An Authentic and Interesting Narrative of the Late Expedition to Botany Bay as Performed by Commodore Phillips. Aberdeen, 1789.

Barrington, George. George Barrington's Voyage to Botany Bay, Retelling a Convict's Travel Narrative of the 1790s. Ed. Suzanne Rickard. London, 2001.

Blake, William. The Poetical Works of William Blake. Ed. John Sampson. London (1913), 1949.

Bowes Smyth, Arthur. The Journal of Arthur Bowes Smyth: Surgeon, Lady Penrhyn, 1787–1789. Ed. Paul G. Fidlon and R. J. Ryan. Sydney, 1979.

Bradley, William. A Voyage to New South Wales, 1786–1792. Sydney, 1969. Also available in transcript and original in Online Collections, State Library of New South Wales Web site.

A Brief Detail of Governor Phillip's Voyage to Botany Bay: With an Account of the Establishment of the Colonies at Port Jackson and Norfolk Island. Rutland, Vermont, 1795.

Clark, Ralph. The Journal and Letters of Lt. Ralph Clark, 1787–1792. Ed. Paul G. Fidlon and R. J. Ryan. Sydney, 1981.

Collins, David. An Account of the English Colony in New South Wales (1798). Vol. 1. Ed. Brian H. Fletcher. Sydney, 1975.

Easty, John, Private Marine. Memorandum of the Transactions of a Voyage from England to Botany Bay, 1787–1793: A First Fleet Journal. Sydney, 1965.

Fowell, Newton. The Sirius Letters: The Complete Letters of Newton Fowell, Midshipman and Lieutenant Aboard the Sirius Flagship. Sydney, 1988.

Harris, Alexander, An Emigrant Mechanic. Settlers and Convicts or Recollections of Sixteen Years' Labour in the Australian Backwoods. Foreword by Manning Clark. London, 1964.

Historical Records of Australia. Vol. 1, series 1. Ed. Frederick Watson. Sydney, 1925.

Historical Records of New South Wales. Vol. 1, Parts 1 and 2. Ed. F. M. Bladen. Sydney, 1892–1901.

Home, Edward. A First Fleet Letter to a Gentleman in Edinburgh. Canberra, 1999.

Hunter, Captain John, Commander HMS Sirius, with Further Accounts by Governor Arthur Phillip, Lieutenant P. G. King, and Lieutenant H. L. Ball. An Historical Journal, 1787–1792. Ed. John Bach. Sydney, 1968.

Ingleton, Geoffrey Chapman. True Patriots All: Or News from Early Australia as Told in a Collection of Broadsides. Sydney, 1952.

King, Philip Gidley. The Journal of Philip Gidley King: Lieutenant, R.N., 1787–1790. Ed.Paul G. Fidlon and R. J. Ryan. Sydney, 1980.

Macarthur, Elizabeth. The Journal and Letters of Elizabeth Macarthur, 1789–1798. Transcribed by Joy N. Hughes. Sydney, 1984.

Nagle, Jacob. The Nagle Journal: A Diary of the Life of Jacob Nagle, Sailor, from the Year 1775 to 1841. Ed. John C. Dann. New York, 1988.

Nicol, John. Life and Adventures, 1776–1801. Ed. Tim Flannery. Melbourne, 1997.

Phillip, Arthur. Copies and Extracts of Letters from Governor Phillip: Giving an Account of the Fertility of the Land, etc. London, 1792.

———. The Voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay (London, 1789). Sydney, 1970.

Scott, James, Sergeant of Marines. Remarks on a Passage to Botany Bay, 1787–1792. Sydney, 1963.

Sources of Australian History. Ed. C. M. Clark. Melbourne, 1957.

Spain, Edward. The Journal of Edward Spain, Merchant Seaman and Sometimes Warrant Officer in the Royal Navy. Sydney, 1989.

Tench, Captain Watkin, of the Marines. Sydney's First Four Years. Reprint of A Narrative of the Expedition to Botany Bay and a Complete Account of the Settlement at Port Jackson. Introduction by L. F. Fizhardinge. Sydney, 1979.

White, John, Esq., Surgeon-General to the First Fleet and the Settlement at Port Jackson. Journal of a Voyage to New South Wales. Ed. Alec H. Chisholm. Sydney, 1962.


Abbie, A. A. The Original Australians. Sydney, n.d.

Ackroyd, Peter. London: The Biography. London, 2001.

Atkinson, Alan. The Europeans in Australia: A History. Vol. 1. Melbourne, 1997.

Australian Dictionary of Biography. Vols. 1, 2. Gen. ed. Douglas Pike. Victoria, 1967.

The Australian Encyclopaedia. 6th ed., Sydney, 1996.

Barton, G. B. History of New South Wales from the Records. Vols. 1, 2. Sydney, 1980.

Bateson, Charles. The Convict Ships, 1787–1868. Glasgow, 1959.

Beaglehole, J. C. The Life of Captain James Cook. Stanford, Calif., 1974.

Beames, Thomas. The Rookeries of London. London, 1852.

Beattie, J. M. Crime and the Courts in England, 1660–1800. Princeton, 1986.

Blainey, Geoffrey. The Triumph of the Nomads. Melbourne, 1975.

Blaxell, Gregory. The River, Sydney Cove to Parramatta. Sydney, 2004.

Bonwick, John. Australia's First Preacher, the Reverend Richard Johnson. London, 1898.

Brady, Frank. James Boswell: The Later Years, 1769–1795. New York, 1984.

Brodsky, Isadore. Bennelong Profile: Dreamtime Reveries of a Native of Sydney Cove. Sydney, 1973.

Carter, Paul. The Road to Botany Bay: An Exploration of Landscape and History. New York, 1987.

Chapman, Don. 1788: The People of the First Fleet. Sydney, 1988.

Clark, C. M. H. A History of Australia. Vol. 1, From the Earliest Times to the Age of Macquarie. Melbourne, 1962.

Clark, Manning. History of Australia. Abridged by Michael Cathcart. Melbourne, 1993.

———. A Short History of Australia. Victoria, 1963.

Clendinnen, Inga. Dancing with Strangers. Melbourne, 2003.

Cobley, John. The Crimes of the First Fleet Convicts. Sydney, 1970.

———. Sydney Cove, 1788. London, 1962.

———. Sydney Cove, 1789–1790. Sydney, 1963.

———. Sydney Cove, 1791–1792. Sydney, 1965.

Crittenden, Victor. Naval Men of the First Fleet. Canberra, 1986.

Currey, C. H. The Transportation, Escape and Pardoning of Mary Bryant. Sydney, 1983.

Defoe, Daniel. Moll Flanders (1772). New York, 1961.

Dew, Sergeant William, of the Marines. A First Fleet Family. Ed. (supposedly) Louis Becke and Walter Jeffery. London, n.d.

Duffy, Michael. Man of Honour: John Macarthur. Sydney, 2003.

Elder, Bruce. Blood on the Wattle: Massacres and Maltreatment of Aboriginal Australians Since 1788. Sydney, 1988.

Eldershaw, M. Barnard. Phillip of Australia. Sydney, 1938.

Elkin, A. P. Aboriginal Men of High Degree (1945). Queensland, 1977.

Ferguson, Niall. Empire. London, 2003.

The First Fleeters: A Comprehensive Listing of Convicts, Marines, Seamen, Officers, Wives, Children and Ships. Ed. Paul G. Fidlon and R. J. Ryan. Sydney, 1981.

Flynn, Michael. The Second Fleet, Britain's Grim Convict Armada of 1790. Sydney, 2001.

Forster, Colin. France and Botany Bay: The Lure of a Penal Colony. Melbourne, 1996.

Frost, Alan. Arthur Phillip, His Voyaging. Melbourne, 1987.

———. Botany Bay Mirages: Illusions of Australia's Convict Beginnings. Melbourne, 1994.

Gasgoigne, John. Joseph Banks and the English Enlightenment: Useful Knowledge and Polite Culture. Cambridge, U.K., 1994.

Gibson, Madge. Belbroughton to Botany Bay. Belbroughton, Worcestershire, 1987.

Gillen, Mollie. The Founders of Australia: A Biographical Dictionary of the First Fleet. Sydney, 1989.

Given, John W. 1787/1788: First Fleet Marines of Port Jackson and Norfolk Island and in Van Diemen's Land. Cambridge, Tas., 2001.

Griffith, Tom (gen. ed.). The Newgate Calendar. Hertfordshire, U.K., 1997.

Grose, Captain. 1811 Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue. London, 1811.

Halloran, Lawrence. John Harris, First Fleet Emancipist. Sydney, 1992.

Hay, Douglas, Peter Linebaugh, E. P. Thompson, John G. Rule, and Cal Winslow. Albion's Fatal Tree: Crime and Society in Eighteenth-Century England. London, 1975.

Hirst, J. B. Convict Society and Its Enemies: A History of Early New South Wales. Sydney, 1983.

Holden, Robert. Orphans of History: The Forgotten Children of the First Fleet. Sydney, 2000.

Hughes, Robert. The Fatal Shore: The Epic of Australia's Founding. New York, 1986.

Keneally, Thomas. The Great Shame: A Story of the Irish in the Old World and the New. Sydney, 1998.

Kirk, R. L., and A. G. Thorne. The Origin of the Australians. Canberra, 1976.

Langguth, A. J. Patriots: The Men Who Started the American Revolution. New York, 1988.

Macintyre, Stuart, and Anna Clark. The History Wars. Melbourne, 2003.

Mackaness, George. Admiral Arthur Phillip, Founder of New South Wales, 1738–1814. Sydney, 1937.

———. The Life of Vice-Admiral William Bligh R.N., F.R.S. Sydney, 1931.

McIntyre, Kenneth Gordon. The Rebello Transcripts: Governor Phillip's Portuguese Prelude. London, 1984.

Molony, John. The Native Born: The First White Australians. Melbourne, 2000.

Mulvaney, John, and Johan Kamminga. Prehistory of Australia. Sydney, 1999.

Oldham, Wilfred. Britain's Convicts to the Colonies. Sydney, 1990.

Parker, Mrs. Mary. A Voyage Round the World in the Gorgon Man of War. London, 1795.

Porter, Roy. English Society in the Eighteenth Century. London, 1983.

Pottle, Frederick A. Boswell and the Girl from Botany Bay. London, 1938.

Protos, Alec. The Road to Botany: The Story of Frenchman's Road: Randwick Through the Journals of La Pérouse and the First Fleet Writers. Sydney, 2000.

Reece, Bob. The Origins of Irish Convict Transportation to New South Wales. Melbourne, 2001.

Reed, A. W. Myths and Legends of Australia. Sydney, 1965.

Rees, Siân. The Floating Brothel: The Extraordinary Story of the Lady Juliana and Its Cargo of Female Convicts Bound for Botany Bay. Sydney, 2001.

Reynolds, Henry. The Law of the Land. Melbourne, 1987.

Ritchie, John. The Wentworths, Father and Son. Melbourne, 1997.

Robinson, Portia. The Hatch and Brood of Time: A Study of the First Generation of Native Born White Australians, 1788–1828. Vol. 1. Oxford, 1985.

———. The Women of Botany Bay. Ringwood, Victoria, 1998.

Robson, John. Captain Cook's World: Maps of the Life and Voyages of James Cook R.N. Sydney, 2000.

Robson, L. L. The Convict Settlers of Australia: An Enquiry into the Origin and Character of the Convicts Transported to New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land 1787–1852. Melbourne, 1965.

Ronayne, Jarlath. The Irish in Australia, Rogues and Reformers: First Fleet to Federation. Melbourne, 2003.

The Second Fleet of Convicts: A Comprehensive Listing of Convicts Who Sailed in HMS Guardian, Lady Juliana, Neptune, Scarborough and Surprize. Ed. R. J. Ryan. Sydney, 1982.

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Smith, Keith. Bennelong: The Coming in of the Eora, Sydney Cove, 1788–1792. Sydney, 2001.

Thomas, James H. Portsmouth and the First Fleet, 1786–1787. Portsmouth, 1987.

Thomas, Nicholas. Discoveries: The Voyages of Captain Cook. London, 2003.

Turnbull, Lucy Hughes. Sydney: Biography of a City. Sydney, 1999.

Ward, Russel. The Australian Legend. Melbourne, 1958.

Whiteley, Gilbert. Naturalists of the First Fleet. Australian Museum Magazine, January–March 1938.

Willey, Keith. When the Sky Fell Down: The Destruction of the Tribes of the Sydney Region, 1788–1850s. Sydney, 1979.

Woods, G. D. A History of Criminal Law in New South Wales: The Colonial Period, 1788–1900. Sydney, 2002.

weights and measures



1 inch

= 1,000 mils

= 2.54 centimetres

12 inches

= 1 foot

= 0.3048 metre

3 feet

= 1 yard

= 0.9144 metre

220 yards (660 feet)

= 1 furlong

= 201.168 metres

8 furlongs (1760 yards)

= 1 (statute) mile

= 1.6093 kilometres


144 square inches

= 1 square foot

= 929.03 square centimetres

9 square feet

= 1 square yard

= 0.8361 square metre

4,840 square yards

= 1 acre

= 0.4047 hectare

640 acres

= 1 square mile

= 259.0 hectares


6 feet

= 1 fathom

= 1.829 metres

100 fathoms

= 1 cable's length

= 182.9 metres

In the Royal Navy

608 feet = 1 cable's length = 185.319 metres

10 cables' length = 1 international nautical mile = 1.852 kilometres

1 international nautical mile = 1.150779 statute miles

Length of a minute of longitude at the equator

60 nautical miles = 1 degree of a great circle of the earth = 69.047 statute miles

3 nautical miles = 1 marine league = 5.556 kilometres


1 gill

= 5 fluid ounces

= 0.1480 litre

4 gills

= 1 pint

= 0.568 litre

2 pints

= 1 quart

= 1.136 litres

4 quarts

= 1 gallon

= 4.546 litres

2 gallons

= 1 peck

= 9.092 litres

4 pecks

= 1 bushel

= 36.37 litres


1 ounce

= 28.3495 grams


1 pound

= 453.59 grams


14 pounds

= 1 stone

= 6.35 kilograms

112 pounds

= 1 hundredweight

= 50.80 kilograms

2,240 pounds

= 1 (long) ton

= 1,016.05 kilograms

2,000 pounds

= 1 (short) ton

= 907.18 kilograms



= 5/9 (°Fahrenheit - 32)

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