My thanks for the research assistance of my daughter Jane, and to the staff of the State Library of New South Wales, Sydney, and the National Library of Australia, Canberra.



Australian Dictionary of Biography


Home Office


Mitchell Library


Old Bailey Session Papers


Historical Records of Australia


Historical Records of New South Wales


National Library of Australia

For fuller details on all books referred to in the notes, see Bibliography.

Chapter One


On the journey of the First Fleet, a chief source is Hunter's journal: Captain John Hunter, Commander HMS Sirius, with further accounts by Governor Arthur Phillip, Lieutenant P. G. King, and Lieutenant H. L. Ball, An Historical Journal, 1787–1792 (p. 24 quoted here). See also Arthur Phillip, The Voyage of Governor Phillip to Botany Bay.

As for complaints: Ralph Clark, The Journal and Letters of Lt. Ralph Clark, 1787–1792.

For “musty pancakes”: Clark, p. 83.

Tasman and Cook: J. C. Beaglehole, The Life of Captain James Cook; Nicholas Thomas, Discoveries: The Voyages of Captain Cook, London, 2003; John Robson, Captain Cook's World: Maps of the Life and Voyages of James Cook RN.

Expelling convicts from Europe: A. G. L. Shaw, Convicts and the Colonies: A Study of Penal Transportation from Great Britain and Ireland to Australia and Other Parts of the British Empire, pp. 20–57; G. B. Barton, History of New South Wales from the Records, vol. I, pp. 1–20, 439–42.

Bacon, Of Plantations: “The people wherewith you plant ought to be gardeners, ploughmen, labourers, smiths, carpenters, joiners, fisher men, fowlers, with some few apothecaries, surgeons, cooks and bakers.”

Transport to North American colonies: Shaw, p. 33.

On top of the numbers of convicts sent to the North American colonies, it was estimated by Thomas Povey, the Secretary to the Council of State and a leading London merchant with Barbadian interests, that up to 12,000 political prisoners, in addition to felons and vagabonds, had been received into Barbados by 1655. They helped to bridge the escalating demand for labour until the transition to black slavery in the 1660s: http//, Andrea Button, University of the West of England.

Death rate in Virginia: Niall Ferguson, Empire, p. 72.

American complaints: “The body of the English are struck with terror at the thought of coming over to us, not because they have a vast ocean to cross … but from the shocking ideas the mind must necessarily form of the company of in-human savages and the most terrible herd of exiled malefactors.” The Independent Reflector, quoted in Barton, p. 558; Shaw, p. 17.

Transportable offences: Barton, vol. I, p. 218; J. M. Beattie, Crime and the Courts in England, 1660–1800; Douglas Hay, Peter Linebaugh, E. P. Thompson, John G. Rule, Cal Winslow, Albion's Fatal Tree, Crime and Society in Eighteenth Century England, London, 1975, pp. 17–63.

Opposition to death sentences for theft: G. D. Woods, A History of Criminal Law in New South Wales: The Colonial Period, 1788–1900, p. 19.

Leniency of juries: Shaw, pp. 25–26.

Benefit of clergy: Beattie, pp. 88–89; Hay, p. 22.

Convict attitudes to hanging: Robert Holden, Orphans of History: The Forgotten Children of the First Fleet, p. 57; Hay, p. 66.

Executions in number and as public spectacle: Beattie, pp. 451–55; Hay et. al., pp. 66, 69; Roy Porter, English Society in the Eighteenth Century, p. 157.

Boswell attending executions: Frank Brady, James Boswell; The Later Years, 1769–1795, p. 282.

Pardons: Shaw, p. 28. In the 1770s, two-thirds of the Norfolk and Midland circuits' death sentences were remitted to sentences of transportation; Beattie, pp.430–31, 472–73, 475–79, 530–33; Hay, pp. 40–49.

Between 1770 and 1772 a number of convicts had been pardoned on condition that they join the navy. But the Lords of the Admiralty soon “expressed their wishes that no more convicts may ordinarily be ordered on board HM's ships, as such persons may not only bring distempers and immoralities amongst their companions, but may discourage men of irreproachable character from entering HM's service.” Dr. Samuel Johnson put it with more bite. “No man will be a sailor who has contrivance enough to get himself into a gaol,” declared Johnson famously, “for being in a ship is being in gaol, with the chance of being drowned.” Shaw, p. 28.

On prisons: Porter, p. 91; Holden, pp. 69–70; John Bonwick, Australia's First Preacher, the Reverend Richard Johnson, pp. 26–27; Beattie, pp. 289–313, 560–608; Hay.

John Howard: Beattie, pp. 288–308, 572–629; Shaw.

On Newgate: Daniel Defoe, Moll Flanders, p. 28; Peter Ackroyd, London: The Biography, p. 251; Holden, pp. 65–66; Tom Griffith (gen. ed.), The Newgate Calendar, 1997, pp. 3–5.

Barrington: Australian Dictionary of Biography (ADB), Vol. I, alphabetical listening; and at least as far as Barrington's legend goes, Suzanne Rickard (ed. ), George Barrington's Voyage to Botany Bay, Retelling a Convict's Travel Narrative of the 1790s.

Campbell: Shaw, pp. 34–36; The Blackheath Connection, a superbly researched Web site by historian Dan Byrne, is devoted to the study of activities and motivations of the men, generally Scots, of the Blackheath area and friends of Duncan Campbell's, who supplied the ships for the early penal fleets. Assembled with the help of Blackheath librarian Leo Rhind.

Hulks: Beattie, p. 567; Shaw, p. 43; Frost, p. 41; Blackheath Connection.

Lemane settlement and opposition: Shaw, pp. 46, 48, 57.

Matra's Proposal: HO 7/1 microfilm, ML; Shaw, pp. 44, 45.

Banks's testimony: HO 7/1 microfilm, ML.

Lord Sydney details: Atkinson, pp. 99–100; alphabetical listing, The Australian Encyclopaedia; C. M. H. Clark, A History of Australia, vol. 1, From the Earliest Times to the Age of Macquarie, pp. 68–69.

Banks before the Commons Committee: C. M. Clark (ed.), Sources of Australian History, pp. 61–69, from Journals of the House of Commons, vol. xxxvii, pp. 311–14.

Reaction to Committee, and Home Office reaction: Shaw, pp. 45–46.

Final selection of New South Wales: Lord Sydney to the Lord Commissioners of the Treasury, August 18, 1786, Sources, pp. 69–72.

Jeremy Bentham and the panopticon: J. B. Hirst, Convict Society and Its Enemies: A History of Early New South Wales, pp. 10–15.

Evan Nepean: ADB, vol. II, alphabetical listing.

Chapter Two


Phillip's early life: Alan Frost, Arthur Phillip, His Voyaging; M. Barnard Elder-shaw, Phillip of Australia; George Mackaness, Admiral Arthur Phillip, Founder of New South Wales, 1738–1814.

Geography of London criminals: L. L. Robson, The Convict Settlers of Australia: An Enquiry into the Origin and Character of the Convicts Transported to New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land 1787–1852, pp. 11–12; Thomas Beames, The Rookeries of London, pp. 25–27; Beattie, pp. 253–262.

Tawny Prince and flash or cant: Captain Watkin Tench of the Marines, Sydney's First Four Years, reprint of A Narrative of the Expedition to Botany Bay and a Complete Account of the Settlement at Port Jackson, p. 297; Captain Grose, 1811 Dictionary of the Vulgar Tongue.

Enclosure Acts: Porter, pp. 225–30; Hay, pp. 275–76, 313–14; digital search of Enclosure Act sites recommended.

Oliver Goldsmith, The Deserted Village. This version taken from Representative Poetry Online, a Web site of the Library of the University of Toronto.

Sarah Bellamy and her trial: Madge Gibson, Belbroughton to Botany Bay, booklet; PRO, Assizes 2/25; Mollie Gillen, The Founders of Australia: A Biographical Dictionary of the First Fleet, alphabetical listing; Arthur Bowes Smyth, The Journal of Arthur Bowes Smyth: Surgeon, Lady Penrhyn, 1787–1789, p. 5.

John Hudson's trials: OBSP, 1783–84, on microfilm, ML, 10 December 1783, p. 49.

William Blake: The Poetical Works of William Blake, pp. 74, 104. The first continues:

And because I am happy and dance and sing,

They think they have done me no injury,

And are gone to praise God and his priest and King

Who make up a Heaven of our misery.

Hudson, posttrial: Robert Holden, Orphans of History: The Forgotten Children of the First Fleet, p. 72.

Mary Marshall, trial: OBSP, 1783–84, p. 935.

Hippesley: OBSP, 1784–85, p. 438.

Mullens: OBSP, 1785–86, p. 525.

Peat: OBSP, 1784–85, p. 532.

Martin: OBSP, 1781–82, p. 454.

Chapter Three


Howe's opinion: HRNSW, vol. I, pt. II, p. 22.

Phillip's maritime and naval career: ADB, Vol. II, alphabetical listing; Frost, Phillip; George Mackaness, Admiral Arthur Phillip; M. Barnard Eldershaw, Phillip of Australia.

Phillip's marriage and resultant matters: Observer of London, 15 December 1793, Anecdotes of Governor Phillip.

Phillip as spy: Frost, p. 55 onwards.

Phillip's Portuguese naval career: Kenneth Gordon McIntyre, The Rebello Transcripts, Governor Phillip's Portuguese Prelude, especially pp. 79–161.

Phillip's return to Royal Navy: Frost; McIntyre, pp. 162–76.

Command of Europe: McIntyre, as above; Edward Spain, The Journal of Edward Spain, Merchant Seaman and Sometimes Warrant Officer in the Royal Navy, especially pp. 40–49; McIntyre, pp. 162–79.

Further espionage: Frost, pp. 130–31.

Heads of a Plan: HRNSW, vol. I, pt. II, pp. 18–19.

Chapter Four


Phillip's expeditionary philosophy: HRNSW, vol. I, pt. II, pp. 50–54.

William Richards and other contractors: The Blackheath Connection, electronic book, especially chap. 34; Charles Bateson, The Convict Ships, 1787–1868, pp. 11, 20.

First Fleet vessels: Bateson, pp. 95–102; Blackheath Connection, chap. 34.

Security arrangements on board: Philip Gidley King, The Journal of Philip Gidley King: Lieutenant, RN, 1787–1790, pp. 6, 7.

Phillip to Nepean: HRNSW, vol. I, pt. II, p. 59.

Lists of convicts and first loading: Bateson, pp. 95–102.

Relationship between women and sailors: Arthur Bowes Smyth, The Journal of Arthur Bowes Smyth: Surgeon, Lady Penrhyn, 1787–1789, p. 25; Gibson; Gillen, alphabetical listings.

Phillip visits ships, and clothing of women: HRNSW, vol. I, pt. II, pp. 58, 59.

Move to Motherbank: HRNSW, vol. I, pt. II, pp. 33–36, 45, 46.

Henry Kable: Cobley, Crimes, p. 46 (under Cable); ADB, alphabetical listing; Gillen, alphabetical listings; Daily Universal Register, 15 December 1786, HRA, vol. I, pp. 3–7.

Marines boarding: John W. Given, First Fleet Marines of Port Jackson and Norfolk Island and in Van Diemen's Land, pamphlet; Ralph Clark, The Journal and Letters of Lt. Ralph Clark, 1787–1792, p. 13; Hampshire Courier, 12 March 1787; James H. Thomas, Portsmouth and the First Fleet, 1786–1787, p. 22.

Further movements of convicts: Thomas, pp. 23–25; Watkin Tench, Sydney's First Four Years, reprint of A Narrative of the Expedition to Botany Bay and a Complete Account of the Settlement at Port Jackson, pp. 3, 4: Bowes Smyth, p. 13.

Whitewashing: John White Esq., Journal of a Voyage to New South Wales, p. 51 (modern edition).

Sirius trouble: Lt. Bradley's Journal, Heritage Online, Web site of State Library of New South Wales.

Bowes Smyth boards: Bowes Smyth, pp. 11–13.

Morale of marines: Clark, p. 19.

Infractions amongst marines: John Easty, Private Marine, Memorandum of the Transactions of a Voyage from England to Botany Bay, 1787–1793: A First Fleet Journal, p. 5.

Portsmouth: Thomas, Portsmouth.

Opinions in press: Thomas; HRNSW, vol. II, pp. 738–39; John Bonwick, Australia's First Preacher, the Reverend Richard Johnson, p. 13.

News of La Pérouse: Frost; Colin Foster, France and Botany Bay: The Lure of a Penal Colony, pp. 7–8.

Phillip boards, clock, etc.: amongst others, Captain John Hunter, Commander HMS Sirius, with further accounts by Governor Arthur Phillip, Lieutenant P. G. King, and Lieutenant H. L. Ball, An Historical Journal, 1787–1792, p. 3.

Collins: ADB, vol. I, alphabetical listing; editor's introduction to Collins, An Account, pp. xiii–xvii.

Verse, broadside: Geoffrey Ingleton, True Patriots All, pp. 8, 9.

Chapter Five


The sources for the journey are the journals: Hunter, pp. 1–37; Collins, pp. iii–xc; White, pp. 52–101; King, pp. 5–31; Tench, pp. 11–32; Clark, pp. 11–80; Bowes Smyth, pp. 16–56; Easty, pp. 5–88; James Scott, Sergeant of Marines, Remarks on a Passage to Botany Bay, 1787–1792, pp. 1–33; also Bradley Journal, Heritage Online, State Library of New South Wales; also Bateson, pp. 95–119.

Hunter: Eldershaw, p. 41; ADB, vol. I, alphabetical listing.

Contraceptive practice: Porter, pp. 41–42; Siân Rees, The Floating Brothel: The Extraordinary Story of the Lady Julian and Its Cargo of Female Convicts Bound for Botany Bay, pp. 109, 110.

Dawes and Astronomer Royal: ADB, vol. I, alphabetical listing.

Beckwith (also Beckford) and Sandlyn: Bowes Smyth, p. 25; David Collins, An Account of the English Colony in New South Wales, vol. I, p. 244; Gillen, alphabetical listings.

Chapter Six


Approaches to landfall: King, p. 32.

Chronometer: Hunter, p. 3.

Reaching Botany Bay: King, p. 34.

Aboriginal occupation: John Mulvaney and Johan Kamminga, Prehistory of Australia, pp. 69–71; for Sydney region, pp. 284–89.

Tribes and clans: Inga Clendinnen, Dancing with Strangers, pp. 290, 291; Keith Smith, Bennelong: The Coming in of the Eora, Sydney Cove, 1788–1792; Keith Willey, When the Sky Fell Down, pp. 12–18.

Firestick farming: ibid., pp. 60–62.

Landings at Botany Bay: King, pp. 33–35.

Shift in meaning: Paul Carter, The Road to Botany Bay: An Exploration of Landscape and History, p. 37.

Aboriginal resistance: King in Hunter, p. 272.

Arrival of second division: Tench, pp. 34–37; Bowes Smyth, p. 57.

Watkin Tench: Tench, p. 32; ADB, vol. II, alphabetical listing; Tench, editor's introduction, xiv–xxv.

Arrival: Tench, p. 32.

Convict women and their prospects: Portia Robinson, Women of Botany Bay, pp. 56–58.

Resistance to taking of fish: King, p. 34.

Natives offer women: King, p. 35.

Tench's adventures ashore: Tench, pp. 36–37.

Aboriginal language: Mulvaney and Kamminga, pp. 69–77; Collins, journal, pp. 506–12.

Native lances: Bowes Smyth, pp. 57, 58.

Botany Bay: Cook's journal, original and edited, Carter, pp. 10–16; Beaglehole, pp. 230–33.

Moulton: Gillen, alphabetical listing; Don Chapman, 1788: The People of the First Fleet, alphabetical listing; Cobey, Crimes, p. 194, under alias “Morton.”

Decision to explore north, and subsequent discoveries: HRA, Series I, vol. I, p. 18; Collins, pp. 2, 3.

Jacob Nagle: The Nagle Journal: A Diary of the Life of Jacob Nagle, Sailor, from the Year 1775 to 1841, pp. 92–95.

Movements in Port Jackson, again: Phillip to Sydney, HRA, vol. I, p. 18; Nagle, pp. 92–95.

Albion and Sydney Cove: Collins, p. 5.

Aboriginal names: Collins, p. 504 and following; reliable Web sites devoted to pre-European Sydney area can be accessed by typing “Eora tribes” or “Eora place-names.”

Chapter Seven


Arrival of two ships: Tench, p. 127.

Move of the fleet to Sydney, and arrival of La Pérouse: Hunter, pp. 29, 30; Collins, pp. 3–5.

Attitude to French: Porter, p. 21.

Clark and Tench react to Port Jackson: Clark, pp. 92, 93; Tench, p. 38.

Geography of Cove and settlement: Collins, pp. 4, 5.

Dawes and White: Collins, p. 12; White, pp. 113, 114.

Canvas Government House: Hunter, p. 53; HRA, vol. II, pp. 666–67.

Harry Brewer: ADB, vol. I, alphabetical listing; HRA, vol. I, p. 35.

Clark and his tent: Clark, p. 93.

Native plants: White, pp. 151–58.

Building of huts, and unsuitable wood: White, p. 119; Tench, pp. 38–39, 60; Collins, pp. 5, 6.

Livestock and Corbett: Collins, p. 5.

Phillip et al. and Eora: Hunter, pp. 38–46.

First farming, convicts and supervisory duty: Collins, pp. 5–7, 17; Phillip to Banks: HRA, as above.

James Ruse: ADB, vol. II, alphabetical listing; Collins, pp. 75–76; Tench, pp.197–98; Phillip in Hunter, pp. 301, 351.

Ross: ADB, vol. II, alphabetical listing; C. M. H. Clark, vol. I, p. 74; Alan Atkinson, The Europeans in Australia; A History, vol. I, pp. 57, 58, 72–75.

Phillip as shark totem: Atkinson, p. 38.

Phillip's May 16 dispatch to Lord Sydney: HRA, vol. I, p. 18.

White and Balmain: see in particular White, pp. 47–50.

Gardens: Collins, p. 13; Clark, p. 113.

Bradley: ADB, alphabetical listing; Victor Crittenden, Naval Men of the First Fleet, pamphlet.

Visit to La Pérouse: King, pp. 37–39.

French visit, Sydney Cove: amongst others, Collins, pp. 11, 12.

Death of Fr. Receveur: Collins, vol. I, p. 16; King, Journal, pp. 39, 40; Tench, p. 55.

Chapter Eight


Landing of women: Bowes, p. 67.

The bacchanalia: Bowes, as above.

Tench's view: Tench, p. 39.

Reading of commission, extent of claim: Collins, p. 6.

Phillip's speech: Collins, vol. I, p. 6.

Rations: Collins, p. 7; Tench, pp. 12, 83.

Neglect of ships' captains: Bowes, p. 69.

First court-martial: Clark, p. 96.

Chapter Nine


Reverend Johnson: Bonwick, pp. 62–63; Porter, pp. 63, 192–94.

Service of February 10, christening, and marriages: Collins, vol. I, p. 14; Clark, p. 97.

Smuggling: Cal Winslow, “Sussex Smugglers,” in Hay, p. 119 onwards; also Hay, pp. 260, 267; Porter, pp. 114–15.

Women's camp and expulsion of sailors: Bowes, p. 70.

Fisher and Hart: Gillen, alphabetical listings; Bowes, p. 79.

First criminal cases, judge-advocate's court: Collins, vol. I, p. 7; Tench, pp. 44, 100–101.

Flogging: Nagle, p. 178.

Flogging of women: Easty, p. 98.

Chapter Ten


La Pérouse and natives: Tench, p. 170; Collins, vol. I, p. 16.

Visit by elders: Bowes, pp. 69–70.

Aboriginal culture and burial: Collins, pp. 454–55, 499–505; Mulvaney and Kamminga, pp. 95–96, 359–61.

Ancient burials: Mulvaney and Kamminga, pp. 154–55, 161–68.

Native tools: an excellent summation in Smith, Bennelong; Collins, vol. I, pp. 486–88.

Garden Island raid: Collins, vol. I, p. 13; Tench, pp. 215–16.

Collins laments end of good relations: as above.

Nagle and natives: p. 99.

Chapter Eleven


King and Norfolk Island: King, Journal, p. 40 onwards.

Jamison and Colley: alphabetical listing ADB, vol. I; for Jamison, alphabetical listings, Gillen and Chapman; King, pp. 43, 44.

Oaths of abjuration and assurance: C. M. H. Clark, vol. I, pp. 78–81.

Tom Barrett et al.: Collins, p. 8; Tench, pp. 44, 101; White, p. 129.

Awesome nature of executioner: Hay, p. 66.

Bloodworth: see alphabetical listing, Gillen, Chapman; alphabetical listing, ADB, vol. I; Collins, p. 115.

Unloaded ships: John Cobley, Sydney Cove, 1788, pp. 110–11; Collins, vol. I, p. 18.

New rations: Tench, p. 83.

Phillip and officers: Collins, vol. I, pp. 104, 105.

Conflict over Hunt sentence: Easty, p. 99; Cobley, 1788, pp. 104–5.

Anti-scorbutics and venereal disease: White, pp. 113, 120, 133, 135, and notes, p. 243; Collins, vol. I, pp. 20, 373, 495–96.

Chapter Twelve


Exploring Broken Bay: Nagle, pp. 100–102; Hunter, pp. 95–108; Phillip to Sydney: HRA, vol. I, p. 18; Collins, p. 15.

Cooee: Hunter, p. 103.

Phillip's health on return: see Phillip's health in Frost, Phillip: His Voyaging; White, pp. 127, 131; but see also Bowes Smyth, p. 77.

Looking for land along Parramatta River: White, pp. 127–31.

Discovery of Rose Hill, Parramatta: White as above; Phillip to Sydney, HRA, vol. I, p. 18.

Departure of ships: Collins, vol. I, p. 18.

Attack on Ayres and Burn: Collins, vol. I, p. 24; Tench, pp. 50, 104–5; Hunter, pp. 53–54.

Oakey and Davis: as above.

Reactions of Hunter and others: Hunter, p. 54.

Phillip's expedition and parley: Collins, pp. 24–25.

Phillip to the Marquess of Lansdowne: see Arthur Phillip, Copies and Extracts of Letters from Governor Phillip: Giving an Account, etc.

McEntire: Phillip in Hunter, p. 326; Tench, pp. 49, 105.

Henry Kable and the law: ADB, alphabetical listing; Gillen, Chapman, alphabetical listing; White, pp. 148, 149.

The Bryants: as for Kable, also alphabetical listing (Braund for Broad), Cobley, Crimes; White, p. 88; Collins, pp. 44, 45.

Corbett: as for above; then Tench, p. 61; Collins, vol. I, pp. 26, 27, 541n.

King's birthday: Collins, vol. I, p. 25; Tench, p. 60; White, p. 140.

Phillip in pain: as above.

County of Cumberland: Collins, p. 25; White, p. 140; Tench, pp. 60, 112.

Sam Payton: White, p. 43; Tench, p. 61.

Earthquake: White, pp. 141–42; Collins, vol. I, p. 27.

Sam Payton's letter: Tench, pp. 62–63.

Execution of Corbett and Payton: Tench, pp. 61–63.

Chapter Thirteen


Ross to Evan Nepean: 10 July 1788, Cobley, pp. 187, 188.

Campbell to Lord Ducie: 12 July 1788, Cobley, pp. 191–93.

Phillip to Lord Sydney: July, September, HRA, Series I, vol. 1, pp. 46–48, 73, 77–78, 86–87.

Phillip to Nepean: HRA, as above, pp. 46, 55 (private letter).

The last transports vanish: Collins, vol. I, p. 38; Tench, p. 137; Bateson, p. 118.

The journey of the transports: Bateson, pp. 118, 119.

Failure of germination: Collins, pp. 31, 33.

Phillip orders Sirius to Cape Town: Hunter, p. 61; Tench, pp. 79, 120; Collins, vol. I, pp. 33, 34, 55.

Settlement of Rose Hill/Parramatta: Hunter, pp. 94, 95; Phillip in Hunter, pp. 300–303; Collins, pp. 37, 40, 42, 103; Tench, pp. 79, 136.

Augustus Alt: ADB, vol. I, alphabetical listing; Collins, pp. 10, 123; White, pp. 7, 125.

Aboriginal goat raid: Collins, p. 32.

Phillip asks Nepean for clothes for natives: HRA, as above, p. 46.

Capture of Arabanoo: Hunter, pp. 132, 133; Collins, vol. I, p. 49; Tench, p. 139.

Arabanoo in Sydney: Hunter, pp. 92, 93; Tench, pp. 142–45; Collins, vol. I, pp. 40, 43.

Convict raid on Botany Bay: Tench, pp. 144, 145.

Ration reduction: Collins, vol. I, p. 35.

Emergence of smallpox: Collins, pp. 496, 497; Hunter, pp. 92–94; Tench, pp. 146–49.

Surgeon White's “variolous material”: Alan Frost, Botany Bay Mirages, “The Mark of Cain,” pp. 190–210.

Finding and treatment of sufferers: Tench, pp. 146–48; Hunter, pp. 115, 116; White, pp. 19, 23; Collins, vol. I, pp. 53, 483.

Arabanoo and smallpox: Tench, pp. 147, 148.

Onset of syphilis and gonorrhoea: Collins, vol. I, pp. 20, 295–96.

Death of Arabanoo: Tench, p. 149; Collins, p. 54; Hunter, pp. 115, 116.

Chapter Fourteen


Building of storehouses: Hunter, pp. 93–94.

Discovery of crime: Hunter, p. 94; Tench, p. 145; Collins, vol. I, p. 49.

Frazier: Tench, pp. 295, 296; also alphabetical listings, Chapman, Gillen.

Trial and execution of marines: Tench, p. 145; as for discovery of crime.

Sirius's journey: Hunter, pp. 61–76; Nagle, pp. 105–9.

Bread roll for government house dining: Tench, p. 166.

Chapter Fifteen


New crowding in Britain's prisons: Byrne, Blackheath Connection, cyber book, chap. 34; Michael Flynn, The Second Fleet: Britain's Grim Convict Armada of 1790, p. 17; Siân Rees, The Floating Brothel: The Extraordinary Story of the Lady Julian and Its Cargo of Female Convicts Bound for Botany Bay, pp. 1–23.

William Richards: Byrne, Blackheath Connection, cyber book, especially chaps. 34 and 38; Flynn, pp. 13, 14, 127, 131; Bateson, p. 20.

Taking up and fitting of Lady Juliana: Bateson, pp. 120–22; John Nicol, Life and Adventures, 1776–1801, pp. 113–26.

Captain Aitken: Bateson, pp. 120, 121; Rees, p. 60; Nicol, p. 114.

Lieutenant Edgar: Bateson, ibid.; Nicol, pp. 116, 123; Rees, pp. 60, 62.

Catherine Heyland: Flynn, Second Fleet, alphabetical listing; Rees, pp. 78–80.

Margaret Sullivan: Rees, pp. 80–82.

Women offered King's mercy: Rees, pp. 84, 85.

Sarah Cowden: Flynn, non-alphabetical, p. 658; Rees, pp. 85, 86, 91, 92.

Nellie Kerwin (spelled Kirvein in Second Fleet records; also Karavan): Flynn, alphabetical listing under Kirvein; Rees, pp. 51, 63, 83–89; Nicol, pp. 120, 121.

Acceptance of King's mercy: Rees as above; Flynn, alphabetical listings.

Mrs. Barnsley: Flynn, alphabetical listing; Rees, pp. 70, 71; Nicol, pp. 115, 116.

Nicol in love: Nicol, pp. 121, 122.

Departure: Bateson, p. 120; Rees, pp. 96–99; Nicol, p. 121.

Nepean to Phillip: 20 June 1789, HRA, Series I, vol. I, p. 120.

Chapter Sixteen


King's birthday, 1789: Tench, p. 152; Collins, vol. I, pp. 57, 58.

The Recruiting Officer: Collins, vol. I, as above.

Time-expired convicts: Collins, vol. I, pp. 60, 61.

Especially Cullyhorn: Gillen and Chapman, sometimes under Calleghan or Callighan, alphabetical listings; Collins, 548 n.; Cobley, 1789–1790, pp. 63–65.

Problems with supplies: Collins, vol. I, pp. 68, 69.

John Harris and the night watch: Collins, vol. I, pp. 63, 64, 70; Hunter, p. 140.

Collins's opinion: Collins, vol. I, p. 70.

Grenville: Flynn, pp. 26, 27; Atkinson, p. 78.

Camden, Calvert and King and their contract: Flynn, pp. 26–41; Bateson, pp. 32, 131, 132; Byrne, Blackheath Connection, cyber book, chap. 38.

The recruitment of the New South Wales Corps: Flynn, pp. 28, 29; Blackheath Connection, chap. 38; Michael Duffy, Man of Honour: John Macarthur, early chapters.

Preparations of three transports: Flynn, as previously; Bateson, pp. 126, 127; Blackheath Connection, as previously; Duffy, early chapters.

HMS Guardian: Flynn, pp. 19, 24; Bateson, p. 124; Rees, pp. 72, 75.

Ruse's record: ADB, vol. II, alphabetical listing; Collins, vol. I, p. xix; Phillip in Hunter, pp. 301, 351, 364; Tench, pp. 197–98; Atkinson, pp. 169–71.

Phillip's plan: Phillip in Hunter, p. 301; the rest as above.

Major Ross's view: 10 July 1788, Ross to Nepean, Cobley, 1788, that date.

Tench on capturing natives: Tench, pp. 158, 159.

Bradley's expedition and capture of two natives: Bradley journal, and illustration, p. 182 of journal.

Colby and Bennelong in Sydney: Tench, pp. 159, 309; Collins, vol. I, p. 71; Hunter, pp. 116, 139–42: Bradley, journal, online.

Banks's view: quoted, Nicholas Thomas, Discoveries: The Voyages of Captain Cook, pp. 80, 81.

Colby's escape: Collins, vol. I, p. 71; Tench, p. 159; Hunter, p. 116.

Bennelong's Sydney career continued: Tench, pp. 159, 160, 167; Collins, vol. I, p. 92; Hunter, p. 132; King in Hunter, p. 269.

Name exchange: Tench, pp. 160, 161.

Regional tribes and clans: Willey, frontispiece map and pp. 14–16; Clendinnen, frontispiece map and pp. 107, 273. Web search also recommended under “Eora people.”

King on native borders: King in Hunter, p. 268.

Aboriginal authority system: Collins, vol. I, pp. 452–55, 460, 461, 488–92.

Bennelong's escape: Collins, vol. I, p. 92.

Chapter Seventeen


Ross to Norfolk Island: Tench, p. 63; King in Hunter, pp. 254, 245; Collins, vol. I, p. 78.

Hunger in Sydney Cove: Tench, p. 166; Collins, vol. I, pp. 97, 103.

Phillip's generosity: Collins, vol. I, p. 88.

Sirius and Supply to Norfolk Island: Hunter, pp. 118–19; Collins, vol. I, pp. 78, 80; Ralph Clark, p. 116.

Wrecking of Sirius: Hunter, pp. 120–23; King in Hunter, pp. 254–57; Phillip in Hunter, pp. 382, 383; Clark, Journal, pp. 121, 122.

Ross declares martial law: Clark, Journal, p. 122; King in Hunter, pp. 254, 255.

Mutton birds: Hunter, pp. 125–26; King in Hunter, p. 214; Clark, Journal, pp. 285, 293.

Ross's allocation of land: Atkinson, pp. 228, 229, 231.

Ross as light punisher: Clark, Journal, pp. 201, 219, 223.

Chapter Eighteen


Riou and the Guardian: Bateson, pp. 124, 125; Rees, pp. 161, 162.

Lady Juliana's progress to Rio: Bateson, pp. 121, 122; Nicol, pp. 121–27; Rees, pp. 111–60.

HMS Guardian's collision with ice: Bateson, pp. 124, 125; Rees, pp. 177, 178; Flynn, pp. 24, 25.

Return of Guardian to Cape Town and arrival of Lady Juliana: Nicol, p. 128.

Transfer of people and supplies to Lady Juliana: Rees, p. 183; Nicol, p. 128.

Emancipation of Bloodworth and Guardian men: Collins, vol. I, pp. 115, 160, 161.

Sydney ration reductions: Tench, p. 166; Collins, vol. I, pp. 97, 103.

Surprize, Scarborough, Neptune: Flynn, pp. 30, 31; Bateson, pp. 126, 127.

Arrival of soldiers: Flynn, p. 35.

Loading of transports: Flynn, pp. 32–34; Bateson, pp. 128–31.

Robert Towers: Flynn, alphabetical listing.

Trail and Shapcote: Bateson, pp. 126, 128, 130; Flynn, pp. 27, 33, 35; Tench, p. 173.

Evan Nepean to naval agent: Flynn, p. 39.

Grenville to Phillip: HRA, pt. II, vol. I, p. 120.

Harriet Hodgetts: Flynn, alphabetical listing.

Chapter Nineteen


John Macarthur: For a study of Macarthur's origins, see Michael Duffy, Man of Honour: John Macarthur; ADB, vol. II, alphabetical listing; Flynn, pp. 37–41; John Ritchie, The Wentworths, Father and Son, pp. 33, 34.

Nicholas Nepean: ADB, vol. II, alphabetical listing; Flynn, pp. 13, 26, 32, 39–42.

Conflict with Gilbert: Flynn, pp. 35–41; Ritchie, pp. 32–35.

D'Arcy Wentworth's career as a highwayman: Ritchie, pp. 1–24.

Captain Trail and the Neptune: Ritchie, pp. 29, 32–40.

Primitive sanitation: Elizabeth Macarthur's Journal, HRNSW, vol. II, p. 366.

The Macarthurs' discomfort: as for previous note.

Female convicts on Neptune: Ritchie, p. 30; Flynn, p. 33.

D'Arcy and Catherine Crowley: Ritchie, pp. 31, 34; Flynn, alphabetical listing.

Chapter Twenty


The Justinian: Flynn, pp. 32, 43.

The journey of the Second Fleet proper: Bateson, pp. 126–29; Flynn, pp. 42–48.

Elizabeth Macarthur: HRNSW, vol. II, p. 489.

The Macarthurs' transfer to Scarborough: Flynn, p. 48.

Captain William Hill: 26 June 1789, HRNSW, vol. I, pt. 2, p. 367; MSS 6821, ML.

Hill's attitude to shackles and lack of exercise: as for previous note.

Arrival of Lady Juliana in Sydney Cove: Tench, pp. 169, 170; Collins, vol. I, pp. 93, 96; White, pp. 20, 21; Hunter, p. 128; Phillip in Hunter, p. 299.

Arrival of Justinian: Tench, p. 172; Hunter, p. 128; Phillip in Hunter, p. 301.

Arrival of Surprize: as for previous note.

Erection of portable hospital: Collins, vol. I, pp. 101, 103; White, p. 21.

Arrival of Neptune and Scarborough: Collins, vol. I, pp. 99, 100, 106, 107; Tench, pp. 172, 173; Phillip in Hunter, p. 301.

The Reverend Johnson and the sick: Bonwick, pp. 91–97.

Captain Hill's estimation of the Sydney Cove area: HRNSW, vol. I, pt. 2, p. 367; MSS 6821, ML.

And of Parramatta: as for previous note.

Convict women making clothes: Tench, p. 166.

Leasing of Surprize to go to Norfolk Island: Phillip in Hunter, p. 301; Ritchie, p. 52; Collins, vol. I, p. 106.

Rations on Norfolk: Collins, vol. I, p. 135.

Wentworth's arrival and birth of his son: Ritchie, pp. 52, 53.

John Irving: Tench, pp. 168, 312; Collins, vol. I, pp. 80, 181, 360; Gillen, Chapman, alphabetical listings.

Dennis Considen: ADB, vol. I, alphabetical listing; Gillen, Chapman, alphabetical listing; Ritchie, pp. 54, 55.

Wentworth's Norfolk Island career: Ritchie, pp. 56, 60, 61–63; Collins, vol. I, p. 106; Ralph Clark, pp. 180, 184, 186, 191.

Ralph Clark and flogging: pp. 191, 197.

Near mutiny: Ralph Clark, p. 192.

Renewed floggings: pp. 199, 202.

Wentworth's intervention: Clark, p. 197.

Ruse's farming success: Tench, pp. 197, 198, 256; Collins, vol. I, pp. 130, 135, 136.

Arrival of Elizabeth Perry: Tench, pp. 197, 198; Collins, vol. I, p. 88; Flynn, alphabetical listing.

Chapter Twenty-one


Nicol and Lady Juliana prepare to leave: Nicol, p. 130.

Smilax and fertility: as for previous note.

The coming of the whale: Tench, p. 174; Collins, vol. I, pp. 108–10.

The whale feast: Tench, pp. 176–78; Collins, as for previous note.

Bennelong at Manly: Tench, pp. 176–80; Collins, as for previous note.

His gift for the governor: as for previous note.

The governor visits Bennelong: Tench, p. 178; Collins, vol. I, pp. 109–11.

Lieutenant Waterhouse: Tench, pp. 178–80; Collins, vol. I, p. 111; ADB, vol. II, alphabetical listing.

Phillip at Manly: Phillip in Hunter, pp. 306–11; Collins, vol. I, pp. 109–11; Tench, pp. 178–80.

Phillip's wounding: as for previous note.

Withdrawal to Sydney: Tench, p. 180; Collins, vol. I, pp. 111–12.

Collins on Phillip's trusting nature: Collins, vol. I, p. 111.

Bennelong not blamed: Tench, p. 184; Collins, vol. I, p. 112; Phillip in Hunter, pp. 309, 311.

Phillip's men looking for Bennelong: as for previous note.

Bennelong, Barangaroo, and others: Tench, pp. 184–86; Collins, vol. I, pp. 311–12.

The return of stolen property: Tench, pp. 185, 186.

Bennelong's reluctance to go to Sydney: Tench, p. 187; Phillip in Hunter, p. 311.

Bennelong visits Sydney while hostages held: Tench, pp. 188, 189; Phillip in Hunter, as for previous note; Collins, vol. I, p. 313.

Further contact with Aboriginals: Tench, pp. 187, 188; Phillip in Hunter, pp. 319–23; Collins, vol. I, pp. 313, 317.

Bennelong's tin shield, hatchets, and house: Tench, p. 200; Collins, vol. I, pp. 113, 117; Phillip in Hunter, p. 320.

Chapter Twenty-two


Aboriginal women trading sex for goods: Collins, vol. I, p. 464.

Phillip's assessment of a native woman: Phillip in Hunter, p. 327.

Bennelong's domestic brutality: Collins, vol. I, pp. 463, 464; Tench, p. 188; Phillip in Hunter, pp. 319–21.

Bennelong's tenderness to Barangaroo: Phillip in Hunter, p. 316; Tench, p. 190; Collins, vol. I, pp. 492, 493.

Bennelong and Karubarabulu fighting: Tench, pp. 200–203; Phillip in Hunter, pp. 319–21.

Karubarabulu in hospital: Tench, p. 203; Phillip in Hunter, as for previous note.

Bennelong's repentance: Tench, as for previous note; Phillip in Hunter, p. 321.

Bennelong's fear of Surgeon White: Tench, p. 205.

Karubarabulu hides from Barangaroo at Government House: Tench, p. 203; Phillip in Hunter, pp. 321, 322.

John McEntire: Tench, pp. 49, 66, 105, 116; Phillip in Hunter, pp. 326, 327.

Pemulwuy: Collins, vol. I, p. 118; Tench (under Pimelwi), p. 206; Phillip in Hunter, pp. 327, 328.

Bennelong entertains Pemulwuy: Smith, p. 116.

Karubarabulu: Collins, vol. I, pp. 463, 464; Tench, p. 291; Phillip in Hunter, pp. 321–23.

Carradhys: A. P. Elkin, Aboriginal Men of High Degree, pp. 1–66; Collins, vol. I, pp. 453, 493, 494.

The wounding of McEntire: Tench, pp. 207, 209; Collins, pp. 107, 108; Phillip in Hunter, pp. 326–28.

Phillip's reaction: Tench, pp. 207–9; Phillip in Hunter, p. 328.

Bennelong as distinguished visitor: Phillip in Hunter, pp. 328, 332.

Tench's reaction: Tench, p. 209.

Preparation for the expedition: Tench, p. 209.

Dawes's resistance: HRA, Series 1, vol. I, p. 289; Hunter, p. 435n.

Patyegarang: Smith, pp. 98, 99.

Dawes's further resistance: HRA, Series I, vol. I, p. 292.

The first punitive expedition: Tench, pp. 209–11; Collins, vol. I, pp. 118, 119; Phillip in Hunter, pp. 328, 329.

McEntire at hospital: Phillip in Hunter, p. 327.

Colby's intervention: Tench (under Colbee), pp. 210, 211.

The second expedition: Tench, pp. 212–15; Collins, vol. I, pp. 118, 119.

Bennelong back in Sydney: Phillip in Hunter, p. 332.

Initiation details: Collins, vol. I, pp. 466–89.

Corroboree: Tench pp. 277, 289, 290; Collins, vol. I, p. 466; Hunter, p. 143; King in Hunter, p. 270; Phillip in Hunter, p. 317.

Bennelong and the two women together at Tubowgulle: Phillip in Hunter, p. 332.

Potato raid: Tench, p. 215; Collins, vol. I, pp. 121, 122; Phillip in Hunter, p. 332.

Aboriginal found dead: Tench, pp. 215, 216; Collins, vol. I, pp. 121, 122; Phillip in Hunter, p. 333.

Bennelong's angry response: Tench, p. 216; Phillip in Hunter, pp. 333, 334.

Port Jackson painter: Collins, p. 368.

Phillip's new rules about contact: Phillip in Hunter, p. 328.

Phillip refuses Bennelong entry to Government House: Phillip in Hunter, p. 327.

Collins on native dispossession: Collins, vol. I, p. 122.

Chapter Twenty-three


The Waaksamheyd: Hunter, p. 131; King in Hunter, p. 294; Collins, vol. I, pp. 113, 114.

Tench on Batavia: Tench, p. 217.

Waaksamheyd's cargo: Phillip in Hunter, pp. 329, 335; Collins, vol. I, pp. 119, 120.

Detmer Smith plays games: Tench, p. 218; Collins, vol. I, p. 123; Phillip in Hunter, pp. 335–36.

Waaksamheyd hired to return crew of Sirius: Collins, vol. I, pp. 124, 127, 128; Tench, p. 218; Phillip in Hunter, p. 338.

Phillip's request to return to England: 25 March 1791, Phillip to Grenville, HRA, Series I, vol. I, p. 377.

Phillip's wife and affairs: see Frost, Phillip.

His declaration of ill health: HRA, as above.

Collins to his father: 23 March 1791, Correspondence, 1775–1810, MSS 700.

Nature of Phillip's illness: G. B. Barton, History of New South Wales from the Records, pp. 305, 306, 368.

The request by four officers: Cobley, 1791–1792, pp. 45, 46.

Phillip to Sir Joseph Banks: Cobley, 1791–1792, pp. 47, 28.

Surgeon White to Grenville: Cobley, 1791–1792, p. 50.

The journey of the Waaksamheyd: Tench, p. 218; Hunter, pp. 146–92.

Expedition to cross Hawkesbury River: Tench, pp. 224–34; Phillip in Hunter, pp. 340–48.

Encounters with local natives: as for previous note.

Phillip on difference between Hawkesbury language and that of coastal people: Phillip in Hunter, p. 347.

Colby and Ballooderry want to go back: Phillip in Hunter, pp. 347, 348; Tench, p. 234.

William Bryant's flogging: Collins, pp. 44, 45.

Surgeon White to the dealer in hams: White to Mr. Skill, 17 April 1790, Barton, vol. I, pp. 506–8.

John Terwood's attempted escape: Tench, pp. 181, 182; Collins, vol. I, pp. 113, 356, 357.

The Bryants' preparations: C. H. Currey, The Transportation, Escape and Pardoning of Mary Bryant, pp. 12–14; Collins, vol. I, pp. 126, 127.

Motivations: Tench, p.162.

Fellow escapees: Currey, p. 14; Collins, vol. I, pp. 129, 130.

Escape: Currey, pp. 19–25; Memorandums, reproduced in Geoffrey Chapman Ingleton, True Patriots All, pp. 13–15.

Further ration reduction: Collins, vol. I, pp. 130, 131.

Bryant's impact on colonial society: Collins, p. 131.

David Collins's opinion: as for previous note.

Tench's admiration: Tench, p. 219.

Chapter Twenty-four


Bligh's interest: George Mackaness, The Life of Vice-Admiral William Bligh RN, FRS, pp. 298, 299.

The Memorandums: Ingleton, pp. 13–15.

Journey to Koepang: Currey, pp. 26, 27; Memorandums.

And time there: Currey, pp. 27–31; Memorandums.

Third Fleet and contract: Byrne, Blackheath Connection, especially chap. 40.

Pursuit of Captain Trail: Flynn, pp. 54–64; Ritchie, pp. 43–44.

Nelson on Trail: Flynn, p. 74.

The Queen: Bateson, p. 132; Flynn, pp. 60, 64, 73.

Voyage of Third Fleet proper: Bateson, pp. 131–39; Collins, vol. I, pp. 141, 143, 145, 149, 150.

The Gorgon: Bateson, p. 131.

The Mary Ann: as for previous note; Byrne, Blackheath Connection.

Ships' agents and short weighting: Bateson, pp. 135, 136.

The Defenders: Atkinson, pp. 178, 250.

Arrival of Mary Ann: Collins, vol. I, pp. 140, 141; Phillip in Hunter, p. 354; Tench, p. 240.

No temptation offered to quit colony: Phillip in Hunter, p. 355.

National Children: John Molony, The Native Born: The First White Australians, pp. 23–25.

The Matilda: Bateson, pp. 134, 135; Collins, vol. I, p. 143; Phillip in Hunter, p. 356.

Bennelong in hospital: Phillip in Hunter, p. 360.

Atlantic and Salamander: Phillip in Hunter, pp. 357, 358; Collins, vol. I, pp. 145, 152; Tench, p. 242.

Admiral Barrington: Phillip in Hunter, p. 368; Collins, vol. I, pp. 151, 152.

Mrs. Parker: Mary Parker, Voyage Round the World in the Gorgon, pp. 73–92.

The Reverend Bain: Phillip in Hunter, p. 366; Collins, vol. I, pp. 148, 160, 161, 303, 334; Bonwick, pp. 114, 115.

The Reverend Johnson: as for Bonwick, previous note.

Activities of ships after delivery of convicts: Bateson, p. 139; Phillip in Hunter, pp. 368–71, 373, 375; Tench, pp. 298–300; Collins, vol. I, pp. 151, 152, 155, 156, 158, 159.

Chapter Twenty-five


The Gorgon's bounty: Phillip in Hunter, p. 366; Tench, pp. 245, 248.

King and his wife: ADB, vol. II, alphabetical listing.

The Great Seal: Collins, vol. I, p. 149.

King returns to Norfolk Island: Ritchie, pp. 49, 50, 60–71; Phillip in Hunter, pp. 368, 382–84; Collins, vol. I, pp. 148, 152, 153, 159; Clark, pp. 221–238.

Wentworth on Norfolk Island: Ritchie, pp. 61–72.

Attitude towards his son: Ritchie, p. 68.

George Barrington: ADB, vol. I, alphabetical listing; George Barrington, George Barrington's Voyage to Botany Bay, Retelling a Convict's Travel Narrative of the 1790s (not proven authentic, but credible and accurate on much of Barrington's personal history); Tench, pp. 242, 257, 258; Collins, vol. I, p. 205.

Grenville replies to Phillip: 19 February 1791, Cobley, 1791–1792, pp. 123–24.

Collins's bind: Collins to his father, 17 October 1791, Collins Papers, vol. I, p. 62, Dixon Library, State Library of New South Wales.

Attitude towards Major Ross: as for previous note.

Loyalty to Phillip: as for Collins Papers, above.

Extra provisions on Third Fleet ships: Collins, vol. I, p. 150.

The Bryants imprisoned on Koepang: Memorandums; Currey, p. 31.

Pandora: Mackaness, Bligh, pp. 190–208; Currey, pp. 29–31.

Shipped to Batavia: Memorandums; Currey, pp. 31, 32.

Chapter Twenty-six


The Irish: Collins, vol. I, p. 141; Hunter in Phillip, p. 366.

Millennial dreams: Atkinson, pp. 249–51; Thomas Keneally, The Great Shame, pp. 12, 13.

Going to China: Collins, vol. I, pp. 154, 155; Tench, pp. 243, 244; Phillip in Hunter, pp. 333, 372; Atkinson, pp. 248–50.

Phillip addresses the Parramatta convicts: Collins, vol. I, p. 160; Phillip in Hunter, p. 373.

Tench visits “the Chinese Travellers”: Tench, p. 246.

Demonstration outside Government House, Parramatta: Atkinson, p. 248; Collins, vol. I, p. 160.

Devereaux and Kelly: ADB, vol. II, under Kelly; Portia Robinson, The Hatch and Brood, pp. 237, 250, 253; Molony, 73–74.

Transports go whaling: Bateson, p. 139; Phillip in Hunter, pp. 368–71, 373, 375; Tench, pp. 298–300; Collins, vol. I, pp. 151, 152, 155, 156, 158, 159.

William Richards's dream: Byrne, Blackheath Connection, chap. 40.

Tench's opinion on commercial desirability of New South Wales: Tench, p. 74.

Offers to marines to remain: Collins, p. 105; Easty, pp. 134, 135.

Tench's opinion on marines' motives for staying: Tench, p. 245.

Tench's reconnaissance: Tench, pp. 246–59.

Ramsay and Leary: Tench, p. 253.

Bishop: Tench, p. 253.

Everingham: Tench, pp. 253, 254.

Rymes: Tench, p. 254.

Schaeffer: Tench, pp. 254, 255.

Magee: Tench, p. 256; Collins, vol. I, pp. 314–16.

McCabe drowned: Collins, vol. I, p. 243.

Tench visits Barrington: Tench, pp. 257, 258.

Populations of Sydney, Parramatta, and Norfolk Island: Tench, p. 259.

Ross boards the Gorgon: Collins, vol. I, p. 159; Tench, p. 259.

Duel with Captain Hill: Cobley, 1791–1792, p. 190.

Ross's post-colonial life: ADB, vol. II, alphabetical listing.

Departure of the Gorgon: Collins, vol. I, pp. 159, 199; Phillip in Hunter, p. 375.

Bryant deaths in Batavia: Memorandums; Currey, p. 33.

Edwards charters ships for Cape: Memorandums, Currey, p. 34; Mackaness, Bligh, p. 208.

Chapter Twenty-seven


Hatchet men (Mogogal): See Tench, Phillip, and Collins for recurrent requests for hatchets (for example, Tench, pp. 176, 177, 188); Collins, vol. I, p. 510.

Barangaroo: Collins, vol. I, p. 464; Phillip in Hunter, p. 360.

Yuringa: Collins, vol. I, p. 464.

Barangaroo gives birth: Collins, vol. I, pp. 465, 466.

Death of Barangaroo: Collins, vol. I, pp. 490, 499, 500.

Bennelong summons Willemering: Collins, vol. I, p. 490.

Barangaroo's cremation: Collins, vol. I, pp. 502, 503.

Collins observes no acts of hostility: Collins, vol. I, p. 174.

Confrontation between Sydney and Botany Bay natives, April 1791: Collins, vol. I, p. 490.

Corroboree at head of the stream: Collins, vol. I, p. 491.

Ritual wounding: Collins, vol. I, pp. 489, 490.

Killing by Noorooing: Collins, vol. I, pp. 460, 488, 489.

Death of Yuringa: Collins, vol. I, p. 405.

Mrs. Macarthur: Elizabeth Macarthur, The Journal and Letters of Elizabeth Macarthur, 1787–1798, booklet.

Colby's burial of wife and child: Collins, vol. I, p. 504.

Pemulwuy's resistance: Tench (under Pimelwi), pp. 210, 211; Collins (under Pemulwy), vol. I, pp. 118, 371.

Lieutenant Dawes's translation of damunalung: Smith, p. 156; Dawes Papers, ML.

A skull for Sir Joseph Banks: Phillip to Banks, 26 March 1791, A81, ML.

Blumenbach: John Gasgoigne, Joseph Banks and the English Enlightenment: Useful Knowledge and Polite Culture, pp. 149–159.

Chapter Twenty-eight


Pitt: Bateson, pp. 139–41.

Women convicts on Pitt: p. 141; Collins, vol. I, p. 170.

Illness on board: Collins, pp. 168–70.

Major Grose: ADB, vol. I, alphabetical listing; Collins, vol. I, pp. 96, 167.

Arrival of Pitt: Bateson, p. 142; Collins, p. 167.

Ships' officers set up store ashore: Collins, vol. I, p. 168.

Grose reacts to Sydney Cove and Parramatta: HRA, vol. I, pt. II, pp. 2–4.

Death and burial rate: Collins, vol. I, p. 170; Phillip in Hunter, pp. 371, 372; Cobley for March, April 1792 in 1791–1792.

Fifty-two further land grants: Phillip in Hunter, pp. 355, 356.

Phillip to Dundas: HRA, Series I, vol. I, p. 377.

Henry Dundas: Brady, pp. 249, 250; C. M. H. Clark, vol. I, pp. 127, 128.

Continued death: Collins, pp. 165, 167, 168.

A teacher and a parson for Norfolk Island: Collins, vol. I, p. 162.

Johnson's household: Bonwick, p. 88.

But lack of a glebe: Bonwick, p. 89.

Holding services in a boathouse or in the open: Bonwick, pp. 89, 90.

Further burials: Cobley, for May, June 1792, 1791–1792; Collins, vol. I, p. 175.

Survivors of the Bryant party transferred to Gorgon: Tench, pp. 219, 220; Currey, p. 34.

Deaths of marines' children between Cape Town and England: Clark, pp. 233, 234; Scott, pp. 76–82.

Death of Charlotte Bryant: Clark, p. 234.

Arrival in Portsmouth: Currey, p. 36.

Bryant party sent to Newgate: Frederick A. Pottle, Boswell and the Girl from Botany Bay, p. 24.

James Boswell's involvement: Frank Brady, James Boswell, pp. 464–66; also Pottle; Currey, pp. 38–46.

Other members of Bryant party released: Currey, p. 46.

John Butcher (Samuel Broome) returns to New South Wales: Currey, pp. 46, 47.

Mary Bryant goes home: Currey, p. 44.

Parsons's poem: Brady, pp. 465, 466.

Leaves from Botany Bay: Brady, pp. 572, 573.

Chapter Twenty-nine


Attempted escape on Pitt: Collins, vol. I, p. 170.

Surgeon Atkins on continued hunger: Richard Atkins, Journal, 1792–1810, typescript copy ML, original NL.

Maize, and grinding it: Collins, vol. I, p. 176.

Shortage of rations, May 1792: Collins, vol. I, pp. 175, 176.

New fishery for use of sick: Collins, vol. I, p. 175.

Nature of scurvy, and thefts: Collins, vol. I, pp. 176–78.

Atkins: ADB, vol. I, alphabetical listing; Atkins, Journal, photocopy, ML MSS 737–1.

Diminishing returns: Collins, vol. I, p. 170.

Burton: Phillip to Dundas, 5 April 1792, HRA, Series I, vol. I, pp. 936, 937.

Burton's death: ADB, vol. I, alphabetical listing; Collins, vol. I, p. 171.

Arrival of Atlantic and its provisions: Collins, vol. I, pp. 184, 185.

Inadequacy of rations: Collins, vol. I, pp. 186, 187; Atkins, Journal, ML.

Mid-winter harvest: Atkins, as for previous note.

Phillip to Nepean: 26 June 1792, Cobley, 1791–1792, p. 275.

Discounting of bills: Cobley, 1791–1792, pp. 275, 276, 278.

Arrival of Britannia, and news of Captain Trail: Collins, vol. I, pp. 187–88.

Collins's optimism: Collins, vol. I, p. 188.

Goods of unmerchantable condition: Collins, vol. I, pp. 184, 185.

Nature of Indian supplies: Collins, vol. I, p. 191.

Emancipated convicts and Ingram: Collins, vol. I, pp. 193, 194.

Theft of urine-steeped corn: Atkins, Journal, ML.

Phillip to Dundas: 2 October 1792, HRA, Series I, pt. I, pp. 374–81.

Chapman on Phillip: HRNSW, vol. I, pt. I, p. 5.

Royal Admiral: Bateson, pp. 140, 141; Collins, vol. I, p. 199.

Convicts straight to Parramatta: Phillip in Hunter, p. 371.

Mary Reibey: ADB, vol. II, alphabetical listing; Robinson, Hatch and Brood, pp. 69, 72.

NSW Corps “takes up” Britannia: Collins, vol. I, p. 198.

NSW Corps expect land grants: Phillip to Dundas, 4 October 1792, HRA, Series I, vol. I, pp. 383, 384.

Shops and behaviour of settlers: Collins, vol. I, p. 202.

Kitty: Collins, vol. I, pp. 206, 307; Bateson, pp. 143, 144.

Phillip decides to travel on Atlantic: Collins, vol. I, p. 203.

State of the colony: Phillip in Hunter, p. 372; Collins, vol. I, p. 209.

Collins on settler morale: Collins, vol. I, p. 210.

Bushfire and harvest: Collins, vol. I, p. 210.

Livestock: as for previous note.

Ceremonial and departure: Collins, vol. I, p. 211; Easty, p. 142.

Bennelong and Yemmerrawanne: as for previous note.

Easty's assessment of colony and journey: Easty, pp. 144, 145, 156, 157, 162, 163.

Arrival in England: Easty, p. 174; Mackaness, Phillip; and Frost.



For all First Fleet convicts and personnel: see Gillen and Chapman, alphabetical listings.

For Second Fleet convicts: see Flynn, alphabetical listings.

There are ADB listings for the following: ADB, vol. I, George Barrington, Bennelong, James Bloodworth, David Collins; ADB, vol. II, Henry Kable, Philip Gidley King, Phillip Parker King, James Larra, Simeon Lord, Elizabeth Macarthur, John Macarthur, Mary and Thomas Reibey, James Ruse, Watkin Tench, James Underwood, Richard Johnson, Esther (Abrahams) Johnston, George Johnston, D'Arcy Wentworth, William Charles Wentworth.

For further information on Bennelong, other than sources already cited: see Isadore Brodsky, Bennelong Profile: Dreamtime Reveries of a Native of Sydney Cove.

For the Wentworth dynasty, see Ritchie's The Wentworths.

For the Macarthur dynasty, see Michael Duffy, Man of Honour: John Macarthur; and the much earlier (by half a century) M. H. Ellis, John Macarthur.

For first generation of Australians, see John Molony, The Native-Born, especially chaps. 1 and 2; and Portia Robinson, The Hatch and Brood of Time, a reassessment of the first generation of Australian-born.

For the best study of Phillip's last days, see Frost, Phillip; and George Mackaness's seventy-year-old study, Admiral Arthur Phillip.

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