REFERENCES

The citations for sources from which material in the text is derived are arranged by Section and Chapter, with the beginning of a quotation or relevant phrase in italics.

CODE: A = Article

B = Book

CR = Congressional report

D = Declassified document (CIA, FBI, military, etc).

I = Interview

L = Letter

O = Other (including unpublished interviews by other authors)

PROLOGUE

Description of discovery of LSD-25. B Albert Hofmann, LSD: My Problem Child, pp. 1–15.

“Dr. Hofmann . . . there are thousands” A quoted in Spencer Rumsey, “The Most Exquisite Rascals of the Age,” Berkeley Barb, October 21–27, 1977.

“Am I, Allen Ginsberg” B Allen Ginsberg, “From Journals,” Poems All Over the Place, p. 53.

“The LSD movement was started by the CIA” A quoted in Walter Barney, “Grandfather of LSD Meets the Acid Children,” San Francisco Sunday Chronicle and Examiner, October 16, 1977.

“As I look at my colleagues” A quoted in Rumsey.

“LSD came along before” A quoted in Rumsey.

“We must disentangle ourselves” A quoted in Daniel Golden, “Allen Ginsberg: Politics of Emptiness,” City on a Hill Press, October 20, 1977.

“close the book on this chapter” CR Human Drug Testing by the CIA, 1977, Hearings before the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources, United States Senate, p. 2.

“The knowledge that the Agency” D (CIA) Inspector General’s Memorandum to the Director of Central Intelligence, “Kennedy Committee Interest in IG Surveys of OTS,” 31 October 1975, p. 2.

“to investigate whether and how it was possible” CR Human Drug Testing By the CIA, p. 169.

“The bottom line on this whole business” A Assassination Information Bureau, “Congress and the MK-ULTRA Whitewash,” Clandestine America, November-December 1977.

witnesses conferred among themselves, agreeing to limit B John Marks, The Search for the Manchurian Candidate, p. 207.

programmed assassins who would kill on command D (CIA) “ARTICHOKE Report,” 22 January 1954.

“hypnotically-induced anxieties” D (CIA) MK-ULTRA, Subproject 5, Memorandum for the Record, 11 May 1953.

“We lived in a never-never land” A Tad Szulc, “The CIA’s Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test,” Psychology Today, November 1977.

nearly every drug that appeared on the black market A Martin A. Lee, “High Spy,” Rolling Stone, September 1, 1983.

CHAPTER ONE: IN THE BEGINNING THERE WAS MADNESS. . .

—The Truth Seekers—

“We were not afraid to try” O quoted in Mission: Mind Control, ABC News Close-up, January 30, 1979.

“There is no reason to believe” D (OSS) Memorandum for the File, 5 April 1946.

“injected into any type of food” ibid.

“TD appears to relax all inhibitions” ibid.

“to discuss psychologically charged topics” D (OSS) “Report on TD ‘Truth Drugs,’” 2 June 1943.

“The drug defies all but” D (OSS) Memorandum for the File, “TD Material,” 31 January 1946.

Description of Project CHATTER. D (CIA) Memorandum for the File, “Meeting with IAC Representatives of Project BLUEBIRD,” 25 July 1951; and CR Biomedical and Behavioral Research, 1975, Joint Hearings before the Subcommittee on Health of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare and the Subcommittee on Administrative Practice and Procedure of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, September 10, 12, and November 7, 1975, p. 989.

“impossible to impose one’s will” D (navy) “German Aviation Medical Research at the Dachau Concentration Camp,” US Naval Technical Mission (Report no. 331-N45), October 1945.

Strughold, the German scientist whose chief subordinates A Charles R. Allen, Jr., “Hubertus Strughold, Nazi in USA,” Jewish Currents, December 1974.

“the amounts of scopolamine” D (CIA) 8 June 1954 (untitled.).

“we’re now convinced that we can maintain” D (CIA) “‘ARTICHOKE,’ Special Comments,” 26 November 1952.

“to justify giving the green light” D (CIA) “ARTICHOKE Techniques,” 21 June 1952.

“not fit for public consumption” D (CIA) “Subconscious Isolation,” July 1951.

“broad and comprehensive, involving both domestic” D (CIA) Memorandum to the File, “Notes on meeting held 23 July 1951 in Room 2519 H Building and Room 2505-A H Building.”

“exploitable alteration of personality” D (CIA) “Report of the Ad Hoc Medical Study Group,” 15 January 1953.

“potential agents, defectors, refugees” D (CIA) “Organization of a Special Defense Interrogation Program,” 11 June 1951.

fact-finding missions . . . to procure samples of rare herbs D (CIA) “Exploration of Potential Plant Resources in the Caribbean Region,” 7 February 1956.

“Cocaine’s general effects have been” D (CIA) “Cocaine” (undated).

“produced free and spontaneous speech” ibid.

heroin that ex-Nazi pilots under CIA contract smuggled B William R. Corson, Armies of Ignorance: The Rise of the American Intelligence Empire, pp. 321–12.

mobsters who moonlighted as CIA hitmen B Henrik Kruger, The Great Heroin Coup: Drugs, Intelligence, and International Fascism.

“can be useful in reverse because of the stresses” D (CIA) Memorandum for Assistant Director of Scientific Intelligence from R.J. Williams, Project Coordinator, “ARTICHOKE,” 26 April 1952.

—Enter LSD—

Stoll reported that LSD produced A Arthur W. Stoll, “LSD, a Hallucinatory Agent from the Ergot Group,” Swiss Archives of Neurology 60 (1947): 279.

on the conscious suppression of experimental” D (CIA) 21 October 1951 (untitled).

“at least twelve human subjects” D (CIA) “Experiments with LSD-25,” 13 August 1954.

“he gave all the details of the secret” D (CIA) 20 July 1954 (untitled).

“for eliciting true and accurate statements” D (CIA) “Potential New Agent for Unconventional Warfare, LSD,” 5 August 1954.

“We had thought at first that this was the secret” B quoted in Marks, p. 101.

“The most fascinating thing about it” O John Gittlinger quoted in Mission: Mind Control

“serious mental confusion . . . and render the mind” D (CIA) “An OSI Study on the Strategic Medical Significance of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD-25),” 30 August 1955.

“Since information obtained from a person.” CR “Truth Drugs in Interrogation,” Protect MK-ULTRA, The CIA’s Program of Research In Behavior Modification, Joint Hearing before the Select Committee on Intelligence and the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Human Resources, United States Senate, August 3, 1977, p.32

“Although no Soviet data are available” D (CIA) “An OSI Study on the Strategic Medical Significance of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD-25),” 30 August 1955.

“I’m sure they were” O quoted in Mission: Mind Control.

“to produce anxiety or terror” CR “Truth Drugs in Interrogation,” Project MK-ULTRA, p. 32.

Security officials proposed that LSD be administered D (CIA) Memorandum for the Record, to Chief of Security Research Staff, from Chief, Technical Branch, “ARTICHOKE conference 22 October 1953,” 16 November 1953.

“confined merely to male volunteer trainee” D (CIA) Memorandum for the Record, 19 November 1953.

smart shots, memory erasers, “anti-vitamins” D (CIA) Draft pertaining to MK-ULTRA, Subproject 35, 5 May 1955; “Report of Trip, 6–11 April 1955 to [deleted]”; Memorandum for Deputy Director of Plans, from Marshall S. Carter, “Report of Inspection of MK-ULTRA,” 14 August 1963; Memorandum for Inspector General, “Project OFTEN,” 6 May 1974; and A Martin A. Lee, “CIA: Carcinogen,” Nation, June 5, 1982.

LSD was employed as an aid to interrogation D (CIA) “Specific Cases of Overseas Testing and Application of Behavioral Drugs” (undated); and Office Memorandum, 20 January 1959.

—Laboratories of the State—

CIA-linked conduits or cutouts A “Private Institutions Used in CIA Efforts to Control Behavior,” New York Times, August 2, 1977.

The Boston Psychopathic Institute . . . one hundred volunteers A Joseph B. Treatser, “Researchers Say That Students Were among 200 Who Took LSD in Tests,” New York Times, August 9, 1977.

“LSD and mescaline disorganize the psychic integration” A Paul H. Hoch, “Comments: Experimental Psychiatry,” American Journal of Psychiatry, 111 (April 1955): 789.

“Don’t worry . . . it won’t work” O Nick Bercel, comments at LSD Reunion in Los Angeles, February 16, 1979.

“If the concept of contaminating” D (CIA) “Information from Europe Related to the Ego-Depressants, 6 August to 29 August 1952,” 4 September 1952.

“open the mind to the power of suggestion” D (CIA) “An OSI Study on the Strategic Medical Significance of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD-25),” 30 August 1955.

Description of Dr. Ewen Cameron’s CIA research. B Marks, pp. 131–42.

NIMH and NIH were fully cognizant D (CIA) Memorandum for Liaison & Security Officer/TSS, “An Account of the Chemical Division’s Contacts in the NIH,” 24 July 1953.

a new drug (usually supplied by American pharmaceutical firms) D (CIA) Memorandum for Director of Central Intelligence on CIA R & D Testing of Behavioral Drugs, from Inspector General Donald F. Chamberlain, 5 February 1975.

black inmates . . . given LSD for more than seventy-five consecutive days B Marks, p. 63.

“double, triple, quadruple doses” D (CIA) untitled report from Dr. Harris Isbell, 14 July 1954.

“continuous gales of laughter” D (CIA) H. Isbell, “Comparisons of the Reactions Induced by Psilocybin and LSD-25 in Man,” 5 May 1959.

“will most probably be found in the biochem:stry departments” D (CIA) untitled cable, 26 May 1954.

the purchase of ten kilos of LSD D (CIA) Memorandum to Chief of Security Research Staff, from Chief of Technical Branch, “ARTICHOKE Conference, 22 October 1953,” 16 November 1953.

“This is a closely guarded secret” D (CIA) Memorandum to Director of Central Intelligence via Deputy Director of Plans, “Potential Large-Scale Availability of LSD through Newly-Discovered Synthesis by (deleted),” 26 October 1954.

—Midnight Climax—

“The minds of selected individuals” D (CIA) “Summary of Remarks by Dulles at the National Alumni Conference of the Graduate Council of Princeton University—Brain Warfare,” 10 April 1953.

“Aside from the offensive potential” D (CIA) Memorandum from Assistant Deputy Director of Plans Helms to Director of Central Intelligence Dulles, 3 April 1953.

attempting to have a hypnotized subject kill D (CIA) “ARTICHOKE Report,” 22 January 1954; and A “CIA Document Tells of 1954 Project to Create Involuntary Assassins,” New York Times, February 9, 1978.

“to high officials would be a relatively simple matter” D (CIA) “Summary of Conversations with [deleted] on 11 January 1952,” 5 February 1952.

“There was an extensive amount of self-experimentation” CR Human Drug Testing by the CIA, p. 185.

“produce serious insanity for periods” D (CIA) Memorandum to Chief of Security Research Staff, “Subject: Attached,” 15 December 1954.

“I didn’t want to leave it” B Marks, p. 69.

“He reported afterwards . . . that every automobile” B ibid., p. 71.

“a psychotic state. . . with delusions of persecution” B ibid., p. 81.

a mildly worded reprimand D (CIA) Memorandum from Allen W. Dulles to Chief of Chemical Division, TSS, 10 February 1954.

White’s harem of prostitutes became the focal point B Marks, pp. 94–97.

“So far as I’m concerned. . .’clear thinking’ was non-existent” L George Hunter White to Harvey Powelson, September 30, 1970.

There he sat with gun in hand shooting wax slugs O Mission: Mind Control.

“concepts involved in manipulating human behavior” D (CIA) “Report of Inspection of MK-ULTRA,” 14 August 1963.

“positive operational capacity to use drugs” D (CIA) Memorandum for Director of Central Intelligence, via Deputy Director of Central Intelligence, “Unwitting Testing,” 9 November 1965.

Soviet research in the pharmacological agents” D (CIA) Memorandum for Mr. J. Lee Rankin, General Counsel, President’s Commission on the Assassination of President Kennedy, “Soviet Brainwashing Techniques,” 26 June 1964.

I was a very minor missionary” B quoted in Marks, p. 101.

Helms, who characterized the drugs as “dynamite” CR “Kirkpatrick Diary,” 2 December 1953, Biomedical and Behavioral Research, p. 1090.

One scheme involved dusting Castro’s shoes CR Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders, Interim Report of the Select Committee to Study Govermental Operations with respect to Intelligence Activities, United States Senate, November 20, 1975, p. 72.

Gottlieb carried a stash of acid overseas D (CIA) “Project MK-ULTRA,” 9 June 1954.

—The Hallucination Battlefield—

“I do not contend that driving people crazy” A “An Interview with Major General William M. Creasy,” This Week, May 17, 1959.

“attacks the sensory, perception, and nerve centers” CR Biological and Radiological Warfare Agents, Hearings before the Committee on Science and Astronautics, United States House of Representatives, June 16 and 22, 1959, p. 3.

“How can we determine it! What is the test” ibid., pp. 24–25.

“we could possibly have you dancing on the desks” ibid.

Blauer, a tennis professional, was the subject of a drug study D (army) “Inspector General’s Report of Inquiry into the Facts and Circumstances surrounding the Death of Mr. Harold Blauer at the New York State Psychiatric Institute (NYSPI) and Subsequent Claims and Actions, DAIG-IN 27–75, 1975.

“immediate, massive, and almost shocklike picture” ibid.

“It is possible that a certain amount of brain damage” B Hoch quoted in Marks, p. 123.

a hallucinogen was administered along a local A Martin Porter, “Crimes over the Cuckoo’s Nest,” Village Voice, September 4, 1978.

“obviously having paranoid ideas” O Mission: Mind Control.

“from total incapacity to marked decrease” D (army) “Use of Volunteers in Chemical Agent Research,” Report of the Inspector General, DAIG-IN 21–75, 1975, pp. 116–18.

Some staff members even tried to teach ibid., pp. 118–25.

Soldiers . . . were given LSD and confined to sensory deprivation chambers CR Foreign and Military Intelligence, Final Report of the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with respect to Intelligence Activities, United States Senate, Vol. I, p. 412.

“interrogator of limited experience could compel” D (army) “Use of Volunteers in Chemical Agent Research,” p. 117.

“Stressing techniques employed included silent treatment” D (army) “SPT Trip Report, Operation THIRD CHANCE,” 6 September 1961.

“The subject often voiced an anti-communist line” D (army) “Report on Army Drug Testing: Material Testing Program EA 1729, Project THIRD CHANCE, and Project DERBY HAT,” 23 January 1976.

“I was attempting to put on, with a good cover” CR Chemical, Biological and Radiological Warfare Agents, p. 5.

four hundred chemical “rejects” every month ibid., p. 32.

“During the period of acute effects” CR Biomedical and Behavioral Research, pp. 210–11.

Sim said he sampled LSD “on several occasions” A Bill Richards “Army Stockpiles BZ Drugs in Bombs,” Washington Post, August 3, 1975.

“It’s not a matter of compulsiveness” A “Self-Exposure to Psychochemicals,” Armed Forces Journal, May-June 1960.

“It zonked me for three days” A Bill Richards, “Army Stockpiles BZ Drugs in Bombs,” Washington Post, August 3, 1975.

“at the risk of grave personal injury” A “Self-Exposure to Psychochemicals, Armed Forces Journal, May-June 1960.

“The Army’s testing of BZ was just a sideshow” A quoted in Bill Richards, “Army Test Subjects Got Super Hallucinogen,” Washington Post, July 25, 1975.

“The last time I saw him” A quoted in Normal Kempster, “U.S. Didn’t Check Gas Test Subjects,” Los Angeles Times, July 19, 1979.

The superhallucinogen was ready for deployment B Seymour Hersh, Chemical and Biological Warfare, p. 45.

“We will use these things” CR Chemical, Biological and Radiological Warfare Agents, p. 3.

CHAPTER TWO: PSYCHEDELIC PIONEERS

—The Original Captain Trips—

Unless otherwise indicated, all quotes from Captain Al Hubbard in this section of the text are based on an interview with Hubbard by Dr. Oscar Janiger, October 13, 1978.

“Most people are walking m their sleep” B quoted in Gunther M. Weil, Ralph Metzner, and Timothy Leary, eds. The Psychedelic Reader, p. 83.

“I did not relish the possibility” B quoted in Aldous Huxley, Moksha, p. 36.

“It was . . . without question the most extraordinary” ibid., p. 42.

“what Adam had seen on the morning” B Aldous Huxley, The Doors of Perception, p. 17.

“come about as the result of biochemical discoveries”, B Moksha, p. 156

“Your nice Captain tried a new” ibid., p. 69.

“What came through the closed door” ibid. p. 81.

“What Babes in the Wood” ibid., p. 70.

“a deep and genuine religious experience” B quoted in John W. Aiken, “The Church of the Great Awakening,” in Osmond and Aaronson, eds., Psychedelics, p. 174.

“extensive emotional re-education” A J.R. MacLean, B.C. MacDonald, U.P. Byrne, and A.M. Hubbard, “The Use of LSD-25 in the Treatment of Alcoholism and Other Problems,” Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcoholism, 22 (1961): 43–44.

“Cost me a couple of thousand dollars” O Hubbard, remarks at LSD Reunion in Los Angeles, February 16, 1979.

“We humbly as Our Heavenly Mother” O church bulletin by Rev. J.E. Brown, “Introduction to the LSD Experience,” December 8, 1957.

“We waited for him like the little old lady” O Dr. Oscar Janiger, remarks at LSD Reunion in Los Angeles, February 16, 1979.

“I don’t know how Al’s Washington affairs” I Dr. Humphry Osmond with M. Lee, May 13, 1978.

(Hubbard) was employed by Teledyne L Leon H. Steinman, Assistant to the Executive Vice-President, Teledyne, Inc., to J.L. Goddard, FDA Commissioner, May 23, 1966.

“Cappy was sort of a double agent”I Oscar Janiger with M. Lee, February 2, 1979.

“If you don’t think it’s the most amazing thing” I A.M. Hubbard with M. Lee, February 16, 1979.

—Healing Acid—

“perhaps by coincidence, LSD” CR Letter from Robert Bernstein to Lieutenant Colonel William R. Jordan, in Biomedical and Behavioral Research, pp. 96–97.

“To make this trivial world sublime” B quoted in Peter Stafford, Psychedelics Encyclopedia, p. 5.

“To fathom hell or soar angelic” ibid.

“include concepts of enriching the mind” B Humphry Osmond, “Clinical Effects of Psychotomimetic Agents,” in David Solomon, ed., LSD: The Consciousness Expanding Drug, p. 148.

“corresponds better to the effects” A Michael Horowitz, “Interview with Albert Hofmann,” High Times, July 1976.

schizophrenics did not experience the wealth A John M. MacDonald and James A. Galvin, “Experimental Psychotic States,” American Journal of Psychiatry 112 (June, 1956): 972.

“The self disappears” B Octavio Paz, Alternating Current, p. 84.

“You start with yourself” A quoted in J.R. MacLean, et al., “The Use of LSD-25 in the Treatment of Alcoholism and Other Problems,” Quarterly fournal of Studies on Alcoholism, 22 (1961): 43.

“All my life” B quoted in Allen Geller and Maxwell Boas, The Drug Beat, p. 220.

“(Whatever) reduces integrative capacity” D (CIA) “Report of the Ad Hoc Medical Study Group,” 15 January 1953.

“LSD favors the prepared mind.” I Oscar Janiger with M. Lee, May 28, 1985.

Description of Allen Ginsberg’s first LSD experience. I Allen Ginsberg with M. Lee and B. Shlain, April 1980.

“It is a multiple million eyed monster” B Allen Ginsberg, “Lysergic Acid,” Kaddish, p. 86.

“being part of a cosmic conspiracy” B quoted in Larry Sloman, Reefer Madness, p. 177.

—Psychosis or Gnosis?—

“what they felt might be an essential matrix” A Oscar Janiger “The Use of Hallucinogenic Agents in Psychiatry,” Californio Clinician, July-August 1959.

“Under the influence of mescaline” B William Burroughs, “Points of Distinction Between Sedative and Consciousness-Expanding Drugs,” in David Solomon, ed., The Marijuana Papers, p. 443.

“Our preoccupation with behavior” B Humphry Osmond, “Clinical Effects of Psychotomimetic Agents,” in Solomon, LSD: The Consciousness Expanding Drug, p. 144.

“Those idiots want to be Pavlovians” B Huxley, Moksha, p. 186.

“Primitive man explored the” ibid., p. 23.

Certain scholars believe that the fabled Soma B R. Gordon Wasson, Soma: Divine Mushroom of Immortality.

strong evidence that ergot . . . was the mysterious kykeon B R. Gordon Wasson, Carl A.P. Ruck, and Albert Hofmann, The Road to Eleusis.

“a Truth which the world of Europe” B Antonin Artaud, The Peyote Dance, p. 34.

“the cataclysm which was my body” ibid., p. 45.

“Once one has experienced a visionary state” ibid., p. 38.

“it transcends those fashionable ruts” B Humphry Osmond, “Clinical Effects of Psychotomimetic Agents,” in Solomon, LSD: The Consciousness Expanding Drug, p. 146.

Hoch was . . . “an opinion leader” B Sanford M. Unger, “Mescaline, LSD, Psilocybin and Personality Change,” in Solomon, LSD: The Consciousness Expanding Drug, p. 207.

“essentially anxiety producing drugs” A Paul H. Hoch, “Remarks on LSD and Mescaline,” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 125 (1957): 442.

“results obtained in patients where tranquilizing drugs” A Paul H. Hoch, “Remarks on LSD and Mescaline,” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 125 (1957): 444.

“In my experience . . . no patient asks for it” B “Group Interchange,” in Harold Abramson, ed., The Use of LSD m Psychotherapy: Transactions of a Conference, p. 58.

“He had some visual hallucinations” A Paul H. Hoch, “Experimentally Produced Psychoses, American Journal of Psychiatry, 107 (February 1951): 609.

“It did not influence the symptoms” ibid.

“An interesting theory can always outrun” A Audrey R. Holliday, “The Hallucinogens: A Consideration of Semantics and Methodology with Particular Reference to Psychological Studies,” in R. Featherstone and A. Simon, eds., A Pharmacologic Approach to the Study of the Mind, p. 260.

CHAPTER THREE: UNDER THE MUSHROOM, OVER THE RAINBOW

—Manna From Harvard—

(Luce) encouraged his correspondents to collaborate . . . with the CIA A Carl Bernstein, “The CIA and the Media,” Rolling Stone, October 20, 1977.

(Luce) turned on a half dozen times B W.A. Swanberg, Luce and His Empire, p. 463; and Wilfred Sheed, Clare Boothe Luce, p. 125.

“Oh sure, we all took acid” O Clare Boothe Luce, remarks on The Dick Cavett Show, April 9, 1982.

“We wouldn’t want everyone doing too much” B quoted in Abbie Hoffman, Soon to Be a Major Motion Picture, p. 73.

“We were never more awake” A R. Gordon Wasson, “Seeking the Magic Mushroom,” Life, May 27, 1957.

“The Leary,” which was used by the CIA A Richard Levine, “Ram Dass’ USA,” Rolling Stone, April 22, 1976.

“It was above all and without question A Timothy Leary, “The Religious Experience: Its Production and Interpretation,” in Weil, et. al., The Psychedelic Reader, p. 191.

“I discovered that beauty” B Timothy Leary, High Priest, p. 12.

“handsome, clean-cut, witty” B quoted in Stewart Tendler and David May, The Brotherhood of Eternal Love, p. 46.

“We rode out to his place” O Humphry Osmond, remarks at the LSD Reunion in Los Angeles, February 16, 1979.

“We would avoid the behaviorist approach” B Leary, High Priest, p. 66.

“indistinguishable from, if not identical with” B quoted in Huston Smith, “Do Drugs Have Religious Import?” in Solomon, LSD: The Consciousness Expanding Drug, p. 159.

—Chemical Crusaders—

“We’re going to teach people to stop hating” B quoted in Leary, High Priest, p. 120.

“the very technology stereotyping” B Allen Ginsberg, Introduction to Jail Notes by Timothy Leary, p. 9.

“We were thinking far-out history thoughts” B Leary, Neuropolitics, p. 3.

“Politics, religion, economics” B Leary, High Priest, p. 340.

“Oh yeah . . . anything” I Allen Ginsberg (quoting Dizzy Gillespie) with M. Lee and B. Shlain, April 1980.

“perceived the interrelationship of all life” B quoted in J. C. Thomas, Chasin’ the Trane, p. 215.

“It’s philosophical . . . the Rolls-Royce of dope” B quoted in Leary, Flashbacks, p. 55.

“Mainly I felt like a floating Khan” L Jack Kerouac to Timothy Leary, undated.

“I was so high on bourbon” B Charles Olson, Muthologos, Vol, 1, p. 22.

“a love feast, a truth pill” ibid., p. 32

“wretched shame that we don’t have it” ibid., p. 23.

“When they come after you” I Allen Ginsberg (quoting Charles Olson,) with M. Lee and B. Shlain, April, 1980.

“Leary used to argue” B Olson, p. 38.

“we were probably too proselytizing” I Allen Ginsberg with M. Lee and B. Shlain, April 1980.

“Love conquers all” ibid.

“This is wonderful. no doubt” B quoted in Leary, Flashbacks, p. 59.

“You don’t need drugs to get high” A William Burroughs, “Academy 23,” Village Voice, July 6, 1967.

“At the immediate risk of finding” B William Burroughs, Nova Express, p. 13.

“What I had experienced” B Michael Hollingshead, The Man Who Turned on the World, p. 10.

“The reality on which I had consciously” ibid., p. 12.

“It came sudden and irresistible” B Leary, High Priest, p. 246.

“LSD involved risk” B Hollingshead, p. 12.

“Uncontrolled experimentation has in the past” D (CIA) Memorandum for the Record, “International Federation for Internal Freedom (IFIF), ALPERT, Richard, LEARY, Timothy,” 1 November 1963.

“I have this friend who’s a very important” B quoted in Leary, Flashbacks, pp. 128–29.

“I can’t give you all the details” ibid., p. 154.

she and JFK smoked pot together A Christopher Lehmann-Haupt, review of The Kennedys by Peter Collier and David Horowitz, New York Times, June 13, 1984.

“De Qumcey’s Confessions of an Opium Eater” B quoted in Alan Harrington, “A Visit to Inner Space,” in Solomon, LSD: The Consciousness Expanding Drug, p. 87.

Kelman, recipient of a small grant A Al Larkin, “The CIA Funded Opponent of Leary,” Boston Globe, September 1, 1977.

“I question whether this project” A quoted in Noah Gordon, “the Hallucinogenic Drug Cult,” New Yorker, August 15, 1963.

“These drugs apparently cause panic” B quoted in Geller and Boas, p. 166.

“I liked Tim when we first met” O Al Hubbard, interview with Oscar Janiger, October 13, I978.

“LSD is so powerful . . . a thousand rumors” O Leary to reporter Bob Gaines, quoted in “LSD: Hollywood’s Status-Symbol Drug.”

“Some day it will be quite humorous” A quoted in Noah Gordon, New Yorker, August, 15, 1963.

“the Establishment’s apparatus for training” B quoted in Geller and Boas, p. 164.

“From this time on . . . dimly understand” B Leary, High Priest, p. 131.

—The Crackdown—

“with the proper precautions psychedelics are safe” A Sidney Cohen, “Lysergic Acid Diethylamide: Side Effects and Complications,” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 130 (1960): 30, 39.

“sensitive to their scientific integrity” CR Letter from Alexander Naimon to Senator Edward Kennedy, Biomedical and Behavioral Research, p. 1144.

“It was a very intense period” A “The Compass Rose of Consciousness: An Interview with Dr. Oscar Janiger,” L.A. Weekly, November 13–19, 1981.

“may have been subject to the deleterious effects” B Jonathan O. Cole and Martin M. Katz, “The Psychotomimetic Drugs: An Overview,” in Solomon, LSD: The Consciousiness Expanding Drug, p. 237.

“At one time it was impossible to find” A Roy S. Grinkler, Sr., “Editorial: Lysergic Acid Diethylamide,” in Solomon, LSD: The Consciousness Expanding Drug, pp. 228–29.

“latent psychotics are disintegrating under the influence” ibid.

to orient its behavioral activities exclusively toward operations CR “Report of Inspection of MK-ULTRA,” August 13, 1963, Biomedical and Behavorial Research, p. 903.

“Why if they were worthwhile six months ago” CR Organization and Coordination of Federal Drug Research and Regulatory Programs: LSD, Hearings before the Subcommittee on Executive Reorganization of the Committee on Government Operations, United States Senate, May 24–26, 1966, pp. 72–75.

“We are abdicating our statutory responsibilities” CR Letter from William V. Vodra to Richard A Merrill, July 28, 1975, Biomedical and Behavioral Research, p. 513.

The FDA collaborated with the Agency D (CIA) “Report of Inspection of MK-ULTRA,” 13 August 1963; “ARTICHOKE Conference, 16 April 1953,” 11 May 1953; Office Memorandum for Acting Deputy Assistant Director of Scientific Intelligence, from Chief of Medical Division, SI, “Secured Personnel for Special ‘ARTICHOKE’ Project,” 7 April 1953.

“The whole thing was just moving geometrically” O Oscar Janiger, remarks at the LSD Reunion in Los Angeles, February 16, 1979.

CHAPTER FOUR: PREACHING LSD

—High Surrealism—

“It’s only a matter of time” O Leary, comments to reporter Bob Gaines, quoted in “LSD: Hollywood’s Status-Symbol Drug.”

“Light and free you let go” B Laura Huxley, “Oh Nobly Born!” in Huxley, Moksha, pp. 265–66.

“We lived out a myth” B Hollingshead, p. 99.

“It hardly registered” B Arthur Kieps, Millbrook, p. 51.

“How can I make more money” ibid.

Dr. Max Jacobson served as JFK’s personal physician B Leary, Flashbacks, p. 200.

“LSD was fun” B Paul Krassner, “My First LSD Trip,” in Paul Krassner, ed. The Best of the Realist, pp. 145–46.

NASA scientist Steve Groff turned up at Millbrook B Hollingshead, p. 124.

“Objects are seen that are not objectively there” A Ralph Metzner, “Subjective Effects of Anti-Chohnergic Drugs,” Journal of Psychedelic Drugs October-December 1977.

“All night, I alternated between eyes open terror” B Kieps, Millbrook, p. 12.

“I was knocked to the floor” ibid., p. 74.

“Apparently, those in control of the instrumentalities of coercive power” ibid., p. 125.

“Art, this is not a psychedelic love message” ibid., p. 208.

—The Psychedelic Manual—

“For every clarification that one arrives at” B Kieps, Millbrook, p. 211

“Zen and Buddhist stock rose sharply” ibid., p. 58.

“I have never recovered from that shattering ontological confrontation” B Leary, High Priest, p. 256.

“recurring science fiction paranoia” ibid., p. 257.

“incredibly specific about the sequence and nature” B Leary, Psychedelic Prayers, p. 3.

“the comforting darkness of selfhood” B Huxley, Doors, p. 56.

“everything that happened would be proof of the conspiracy” ibid., p. 57.

“if there was somebody there to tell me about the Clear Light” ibid.

“Let’s face it—LSD is not the key” B Hollingshead, p. 9.

“If you can’t let go and instead grab the first life-saver” B Kleps, Millbrook, p. 242.

“Is it entirely inconceivable” A Leary, “The Religious Experience: Its Production and Interpretation,” in Weil, Leary, and Metzner eds., The Psychedelic Review, p. 203.

“God does exist and is to me” B Timothy Leary, The Politics of Ecstasy, p. 223.

“Nine times out of ten” B Kieps, Boohoo Bible, p. 19.

“faster and sneakier” ibid.

“It is as if Leary” B Kieps, Millbrook, p. 29.

“what I, as a poet” B quoted in Leary, High Priest, p. 110.

“the whole fucking cosmos broke loose around me” B Letter from Allen Ginsberg to William Burroughs, Yagé Letters, p. 55.

“Your own heart is your guru” B quoted in Paul Portugés, The Visionary Poetics of Allen Ginsberg, p. 93.

“I spent about fifteen-twenty years” B Allen Ginsberg, Allen Verbatim, p. 18.

—The Hard Sell—

“Find the wisdom” B Leary, Politics, p. 288.

“would be sold like beer” B Kieps, Millbrook, p. 25.

“In a carefully prepared, loving LSD session” B Leary, Politics, p. 106.

“It’s all God’s flesh” B quoted in Kieps, Boohoo Bible, p. 207.

“I would say that at present our society” B Leary, Politics, p. 243.

“Tim had what we needed” B Kieps, Millbrook, p. 203.

“Of course I’m a charlatan” ibid., p. 290.

“It was easier to see him” B Hollingshead, p. 57.

George Blake, the convicted spy who penetrated ibid., p. 177.

“the panties were dropping as fast as the acid” A G. Gordon Liddy, “The Great Dutchess County Dope Raid,” True, June 1975.

CHAPTER FIVE: THE ALL-AMERICAN TRIP

—The Great Freak Forward—

“Before I took drugs” B quoted in Burton Wolfe, The Hippies, p. 201.

“The first drug trips were” B Ken Kesey, Garage Sale, p. 175.

“tootling the multitudes” B Tom Wolfe, The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, p. 88.

“The purpose of psychedelics” B quoted in B. Wolfe, p. 203.

“Neal Cassady drove Jack Kerouac” B Ginsberg, Introduction to Leary, Jail Notes, p. 8.

“the yoga of a man driven to the cliff edge” B Kesey, p. 220.

“creeping religiosity” B T. Wolfe, p. 113.

“It was like hail and farewell” ibid., p. 90.

“they thought we were square” I Michael Hollingshead with M. Lee, July 21, 1981.

“When you’ve got something like we’ve got” B quoted in T. Wolfe, p. 172.

“We’re in the same business” A quoted in Warren Hinckle, “A Social History of the Hippies,” Ramparts, March 1967.

“It was a very electric atmosphere” B Hunter Thompson, Hell’s Angels, p. 300.

—Acid and the New Left—

“the storms of youth” B Lautréamont, Poesies, quoted in Point Blank by the Situationist International, October 1972, p. 41.

“There’s a time when the operation” B quoted in Paul Jacobs and Saul Landau, The New Radicals, p. 61.

“Social radicals tend to be ‘arty’ “ B Hunter Thompson, “The Nonstudent Left,” The Great Shark Hunt, p. 403.

“When a young person took his first puff” I Michael Rossman with M. Lee, November 11, 1978.

“a dead wet dog on a cool morning” B Michael McClure, Meat Science Essays, p. 41

“The acid experience is so concrete” I Carl Oglesby with M. Lee, April 24, 1979.

“Do you want to know how to stop” B quoted in T. Wolfe, p. 199.

“Being a musician means” B quoted in Miles, Bob Dylan: In His Own Words, p. 114.

“He was LSD on stage” B quoted in Anthony Scaduto, Dylan, p. 235.

CHAPTER SIX: FROM HIP TO HIPPIE

—Before the Deluge—

“Beauty will be CONVULSIVE” B quoted in Gaëton Picon, Surrealists and Surrealism, p. 86.

“The general tone of things” B quoted in Eugene Anthony, The Summer of Love, p. 111.

“What the Kesey thing was depended on” B quoted in Michael Lydon, “The Grateful Dead,” in Albert J. LaValley, ed., The New Consciousness, pp. 555–56.

“It seemed like we were in a time machine” B Stephen Gaskin, Amazing Dope Tales, p. 2.

“Every time we’d make another batch” I Tim Scully with M. Lee, November 10, 1982.

“a world famous dope center” B quoted in Nicholas von Hoffman, We Are the People Our Parents Warned Us Against, p. 123.

“We were not guilty of using illegal substances” B quoted in Anthony, p. 126.

“We hold these truths to be self-evident” ibid., p. 130.

—Politics of the Bummer—

“the pseudo-intellectuals who advocate the use” B quoted in David Zane Mairowitz, The Radical Soap Opera, p. 181.

“the greatest threat facing the country” A quoted in Richard Bunce, “Social and Political Sources of Drug Effects: The Case of Bad Trips on Psychedelics,” Journal of Drug Issues, Spring 1979, p. 227.

“We do not want amateur or blackmarket sale” CR The Narcotic Rehabilitation Act of 1966, Hearings before a Special Subcommittee of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, January 25–27, May 12, 13, 19, 23, 25, June 14–15, July 19, 1966, p. 253.

“For six years I have been in the unfortunate position” ibid., p. 257.

“for serious purposes, such as spiritual growth” ibid., p. 241.

“I should think that in the Army of the future” ibid., p. 249.

“Would you mind telling me if you are really” ibid., pp. 423–24.

“It is difficult for us to imagine” ibid., p. 415.

“If I were to give you an IQ test” ibid., p. 414.

“We are not drug addicts” ibid., pp. 417, 424.

“I have a strong feeling” CR Organization and Coordination of Federal Drugs Research and Regulatory Programs: LSD, p. 37.

“We are now in a position to understand” B Paz, pp. 97–98.

“Although human chromosome breaks have been reported” CR Dr. Van Sim, “Fact Sheet on LSD Studies at Edgewood Arsenal,” in Biomedical and Behavioral Research, p. 228.

Those who were willing to risk their own sanity A Bunce, Journal of Drug Issues, Spring 1979, p. 227.

nearly 50% of those questioned reported having ibid., p. 218.

“We can explain the substantial historical decline” ibid.

“That was a mean and dirty trick” I Ken Kesey with M. Lee, July 21, 1978.

“How lucky those of us are who approached LSD” B Laura Huxley, “Disregarded in the Darkness,” in Huxley, Moksha, pp. 74–75.

—The First Human Be-In—

Unless otherwise indicated, all information on John Starr Cooke in this section of the text is based on an interview with Michael Bowen by M. Lee and B. Shlain, July 9–10, 1980.

John Cooke . . . is said to have made the acquaintance of CIA operatives I William Burroughs with M. Lee, March 2, 1981.

“We knew we had the tiger by the tail” I Allen Cohen with Mr. Lee and B. Shlin, June 10, 1980.

“For ten years . . . a new nation has grown” B quoted in Anthony, p. 155.

“that, if necessary, we have a mass emotional nervous breakdown” B Allen Ginsberg, “Public Solitude,” in Jessie Kornbluth ed., Notes from the New Underground, p. 69.

“Welcome to the first manifestation” B John Bryan, What Ever Happened to Timothy Leary?, p. 4.

“The only way out is m” B Steve Levine, “The First American Mehla,” in Jerry Hopkins ed., The Hippie Papers, p. 21.

“The Be-in was a blossom” B Michael McClure in Anthony, p. 7.

“In about seven or eight years” B quoted in Mairowitz, Soap Opera, p. 185.

“There was a fantastic universal sense” B Hunter Thompson, Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas, p. 68.

“dresses like Tarzan, has hair like Jane” B quoted in Don McNeil, Moving Through Here, p. 145.

“in their independence of material possessions” A “The Hippies,” Time, July 7, 1967.

“The hip thing was fundamentally a drug-boosted look-in” A Carl Oglesby, “The World Before Watergate,” Inquiry, May 29, 1978.

“the whole problem of whether to take over” B Allen Ginsberg, Timothy Leary, Gary Snyder, Alan Watts, “Changes,” in Kornbluth, p. 139.

“the choice is between being rebellious” ibid., p. 194.

“Don’t vote. Don’t politic” B quoted in Bryan, p. 96.

“young men with menopausal minds” B Ginsberg, Leary, Snyder, Watts, “Changes,” in Kornbluth, p. 141.

“People should not be allowed to talk politics” B quoted in Bryan, p. 96.

“the first thing you have to do” B Ginsberg, Leary, Snyder, Watts, “Changes,” in Kornbluth, p. 148–49.

“a more profound vision of themselves” ibid., p. 143.

“the flavors and ingredients of whatever happens to be cooking” I Michael Rossman with M. Lee, November 11, 1978.

“The private is public, and the public is” B Charles Olson Reading at Berkeley, p. 5.

“turn and face man, the body of man” A Antonin Artaud quoted in Ira Einhorn, “The Sociology of the Now,” The Psychedelic Review, Winter 1970-71.

CHAPTER SEVEN: THE CAPITAL OF FOREVER

—Stone Free—

Unless otherwise indicated, information on the Diggers in this chapter is based on an interview with Peter Berg and Judy Goldhaft by Eric Noble and M. Lee, April 29, 1982.

“Street events are rituals of release” A “The Digger Papers,” published in The Realist, August 1968.

“a poetry of festivals and crowds, with people pouring” B Antonin Artaud, quoted in Hoffman, Major Motion Picture, p. 102.

“encouraging the looser and disordered sort of people” B B. Wolfe, p. 63.

“No frozen moments for tomorrow’s fantasy” B “The Digger Papers,” in The Realist, August 1968.

“Western society has destroyed itself” ibid.

“The U.S. standard of living is a baby blanket” ibid.

Mundane objects . . . warned the straight world of a threat B Dick Hebidge, Subculture: The Meaning of Style, p. 213.

“The media casts nets, creates bags” B quoted in Kornbluth, ed., Notes From the New Underground, p. 284.

“Stamp out police brutality” B quoted in Hopkins, ed., The Hippie Papers, p. 136.

“Say if you are hungry, we will feed” B B. Wolfe, p. 71.

—The Great Summer Dropout—

“I declare that the Beatles are mutants” B quoted in Philip Norman, Shout!, p. 365.

“John was crying and banging his head against the wall” ibid., p. 305.

“We didn’t know what was going on” B quoted in Jann Wenner, ed., Lennon Remembers, p. 73.

“an understanding of the principles of brainwashing” B quoted in Norman, p. 366.

“trip all the time” B quoted in Wenner, p. 76.

“I got a message on acid” ibid., p. 77.

childhood’s lost “tense of presence” B quoted in Charles Perry, The Haight-Ashbury: A History, p. 259.

“It’s enabled people to see a bit more” B quoted in Richard Poirier, The Performing Self, p. 133.

“It was an experience we went through” ibid.

“the haze that blurs the corner” B Mairowitz, Soap Opera, p. 184.

“the pious attitudes of those spiritual bigots” B John Ashbery, Three Poems, p. 75.

“the ego-death of easy-prey LSD takers” B Mairowitz, Soap Opera, p. 190.

“The whole catalogue of crazmess” B Gaskin, p. 51.

“Rape is as common as bullshit” B quoted in Perry, p. 181.

“Acid is like being let out of a cage” B McNeill, p. 74.

Scientists at Edgewood tested STP B B. Wolfe, p. 149.

The drug was actually phencychdme B David E. Smith and John Luce, Love Needs Care, p. 265.

the CIA employed Dr. Ewen Cameron to administer PCP A Nicholas M. Horrock, “Drugs Tested by CIA on Mental Patients,” New York Times, August 3, 1977.

high dosages . . . can “lead to convulsions and death” CR Unauthorized Storage of Toxic Agents, Hearings before the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with respect to Intelligence Activities of the United States Senate, Vol. 1, September 16–18, 1975, p. 197.

“Hard-core Cosa Nostra-type criminal figures” A “Cosa Nostra Tied to Traffic in LSD,” New York Times, June 28, 1967.

“Syndicate acid stinks” B von Hoffman, p. 35.

West.. rented a pad in the heart of the Haight ibid., pp. 213–14. See also A Louis Joylon West and James R. Allen, “Flight From Violence: The Hippies and the Green Rebellion,” American Journal of Psychiatry, September 3, 1968.

“The CIA is poisoning the acid these days” B quoted in Perry, p. 269.

“The Haight-Ashbury was our town” B quoted in Myra Friedman, Buried Alive, p. 102.

“We’re trying to sabotage the word” B quoted in McNeill, p. 135.

“We’re not going to listen to any crybabies” B quoted in Smith and Luce, pp. 277, 279.

“LSD hand-holding is not the end” B Peter Berg quoted in Leonard Wolf, Voices from the Love Generation, p. 263.

CHAPTER EIGHT: PEAKING IN BABYLON

—A Gathering Storm—

“a process whereby an individual casts off” O Frank Zappa, album liner notes of Freak Out!, 1966.

“No corporate leader can afford to ignore” A “David Rockefeller Bids Business Heed Disaffection Among Youth,” New York Times, March 14, 1968.

Four million North Americans are said to have tried acid B Richard Alpert and Dr. Sidney Cohen, LSD.

“If some of the subjects are drawn” A William H. McGlothhn, “Long-lasting Effects of LSD on Certain Attitudes in Normals: An Experimental Proposal,” RAND Corporation Study, May 1962.

Stanford Research Institute received a number of grants from the U.S. Army to conduct classified research B John Cookson and Judith Nottingham, A Survey of Chemical and Biological Warfare, p. 95.

“There’s a war going on” I Michael Rossman (quoting Willis Harman) with M. Lee, November 11, 1978.

Our investigations of some of the current social movements” L Willis W. Harman, Director, Educational Policy Research Center, SRI, to Dr. A. M. Hubbard, October 2, 1968.

“His services to us consisted in gathering” L Willis Harmon, Director, Center for the Study of Social Policy, SRI, “To Whom It May Concern,” January 14, 1974.

“Impure drugs are very dangerous” O Al Hubbard interviewed by Oscar Janiger, October 13, 1978.

“Don’t give LSD to Che Guevara” B quoted in “Digger Papers,” The Realist, August 1968.

“a condition, a kind of internal ‘landscape’” A Peter Marin, “The Open Truth and Fiery Vehemence of Youth,” Center Magazine, January 1969.

“its first-ever dose of real fun” B Mairowitz, Soap Opera, p. 186.

—Magical Politics—

“I wear this uniform” B quoted in J. Anthony Lukas, Don’t Shoot—We are Your Children!, p. 385.

“A modern revolutionary headed for the television station” B Hoffman, Major Motion Picture, p. 86.

“If everyone did it” B quoted in Lukas, p. 389.

“makes you want to take off your clothes” B quoted in Norman Mailer, Armies of the Night, p. 272.

“Now, here, after several years of the blandest reports” ibid., p. 143.

“What possibly they shared” ibid., p. 103.

the plan never got off the ground because of a dirty trick by the FBI CR Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports on Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans, Final Report of the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operation with respect to Intelligence Activities, Book III, p. 32.

“We had symbolically destroyed the Pentagon” B quoted in Lukas, pp. 389–90.

“Once the media announces it” B Jerry Rubin, Growing (Up) at 37, p. 97.

so they “could look at the problem” B Jerry Rubin, Do It!, p. 81.

a recipe for social change B Keith Melville, Communes in the Counter Culture, p. 67.

“We figured we could create a new myth” B Milton Viorst, Fire in the Streets, p. 431.

“Some day, we dreamed, the myth will grow” B Jerry Rubin, We Are Everywhere, p. 230.

“No need to build a stage” B Hoffman, Major Motion Picture, p. 102.

“Our lifestyle—acid, long hair”” B quoted in Gene Marine “Chicago and the Trial of the New Culture,” in Editors of Rolling Stone, eds., Age of Paranoia, p. 232.

“Once one has experienced LSD”B Abbie Hoffman, Revolution for the Hell of It, p. 13.

“Mostly it’s a catch-as-catch-can affair” B Hoffman, Major Motion Picture, p. 244.

“At community meetings all over the land” B Rubin, Do It!, p. 256.

“We had many analytical discussions” B Leary, Flashbacks, p. 269.

“I studied his technique of karmic salesmanship” B Hoffman, Major Motion Picture, p. 90.

“When movements become too ‘mediated’” B quoted in David Armstrong, Trumpet to Arms, p. 133.

“I don’t know if I was headed” B Rubin, Growing (Up), p. 90.

“I purposefully manipulated the media” ibid., p. 98.

“seemed like Central Casting’s gift” I Todd Gitlin with M. Lee, August 13, 1980.

“These brothers would get halfway high” A Bobby Seale, “The Biography of Huey P. Newton,” Ramparts, November 17, 1968.

“Eldridge wanted a coalition” B Rubin, Do It!, p. 196.

“Let us join together” ibid., p. 199.

“the fateful merging of antiwar and racial dissension” B quoted in Todd Gitlin, The Whole World is Watching, p. 55.

—Gotta Revolution—

“This is a ferocious but effective way to be” B Carl Oglesby, “The Idea of the New Left,” in Oglesby, ed., New Left Reader, p. 15.

“We were willing to experiment with anything” I Julian Beck with M. Lee, April 19, 1984.

“LSD carried with it a certain messianic” ibid.

“We pushed reefers on them all the time” ibid.

“We competed for attention like media junkies” B Rubin, Growing (Up), p. 191.

“Television (kept) us escalating” B Rubin, Do It!, p. 107.

“We will burn Chicago to the ground” B Hoffman, Revolution for the Hell of It, p. 106.

“It’s not the Republicans and Democrats” B Rubin quoted in Armstrong, p. 122.

“The effect of LSD was really heavy” I John Sinclair with M. Lee, February 3, 1981.

“Anything to the right of Malcolm X” ibid.

“In my case it was the idealistic poetry stuff” ibid.

“When the beatniks started taking acid” O John Sinclair interview with Bret Eynon, February 1977.

“They’re the ones who had it” I John Sinclair with M. Lee, February 3, 1981.

“School sucks. The white honkie culture” B John Sinclair, “White Panther State/ Meant,” Guitar Army, p. 104.

“I could never see what was more important” O John Sinclair, interview with Bret Eynon, February 1977.

“We believe that people should fuck all the time” B quoted in Viorst, p. 448.

“but young, you know, and nice” B quoted in Gene Marine, “Chicago and the Trial of the New Culture,” in Age of Paranoia, p. 237.

“We were dirty, smelly, grimy, foul” B Rubin, Do It!, p. 169.

“Forme that week in Chicago” B Hunter S. Thompson, “Freak Power in the Rockies,” in Age of Paranoia, p. 186.

“Chicago, I think, was the place where all America” B quoted in Nancy Zaroulis and Gerald Sullivan, Who Spoke Up, p. 200.

CHAPTER NINE: SEASON OF THE WITCH

—Armed Love—

the school they attended was known as “Hoover University” A Jeff Cohen, “Cril Payne: Undercover for the FBI,” L A. Weekly, December 28, 1979-January 3, 1980.

Between lectures on the New Left, drug abuse, and FBI procedure ibid.

the Yippies were infiltrated by an FBI agent named George Demmerle B Rubin, We Are Everywhere, pp. 142–43, 216–18.

one out of six demonstrators at the Chicago Convention was an undercover operative A Todd Gitlin, “Seizing History,” Mother Jones, November 1983.

Bob Pierson, a Chicago cop disguised as a .. biker B Viorst, pp. 453, 455, 461.

a quarter-million Americans were under “active surveillance” B Robert Justin Goldstein, Political Repression in Modern America, p. 463.

Nixon pressed CIA director Richard Helms to expand the parameters of Operation CHAOS ibid., pp. 477–479.

the CIA provided training, technical assistance, exotic equipment A Philip H. Melanson, “The CIA’s Secret Ties to Local Police,” Nation, March 26, 1983.

The Agency (sprinkled) itching powder . . . on toilets near leftist meetings O Tuli Kupferberg, “News Poem”; and A Toronto Star, July 7, 1975.

“depraved nature and moral looseness” D (FBI) Memorandum from Director, FBI, to SAC, Albany, 9 October 1968.

“Since the use of marijuana and other narcotics” D (FBI) Memorandum from Director, FBI; to SAC, Albany, “Counter Intelligence Program—Internal Security, Disruption of the New Left,” 5 July 1968.

targets of the antidrug campaign were often involved in radical politics B Goldstein, p. 514.

Jack Martin . . . testified that he was asked to (frame) Allen Ginsberg A Peter Stafford, “Law and the Future of Psychedelics,” L.A. Free Press, September 30, 1966.

the nares maintained a file . . . which included a photograph of the well-known poet “in an indecent pose” D (Narcotics Bureau) “Photograph of Allen Ginsberg,” 28 September 1967.

Hoover’s men shadowed John Lennon . . . B John Wiener, Come Together, pp. 225–55.

the FBI kept tabs on Jimi Hendrix, Janis Joplin, Jim Morrison, the Fugs D (FBI) Letter from FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover to Hon. Charles Crutchfield, 26 March 1969; memorandum from SAC, Buffalo to Director, FBI, 16 June 1968, “James Marshall Hendrix”; memorandum from SAC, Miami, to Director, FBI, “Possible Racial Violence,” 4 March 1969.

“All of these and many more items of popular culture” B Gitlin, The Whole World is Watching, p. 202.

“armchair bookquotmg live-ass honky leftists . . .” B Peter Stensill and David Zane Mairowitz, eds., BAMN (By Any Means Necessary): Outlaw Manifestos and Ephemera 1965–1970, p. 155.

“A permanent fermenting agent, encouraging action” ibid. p. 158.

they denounced Timothy Leary . . . for “limiting the revolution” B Mairowitz, Soap Opera, pp. 186–187.

“We are the freaks of an unknown space/time . . .” B Stensill and Mairowitz, p. 161.

PL castigated SDS regulars for being “escapist” B Kirkpatnck Sale, SDS, pp. 485, 537.

PL also criticized propaganda tactics like guerrilla theater ibid., p. 540.

they even claimed that Timothy Leary was a CIA agent A Stew Alpert, “Free Timothy Leary,” Georgia Straight, April 1–9, 1970.

“The SDS prize continues to be fair game” D (CIA) “Situation Information Report,” April 1969.

“I remember when it hit the Weathermen” O Ken Kelley, interview with Bret Eynon, September 1978.

“We have one task” B Billy Ayers quoted in Sale, p. 583.

“You’re right, I am a pig” B Sale, p. 625; and Goldstein, p. 476.

“We all live in a Weather machine” B Jonah Raskin, Out of the Whale, p. 127.

“Inside the movement . . . without time to learn from the experience.” B Gitlin, Whole World, p. 234.

“It was like a cheap form of shnnkdom” O Ken Kelley, interview with Bret Eynon, September 1978.

“a sequence of tenuously linked exclamation points” B Gitlin, Whole World, p. 234.

“Organizing is just another way of going slow” B quoted in Gitlin, Whole World, p. 204.

—The Acid Brotherhood—

“Operation White Wing” B Wil D. Wervey, Riot Control Agents and Herbicides in War, p. 181.

the super-hallucinogen was used on at least five other occasions, ibid.

“have dosage ranges into lethality” B S. Hersh, p. 49.

One scheme involved the use of tiny remote-controlled model airplanes A Zodiac News Service, “Civil War Plans,” Colorado Daily, December 15,1976; and “Army Stockpiles BZ Drug in Bombs,” Washington Post, August 3, 1975.

“Trends in modern police action” D (CIA) “Proposal to Study the Toxic Properties of Highly Poisonous Natural Products,” 4 September 1970.

80% of American servicemen got stoned B Editors of Ramparts and Frank Browning, Smack!, p. 29.

15% of those who saw action . . . returned home as heroin addicts ibid.

Federal investigators described them as a “hippie Mafia” B Tendier and May, p. 13.

“Although unschooled and unlettered” ibid., pp. 90–91.

“to bring to the world a greater awareness” B Joe Eszterhas, Narc!, p. 103.

“Big deal” B quoted in Tendier and May, p. 158.

“It was like the Dead End Kids who took acid” ibid., p. 96.

(Hitchcock) helped Scully move to the premises, hauling large A Mary Jo Worth, “The Acid Profiteers,” Village Voice, August 22, 1974.

“to pay tribute to this most honorable profession” A Timothy Leary, “Deal for Real,” East Village Other, September 3, 1969.

“They were very good dealers on a spiritual trip” A quoted in Terry McDonnell, LA, August 19, 1972.

IOS, a fast-money laundry for organized crime B Jim Hougan, Spooks, pp. 161–74.

At Clapp’s urging he poured over $5,000,000 ibid., pp. 390–91.

Hitchcock maintained a private account at Castle Bank B Hougan, pp. 390–91; and B Penny Lernoux, In Banks We Trust, p. 86.

Castle Bank . . . set up by the CIA A Jim Dnnkhall, “1RS Versus CIA: Big Tax Investigation . . .” Wall Street Journal, April 18, 1980.

A number of Melions served in the OSS B R. Harris Smith, OSS, pp. 15–16, 163 64, 223.

Mellon family foundations. . conduits for Agency funds A John S. Freeman, “Culture War II,” Nation, April 18, 1981.

Helms was a frequent weekend guest of the Mellon patriarchs B Thomas Powers, The Man Who Kept the Secrets, p. 40.

$67,000,000 illegally sloshed through Paravacini Bank B Burton Hersh, The Mellon Family, p. 487.

“It’s just between me and God” B quoted in Tendier and May, p. 160.

“We were definitely very gullible in believing the stuff” I Tim Scully with M. Lee, November 10, 1982.

Stark claimed a relationship to the Whitneys B Tendier and May, p. 174.

The Brothers . . . had no idea he was running a separate cocaine ring I Tim Scully with M. Lee, November 10, 1982.

It was a tip from the Agency . . . that prompted him to shut down his French operation B Tendier and May, p. 202.

Stark communicated on a regular basis with officials at the American embassy in London A Maurizio de Luca and Pino Buongiorno, “Giallo Amerikano,” Panorama, October 31, 1978.

Stark had made twenty kilos of LSD I Tim Scully with M. Lee, November 10, 1982.

“He must have pegged us as real softies” ibid.

—Bad Moon Rising—

Woodstock “was less a festival than a religious convocation” B Friedman, p. 206.

“Fuck hippie capitalism. . . . Events like the Woodstock gentleness freakout” B Zaroulis and Sullivan, p. 261.

“The revolution is more than digging rock” B Abbie Hoffman, Woodstock Nation, p. 77.

“a completely frustrating and pointless exercise” B Jann Wenner, “Everybody’s Chicago Blues,” in Age of Paranoia, p. 199.

“It’s like television, loud, large television” B quoted in Michael Lydon, “The Grateful Dead,” in LaValley, p. 559.

“We are a people . . . a nation.” B Sinclair, pp. 207–27.

“which mistook its demographic proliferation” B Stanley Aronowitz, “When the New Left was New,” in Sayres, et al., eds., 60s Without Apology, p. 25.

“Woodstock was political because everybody was tripping” I Carl Crazy with M. Lee, April 11, 1982.

“I didn’t have a sense of how unique I was” I John Sinclair with M. Lee, February 3, 1981.

“Drugs had a lot to do with placing people” B quoted in John Burks, “The Underground Press,” in Age of Paranoia, p. 10.

“The pill was no longer a sacrament” I Michael Rossman with M. Lee, June 3, 1985.

Manson’s “cherub face and sparkling eyes” B Viorst, p. 523.

“First they killed those pigs, then they ate dinner” B quoted in Sale, p. 628.

“Any kind of action that fucks up the pig’s war” ibid., p. 629.

CHAPTER TEN: WHAT A FIELD DAY FOR THE HEAT

—Prisoner of LSD—

“Drug Crazed Hippies Slay Mother and Children” B Leary, Flashbacks, p. 288.

“using violent tactics which were light-years removed” B quoted in Mairowitz, Soap Opera, p. 236.

“As the beast falls, a new culture of life arises” ibid., p. 268.

“Somewhere in the nightmare of failure” B Hunter Thompson, “Freak Power in the Rockies,” in Age of Paranoia, p. 171.

“the new depression” B quoted in Robert Sam Anson, Gone Crazy and Back Again, p. 160.

Subsequent revelations, however, topped any conspiracy theory B Alfred W. McCoy, The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia; Henrik Kruger, The Great Heroin Coup; and the editors of Ramparts and Frank Browning, Smack!.

“Better to be good than to do good” A Martin A. Lee, “Disarmament on the Material Plane,” Win, July 15, 1982.

“You may remember me as Mr. LSD, Jr.” A Richard Levine, “Ram Dass’USA,” Rolling Stone, April 22, 1976.

“If he’s there, that’s where he should be” B quoted in Rubin, We Are Everywhere, p. 165.

“We are at war” B quoted in Tendier and May, p. 192.

“To Shoot a genocidal robot policeman” A Timothy Leary, “Shoot to Live,” Berkeley Barb, January 13–20, 1971.

—A Bitter Pill—

“Panthers are the hope” L Leary to Ginsberg, October io, 1970.

“Dr. Leary is part of our movement” A “Leary, If It Was Leary, Appears Briefly in Beirut,” New York Times, October 27, 1970.

“you’ve got to free yourself” A quoted in Michael Zwerin, “Revolutionary Bust,” Village Voice, February 11, 1971.

“the split with Panther leader Huey Newton, fomented . . . by FBI subterfuge” A Lowell Bergmann and David Weir, “Revolution on Ice,” Rolling Stone, September 9, 1976.

Tim and Rosemary were busted at gunpoint . . . while black CIA agents who had penetrated Cleaver’s entourage monitored the situation D (CIA) “Situation Information Report,” 12 February 1971; and A Seymour Hersh, “CIA Reportedly Recruited Blacks for Surveillance of Panther Party,” New York Times, March 17, 1978.

“Something’s wrong with Leary’s brain” A quoted in Michael Zwerin, “Acid, Guns, and Love,” Vancouver Free Press, February 24, 1971.

“We want people to gather their wits” A Michael Zwerin, “Acid, Guns, and Love,” Vancouver Free Press, February 24, 1971.

“To all those of you who look to Dr. Leary” A “Panthers Bust Learys,” Vancouver Free Press, February 3, 1971.

“He’s liberal CIA” B Leary, Flashbacks, p. 308.

a mysterious benefactor named Michel-Gustave Hauchard ibid., p. 313.

“aid to meditation aimed at the mystical experience” B Albert Hofmann, LSD: My Problem Child, p. 209.

Joanna met Michel Hauchard for drinks A Craig Vetter, “Bring Me the Head of Timothy Leary,” Playboy, September 1975.

“Whoever eats this” ibid.

“The predawn raids were ordered on the basis of twenty-nine secret indictments” B Eszterhas, p. 99.

“Leary is responsible for destroying” ibid., p. 99.

Joanna was permitted to accompany Leary to Los Angeles at a cost to taxpayers of $1,086 B Bryan, p. 228.

“the right to speak for me” A Vetter.

“We’ll simply leave our bodies” B Bryan, p. 231.

“Oh, you know, he just hates women” I Allen Ginsberg with M. Lee and B. Shlain, July 23, 1978.

Vacaville prison, previously the site of an extensive CIA drug testing program B Marks, p. 201.

Martino had struck a deal with the BNDD A David Weir, “Timothy Leary: Soul in Hock,” Rolling Stone, August 28, 1975.

Joanna met U.S. marshalls at the door in the nude A Vetter.

Joanna later told Ginsberg she was trying to blackmail the feds I Allen Ginsberg with M. Lee and B. Shlain, July 23, 1978.

The FBI . . . pegged him with the code name of the songbird A Weir.

“You’ve got to tell the truth” A quoted in Tom Thompson, “The Drug Puzzle,” Los Angeles Free Press, April 4, 1975.

Leary told a grand jury that Chula had given him a small chunk of hash A Vetter.

Joanna also gave damaging testimony A Thompson, “The Drug Puzzle.” “to be dishonest, lying people” A quoted in Weir.

“It’s obvious to me he’s talked” B Abbie Hoffman and Anita Hoffman, To America with Love: Letters from the Underground, p. 108.

“He may have gotten frightened—experienced an ego break” A David Johnston, “The Bitter Pill,” Berkeley Barb, September 20–26, 1974.

“Om Ah Hum: 44 Temporary Questions on Dr. Leary” B Ginsberg quoted in Bryan, p. 271.

“The 1960s are finally dead” B quoted in Bryan, p. 273.

—The Great LSD Conspiracy—

“In many ways,” explained DEA Director John Bartels CR Hashish Smuggling and Passport Fraud: The Brotherhood of Eternal Love, Hearings Before the Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and other Internal Security Laws of the Senate Judiciary Committee, 1973, p. 3.

it operated “m a virtually untouchable manner” ibid., p. 30.

Four LSD factories have been seized ibid., pp. 23–24.

He acknowledged his own drug use had been extensive B David E. Koskoff, The Melions, pp. 549–50.

a team of 1RS and BNDD agents visited his drug lab in Brussels CR Hashish Smuggling and Passport Fraud, p. 22.

Stark claimed to be a business representative of Imam Moussa Sadr A Jonathan Marshall, “The Strange Career of Ronald Stark,” Parapolitics, November 1984 (Paris); and A Maurizio de Luca and Pino Buongiorno, “Giallo Amenkano,” Panorama, October 31, 1978.

An American expatriate bumped into him in the streets of Pans I David Solomon with M. Lee, June 28, 1982.

Italian investigators soon discovered that “Mr. Abbott” was actually Ronald Stark B Tendier and May, pp. 269–70.

a safe deposit box in Rome that contained A de Luca and Buongiorno, Panorama, October 31, 1978.

Stark befriended Renato Curcio ibid.; and B Tendier and May, p. 271.

Stark asked prison officials to arrange a meeting B Tendier and May, p. 271.

he received a steady flow of visitors from the American and British consulates A Marshall, “The Strange Career of Ronald Stark,” Parapolitics, November 1984.

Stark also communicated . . . with members of the Libyan diplomatic corps ibid.; and A “Ronald Stark, agente triplo fra Gheddafai, I fedain e la eia,” Giorno, November 6, 1981.

he was in direct contact with General Vito Micelh A Marshall, Parapolitics, November 1984.

Stark changed identities once again A “Stark e americano o un palestinese?” Giorno, November 8, 1978; and B Tendier and May, p. 272.

he was part of an international terrorist organization . . . called “Group 14” A Marshall, Parapolitics, November 1984.

The objective, according to Paghera A de Luca and Buongiorno, Panorama, October 31, 1978.

he was released from prison . . . on orders from Judge Giorgio Floridia A Marshall, Parapolitics, November 1984; and B Tendier and May, p. 272.

“an impressive series of scrupulously enumerated proofs” A quoted in Marshall, Parapolitics, November 1984.

“Many circumstances indicate that . . . Stark belonged to the American secret services” ibid.; and B Tendier and May, pp. 272–73.

an adventurer who was used by the CIA B Relazione della Commissione Parlamentare d’Inchiesta sulla strage di via fam sul sequestro e l’assassinio di Aldo Moro e sul terrorismo in Italia, Roma, 1983, pp. 144–46.

“It could have been that he was employed by an American intelligence agency” I Tim Scully with M. Lee, November 10, 1982.

“LSD makes people less competent” I William Burroughs with B. Shlain, February 6, 1978.

“It makes perfect sense to me” I John Sinclair with M. Lee, February 3, 1981.

“Could have been” I Ken Kesey with M. Lee, July 21, 1978.

“We had come to a curious place together” B Michael Rossman, New Age Blues, p. 101.

“What subverted the sixties decade” B Murray Bookchin, “Between the 30s and the 60s,” in Sayres, et al., eds., 60s Without Apology, p. 250.

“We do not target American citizens” B quoted in Thomas Powers, The Man Who Kept the Secrets, pp. 350, 479.

“a burgeoning paper problem” A quoted in Assassination Information Bureau, “Congress and the MK-ULTRA Whitewash,” Clandestine America, November-December 1977.

“LSD: Some Un-Psychedehc Implications” CR Biomedical and Behavioral Research, p. 935.

“facts are wiped out by artifacts” B Norman Mailer, “A Harlot High and Low,” Pieces and Pontifications, p. 160.

Stark’s name surfaced once again in 1982 B Tendier and May, p. 274.

“A genius, but a tortured soul” I Claudio Nunziato with M. Lee and Dorianna Fallo, October 29, 1983.

“History is hard to know” B Hunter Thompson, Fear and Loathing in Los Vegas, p. 67.

POSTSCRIPT: ACID AND AFTER

Kemp’s group succeeded the Brotherhood of Eternal Love as the main psychedelic distribution operation A Heathcote Williams, “The Great LSD Bust,” Village Voice, April 17, 1978.

all of the acid later disappeared, prompting speculation ibid.

Kemp’s group produced half the world’s supply of LSD in the mid-1970’s ibid.

A United Nations survey in the early 1980s B Tendier and May, p. 218.

According to the National Institute of Drug Abuse A Lloyd Johnson, Patrick M. O’Malley, and Gerald G. Bachman, “Use of Licit and Illicit Drugs by America’s High School Students, 1975–1984,” Department of Health and Human Services, 1985.

“You don’t hear about it anymore” A John Lennon and Yoko Ono Interview, Playboy, January 1981.

“It’s just another high now” A Katy Butler, “LSD Is Back, After a Long Trip,” San Francisco Chronicle, October 27, 1979.

“They seek a nostalgic cultural experience” A David Smith, Zodiac News Service, January 1980.

bad trips are much less frequent A Bunce, “Social and Political Sources of Drug Effects: The Case of Bad Trips on Psychedelics,” Journal of Drug Issues, Spring 1979, pp. 218, 230.

“The American people today are quantum jumps more” O Timothy Leary, remarks at the LSD Reunion in Los Angeles, February 16, 1979.

“Oh Al, I owe everything to you,” ibid.

“You sure played your part” O Al Hubbard, remarks at the LSD Reunion in Los Angeles, February 16, 1979.

If you find an error please notify us in the comments. Thank you!