresh thinking on the much-abused category of totalitarianism can be found in David D. Roberts, The Totalitarian Experiment in Twentieth-Century Europe: Understanding the Poverty of Great Politics (London, 2005). Jerry Z. Muller explores Voltaire’s relationship with capitalism and the Jews in The Mind and the Market (New York, 2007). The ambiguities of Jewish emancipation and the imperatives of Darwinian mimicry are sensitively described in Amos Elon, Herzl (New York, 1975). Isaiah Berlin’s stern judgement on Rousseau can be found in, among other places, Freedom and its Betrayal: Six Enemies of Human Liberty (London, 2002). The most succinct account of the German counter-tradition is Louis Dumont, German Ideology: From France to Germany and Back (Chicago, 1996). See also the essay on Herder in Isaiah Berlin, Vico and Herder: Two Studies in the History of Ideas (London, 1976). R. R. Palmer, The Age of the Democratic Revolution, 2 vols (Princeton, 1959, 1964), remains an indispensable resource for the study of the early modern age. E. J. Hobsbawm, The Age of Revolution, 1789–1848(London, 1977), is still the best single-volume account of European tumult after the French Revolution. For a relatively conservative perspective, see J. L. Talmon, Political Messianism: The Romantic Phase (London, 1960). Adam Zamoyski, Holy Madness: Romantics, Patriots and Revolutionaries, 1776–1871 (London, 1999), is a masterly account of the nineteenth century’s angry young Europeans. See also his Phantom Terror: The Threat of Revolution and the Repression of Liberty 1789–1848 (London, 2014). The wider currents of the nineteenth century are covered in Jürgen Osterhammel, The Transformation of the World: A Global History of the Nineteenth Century, trans. Patrick Camiller (Princeton, 2014), and Richard Evans, The Pursuit of Power: Europe, 1815–1914 (London, 2016). For an intellectual background, see Jack Hayward, After the French Revolution: Six Critics of Democracy and Nationalism (London, 1991). Laurent Dubois, Avengers of the New World: The Story of the Haitian Revolution (Cambridge, MA, 2004), relates this fascinating episode of the early modern age. On machismo in the nineteenth century, see Norman Vance, The Sinews of the Spirit: The Ideal of Christian Manliness in Victorian Literature and Religious Thought (Cambridge, 1985), and Peter Gay, The Cultivation of Hatred: The Bourgeois Experience, Victoria to Freud (New York, 1993). On the first phase of international terrorism, see Isaac Land (ed.), Enemies of Humanity: The Nineteenth-Century War on Terrorism (New York, 2008); John Merriman, The Dynamite Club: How a Bombing in Fin-de-Siècle Paris Ignited the Age of Modern Terror (Boston, 2009); and Matthew Carr, The Infernal Machine: A History of Terrorism(London, 2007). The trauma of socio-economic change in France is documented in Eugen Weber, Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France, 1870–1914 (Stanford, 1976). James Billington, Fire in the Minds of Men: Origins of the Revolutionary Faith (New York, 1980), is a comprehensive account of millenarian revolutionism. On the overlapping of political projects across ideological lines, see Wolfgang Schivelbusch, Three New Deals: Reflections on Roosevelt’s America, Mussolini’s Italy, and Hitler’s Germany, 1933–1939 (New York, 2006). The most interesting among the new histories that take the unstable individual self as their unit without descending into psychobabble is by Daniel Lord Smail, On Deep History and the Brain (Berkeley, 2008).

2. Clearing a Space

Reinhold Niebuhr’s critique of ‘bland fanatics’ can be found in The Structure of Nations and Empires (New York, 1959). The most comprehensive account to date of the origins and influence of Modernization Theory is Nils Gilman, Mandarins of the Future: Modernization Theory in Cold War America (Baltimore, 2003). The fears and expectations of the Anglo-American heralds of globalization are eloquently conveyed in John Micklethwait and Adrian Wooldridge’s The Fourth Revolution: The Global Race to Reinvent the State (London, 2014). On Bagehot’s world view, see David Clinton, Tocqueville, Lieber, and Bagehot: Liberalism Confronts the World (New York, 2003). Herzen’s critique of liberalism is passionately articulated in his From the Other Shore, now available free on the internet at George Santayana’s view of Americanism and liberalism was most engagingly expressed in his novel The Last Puritan (New York, 1935). Some sustained reflections can be found at Enquiry into Cold War modes of thinking and acting is deepening, though a broad cultural and intellectual history is still unavailable. Three especially illuminating volumes are Samuel Moyn, The Last Utopia: Human Rights in History (Cambridge, MA, 2010); Jan-Werner Müller, Contesting Democracy: Political Ideas in Twentieth-Century Europe (New Haven, 2011); and Mark Mazower, No Enchanted Palace: The End of Empire and the Ideological Origins of the United Nations (Princeton, 2009). On the appropriation of Japan in a narrative of Western-style progress, see John W. Dower, Ways of Forgetting, Ways of Remembering: Japan in the Modern World (New York, 2012). The contents of Heinrich August Winkler, Germany: The Long Road West, 1933–1990 (New York, 2007), are as revealing as its title. Raymond Aron’s anxieties about modernization are contained in Progress and Disillusion: The Dialectics of Modern Society (London, 1968) and The Opium of the Intellectuals (New York, 1962). Bloom’s response to Fukuyama can be found at For John Gray’s response, see Gray’s Anatomy: Selected Writings (London, 2009). For an illuminating French view of post-1989 ideology, see Claude Lefort, Complications: Communism and the Dilemmas of Democracy, trans. Julian Bourg (New York, 2007). The first surge of post-Cold War nationalism is elegantly described in Michael Ignatieff, Blood and Belonging: Journeys into the New Nationalism (New York, 1993). See also Robert D. Kaplan, The Coming Anarchy: Shattering the Dreams of the Post Cold War (New York, 1994). The most eloquent reassertion of Western liberalism after 9/11 is Paul Berman’s Terror and Liberalism (London, 2003). The fantasy of neo-imperialism was elaborated in Niall Ferguson, Empire: The Rise and Demise of the British World Order and the Lessons for Global Power (New York, 2003). Carl Schmitt’s Theory of the Partisan, trans. G. L. Ulmen (New York, 2007), has some eerie predictions about the borderless militants of today. On the notion of economic, political and cultural gradients, see the authoritative work by Alexander Gerschenkron, Economic Backwardness in Historical Perspective (Cambridge, MA, 1962), and Catherine Evtuhov and Stephen Kotkin (eds), The Cultural Gradient: The Transmission of Ideas in Europe, 1789–1991 (New York, 2002). See also David Armitage and Sanjay Subrahmanyam, The Age of Revolutions in Global Context, c.1760–1840 (New York, 2009). The radical break with the past that the French Revolution represented is emphasized in Lynn Hunt, Politics, Culture, and Class in the French Revolution (Berkeley, 1984). See also Peter Fritzsche, Stranded in the Present: Modern Time and the Melancholy of History (Cambridge, MA, 2004). The legacy of 1789 is carefully documented in Geoffrey Best (ed.), The Permanent Revolution: The French Revolution and its Legacy1789–1989 (Chicago, 1988). Some observers closer to the event in time were very perceptive, such as Madame de Staël, whom I frequently invoke. See Major Writings of Germaine de Staël, trans. Vivian Folkenflik (New York, 1987). Norman Hampson’s The Enlightenment (London, 1968) is probably still the best single-volume introduction to the Enlightenment, respectful of its diversity and dissensions. For an early contrarian view of the Enlightenment, see C. L. Becker, Heavenly City of the Eighteenth-Century Philosophers (New Haven, 1932). Tocqueville did much demystification in The Old Regime and the Revolution, trans. Alan S. Kahan (Chicago, 1998). For a provocative take on Bakunin’s philosophy, see Paul McLaughlin, Mikhail Bakunin: The Philosophical Basis of His Anarchism(New York, 2002). Robert Darnton helped broaden the study of the Enlightenment with The Literary Underground of the Old Regime (Cambridge, MA, 1985). See also his The Great Cat Massacre: And Other Episodes in French Cultural History (New York, 2009). Keith Michael Baker’s Inventing the French Revolution: Essays on French Political Culture in the Eighteenth Century (Cambridge, 1990) is full of fascinating hypotheses about how the French Revolution became thinkable. On French Anglomania, see Josephine Grieder, Anglomania in France, 1740–1789: Fact, Fiction and Political Discourse (Geneva, 1985). On Napoleon’s reshaping of Europe through a new kind of war, see David A. Bell, The First Total War: Napoleon’s Europe and the Birth of Warfare as We Know It (New York, 2007). See also Bell’s superb account of the construction of nationalism in France, The Cult of the Nation in France: Inventing Nationalism, 1680–1800 (Cambridge, MA, 2001). The definitive texts of mimetic theory are René Girard, The Scapegoat, trans. Yvonne Freccero (Baltimore, 1986), and Violence and the Sacred, trans. Patrick Gregory (Baltimore, 1977). On the role of emulation and ressentiment in geopolitics, the most thought-provoking book is Liah Greenfeld, Nationalism: Five Roads to Modernity (Cambridge, MA, 1992). Dostoyevsky described his first trip to Europe in Winter Notes on Summer Impressions, trans. Richard Lee Renfield (New York, 1955). For a different account of his travels, see Joseph Frank, Dostoevsky: The Stir of Liberation, 1860–1865 (Princeton, 1988). On Africa and Western ideologies, see Basil Davidson, The Black Man’s Burden: Africa and the Curse of the Nation-State (London, 1992). The classic work on this subject, Walter Rodney, How Europe Underdeveloped Africa (Washington, DC, 1974), has not been dated by its ideological commitments. On ‘derivative discourses’ in the postcolonial world, see The Partha Chatterjee Omnibus (comprising Nationalist Thought and the Colonial World, The Nation and its Fragments and A Possible India) (Delhi, 1999).

3. Loving Oneself Through Others

On the reshaping of social ethics and the rise of commercial society in the eighteenth century, see Albert O. Hirschman, Rival Views of Market Society (New York, 1986). A broader view can be found in J. G. A. Pocock, Virtue, Commerce and History (Cambridge, 1985). See also Istvan Hont, Politics in Commercial Society: Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Adam Smith (Cambridge, MA, 2015), and Jealousy of TradeInternational Competition and the Nation-State in Historical Perspective (Cambridge, MA, 2010). On Voltaire, the best recent biography is Roger Pearson, Voltaire Almighty: A Life in Pursuit of Freedom (London, 2005). See also Ian Davidson, Voltaire in Exile (London, 2004). The literature on Rousseau is vast. Leo Damrosch, Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Restless Genius (New York, 2005), is an excellent biography. For those inclined to explore further the contradictions of this extraordinary figure, the two volumes by Jean Guéhenno would be very rewarding: Jean-Jacques Rousseau, trans. John and Doreen Weightman (New York, 1966). The classic study of Rousseau is by Jean Starobinski, Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Transparency and Obstruction, trans. Arthur Goldhammer (Chicago, 1988). See also Judith Shklar, Men and Citizens: A Study of Rousseau’s Social Theory (Cambridge, 1969); Arthur Melzer, The Natural Goodness of Man: On the System of Rousseau’s Thought (Chicago, 1990); and Mark Hulliung, The Autocritique of Enlightenment: Rousseau and the Philosophes (Cambridge, MA, 1994). The power and immediacy of Rousseau’s thought are best experienced through his own writings. There are many excellent translations, but his collected writings, edited by Christopher Kelly and Judith R. Bush, and published by the University Press of New England, contains some texts never previously translated into English, notably the crucial dialogues, Rousseau, Judge of Jean-Jacques. For a Cold War view of Rousseau, see, apart from Isaiah Berlin’s essays on Rousseau, J. L. Talmon, The Origins of Totalitarian Democracy (London, 1955). The lively realm of freethinkers is described engagingly in Philipp Blom, A Wicked Company: The Forgotten Radicalism of the European Enlightenment (New York, 2010). See also Blom’s Enlightening the World: Encyclopédie, the Book that Changed the Course of History (New York, 2005). Steven Kale, French Salons: High Society and Political Sociability from the Old Regime to the Revolution of 1848 (Baltimore, 2004), is a fascinating history of Parisian salons. Daniel Gordon, Citizens without Sovereignty: Equality and Sociability in French Thought, 1670–1789 (Princeton, 1994), is a provocative and thorough account of the culture of sociability. T. C. W. Blanning, The Culture of Power and the Power of Culture: Old Regime Europe 1660–1789 (Oxford, 2002), is the rare example of a thrilling social history. Joseph de Maistre’s views on Rousseau are contained in Richard A. Lebrun (trans. and ed.), Against Rousseau: ‘On the State of Nature’ and ‘On the Sovereignty of the People’ by Joseph de Maistre (Montreal, 1996). Larry Wolff, Inventing Eastern Europe: The Map of Civilization on the Mind of the Enlightenment (Stanford, 1994), explores the Enlightenment philosophes’ view of Eastern Europe and Russia. On Catherine and her relationship with the French thinkers, see Isabel de Madariaga, Russia in the Age of Catherine the Great (London, 1982). See also her collected essays in Politics and Culture in Eighteenth-Century Russia (New York, 2014). The correspondence between Catherine and Voltaire can be found in Documents of Catherine the Great: The Correspondence with Voltaire and the Instruction of 1767 in the English text of 1768, ed. W. F. Reddaway (Cambridge, 2011). Two notable recent contributions to this scholarship are Inna Gorbatov, Catherine the Great and the French Philosophers of the Enlightenment (Bethesda, 2006), and Edward G. Andrew, Patrons of Enlightenment (Toronto, 2006). On feminist critiques of Rousseau, see Joan B. Landes, Women and the Public Sphere in the Age of the French Revolution (Ithaca, NY, 1988), and Camille Paglia, Sexual Personae: Art and Decadence from Nefertiti to Emily Dickinson (New York, 1990).

4. Losing My Religion

On ‘modernization’ in the Third World, see the classic works, André Gunder Frank, The Underdevelopment of Development: Essays on the Development of Underdevelopment and the Immediate Enemy (New York, 1966), and Samir Amin, Unequal Development: An Essay on the Social Formations of Peripheral Capitalism (New York, 1976). For a recent take, see Arturo Escobar, Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third World (Princeton, 2012). There are some penetrating reflections in James C. Scott, Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condition Have Failed (New Haven, 1998). On technocratic rule in underdeveloped countries, see Timothy Mitchell, Rule of Experts: Egypt, Techno-Politics, Modernity (Berkeley, 2002). A recent book, Timothy Nunan, Humanitarian Invasion: Global Development in Cold War Afghanistan (Cambridge, 2016), breaks new ground in the field. On indigenous ideas of modernity, see Charlotte Furth, The Limits of Change: Essays on Conservative Alternatives in Republican China (Cambridge, MA, 1976); Kathleen Newland and Kamala Chandrakirana Soedjatmoko (eds), Transforming Humanity: The Visionary Writings of Soedjatmoko (West Hartford, CT, 1994); and Fred R. Dallmayr and G. N. Devy (eds), Between Tradition and Modernity: India’s Search for Identity. A Twentieth-Century Anthology (Walnut Creek, CA, 1998). For a stimulating discussion of Montesquieu’s use of Persia, see Hamid Dabashi, Persophilia: Persian Culture on the Global Scene (Cambridge, MA, 2015). See also Roxanne L. Euben, Journeys to the Other Shore: Muslim and Western Travelers in Search of Knowledge (Princeton, 2006). Bernard Lewis’s best-known work on Turkey is The Emergence of Modern Turkey (New York, 2002). A fresh take on his subject is Carter Vaughn Findley, Turkey, Islam, Nationalism, and Modernity: A History (New Haven, 2011). The best recent biography of Atatürk is M. şükrü Hanioğlu, Atatürk: An Intellectual Biography (Princeton, 2011). On the Nazi cult of the Turkish leader, see Stefan Ihrig, Atatürk in the Nazi Imagination (Cambridge, MA, 2014). On Belinsky, see J. L. Talmon, The Myth of the Nation and the Vision of Revolution: The Origins of Ideological Polarisation on the Twentieth Century(London, 1981), and Isaiah Berlin, Russian Thinkers (London, 1978). See also the lucid essays on Russian writers in Aileen M. Kelly, Toward Another Shore: Russian Thinkers between Necessity and Chance (New Haven, 1998). Martin Malia covers a lot more than just his ostensible subject in Russia under Western Eyes: From the Bronze Horseman to the Lenin Mausoleum (Cambridge, MA, 1999). See also Derek Offord, Journeys to a Graveyard: Perceptions of Europe in Classical Russian Travel Writing (Dordrecht, 2010). Sadegh Hedayat’s novel is available in English: The Blind Owl, trans. D. P. Costello (New York, 1994). To understand why men such as Abu Musab al-Suri would spurn Islamist groups like the Muslim Brotherhood for anarchist terrorism, see Hazem Kandil, Inside the Brotherhood (New York, 2014). For Iran’s historical background, see Homa Katouzian, The Persians: Ancient, Mediaeval, and Modern Iran (New Haven, 2009). On Iran’s encounter with Western ideologies, see Daryush Shayegan’s Cultural Schizophrenia: Islamic Societies Confronting the West, trans. John Howe (Syracuse, NY, 1997); Ali Mirsepassi, Political Islam, Iran, and the Enlightenment: Philosophies of Hope and Despair (Cambridge, 2011); Ali Mirsepassi and Tadd Graham Fernée, Islam, Democracy, and Cosmopolitanism: At Home and in the World (Cambridge, 2014); and Ali Gheissari, Iranian Intellectuals in the 20th Century (Austin, 1998). Gholam Reza Afkhami, The Life and Times of the Shah (Berkeley, 2009), is a revealing biography of Iran’s despot. For a more intimate if cloying take, see Farah Pahlavi, An Enduring Love: My Life with the Shah. A Memoir (New York, 2004). On the revolution and its ideologues, Hamid Dabashi, Theology of Discontent: The Ideological Foundation of the Islamic Revolution in Iran (New York, 1992), remains formidable. There is no good biography in English of Jalal Al-e-Ahmad, but Ali Shariati has one in Ali Rahnema, An Islamic Utopian: A Political Biography of Ali Shari‘ati (London, 2000). Jalal Al-e-Ahmad’s account of his visit to Israel will be published soon by Restless Books as The Israeli Republic: An Iranian Revolutionary’s Journey to the Jewish State. See also his Lost in the Crowd, trans. John Green (Washington, DC, 1985), and Occidentosis: A Plague from the West, trans. R. Campbell (Berkeley, 1984). John Calvert’s Sayyid Qutb and the Origins of Radical Islamism (London, 2010) is a useful counter to the post-9/11 clichés about his subject. Three books by Ervand Abrahamian are indispensable: Iran between Two Revolutions(Princeton, 1982); Radical Islam: The Iranian Mojahedin (London, 1989); and Khomeinism: Essays on the Islamic Republic (Berkeley, 1993). Juan Cole, Sacred Space and Holy War: The Politics, Culture and History of Shi’ite Islam (London, 2002), is a good overview of the Shiite tradition. Baqer Moin, Khomeini: Life of the Ayatollah (London, 1999), has many useful details. Two excellent accounts of gender relations in Iran, before and after the revolution, are offered by Afsaneh Najmabadi: The Story of the Daughters of Quchan: Gender and National Memory in Iranian History(Syracuse, NY, 1998), and Women with Mustaches and Men without Beards: Gender and Sexual Anxieties of Iranian Modernity (Berkeley, 2005). On Foucault’s engagement with Iran, see a stern reckoning in Janet Afary and Kevin B. Anderson, Foucault and the Iranian Revolution: Gender and the Seductions of Islamism (Chicago, 2005). A recent book takes a very different view: Behrooz Ghamari-Tabrizi, Foucault in Iran: Islamic Revolution after the Enlightenment (Minneapolis, 2016). For the most intelligent assessment of Mazzini’s ‘popular theocracy’, see Gaetano Salvemini, Mazzini: A Study of His Thought and its Effect on 19th Century Political Theory, trans. I. M. Rawson (London, 1956). On Maududi’s notions of the vanguard, see Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr, The Vanguard of the Islamic Revolution: The Jama‘at-i Islami of Pakistan (Berkeley, 1994). For an intelligent assertion of the old secularization thesis, see Marcel Gauchet, The Disenchantment of the World: A Political History of Religion, trans. Oscar Burge (Princeton, 1999). The exploration of ‘political religion’ has dramatically grown since 9/11. Among the most stimulating studies arePaul W. Kahn, Political Theology: Four New Chapters on the Concept of Sovereignty (New York, 2011), and Emilio Gentile, Politics as Religion (Princeton, 2006). Akeel Bilgrami, Secularism, Identity, and Enchantment (Cambridge, MA, 2014), makes some enlightening connections.

5. Regaining My Religion

I. Nationalism Unbound

Godse’s remarkable courtroom testament is now available in a revised edition: Nathuram Vinayak Godse, Why I Assassinated Mahatma Gandhi (Delhi, 2014). On Savarkar’s connection to Gandhi’s assassination, see A. G. Noorani, Savarkar and Hindutva: The Godse Connection (New Delhi, 2002). Naipaul’s early views of India are contained in the essays in The Writer and the World (London, 2002) and India: A Wounded Civilization (London, 1977). For Nirad Chaudhuri’s choleric assessment of modern Hindus, see The Continent of Circe: Being an Essay on the Peoples of India(London, 1965). Keynes wrote about early globalization in The Economic Consequences of the Peace (London, 1919). For a general overview of cultural, political and intellectual movements in Germany, these three books can hardly be bettered: Heinrich August Winkler, Germany: The Long Road West (1789–1933), trans. Alexander Sager (Oxford, 2006, 2007); David Blackbourn, History of Germany 1780–1918: The Long Nineteenth Century (Oxford, 2002); and Thomas Nipperdey, Germany from Napoleon to Bismarck, 1800–1866, trans. Daniel Nolan (Princeton, 1996). There are some brilliant insights in Helmut Walser Smith, The Continuities of German History: Nation, Religion, and Race across the Long Nineteenth Century (Cambridge, 2008). For another unconventional take on German modernity, see David Blackbourn, The Conquest of Nature: Water, Landscape, and the Making of Modern Germany (London, 2006). On Herder, see Johann Gottfried von Herder: Philosophical Writings, trans. and ed. Michael N. Forster (Cambridge, 2002), and Johann Gottfried Herder, Another Philosophy of History, and Selected Political Writings, trans. and ed. Ioannis D. Evrigenis and Daniel Pellerin (Indianapolis, 2004). A thorough study of Herder is F. M. Barnard’s Herder’s Social and Political Thought: From Enlightenment to Nationalism (Oxford, 1965). See also his comparative study of Rousseau and Herder, Self-Direction and Political Legitimacy: Rousseau and Herder (Oxford, 1988). On the peculiar ingredients of German ideologies, see Celia Applegate, A Nation of Provincials: The German Idea of Heimat (Berkeley, 1990). Two succinct and sharp accounts of the Romantic movement are T. C. W. Blanning, The Romantic Revolution (London, 2010), and Rüdiger Safranski, Romanticism: A German Affair, trans. Robert E. Goodwin (Evanston, 2014). The German Romantics describe their early encounters with the world in Frederick C. Beiser (ed. and trans.), The Early Political Writings of the German Romantics(Cambridge, 1996). See also the remarkable works by Frederick C. Beiser: The Romantic Imperative: The Concept of Early German Romanticism (Cambridge, MA, 2004), and Enlightenment, Revolution, and Romanticism: The Genesis of Modern German Political Thought, 1790–1800(Cambridge, MA, 1992). Ossian’s success is described in Thomas M. Curley, Samuel Johnson, the Ossian Fraud, and the Celtic Revival in Great Britain and Ireland (Cambridge, 2009). On German writers and politics, see Gordon A. Craig, The Politics of the Unpolitical: German Writers and the Problem of Power, 1770–1871 (Oxford, 1995), and Erich Heller, The Disinherited Mind (New York, 1952). On Saint-Simon and his peers, see Frank E. Manuel, The Prophets of Paris: Turgot, Condorcet, Saint-Simon, Fourier, Comte (New York, 1965), and The New World of Henri Saint-Simon (Cambridge, MA, 1956). For a more surprising account of Saint-Simon’s influence, see Richard Pankhurst, The Saint-Simonians Mill and Carlyle: A Preface to Modern Thought (London, 1957). Edmund Wilson wrote about the influence of both Saint-Simon and Fourier in To the Finland Station: A Study in the Writing and Acting of History (New York, 1940). On George Sand and her cult, see Renee Winegarten, The Double Life of George Sand, Woman and Writer (New York, 1978). Given his extraordinary influence over the nineteenth century, Lamennais has received very little scholarly attention. See John J. Oldfield, The Problem of Tolerance and Social Existence in the Writings of Félicité Lamennais, 1809–1831 (Leiden, 1973). On the transfigured cult of divinity in nineteenth-century Europe, see Frank E. Manuel, The Changing of the Gods(Hanover, NH, 1983). Sudhir Hazareesingh provides a comprehensive account of another cult in The Legend of Napoleon (London, 2005). On Marx’s response to Germany’s historical vagaries, see Harold Mah, Enlightenment Phantasies: Cultural Identity in France and Germany, 1750–1914(New York, 2003). For writings by Heine, see Heinrich Heine, On the History of Religion and Philosophy in Germany, and Other Writings, ed. Terry Pinkard, trans. Howard Pollack-Milgate (Cambridge, 2007), and The Harz Journey and Selected Prose, trans. and ed. Ritchie Robertson (London, 2006). See also Ritchie Robertson, The ‘Jewish Question’ in German Literature, 1749–1939: Emancipation and its Discontents (Oxford, 1999). An illuminating biography of Treitschke is Andreas Dorpalen, Heinrich von Treitschke (New Haven, 1957). On the growth of nationalism in nineteenth-century Germany, see George L. Mosse, The Nationalization of the Masses: Political Symbolism and Mass Movements in Germany from the Napoleonic Wars through the Third Reich (New York, 1975), and Paul Kennedy and Anthony James Nicholls (eds), Nationalist and Racialist Movements in Britain and Germany before 1914 (London, 1981). On anti-Semitism, see Peter Pulzer, The Rise of Political Anti-Semitism in Germany and Austria (New York, 1964), and on its most interesting mouthpiece, Robert W. Lougee, Paul de Lagarde, 1827–1891: A Study of Radical Conservatism in Germany (Cambridge, MA, 1962). See also Pierre Birnbaum, The Anti-Semitic Moment: A Tour of France in 1898, trans. Jane Marie Todd (New York, 2003). In addition to Carl Schorske’s work on turn-of-the-century Vienna, see also Wolfgang Maderthaner and Lutz Musner (eds), Unruly Masses: The Other Side of Fin-de-Siècle Vienna (New York, 2008). Two noteworthy books on Wagner among many are Joachim Köhler, Richard Wagner: The Last of the Titans (New Haven, 2004), and David C. Large and William Weber (eds), Wagnerism in European Culture and Politics(Ithaca, NY, 1984). Jacques Barzun, Darwin, Marx, Wagner: Critique of a Heritage (New York, 1941), is still very stimulating. On the intersections of Japanese and German thought, see Andrew E. Barshay, State and Intellectual in Imperial Japan: The Public Man in Crisis (Berkeley, 1991). For the German origins of historical and cultural studies, see Georg G. Iggers, The German Conception of History: The National Tradition of Historical Thought from Herder to the Present (Middletown, 1968).

II. Messianic Visions

Roman Koropeckyj, Adam Mickiewicz: The Life of a Romantic (Ithaca, NY, 2008), does justice to an extraordinary life. Mickiewicz’s Istanbul escapade is described in Neal Ascherson’s wonderful Black Sea (London, 1995). For Mazzini and Italy, see Harry Hearder, Italy in the Age of the Risorgimento, 1790–1870 (London, 1983), and E. E. Y. Hales, Mazzini and the Secret Societies: The Making of a Myth (London, 1956). Mazzini’s own writings are collected in Stefano Recchia and Nadia Urbinati (eds), A Cosmopolitanism of Nations: Giuseppe Mazzini’s Writings on Democracy, Nation Building, and International Relations (Princeton, 2009). The most important recent book on Mazzini is Simon Levis Sullam, Giuseppe Mazzini and the Origins of Fascism (New York, 2015). Although dated, the biography of Bakunin by E. H. Carr (London, 1937) is full of absorbing detail. On Italian anarchism and Bakunin, see Nunzio Pernicone, Italian Anarchism, 1864–1892 (Oakland, 1993), and The Method of Freedom: An Errico Malatesta Reader, ed. Davide Turcato, trans. Paul Sharkey (Oakland, 2014). For intellectual trends of the late nineteenth century, two magisterial accounts are still H. Stuart Hughes, Consciousness and Society: The Reorientation of European Social Thought, 1890–1930 (London, 1959), and J. W. Burrow, The Crisis of Reason: European Thought, 1848–1914 (New Haven, 2000). On the neo-Machiavellians, see Robert A. Nye, The Anti-Democratic Sources of Elite Theory: Pareto, Mosca, Michels (London, 1977). The scholarship on Social Darwinism is immense. See Mike Hawkins, Social Darwinism in European and American Thought, 1860–1945 (Cambridge, 1997). On ideas of degeneration and mass irrationality, see Robert A. Nye, The Origins of Crowd Psychology: Gustave LeBon and the Crisis of Mass Democracy in the Third Republic (London, 1975), and Daniel Pick, Faces of Degeneration: A European Disorder, c.1848–c.1918 (Cambridge, 1989). On eugenics, see Geoffrey Searle, Eugenics and Politics in Britain, 1900–1914 (Leiden, 1976), and Paul Weindling, Health, Race and German Politics between National Unification and Nazism, 1870–1945 (Cambridge, 1989). On Aryanism and race see Geoffrey G. Field, Evangelist of Race: The Germanic Vision of Houston Stewart Chamberlain (New York, 1981). The international construction of whiteness is detailed in Marilyn Lake and Henry Reynolds, Drawing the Global Colour Line: White Men’s Countries and the International Challenge of Racial Equality (Cambridge, 2008). There are some brilliant insights into the historical evolution of our notions of race and gender in Colette Guillaumin, Racism, Sexism, Power and Ideology (London, 1995). No synthetic study exists of Nietzsche’s massive influence in Asia and Africa, though there are many monographs devoted to his impact in Europe and the United States. See Zhaoyi Zhang, Lu Xun: The Chinese ‘Gentle’ Nietzsche (London, 2001). Herbert Spencer, on the other hand, is now receiving much attention. See Bernard Lightman (ed.), Global Spencerism: The Communication and Appropriation of a British Evolutionist (Leiden, 2015), and Marwa Elshakry, Reading Darwin in Arabic, 1860–1950 (Chicago, 2013). On Gobineau, see Michael D. Biddiss, Father of Racist Ideology: The Social and Political Thought of Count Gobineau (London, 1970). On the French nationalism of the radical right, see Michael Curtis, Three against the Third Republic: Sorel, Barrès and Maurras (Westport, 1976), and Zeev Sternhell, Neither Right Nor Left: Fascist Ideology in France, trans. David Maisel (Princeton, 1986). On the American fantasy of regeneration, see Jackson Lears, Rebirth of a Nation: The Making of Modern America, 1877–1920 (New York, 2009). A gripping account of the cultural and ideological clashes in France is Frederick Brown, For the Soul of France: Culture Wars in the Age of Dreyfus (New York, 2010). On the intellectual and emotional origins of Zionism, see Arthur Hertzberg, The Zionist Idea (New York, 1959), and David J. Goldberg, To the Promised Land: A History of Zionist Thought (London, 1996). On Jabotinsky, see the rich and original study by Michael Stanislawski, Zionism and the Fin de Siècle: Cosmopolitanism and Nationalism from Nordau to Jabotinsky (Berkeley, 2001). Geoffrey Wheatcroft, The Controversy of Zion: Jewish Nationalism, the Jewish State, and the Unresolved Jewish Dilemma (Reading, MA, 1996), has a sharp portrait of the Zionist. The fin de siècle as a global phenomenon is now receiving close attention. See Michael Saler (ed.), The Fin-de-Siècle World (London, 2014), and Sally Ledger and Roger Luckhurst (eds), The Fin de Siècle: A Reader in Cultural History, c.1880–1900 (Oxford, 2000). The insights of an early study by Elaine Showalter, Sexual Anarchy: Gender and Culture at the Fin de Siècle (London, 1991), are still pertinent. On Sorel, see Irving Louis Horowitz, Radicalism and the Revolt against Reason: The Social Theories of Georges Sorel (London, 1961), and J. R. Jennings, Georges Sorel: The Character and Development of His Thought (London, 1985). On the intellectual origins of fascism, the timeless work is Gaetano Salvemini, The Origins of Fascism in Italy, ed. and trans. Roberto Vivarelli (New York, 1973). For a clear sense of political debates in nineteenth-century Italy, see Carlo G. Lacaita and Filippo Sabetti (eds), Civilization and Democracy: The Salvemini Anthology of Cattaneo’s Writings (Toronto, 2006). On the links between modernism and fascism, see Roger Griffin, Modernism and Fascism: The Sense of a Beginning under Mussolini and Hitler (Basingstoke, 2007). Mazzini’s influence outside Europe is catalogued in C. A. Bayly and Eugenio F. Biagini (eds), Giuseppe Mazzini and the Globalisation of Democratic Nationalism, 1830–1920 (Oxford, 2008). For his influence among Chinese intellectuals, see Xiaobing Tang, Global Space and the Nationalist Discourse of Modernity: The Historical Thinking of Liang Qichao (Stanford, 1996). For useful introductions to nineteenth-century Indian nationalism, see the essays of Tapan Raychaudhuri in his Europe Reconsidered: Perceptions of the West in Nineteenth-Century Bengal (Delhi, 2002), and Sudipta Kaviraj, The Unhappy Consciousness: Bankimchandra Chattopadhyay and the Formation of Nationalist Discourse in India (Delhi, 1995). On Savarkar, the biography by Dhananjay Keer, Veer Savarkar (Bombay, 1966), is detailed, if uncritical. Harindra Srivastava, Five Stormy Years: Savarkar in London, June 1906–June 1911 (New Delhi, 1983), has some useful facts. Savarkar’s writings, anthologized in Selected Works of Veer Savarkar, 4 vols (Chandigarh, 2007), can be read at; see also his Hindutva: Who Is a Hindu? (Bombay, 1969) and The Indian War of Independence of 1857(London, 1909). For his political background, see Arun Bose, Indian Revolutionaries Abroad, 1905–1922 (Patna, 1971), and G. P. Deshpande, The World of Ideas in Modern Marathi: Phule, Vinoba, Savarkar (New Delhi, 2009). The RSS’s world view is outlined by M. S. Golwalkar, We or Our Nationhood Defined (Nagpur, 1945). An essential account of the RSS is Christophe Jaffrelot, The Hindu Nationalist Movement in India (New York, 1996). See also Aparna Devare, History and the Making of a Modern Hindu Self (New Delhi, 2011), and Jyotirmaya Sharma, Hindutva: Exploring the Idea of Hindu Nationalism (New Delhi, 2011).

6. Finding True Freedom and Equality

On McVeigh, see Lou Michel and Dan Herbeck, American Terrorist: Timothy McVeigh and the Tragedy at Oklahoma City (New York, 2001). The contradictions in McVeigh’s character have a history, which is brilliantly told in T. J. Jackson Lears, No Place of Grace: Antimodernism and the Transformation of American Culture, 1880–1920 (Chicago, 1981). On Yousef, see Lawrence Wright, The Looming Tower: Al-Qaeda and the Road to 9/11 (New York, 2006), and Simon Reeve, The New Jackals: Ramzi Yousef, Osama Bin Laden and the Future of Terrorism (Boston, 2001). A good reference book for contemporary terrorism in America is Jeffrey Kaplan (ed.), Encyclopedia of White Power: A Sourcebook on the Radical Racist Right (Lanham, 2000). See also Alston Chase, A Mind for Murder: The Education of the Unabomber and the Origins of Modern Terrorism(New York, 2004). Faisal Devji’s two books contain some refreshingly unconventional views of terrorism: Landscapes of the Jihad: Militancy, Morality, Modernity (London, 2005) and The Terrorist in Search of Humanity: Militant Islam and Global Politics (London, 2008). Proudhon is mostly remembered today because of his disagreements with Marx. A good recent edition of his writings is Iain Mckay (ed.), Property Is Theft! A Pierre-Joseph Proudhon Anthology (Oakland, 2010). See also John Ehrenberg, Proudhon and His Age (Atlantic Highlands, 1996). Ruth Kinna (ed.), Early Writings on Terrorism, 4 vols (London, 2006), is a very handy collection. Although the above-mentioned biography by E. H. Carr has all the relevant facts, a recent biography of Bakunin has some provocative theses: Mark Leier, Bakunin: The Creative Passion (New York, 2006). James Joll, The Anarchists (London, 1964), is an excellent single-volume account. On the traumatic events of 1871 in Paris, see R. Christiansen, Paris Babylon: The Story of the Paris Commune (London, 1996). Kristin Ross uncovers some deeper intellectual antecedents in Communal Luxury: The Political Imaginary of the Paris Commune (London, 2015)On international radicalism in the late nineteenth century, see James L. Gelvin and Nile Green (eds), Global Muslims in the Age of Steam and Print (Berkeley, 2013); Ilham Khuri-Makdisi, The Eastern Mediterranean and the Making of Global Radicalism, 1860–1914 (Berkeley, 2010); and Maia Ramnath, Decolonizing Anarchism: An Antiauthoritarian History of India’s Liberation Struggle (Oakland, 2011). The Chinese fascination with anarchism is detailed in Arif Dirlik, Anarchism in the Chinese Revolution(Berkeley, 1991). See also Benedict Anderson, Under Three Flags: Anarchism and the Anti-Colonial Imagination (London, 2005), and Peter Heehs, The Bomb in Bengal: The Rise of Revolutionary Terrorism in India, 1900–1910 (New Delhi, 1993). A very entertaining history of the feverish climate of anarchism is Alex Butterworth, The World That Never Was: A True Story of Dreamers, Schemers, Anarchists and Secret Agents (New York, 2010). On Baader-Meinhof, see Jillian Becker, Hitler’s Children: The Story of the Baader-Meinhof Terrorist Gang (London, 1989). Al-Zarqawi’s early life is documented in Joby Warrick, Black Flags: The Rise of ISIS (New York, 2015). On 1848, see Mike Rapport, 1848: Year of Revolution (New York, 2010). For reactions to the 1848 revolutions, see Eugène Kamenka and F. B. Smith (eds), Intellectuals and Revolution: Socialism and the Experience of 1848 (London, 1979), and L. B. Namier, 1848: The Revolution of the Intellectuals (Oxford, 1971). Apart from the above-mentioned works on Russian intellectual and political life in the nineteenth century, see also Ronald Hingley, Nihilists: Russian Radicals and Revolutionaries in the Age of Alexander II (1855–81) (London, 1967), Paul Avrich, The Russian Anarchists (New York, 1978), and Woodford McClellan, Revolutionary Exiles: The Russians in the First International and the Paris Commune (London, 1979). Herzen has had many distinguished champions and explicators. See Martin Malia, Alexander Herzen and the Birth of Russian Socialism, 1812–1855 (New York, 1971), and Edward Acton, Alexander Herzen and the Role of the Intellectual Revolutionary (Cambridge, 1979); Isaiah Berlin, ‘Herzen and his Memoirs’, in his Against the Current: Essays in the History of Ideas (Oxford, 1981), and Russian Thinkers (London, 1978). E. H. Carr’s The Romantic Exiles: A Nineteenth-Century Portrait Gallery (London, 1933) is still valuable and immensely readable. But there is no substitute for reading Herzen’s own words, especially My Past and Thoughts: Memoirs, 6 vols, trans. Constance Garnett (London, 2008). The violence at Haymarket is described in James Green, Death in the Haymarket: A Story of Chicago, the First Labor Movement, and the Bombing that Divided Gilded Age America (New York, 2006). On anarchism among immigrant communities in America, see Tom Goyens, Beer and Revolution: The German Anarchist Movement in New York City, 1880–1914 (Urbana, 2007), and Frederic Trautmann, The Voice of Terror: A Biography of Johann Most(Westport, 1980). The essays in Wolfgang J. Mommsen and Gerhard Hirschfeld (eds), Social Protest, Violence and Terror in Nineteenth- and Twentieth-Century Europe (New York, 1982), are invaluable. The relationship between Bakunin and his most notorious follower is described in Paul Avrich, Bakunin and Nechaev (London, 1987). The most comprehensive account of the European response to the first phase of terrorism is Richard Bach Jensen, The Battle against Anarchist Terrorism: An International History, 1878–1934 (Cambridge, 2014). See also Isaac Land (ed.), Enemies of Humanity: The Nineteenth-Century War on Terrorism (New York, 2008); Scott Miller, The President and the Assassin: McKinley, Terror, and Empire at the Dawn of the American Century (New York, 2011); and Bernard Porter, The Origins of the Vigilant State: The London Metropolitan Police Special Branch before the First World War (London, 1987). On Bakunin’s Spanish connection, see Temma Kaplan, Anarchists of Andalusia, 1868–1903 (Princeton, 1977). The life of his foremost Italian disciple is described in Max Nettlau, Errico Malatesta: The Biography of an Anarchist (New York, 1924).

7. Epilogue

Eric Voegelin wrote about Bakunin in his From Enlightenment to Revolution (Durham, NC, 1975). Václav Havel’s writings on the ‘free world’ in Living in Truth (London, 1986) are still incandescent. Søren Kierkegaard’s views on journalism and vanity are contained in his The Present Age, trans. Alexander Dru (New York, 1962). Laurence Scott, The Four-Dimensional Human: Ways of Being in the Digital World (London, 2015), is the most interesting among recent books on the reshaping of the human self by digital media. On the new illusions of the age, see Evgeny Morozov, To Save Everything, Click Here: Technology, Solutionism, and the Urge to Fix Problems that Don’t Exist (London, 2013). The new modes of exclusion are described in Saskia Sassen, Expulsions: Brutality and Complexity in the Global Economy (Cambridge, 2014). See also Arjun Appadurai, Fear of Small Numbers: An Essay on the Geography of Anger (Durham, NC, 2006). The Pope’s encyclical about climate change is arguably the most important piece of intellectual criticism in our time. See Pope Francis, Laudato Si’: On Care for Our Common Home (London, 2015). For an example of fresh thinking, see David Kennedy, The World of Struggle: How Power, Law, and Expertise Shape Global Political Economy (Princeton, 2016).

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