Common section

NOTES

Abbreviations

ANC Ancient Planters. “A Breife Declaration of the Plantation of Virginia During the First Twelve Yeares.” In Journals of the House of Burgesses of Virginia 1619-1658/59, edited by H. R. McIlwaine. Richmond, VA: Colonial Press, 1915.

ARD William Shakespeare. The Tempest. The Arden Shakespeare. Edited by Virginia Mason Vaughan and Alden T. Vaughan. London: Thomson Learning, 1999.

BER Nathaniel Butler. The Historye of the Bermudaes or Summer Islands. Edited by J. Henry Lefroy. London: Hakluyt Society, 1882.

DIS Silvester Jourdain. A Discovery of the Barmudas, Otherwise Called the Ile of Divels. London: Roger Barnes, 1610.

EST Virginia Company of London. A True Declaration of the Estate of the Colonie in Virginia. London: William Barret, 1610.

FIR Philip L. Barbour, ed. The Jamestown Voyages Under the First Charter 1606-1609. 2 vols. London: Cambridge University Press for the Hakluyt Society, 1969.

GEN Alexander Brown, ed. The Genesis of the United States. 2 vols. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1890.

HIS William Strachey. The Historie of Travaile into Virginia Britannia. Edited by R. H. Major. London: Hakluyt Society, 1849.

NAR Edward Wright Haile, ed. Jamestown Narratives: Eyewitness Accounts of the Virginia Colony, The First Decade: 1607-1617. Champlain, VA: Roundhouse, 1998.

NEW David B. Quinn, ed. New American World: A Documentary History of North America to 1612. 5 vols. New York: Arno Press, 1979.

PIL Samuel Purchas, ed. Purchas His Pilgrimes. 4 vols. London: Henrie Fetherstone, 1625.

REL Mark Nicholls. “George Percy’s ‘Trewe Relacyon’: A Primary Source for the Jamestown Settlement.” Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 113, no. 3 (2005): 212-75.

SMI John Smith. The Complete Works of Captain John Smith (1580-1631). Edited by Philip L. Barbour. 3 vols. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1986.

TRU Virginia Company of London. A True and Sincere Declaration of the Purpose and Ends of the Plantation Begun in Virginia. London: J. Stepneth, 1610.

VOY Louis B. Wright, ed. A Voyage to Virginia in 1609, Two Narratives: Strachey’s “True Reportory” and Jourdain’s “Discovery of the Bermudas.” Charlottesville: Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities by the University Press of Virginia, 1964.

In A Brave Vessel I have modernized spelling, punctuation, and capitalization in quotations, with the exception of those from Shakespeare that follow the latest Arden editions. Citations of original works are followed by parenthetical references to the same material in recent documentary editions. Publications that do not have numbered pages are cited with supplied page numbers in brackets.

In the seventeenth century, Britain had not yet recalibrated the flawed “old-style” calendar, and to maintain the integrity of the original documents I have retained those dates. Therefore, every date cited is ten days behind the modern one. The only element of the old-style system that I have modernized is the date on which the year began (in seventeenth-century Britain the year began on March 25, but I have pushed the date back to the modern January 1). By 1609, Spain and the Netherlands had switched to the modern calendar, and so documents from those countries already carry new-style dates. To minimize confusion, those new-style dates are not cited in the text, and passages from those documents are silently placed at the appropriate points within the old-style timeline. Brown in GEN altered the dates of British documents to new style, and I have silently brought those dates back into sync with the old-style dates written on the originals.

Strachey in HIS copied without attribution long passages from the works of John Smith, and Smith himself appropriated passages written by other chroniclers. I have attempted to attribute quotations from the works of Strachey and Smith to the people who originally made them.

Chapter One

“Thou hast howled”: 1.2.296, ARD, 170. Strachey’s biography: Culliford, Strachey , 4-5, 22-38, 47-55, 57-60, 67; Sanders, Family, 10-27; Dorman, Purse, 3:251- 57; NAR, 62-63; GEN, 2:1024; Wood, “Strachey”; Sheehan, “Strachey.” Sejanus publication: Stationers’ Company, Registers, 3:201. “Nothing violent,” “swift lightning,” “ruinous blasts”: Jonson, Sejanus [11]. “My old companion”: Foster, Elegy, 288. Trip to Turkey, “one Strachey”: Culliford, Strachey, 61-96 (quotation: 93).

“Vaunt-courier,” “hurricano”: 3.2.2, 3.2.5, Shakespeare, King Lear (Arden, 2001), 263. Ashe, “Strachey,” 509-11, proposes that Shakespeare used Strachey’s sonnet in King Lear. Scholars continue to debate the question because it is uncertain whether Shakespeare’s play came before or after the May 1605 publication of his main source, the earlier anonymous play King Leir. Knowles, “King Leir,” 12-35, makes a compelling case that Shakespeare was inspired by the published version rather than an earlier direct knowledge of the play, and I have proceeded on that basis. Also considering the question are Foster, Elegy, 287 (accepts Shakespeare’s use of Strachey); Taylor, “Source” (argues the playwright used additional post-May 1605 texts); Greenblatt, “King Lear” (notes general agreement on a post-May 1605 date for King Lear); Muir in Shakespeare, King Lear(Arden, 1972), xx-xxi (argues Shakespeare was first and Strachey copied King Lear); Kermode, “King Lear,” 1297-98 (agrees that Strachey copied Shakespeare but says the evidence is not strong); Wells in Shakespeare, King Lear (Oxford), 14 (argues that the resemblance between the sonnet and the play is coincidental).

Origin of “hurricane”: Emanuel, Divine, 18. Strachey familiar with Willes: Culliford, Strachey, 167-71. Strachey quotes Willes: PIL, 4:1738-41, (NAR, 391-92, 395, 396, 398, 400-401). “In time when”: Willes, Travayle, 434 (verso), 435 (verso). “When we came in”: Hakluyt, Navigations, 3:493.

Namontack overview: Vaughan, Transatlantic, 45-51, 276-78. While no document states that Strachey saw Namontack in London, Strachey’s interest in Virginia and Namontack’s notoriety make it likely that he did. Wahunsenacawh, Powhatan, and Tsenacomoco: HIS, 29, 47, 48 (NAR, 598, 613-14). I follow Rountree, Pocahontas, Powhatan, when spelling Powhatan words. Tsenacomoco population: Fausz, “Powhatan.” “Trusty servant”: SMI, 1:216. Namontack’s first encounters: SMI, 1:63, 67, 91, 216, 240, 2:187, 290. Namontack’s 1608 trip abroad: NAR, 451; SMI, 1:236-37, 2:183-84. “This Newport brought”: FIR, 1:163 (in translation). Powhatan hairstyles, “some have chains,” “I found not”: NAR, 122-23. “Had gone naked”: Crashaw, Sermon [39]. Plague symptoms and care: Aberth, Brink, 111, 118, 121-22. Epidemic dates: Bradbrook, Shakespeare, 207, 250.

“My good friend,” “I dare boldly”: Culliford, Strachey, 93. Countess of Bedford’s patronage of Donne: Lawson, Shadows, 74, 86-111; Thomson, “Donne,” 329-40; Stubbs, Donne, 221-24, 240-47, 300-306. “My Lady Bedford,” “the best lady”: Stubbs, Donne, 224, 241. No document states that Strachey visited the countess, but he surely did if she was the recipient of his Bermuda letter to the “Excellent Lady.” See chapter eight notes below. Publicity drive unprecedented: Skura, “Discourse,” 55; Linebaugh and Rediker, Hydra, 15; Fitzmaurice, Humanism , 63-64, and “Solution,” 43-44, 47. “They have collected”: FIR, 2:256. Virginia Company’s early success: Fausz, “Blood,” 29. “News here”: FIR, 1:247. Donne’s Virginia inquiry: Culliford, Strachey, 101; Lawson, Shadows, 107; Cooper, “Donne.” Donne’s earlier expeditions: Stubbs, Donne, 47-79. Matthew Scrivener appointed Jamestown secretary: Culliford, Strachey, 102-3.

Strachey’s acquisition of two shares Virginia Company stock: Culliford, Strachey, 101-2; NAR, 63. While Culliford proposes Strachey purchased shares, his agreement to travel abroad would have entitled him to a single share, and his elevated social status would have brought him additional value. Thus, he probably acquired them simply by signing on. Stock terms: Johnson, Nova [26]-[30] (NEW, 245-46). Present-day value: Officer, “Purchasing Power.” Appearance of certificate: Quinn, “Pious,” 553. Strachey kept a journal: Culliford, Strachey, 123, 185; Wright and Freund in Strachey, Historie of Travell (1953), xv.

Newport’s January 1609 return to England: FIR, 1:246-47; SMI, 1:127. “The kind reception” and Namontack’s return to England: NAR, 450-51. If Namontack rode home on the Sea Venture in May 1609, then he surely came to England with Newport on the only known voyage from Virginia in the winter of 1608 to 1609. The question of whether Namontack and Machumps were aboard the Sea Venture has long been a subject of inquiry, most comprehensively by Vaughan in Transatlantic. Two widely cited accounts place Namontack on the ship: John Smith in his 1624 General Historie in SMI, 2:350, claims Machumps murdered Namontack on Bermuda, and Purchas in 1625 referred to the alleged murder in PIL, 4:1771 (probably echoing Smith). Undermining Smith and Purchas (neither of whom were on the Sea Venture) is the fact that the Powhatans were not mentioned by anyone who was on board, most notably Strachey, who includes no Powhatan in a list of five people who died on Bermuda in PIL, 4:1746 (NAR, 413). What seems to be additional evidence against their claim is that in later writings Strachey mentions both Namontack (in a prevoyage context) and Machumps without stating that he had sailed with them. Smith was known to publish hearsay as fact, and the fifteen-year gap between the Bermuda sojourn and his claim suggests he may have been doing so in this case. Smith’s macabre report seems more like an English cartoon of Powhatan behavior than a true account. Likewise, it seems unlikely that the English would not have punished Machumps if (as Smith alleges) he told them of the murder after his return to Virginia.

Despite the above evidence, an overlooked third record by a contemporary Dutch writer makes it clear that Namontack and Machumps were indeed on the Sea Venture and that the English did indeed believe that Machumps murdered Namontack on Bermuda. The passage appears in Dutch in Van Meteren’s posthumous 1614 edition of Historie der Neder-landscher, portions of which Parker translates in Van Meteren’s. In a passage on 66-67, 71, Van Meteren relays information provided by Gates in 1610 (whether directly from Gates or through an intermediary is unclear): “During all this time they lost only four men, of whom one was a casicke, or son of a king in Virginia who had been in England and who had been killed by an Indian, his own servant.” Linebaugh and Rediker note this account in Hydra, 12, 356, without elaborating on its significance to this debate.

An additional overlooked clue further strengthens the case that Powhatans sailed on the Sea Venture. Strachey in PIL, 4:1741-47 (NAR, 400, 416), states that two canoes were in use on Bermuda. Though the English castaways built a small boat of European design on the island, as noted by Strachey in PIL, 4:1740 (NAR, 397), and Jourdain in DIS, 12-13 (VOY, 110), shipwrecked Englishmen whose labor was at a premium would surely not have experimented with the construction of dugout canoes of New World design. A pair of stranded Powhatans, however, with ample time, fire, and lumber and a pressing need to fish would almost certainly have done so. Thus, Strachey’s mention of canoes on Bermuda constitutes significant circumstantial evidence that Powhatans were present.

Newport’s presence on the Sea Venture also enhances the likelihood that Namontack was on board. Namontack guided Newport in Virginia, and Newport chaperoned Namontack on his first trip to England. Newport was at the helm of the ship that probably carried Namontack abroad a second time; it is likely the Powhatan envoy would have returned home with the same captain.

There are two post-Sea Venture references to Namontack, but neither indicates that he was living at the time. Strachey, in his one comment about him, in HIS, 131 (NAR, 687), notes that mines discovered by Namontack in 1608 were named for him. The other allusion is in a May 1614 account of a conversation between colonist Hamor and Wahunsenacawh in Hamor’s Discourse, 38 (NAR, 831) (the same exchange is recounted in SMI, 2:248). The Powhatan leader told Hamor that he had sent Namontack into England (for a second time) and that many ships had returned without him. Hamor revealed nothing about Namontack’s disappearance, undoubtedly for tactical reasons. The exchange suggests that when Machumps returned to Virginia without his companion he told Wahunsenacawh that Namontack had stayed behind in England.

A 1630 English narrative in NAR, 245, complicates the matter by mentioning a Powhatan traveler to England identified as “Nanawack,” who is said to have come to England when Delaware was colonial governor (between June 1610 and March 1611), stayed “a year or two” and died in England. Despite the similarity in the names Nanawack and Namontack, the strength of the Van Meteren evidence forces the conclusion that either Nanawack was a different man or the account is a distorted version of Namontack’s story. Vaughan, Transatlantic, 51-52, 278, argues that they were different people.

Machumps is mentioned as alive after the Sea Venture wreck by Strachey in HIS, 26, 54, 94 (NAR, 596, 619-20, 655). In one case, Strachey states that Machumps spent time in England, a significant point, since there were few opportunities for him to go abroad and return unless he rode the Sea Venture. Whitaker in NAR, 550, makes the last known allusion to Machumps in August 1611.

The most significant obstacle to the claim that Namontack and Machumps were on Bermuda is the absence of English prosecution of Machumps’s alleged murder of Namontack. Crimes by Powhatans living among the English would likely have been prosecuted under English law. In light of this, I have depicted Namontack as disappearing on Bermuda, Machumps (whether innocent or guilty) claiming ignorance of his companion’s fate, Gates assuming foul play but lacking evidence of a crime, and in 1624 John Smith (or one of his reporters) exaggerating details of Namontack’s presumed death (perhaps confusing it with that of Samuel, who was murdered on the island by a fellow sailor). An enticing but speculative possibility is that whoever provided the bloody portrait of Machumps conflated the biography of the Powhatan castaway and Shakespeare’s portrait of the fictional and monstrous Caliban.

Virtually all scholars to date who have addressed the question of Namontack ’s and Machumps’s presence on the Sea Venture have been aware only of the Smith and Purchas passages. They include Malone, Account, 3-4 (published in 1808); Rountree and Turner, Before, 81 (accept Smith’s statement); Horn, Land, 144 (places Machumps on the Sea Venture without mention of murder); Kelso, Buried, 36 (dates Namontack’s death as 1610 without comment); and Vaughan, Transatlantic, 45-51, 276-78 (expresses doubt about Smith’s story). The question must now be reevaluated in light of Linebaugh and Rediker’s notice of the Van Meteren passage in Hydra and the overlooked circumstantial evidence of the presence of canoes, which together erase reasonable doubt that the Powhatan emissaries were on the Sea Venture.

Stracheys’ Crowhurst residency: Culliford, Strachey, 32-33, 59. Household items described: Picard, Elizabeth’s, 60-63, 127-31, 144-47. Items carried by colonists: Hughes, Letter [10]; REL, 215-16. “For the comfort”: Hughes [10]. Writing implements described: Picard, Elizabeth’s, 198; Kelso, Buried, 189. Strachey carried the books by Willes and Acosta: Culliford, Strachey, 165-71. Copy of Willes signed and dated by Strachey: James, Dream, 202-3. “You all know”: Price, Sauls [44]. “The sickness increases”: Brown, Republic, 83.

Chapter Two

“Though fools”: 3.3.27, ARD, 236. Woolwich departure: Archer in PIL, 4:1733 (FIR, 2:279). Since Archer was on board, I have accepted his account over that of Londoner Powle, who claims a Blackwall departure in Quinn, “Pious,” 554. Woolwich description: Weinreb and Hibbert, London, 971. Carriage transport: Picard, Elizabeth’s, 31-35. Vessels’ names: PIL, 4:1733 (FIR, 2:280). The vessel called “Catch” was either named Catch or was a ketch. Given the prevalence of the ketch class, as noted in Baker, Vessels, 119-44, I have called it an unnamed ketch. Fleet makeup: PIL, 4:1733 (FIR, 2:279); PIL, 4:1734 (NAR, 383); DIS, 4 (VOY, 105). Five hundred colonists: TRU, 7 (NAR, 360); FIR, 2:255, 276; SMI, 2:219; Bernhard, “Response,” 668. One hundred and sixty mariners: estimate based on Lavery, Merchantman, 24; Mainwaring, Dictionary, 183; Barbour, Pocahontas, 97; Gill, Plymouth: 1603, 7; Camfield, “Worms,” 654-55. The best formula is Lavery’s inferred adjusted average of one crewman for every 8.6 tons burden of a ship.

Prevalence of figureheads on ships like the Sea Venture: Lavery, Merchantman , 18-19. Sea Venture dimensions based on wreck: Wright, Story, 24, 27; Mardis, Wreck, 47-57. Three hundred tons burthen: PIL, 4:1747 (NAR, 415); Craven, “Hughes,” 75; BER, 11; Burrage, Lost, 3. Sea Venture a new ship: Stow, Annales (1615), 944. Wright, Story, 10; Raine, “Somers,” 91; Peterson, “Sea Venture,” 40-46, speculate about the origin of the Sea Venture based on records of vessels that shared the relatively common name. Wright proposes it was built in 1608 in Aldeburgh, England, based on Marsden, “Ships,” 331, 336-37, whereas Peterson suggests that it was a textile ship launched in 1603. Vessel design based on wreckage: Wingood, “Report” (1982), 335; Adams, “Report” (1985), 297. London departure date: PIL, 4:1733 (FIR, 2:279); Quinn, “Pious,” 554.

Early Jamestown: NAR, 3-38; Price, Love, 3-13. “We are fallen”: FIR, 1:108. Virginia Company second charter: NEW, 205-12; TRU, 6-7 (NAR, 360). Shift from royal control, mineral profits to king: FIR, 2:270, 272. Charter revision, expanded territory claim: FIR, 2:249-51. Ranks of expedition officers, plan for later expedition: Quinn, “Pious,” 554; FIR, 2:254-55; SMI, 1:268, 2:218. “Earthly paradise,” “ravished with,” “generally very loving,” “most winds”: Johnson, Nova [7]- [12] (NEW, 237-39).

“Petty commodities”: GEN, 1:205. Natural resources as true treasure: Johnson, Nova [17]-[20], [26]-[27] (NEW, 241-42, 245); HIS, 133 (NAR, 688-89); Rich, Newes [8] (NAR, 378); GEN, 1:384-86. Virginia commodities replace Eastern European goods: TRU, 4, 18 (NAR, 359, 367) (marginal note on TRU, 4, is not in NAR). List of goods sought in Virginia: GEN, 1:384-86. Glassmaking at Jamestown: PIL, 4:1756 (NAR, 437); Harrington, Glassmaking; Kelso, Buried, 51-52, 183. Wine making: HIS, 120 (NAR, 678-79). Virginia furs and the Council of Jamestown: NAR, 121, 450. Medicinal plants: FIR, 1:79, 162. “This little northern”: Johnson, Nova [27] (NEW, 245). Hunt for passage to East Indies: FIR, 1:81; Johnson, Nova [26] (NEW, 245); SMI, 1:49, 102, 165-66; HIS, 34, 104, 126 (NAR, 602, 665, 683). New World trade networks: Adams, Best, 33.

Preachers as promoters: FIR, 2:259; Wright, Religion, 84-114; Fitzmaurice, Humanism , 64; Horn, Land, 139; Knapp, Empire, 238-39. “If these objectors,” “certainly our objector”: Symonds, Sermon, 14-15. Analysis of Symonds’s sermon: HIS, 17 (NAR, 588). “As for supplanting,” “their children”: Johnson, Nova [13]-[14], [32] (NEW, 239, 247). “To handle them”: Neill, History, 28. Treatment of Powhatans compared to father’s discipline: Symonds, Sermon, 14; HIS, 17 (NAR, 588). Lack of extant publications attacking Virginia Company: M. Fuller, Voyages, 90; Skura, “Discourse,” 55. “Gold is more”: Chapman, Jonson, and Marston: Eastward [36].

“Three most worthy”: DIS, 3 (VOY, 105). Fleet officers’ ranks: TRU, 12 (NAR, 364). Gates contends in EST, 19-21 (NEW, 252), that the three leaders had permission to ride together. Barbour in SMI, 2:219, rightly questions John Smith’s 1624 statement that the three rode together because they “could not agree” to alternate ship assignments. The Virginia Company was disingenuous on the question of the three sealed boxes: in its instructions to Gates in NEW, 217-18, it says that the boxes should remain with him, but after the loss of the Sea Venture it says in TRU, 12 (NAR, 364), that they should have been placed on separate ships. Price, Love, 17, notes that on the first expedition to Jamestown similar boxes were carried on separate ships. Crashaw, NAR, 704, defends Gates’s actions.

Somers meets fleet in Plymouth: PIL, 4:1733 (FIR, 2:279); GEN, 1:320. Newport biography: Andrews, “Newport,” 28, 30-32, 37-38, 40; Quinn, “Newport”; Stow, Annales (1632), 1018; Ransome, “Newport,” 354. “A mariner”: SMI, 1:204. Whittingham is cape merchant: PIL, 4:1742 (NAR, 402). “Men of all”: SMI, 3:28. Sailors feared by colonists: Greenblatt, Shakespearean, 149, 196. “Persons of rank”: TRU, 12 (NAR, 364). “Their accustomed dainties”: SMI, 1:175-76. “Common people,” “hot bloods,” “gentlemen of quality,” “the idle,” “the better sort”: PIL, 4:1739, 1742-44 (NAR, 396, 402, 405, 407). Status of elite colonists: Canny, “Permissive,” 37; Kelso, Buried, 186. Virginia Company stock policy, “go in their persons,” “thither to remain”: Johnson, Nova [26]-[30] (NEW, 245-46). Lists of tradesmen wanted: TRU, 26 (NAR, 371); Johnson, Nova [25] (NEW, 244). Established tradesmen reluctant to go: Harrington, Glassmaking, 6. Guilds support Virginia enterprise: NEW, 206, 233-34. Enclosure of farmland: Linebaugh and Rediker, Hydra, 15-20. Population growth in England: Holland in Shakespeare, Tempest (Pelican), vii; Picard, Elizabeth’s, xxii; Adams, Best, 133-34. “Our land abounding”: Johnson, Nova [21]-[22] (NEW, 243). Virginia Company accepts indigent laborers: GEN, 1:252-53; Canny, “Permissive,” 25-27.

Chapter Three

“Calm seas”: 5.1.315, ARD, 284. Plymouth details: Gill, Plymouth: Ice, 196, 199, 202, 205, 211, and Plymouth: 1603, 10. “From Woolwich”: PIL, 4:1733 (FIR, 2:279). Somers with two vessels joins at Plymouth: Quinn, “Pious,” 554; PIL, 4:1733 (FIR, 2:279-80). History of the pinnace Virginia: Neill History, 30; GEN, 1:197; Evans, Shipping, 4. “Three score years,” “worthy and valiant”: DIS, 22 (VOY, 115-16). “A man very”: Stow, Annales (1632), 1018. “A gentleman”: PIL, 4:1735 (NAR, 383). “Sir George Somers”: T. Fuller, Worthies, 283. Somers’s biography: Darrell, “Admiral,” and Links, 4-6, 10. “Intending to pass”: Broadley, “Will,” 25. Matthew Somers on the SwallowPIL, 4:1733 (FIR, 2:280). Life in Plymouth: Gill, Plymouth: Ice, 198, 210, and Plymouth: 1603, 7-8. Names of officers: PIL, 4:1733 (FIR, 2:280). “Expert captains”: Stow, Annales(1632), 1018.

Number of people on Sea Venture (colonists and mariners): PIL, 4:1747 (NAR, 415); EST, 23 (NEW, 252); SMI, 1:268, 276, 2:219; NAR, 545; Craven, “Hughes,” 57 (claims 140); Stow, Annales (1615), 943 (claims 160). Elizabeth Persons on Sea VenturePIL, 4:1746 (NAR, 413). Rolfe biography: NAR, 55. Buck biography: Dorman, Purse, 1:427 (a flawed Buck biography in the 1987 3rd ed. of Purse was corrected in the 4th ed.); Chorley, “Planting,” 200. “An able”: NAR, 707. Hopkins biography: Johnson, “Origin,” 164-66, 169-70; Christensen, “Parentage,” 243-46. “A fellow”: PIL, 4:1744 (NAR, 406).

Ballast characteristics: Mainwaring, Dictionary, 92-93; Wingood, “Report” (1982), 335; Adams, “Report” (1985), 280, 282, 284; Bermuda Maritime Museum, “Sea Venture.” Cargo layout: Lavery, Merchantman, 88. Food storage: Mainwaring, Dictionary, 237; Bermuda Maritime Museum, “Sea Venture.” Cod bones found in wreck likely from Plymouth: Armitage, “Rats,” 145, 159. “Butter, cheese”: Strachey, For the Colony (1612), 9 (1969 ed., 16). Food on voyages, “the juice of lemons,” “suckets,” “comfits”: SMI, 3:28-29. Devonshire pottery in wreck: Wingood, “Report” (1982), 341, and “Artefacts,” 151; Bermuda Maritime Museum, “Sea Venture.” Chinese porcelain: Wingood, “Report” (1982), 341, 344. German casting counter: Wingood, “Artefacts,” 156. Bartmann bottles and Spanish olive jars: Wingood, “Report” (1982), 341-42; Bermuda Maritime Museum, “Sea Venture.” Other items found in wreck: Wingood, “Report” (1982), 337, 341-45, and “Artefacts,” 151-55; Adams, “Report” (1985), 279, 281. “Quarter cans”: SMI, 3:15-17.

“Many oxen,” “a number”: FIR, 1:212. “Some stallions,” “bucks,” “hogs”: FIR, 2:277. Hogs and dog on Sea VenturePIL, 4:1741 (NAR, 399-400). Pens on deck and bones of cows (carried as beef), hogs, sheep, cat, and rats in wreck: Armitage, “Rats,” 145-46, 148-49, 152, 157, and “Victuals,” 8-10. Sea Venture dog: Rich, Newes [4] (NAR, 375). Dog bones found at Jamestown: Kelso, Buried, 92-93. Sea Venture guns: Mardis, Wreck, 29; Wingood, “Report” (1982), 334-35, 339-41, and “Artefacts,” 149-51; Bermuda Maritime Museum, “Sea Venture.” Weights of guns:SMI, 3:26, 109. Duties of cape merchants: SMI, 3:15, 83. “Some superstitious”: Mainwaring, Dictionary, 163. Sleeping arrangements: Lavery, Merchantman, 24-26, 82-85; Baker, Vessels, 20, 42; Mainwaring, Dictionary, 86-87, 138-39, 253-54; Price, Love, 16.

“The coming hither,” “Sir George”: GEN, 1:320. Second charter dated May 23, 1609: NEW, 205-12. Gates at charter signing May 29: GEN, 1:316-18. Treaties between Britain, Spain, Netherlands: Davenport, Treaties, 246, 258. Delay in departure of fleet: FIR, 1:212. Expedition held back to allow soldiers to join: FIR, 2:255, 258-59, 261. “A grave”: Stow, Annales (1632), 1018. “Very remarkable”: FIR, 2:255. Gates’s biography: Prince, Devon, 403-5; Horn, Land, 132-33; SMI, 1:xxxv; NAR, 46-47; GEN, 2:894-96. Gates stopped at Roanoke: Sheehan “Gates,” 792. Gates’s military record: FIR, 1:235, 2:277.

“Upon Friday”: PIL, 4:1734 (NAR, 383). “Crossed by”: PIL, 4:1733 (FIR, 2:279). Departure of fleet: TRU, 12 (NAR, 364); SMI, 1:127. Procedure when putting to sea, “yea, yea”: SMI, 3:17, 85. “God bless”: Stern, Powle, 142. “Kept in friendly”: PIL, 4:1734 (NAR, 383). Pinnace turns around: PIL, 4:1733 (FIR, 2:280). Returning pinnace is Virginia: Horn, Land, 305. Pierce family separated: Dorman, Purse, 1:30, 31, 2:797-800, 3:24. “A quarter can,” “a dish,” “a little poor,” “the men leap”: SMI, 3:86, 92, 113. Use of gallery balconies: Bermuda Maritime Museum, “Sea Venture”; Lavery, Merchantman, 19. Smoking pipes: Wingood, “Artefacts,” 152; Bermuda Maritime Museum, “Sea Venture”; Kelso, Buried, 88-89. Ships’ heads: Lavery, Merchantman, 27.

“Prosperous winds”: REL, 243. Sea Venture route: C. Smith, “Course,” based on TRU, 12-13 (NAR, 364-65); EST, 19-21 (NEW, 252); PIL, 4:1733 (FIR, 2:281); PIL, 4:1734-35 (NAR, 383); DIS, 3-4 (VOY, 105); NAR, 453. Atlantic currents: Waters, Navigation, 2: plate 65. Wind science: Emanuel, Divine, 41-47. Log line: Mainwaring, Dictionary, 181-82. Meeting of officers at sea: TRU, 12-13 (NAR, 364); EST, 19-20 (NEW, 252); FIR, 2:277-78. Fleet advised to avoid Caribbean: NEW, 212. Instructions to meet at Barbuda if separated: TRU, 13 (NAR, 364). Archer in PIL, 4:1733 (FIR, 2:280), claims Bermuda was the rendezvous spot, but FIR editor Barbour shows that Archer was surely in error: Bermuda was off course, surrounded by dangerous shallows, and feared as the “Devil’s Isle,” while Barbuda was near the planned route and unclaimed by the Spanish. “We ran,” “tracing through”: PIL, 4:1733-34 (FIR, 2:280-81). Diseases on tropical voyages: TRU, 13 (NAR, 364); EST, 19-21 (NEW, 252); NEW, 287. “In all hot”: Mainwaring, Dictionary , 91-92, 191. Calenture is heatstroke: Barbour, Three, 272. “But in the Blessing,” “in the Unity”: PIL, 4:1733-34 (FIR, 2:280-81).

Chapter Four

“Ride on the curled”: 1.2.191-92, ARD, 162. C. Smith, “Course,” estimates that when the hurricane struck the Sea Venture was at a point 500 to 600 nautical miles (or 575 to 690 land, or statute, miles) southeast of Virginia and 240 to 300 nautical miles (or 275 to 345 statute miles) southwest of Bermuda, which places it at roughly latitude thirty degrees north, longitude sixty-eight degrees west. At onset of storm Sea Venture seven or eight days from Virginia: PIL, 4:1735 (NAR, 383-84). At onset, ship 100 leagues (300 nautical miles, or 345 statute miles) from Bermuda: NAR, 445. At onset, fleet 150 leagues (450 nautical miles or 520 statute miles) from West Indies: TRU, 13 (NAR, 364). At onset, vessels at latitude thirty degrees north: Stow, Annales (1615), 943. At onset, fleet at latitude of Azores (which span thirty-six to thirty-nine degrees north): BER, 11.

Identifying the date on which the storm began is complicated by the chroniclers’ reference to St. James Day. Strachey in PIL, 4:1734-36 (the punctuation is altered in NAR, 383-84, 387), says the ships “unto the twenty-three of July, kept in friendly consort together” and, a few lines later, “When on S. James his day, July 24. being Monday (preparing for no less all the black night before) the clouds gathering thick upon us” (the period after “24” marks the completion of the numeral rather than the end of a sentence). Strachey also says the leak was discovered “upon the Tuesday morning.” In another account Somers says the storm began “on St. James’ eve, being the 23 of July,” and adds later that the pumpers and bailers worked “from the 23 of until the 28 of the same July, being Friday” (National Archives of the United Kingdom, co 1/1, No. 21, 84-85; NAR, 445-46). Jourdain in DIS, 4 (VOY, 105), says the storm began “upon the five and twentieth day of July”; Archer in PIL, 4:1733 (FIR, 2:281), says it began “upon Saint James Day” without giving a date; the Virginia Company in TRU, 13 (NAR, 364), reiterates that it began “on S. Jamesday.” The designation of July 24 as St. James Day by Somers (and seemingly by Strachey as well) is difficult to explain. Chambers, Book of Days, 2:120-22, and Blackburn and Holford-Strevens, Oxford Book of Days, 306-7, indicate that St. James Day has been firmly anchored to July 25 for centuries. Numerous records of the early seventeenth century confirm that it was observed on July 25, perhaps none more definitively than accounts of the July 25, 1603, coronation of King James on the feast day of the monarch’s namesake saint, see for example Wilbraham, Journal, 61. Two instances have been found of St. James Day being marked on July 24: Baker, Records, 136 (a paraphrase of a 1584 agricultural journal), and Linschoten, Voyages, 179 (a 1598 travel account by a Dutch explorer). Those instances suggest some variability in the date of the feast day and may explain why Somers and Strachey apparently observed it on July 24, 1609. I have thus interpreted the Sea Venture sources to mean the following: the fleet was together until the evening of Sunday, July 23, when signs of a storm prompted preparations through that night; the hurricane hit on Monday, July 24; the leak was discovered early on Tuesday, July 25; and the storm lasted until Friday, July 28.

Lashing of guns: Lavery, Merchantman, 39, 119. “A dreadful storm”: PIL, 4:1735 (NAR, 384). Hurricane characteristics: PIL, 4:1735, 1737 (NAR, 384, 389); Smith, “Course.” African weather patterns spawning hurricanes: Emanuel, Divine , 98-100. Scattering of the fleet: EST, 34 (NEW, 255); PIL, 4:1733 (FIR, 2:281). Methods of towing small vessels: Harland, Seamanship, 207-8. Casting off of the ketch, “Michael Philes”: PIL, 4:1735, 1748 (NAR, 384, 418). I have used Strachey’s’s spelling of “Philes” instead of Archer’s “Fitch,” PIL, 4:1733 (FIR, 2:280). Thirty people on ketch: Bernhard, “Men,” 606, based on FIR, 2:283, and PIL, 4:1747 (NAR, 415). Daily rain production of hurricanes: Emanuel, Divine, 187. “It works upon,” “the sea swelled,” “the glut of water”: PIL, 4:1735 (NAR, 384-85).

Heavy-weather steering options: Mainwaring, Dictionary, 169, 179-80, 232, 249, 255; SMI, 3:88; Harland, Seamanship, 209-20. Somers’s decision to “run before” the storm or “spoon afore”: C. Smith, “Course,” based on Strachey’s statements that the wind came from northern points and Somers steered toward southern points, PIL, 4:1735, 1737 (NAR, 384, 389), and the stern (rather than the bow) of the ship was hit by a breaking sea, PIL, 4:1736 (NAR, 387). “Sir George Somers sitting”: DIS, 5-6 (VOY, 106).

Causes of leaks: Harland, Seamanship, 303. “It pleased God,” “this imparting,” “there might be seen”: PIL, 4:1735-36 (NAR, 386-87). Empty pots used to find leaks, traditional use of beef plugs, “in some cases”: Butler, Dialogues, 22-23; Mainwaring, Dictionary, 177. Candlestick found still wedged between boards of wreck: Wingood, “Report” (1982), 337, 343, 345. “Many a weeping leak”: PIL, 4:1736 (NAR, 386). Depth of water in hold: NAR, 445 (nine feet); Burrage, Lost, 3 (seven to eight feet). Keel most dangerous place for leak: Mainwaring, Dictionary , 154. “The waters still”: PIL, 4:1736 (NAR, 386-87). Improvised pump-intake strainer found in wreck: Wingood, “Artefacts,” 156. Pump technology: Harland, Seamanship, 304-5.

“To me this leakage,” “the men might”: PIL, 4:1736 (NAR, 387). Pierce family details: Dorman, Purse, 1:30, 31, 2:797-800, 3:24. Number, location, volume of pumps and bailing lines: PIL, 4:1737 (NAR, 390). Strachey’s “gallon” predates Britain’s imperial gallon and is roughly equivalent to today’s U.S. gallon. I have relied on Strachey’s count of three pumps over Somers’s use of two hash marks to indicate two pumps in NAR, 445. Pumping and bailing methods and technology: Mainwaring, Dictionary, 92, 203-4, 218, 229-30; Lavery, Merchantman, 22- 23. “We kept one hundred”: NAR, 445. “Sharp and cruel,” “with the violent”: DIS, 4 (VOY, 105). Lack of food during storm, “we much unrigged”: PIL, 4:1737 (NAR, 389-90). Wright, Story, 22, interprets Strachey’s “heaved away all our ordnance on the starboard side” to mean that all guns on the ship went over the starboard side, but guns remained on the ship, as indicated by Wingood, “Report” (1982), 334-35 (gun found at the wreck site); PIL, 4:1747 (NAR, 414) (guns from Sea Venture placed on Bermuda-built ships); BER, 26, 290, and SMI, 2:355, 387 (guns salvaged from Sea Venturewreck by Bermuda colonists). “Sometimes strikes”: PIL, 4:1735 (NAR, 385). Powhatan canoes carry forty people: HIS, 75 (NAR, 638-39). Sea Venture probably passed through eye of hurricane: Smith, “Course.” Characteristics of hurricane eyes: Emanuel, Divine, 8-13, 165; Elsner, Hurricanes, 3-4. Clouds block sun and stars from navigators, “for four and twenty,” “ran now”: PIL, 4:1735-37 (NAR, 385, 388-89).

Chapter Five

“We all were”: 2.1.251, ARD, 202. Remora story, “so huge a sea,” “it struck him,” “it so stunned”: PIL, 4:1736 (NAR, 387-88). Science of overtaking wave: Harland, Seamanship, 214-15. Canvas hatch covers: Baker, Vessels, 43. Sea Venture incident a rogue wave: Mountford, “Storms,” 22-23. Contemporary source for remora tale: Deacon and Walker, Discourses (1601), 204-5. “There was not,” “upon the Thursday,” “towards the morning,” “purposed to have cut,” “it being now Friday”: PIL, 4:1736-37 (NAR, 388-90). “They were so overwearied,” “some of them having”: DIS, 5-6 (VOY, 106-7).

Date and time of Bermuda landing, lack of food and drink during storm: PIL, 4:1737, 1747 (NAR, 390, 415); DIS, 5-6, 10-11 (VOY, 106, 109). “See the goodness,” “it being better surveyed”: PIL, 4:1737 (NAR, 390). “Most wishedly”: DIS, 6 (VOY, 106). Precolonial history of Bermuda: Jones, Bermuda, 10, 12, 14. Bermuda has most early shipwrecks in Western Hemisphere: Armitage, “Rats,” 155. Gates rather than Somers gives order to ground ship: PIL, 4:1737 (NAR, 390). Danger of overthrowing in shallows: Mainwaring: Dictionary, 194. Call for continued bailing, “hearing news”: DIS, 6-7 (VOY, 106-7).

“The morning now,” “we had somewhat”: PIL, 4:1737 (NAR, 390). “It pleased God”: DIS, 7 (VOY, 107). “The boatswain”: PIL, 4:1737 (NAR, 390). Dimensions of ship based on wreck: Wright, Story, 24, 27. “Neither did”: DIS, 7 (VOY, 107). Location of wreck: PIL, 4:1737 (NAR, 390); Wingood, “Report” (1982), 346. Single point of entry to Bermuda: PIL, 4:1739 (NAR, 394). Use of longboat and skiff: DIS, 7 (VOY, 107). Use of boats, description of bay, “under a point,” “a goodly bay”: PIL, 4:1737-40, 1747 (NAR, 390-91, 394, 397, 415). Commanding officer last to leave distressed ship: Harland, Seamanship, 310. “By the mercy”: PIL, 4:1737 (NAR, 390). Palmetto leaves as blankets: Jourdain, Plaine, 22; Collett, Plants, 78.

Chapter Six

“The still-vexed”: 1.2.229, ARD, 165 (editors Vaughan and Vaughan modernize “Bermoothes” to “Bermudas”). Temperate air of Bermuda: Burrage, Lost, 16- 17. “Gushings and soft”: PIL, 4:1740 (NAR, 396). Early history of Bermuda: Jones, Bermuda, 12, 14. “We found it,” “because they be”: PIL, 4:1737 (NAR, 390-91). “As they would shun,” “the islands of”: DIS, 8-9 (VOY, 108). Powell identification, “fens, marshes”: PIL, 4:1740, 1746 (NAR, 398, 413). Fear of contagion from marshes: Kupperman, “Climates,” 224. Tradition that well dug by castaways still exists as Lunn’s Well: Hayward, Bermuda, 177; Kennedy, Isle, 37, 258. “Drinks always sweet”: Hughes, Letter [6].

“We saved all”: NAR, 445. Salvage brought to island, “nothing but bared ribs”: PIL, 4:1741 (NAR, 399); DIS, 7-8 (VOY, 107); EST, 23 (NEW, 252). “Many kind of fishes”: DIS, 11-12 (VOY, 109-10). Fish caught near camp: PIL, 4:1740 (NAR, 396-98). Bermuda fish species: Hughes, Letter[6]. “We had knowledge,” “at night was watched,” Oviedo quoted on Spanish leaving hogs on Bermuda: PIL, 4:1738, 1741 (NAR, 391-92, 399-400). Diego Ramirez’s visit: Wilkinson, Adventurers, 22; Jones, Bermuda, 11, 16. Bermuda hogs compared to modern breeds: Armitage, “Rats,” 147. “Our people would go”: PIL, 4:1741 (NAR, 400).

Palmetto fronds described: Stamers-Smith, “Flora,” 120. “With these leaves,” “so broad are”: PIL, 4:1739 (NAR, 396). Consumption of palmetto berries and leaf heads: DIS, 15-16 (VOY, 112). “Roasting the palmetto,” “a kind of peas,” prickly pear description: PIL, 4:1739-40 (NAR, 396); HIS, 119 (NAR, 678). The Oxford English Dictionary says the first published use of “prickle pear” is EST (1610), 24 (NEW, 253). Bermuda a defensive stronghold: DIS, 17-18 (VOY, 113). “Desolate and not inhabited”: PIL, 4:1739 (NAR, 394). “The best of it was”: Beverly, History, 33. “They were long”: PIL, 4:1739 (NAR, 394). “They are here”: BER, 6. “Sir George Somers in” (with parenthetical aside silently omitted): PIL, 4:1739 (NAR, 394). “The mosquitoes”: BER, 6. “Whereas it is reported,” “no, nor any”: Jourdain, Plaine, 19. “My opinion sincerely”: DIS, 10 (VOY, 109). “I hope to deliver,” Samuel murder described, “disdain that justice,” “afterward by the mediation”: PIL, 4:1737-38, 1746 (NAR, 391, 412, 413).

Chapter Seven

“Had I plantation”: 2.1.144, ARD, 193. Migration of birds and insects, monthly temperatures: Amos, Birds, 18-19, 22, 23. “Many an ancient,” “a round blue”: PIL, 4:1739-40 (NAR, 396). Strachey’s blue berry is bay grape: Sterrer and Cavaliere, Seashore, 22-24. Palmetto bibby: Stamers-Smith, “Flora,” 119; Collett, Plants, 78. “The berries whereof”: PIL, 4:1739 (NAR, 395). Strachey’s “corynthes” are currants: Oxford English Dictionary. “There are an infinite”: DIS, 16 (VOY, 112). Tobacco found on Bermuda: DIS, 18 (VOY, 113); Stamers-Smith, “Flora,” 120. Olives and pawpaws introduced circa 1593: Collett Plants, 96. Mulberries and silkworms found: DIS, 15 (VOY, 111-12).

Summer food storage difficult: Jourdain, Plaine, 19. “Kept three or four”: PIL, 4:1740 (NAR, 397). Salt making on Bermuda: HIS, 61 (NAR, 626); DIS, 19 (VOY, 119); Craven, “Hughes,” 75-76. Volume of wood to make sea salt: LeConte, Salt, 10. Continuous fires: PIL, 4:1740 (NAR, 397). Spanish use of Bermuda cedar: Jones, Bermuda, 12. Size of largest cedars: Stamers-Smith, “Flora,” 117. Island-built gondola: DIS, 12-13 (VOY, 110). Gondola construction, “we have taken”: PIL, 4:1740 (NAR, 397). Strachey’s “gundall” and “skulles” are gondola and schools: Oxford English Dictionary. Canoes used on Bermuda: PIL, 4:1741, 1747 (NAR, 400, 416). Namontack and Machumps were on Bermuda: SMI, 2:350; Parker, Van Meteren’s, 67. I have assumed that only Powhatans would have exerted the time and effort necessary to construct canoes. Powhatan canoe construction and fishing: SMI, 1:163-64. “A kind of boat”: NAR, 494. “Enclosures made”: HIS, 68 (NAR, 633).

Typical length of longboats: Lavery, Merchantman, 23. Outfitting of longboat, pinnace construction, naming of Frobisher’s Building Bay, “a painful,” “we made up” (with a parenthetical aside silently omitted), “the twenty-eighth,” “promising if he”: PIL, 4:1740, 1742-43 (NAR, 397, 401-4). Frobisher’s Building Bay is universally identified with the modern Building Bay on St. George’s Island just north of Town Cut. The Somers map in the Bermuda Archives, however, places Frobisher’s Building Bay farther north, at a notch in the shoreline at the modern intersection of Coot Pond and Barry roads. That notch, however, is too small and its sides too steep (at least in its present configuration) to be used as a site for the construction of a pinnace. Also, Strachey’s description of fishing in Frobisher’s Building Bay seems to better match the configuration of the modern Building Bay. The persistence of the name on continuously occupied Bermuda is additional evidence that the two are one and the same. Therefore, despite the label on the map, I have located Frobisher’s Building Bay at the modern Building Bay. Date of laying of keel, pinnace specifications: PIL, 4:1746-47 (NAR, 413-15). Boat-building methods, “first lay the keel,” “the lengths”: SMI, 3:17-18, 57-58. “The governor dispensed”: PIL, 4:1743 (NAR, 403-4).

“I am persuaded,” “some dangerous,” “in Virginia nothing,” “there being neither” (with a parenthetical aside silently omitted), “a mutinous,” “they were condemned”: PIL, 4:1743 (NAR, 404-5). Mutineers’ desire to stay: BER, 13. Conflicting motivations of Gates and the mutineers: Greenblatt, Shakespearean, 151-53. Early autumn weather conditions: Amos, Birds, 25. “Our governor (not easy)”: PIL, 4:1743 (NAR, 406).

Strachey’s interviews with Machumps and other Powhatans (in Jamestown; there is no record of Bermuda interviews, but I have assumed they occurred): HIS, 26, 53-54, 94 (NAR, 596, 619-20, 655). Namontack’s knowledge of English: Vaughan, Transatlantic, 47. Strachey’s record of Powhatan words: HIS, 183-96; Strachey, Dictionary. Powhatan bows and hunting methods: Rountree, Powhatan Indians, 39-40, 42. Bermuda’s cave system: Sterrer and Iliffe, “Mesonerilla,” 509. “Some such differences”: SMI, 2:350. Smith, and Van Meteren in Parker, Van Meteren’s, 67, allege that Machumps murdered Namontack on Bermuda. Because there is no indication that the English punished Machumps, I have assumed that Namontack disappeared, the English were suspicious but could not prove murder, and the story of the disappearance was exaggerated by returning voyagers.

Chapter Eight

“’Twas a sweet”: 2.1.73 ARD, 189. Autumn weather conditions, cahow arrival and laying timetable: Amos, Birds, 25, 28, 31, 40. “At dusk, such”: Wilkinson, Adventurers, 23; Jones, Bermuda, 10, 16. “Birds Ilands” are labeled on the Somers map in the Bermuda Archives (now Cooper’s Island and Castle Islands nature reserves south of Bermuda International Airport). “A kind of web-footed,” “there are thousands”: PIL, 4:1740-41 (NAR, 398-99). Oviedo use of “sea-mew” (a possible source for Strachey): Jones, Bermuda, 13.

Naming of features, identifications of Gates Bay and Somers Creek, description (without naming) of Strachey’s Watch: PIL, 4:1738-39, 1742 (NAR, 391-92, 394, 402). Strachey’s Watch is named on the Somers map in the Bermuda Archives. Strachey’s Watch is probably the bluff where St. David’s Lighthouse now stands: Zuill, “Cast Away,” 55.

Somers’s mapping of Bermuda, “Sir George Somers, who coasted,” Strachey sending the map and a report to the “Excellent Lady”: PIL, 4:1738, 1742 (NAR, 391, 403). A map identified as Somers’s map is owned by the Bermuda National Trust and on deposit in the collection of the Bermuda Archives, and an incomplete duplicate of that map is in the British Library (Cotton Charter XIII.45). The outline of the island in the two versions differs minutely, as if one is a freehand copy of the other. The two versions share illustrations that also vary in small ways—a whale, a depiction of two hunters and a dog chasing hogs, a compass rose, and the Harrington family coat of arms. On the Bermuda Archives copy a cherub on the back of a sea turtle carries a banner identifying the Bermuda archipelago as the “Sumer Iles” (i.e., Summer or Somers Islands), a name not coined until 1612, evidence that dates the illustration to that year or later. The Bermuda Archives version also has unique labels that identify features of the Sea Venture era: Gates Bay, Frobisher’s Building Bay, Somers Creek, the Bird Islands, Strachey’s Watch, and Ravens Sound (the map is the only known source of the last two names). The named features closely match those described by Strachey, demonstrating that the author of the labels was familiar with the geography of the Sea Venture era. A complication is that while the notch of Frobisher’s Building Bay is accurately depicted on the map, the label naming it is placed too far north. Thus, it seems the author of the labels may have had a degraded memory or imperfect knowledge of the early geography of the island. Two other named features on the Bermuda Archives version, “Baylysses house” and “Waltons house,” certainly date to the settlement period following 1612. Wilkinson, Adventurers , plate facing 47, calls the Bermuda Archives document “an early map, probably a copy of Sir George Somers’s map.” While it is possible that both maps are copies of a lost original, a perhaps more likely scenario is that one of the two is the original (with added information of a later date) and one is a copy. Quinn, “Bermuda in the Age,” 22-23, suggests that the British Library map is more likely the original, but definitive evidence is lacking.

Both maps also carry the coat of arms of the Harrington family, as noted in the British Library catalog entry for Cotton Charter XIII.45; Wilkinson, Adventurers , plate facing 47; and Tucker, Bermuda Today and Yesterday, 35. As Wilkinson and Tucker note, the presence of the Harrington coat of arms on the maps suggests they were once owned by the daughter of the first Lord Harrington, Lucy, Countess of Bedford, and that therefore she was probably the anonymous “Excellent Lady” to whom Strachey sent the map and his report of the wreck. Wingood, Wingood, and Adams, Tempest Wreck, 10, and Rowse, Southampton, 239, also argue that the countess was Strachey’s “Excellent Lady” without noting the evidence of the coat of arms on the maps. The countess was a shareholder in the Virginia Company, a patron of the literary arts, close to Strachey’s friend John Donne, and later an owner of large landholdings on Bermuda (the island’s Harrington Sound was named after her). Those factors all support the identification of her as the likely recipient of Strachey’s letter. Furthermore, her continuing interest in Bermuda from the early years of the Virginia Company through the post-settlement era explains why a map in her possession would carry labels from both eras. The Countess of Bedford’s post-settlement real estate activities are described in Craven, “Introduction,” 338-40. Her friendship with Donne is detailed in Lawson Shadows, 74, 86-111; Thomson, “Donne”; Stubbs, Donne, 221-24, 240-47, 300-306. Several other “Excellent Lady” candidates have been proposed: Culliford, Strachey, 152-54, and Foster Elegy, 279, suggest she was Sara Blount Smith; Gayley, Shakespeare, 231-32, argues that she was Elizabeth Hume Howard.

Gayley, Shakespeare, 18-20, 70-76, recounts what is known about Strachey’s “True Reportory” manuscript, which is no longer extant. Noël Hume in “Unrecorded First Draft” proposes that a late nineteenth- or early-twentieth-century transcript discovered on Bermuda reflects the existence of a second variant of Strachey’s letter. My reading of the evidence is that the transcript is more likely a rough and selective transcription of the PIL text. Vaughan, “Evidence,” 256-59, agrees with Noël Hume.

The editor of PIL, 4:1738 (NAR, 391), in a 1625 marginal note next to Strachey’s discussion of Somers’s map, says “Sir George Summer’s diligent survey; his draught which we have not. M. Norgate hath since published an exact Map.” As editor, Wright notes in VOY, 17, the allusion to an “M. Norgate” map is likely a misspelled reference to “Mr.” Richard Norwood’s later map of Bermuda that was published in 1622.

Powell and Persons wedding: PIL, 4:1746 (NAR, 413); DIS, 17 (VOY, 113). English wedding traditions: Monger, Marriage, 34, 38, 46, 53, 98, 115, 293. “Amongst all those”: SMI, 2:349. “There is great”: DIS, 16-17 (VOY, 112). Pearls on Bermuda: PIL, 4:1738, 1745 (NAR, 393-94, 410). “In the bottom”: SMI, 2:341. “There is one”: Jourdain, Plaine, 21.

Strachey in PIL, 4:1742-43 (NAR, 403-4), and Jourdain in DIS, 13 (VOY, 110- 11), note the fractured relationship between Gates and Somers. Butler (who was not among the castaways) in BER, 14, followed by Smith, in SMI, 2:349, and Irving in Wolfert’s, 66, exaggerate the antagonism between the two leaders. I have followed Jones, Bermuda, 25, who characterizes the split as the two leaders “demonstrating traditional rivalry, Somers, the sailor, and Gates, the soldier.”

Indentured castaways fear abandonment, leaders communicate by letter, Communion on Christmas eve, “two moons ,” “the seven and twentieth,” “twenty of the ablest”: PIL, 4:1742, 1745-46 (NAR, 402-3, 410-13). No frost on Bermuda: Phillips-Watlington, Botanical, 15. Breakwater construction, “at Christmas,” “these islands are often,” “the three winter”: PIL, 4:1738, 1747 (NAR, 392-93, 414). Hopkins biography: Johnson, “Origin,” 164-66, 169-70; Christensen, “Parentage,” 243-46. Hopkins’s arguments justifying mutiny, “full of sorrow” “so penitent”: PIL, 4:1744 (NAR, 406-7).

Births of babies: PIL, 4:1746 (NAR, 413); DIS, 17 (VOY, 113); Rich, Newes [5] (NAR, 375); Hughes, Letter [4]; SMI, 2:349. Only married women assist with childbirth: Picard, Elizabeth’s, 182-83. Childbirth methods, “the time of delivery,” “sometimes the midwife,” “to give her women,” “the child being”: Sermon, Companion (1671), 92-95, 99-101, 106-8, 120. Sermon’s “mummy” is human remains used as medicine: Oxford English Dictionary. Cedar compress on cord stump: Stamers-Smith, “Flora,” 117; Collett, Plants, 57. “The eleventh”: PIL, 4:1746 (NAR, 413). “All intents and purposes”: NEW, 210. “Young children”: Hughes, Letter [7].

Cahows’ and hens’ eggs similar: PIL, 4:1741 (NAR, 399). Sea turtle nursery, average weight of green sea turtle: Bermuda Turtle Project, “Species.” Palmetto berry season, sea turtle hunting: PIL, 4:1741 (NAR, 400). Sea turtle hunting, “we take them,” “they will live,” “the flesh that cleaveth”: Burrage, Lost, 20, 22. Use of turtle oil: DIS, 15 (VOY, 111). Bermuda birds, “the mornings,” “fowl there”: PIL, 4:1738, 1740 (NAR, 393, 398).

Chapter Nine

“I do begin”: 4.1.220-21, ARD, 258. “Deadly and bloody,” “the life of our,” “pass the act,” “evil language,” “Paine replied,” “with the omitted,” “our governor who,” “whether mere rage,” “so weak and unworthy,” “of that ancient love,” “Sir George Somers did,” “of a mighty compass,” “the mightiest blast”: PIL, 4: 1738, 1744-46 (NAR, 393, 408-12). “A place heretofore”: Prince, Devon, 403-4. Death of Bermuda Rolfe, “the five and twentieth”: PIL, 4:1746 (NAR, 413). Pierce family information: Dorman, Purse, 1:30, 31, 2:797-800, 3:24.

Five hundred salted fish put on ships: PIL, 4:1740 (NAR, 397). Live turtles and salted birds, pork, and fish taken: Craven, “Hughes,” 75-76; BER, 14. Bermuda grouper, snapper, sea turtle, cahow, and pork remains in Jamestown digs: Kelso, Buried, 89-90; Bowen and Andrews, “Starving,” 48-50, 58-59, 72-73. “They come and lay,” “very fat and sweet”: DIS, 13 (VOY, 110-11). “Egg bird” described: BER, 4; SMI, 2:342. Egg bird probably common tern: Verrill, Bermuda, 254-56. Common tern described: Amos, Birds, 33. Spring weather, April humpback whale migration: Amos, Birds, 33. Whales seen and heard off shore: DIS, 17 (VOY, 112- 13). Strachey (citing Oviedo) on thresher and swordfish attacks on whales: PIL, 4:1740 (NAR, 398). Similar passages by Percy and an anonymous early colonist of Bermuda: NAR, 86; Jourdain, Plaine, 22. Barbour, “Honorable,” 10-11, proposes Strachey copied the passage from Percy, but the similarity is more likely due to the common use of Oviedo. Donne’s use of the same image in 1601: Donne, Poems, 188; Stubbs, Donne, 151-52. Historical confusion between swordfish and threshers and killer whales: Martin, “Thresher.” Tropic birds and pimlicos on Bermuda: BER, 4-5; SMI, 2:343. Tropic bird 'margin-bottom:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;text-align: justify;text-indent:12.0pt;line-height:normal'>Caulking of Bermuda vessels: PIL, 4:1746-47 (NAR, 414). Hull sealing methods: SMI, 3:66-67. Launch of Deliverance, vessel specifications, “when she began,” “the thirtieth of March,” “we launched her,” “the most part,” “her beams”: PIL, 4:1747 (NAR, 414-15). Deliverancespecifications: Hardy, Voyage [vi]; Sams, Conquest, 717-18. Bermuda limestone ballast in Jamestown digs: Kelso, Buried, 90, 107. “God in the”: DIS, 20 (VOY, 114). Launch of Patience, vessel specifications: PIL, 4:1747 (NAR, 415-16). Somers’s work on Patience, single bolt in vessel: DIS, 23 (VOY, 116). Frobisher’s inscription in Latin: Hardy, Voyage [vi]. Frobisher translated as “there was built”: Sams, Conquest, 717-18. “In memory of our” (memorial is no longer extant), “from this time,” “about ten of”: PIL, 4:1747-48 (NAR, 415-16).

Chapter Ten

“O brave new”: 5.1.183, ARD, 275. “Had it not been,” “we buried five”: PIL, 4:1746, 1748 (NAR, 413, 416-17). Rich, Newes [5] (NAR, 375), says two died, apparently understating the number to exactly offset the two births. Machumps suspected in Namontack’s disappearance: Parker, Van Meteren’s, 67; SMI, 2:350. Machumps circulated freely among the English after Namontack’s disappearance: HIS, 26, 54, 94 (NAR, 596, 619, 655); NAR, 550. “The body of ”: PIL, 4:1746 (NAR, 412).

Voyage to Virginia: PIL, 4:1748 (NAR, 417). Speed of pinnaces: Smith, “Course.” “The twentieth about”: PIL, 4:1748 (NAR, 417). “A well-bowed”: SMI, 3:64. “In the morning,” “about seven,” “the one and,” “being Monday”: PIL, 4:1748 (NAR, 417-18). “We espied two”: REL, 250. “The good news,” “from hence”: PIL, 4:1748 (NAR, 418-19). Soldiers at fort report famine: NAR, 445-46. Deep water off Jamestown: NAR, 94. Jamestown description: PIL, 4:1752-53 (NAR, 429-30). Sixty survived famine in Jamestown palisade: SMI, 1:275-76, 2:232; DIS, 20-21 (VOY, 114-15); ANC, 29; REL, 271. Twenty-five to forty more survived at Point Comfort fort: Bernhard, “Men,” 599, 612, 613; Camfield, “Worms,” 659. Two hundred forty-five total were reduced to ninety: Kelso, Buried, 90. Women were among the starving: Bernhard, “Men,” 614. “Great pain”: NEW, 210. “Sloth, riot,” “factionaries,” “their ignoble,” “no story can remember”: PIL, 4:1749 (NAR, 420). “Tempest of dissension”: EST, 34 (NEW, 255). “The happiest day”: Neill, History , 408.

Drought of 1606 to 1612: Blanton, “Drought,” 76, 77; Stahle, “Lost”; Fagan, Ice Age, 96-97; Kelso, Buried, 122-23, 178. Health problems caused by saltwater consumption: Earle, “Environment,” 99-105, 109-11, 116-17, 122-25; Price, Love, 48; Adams, Best, 164-67. “Had not now,” “true it is”: PIL, 4:1751, 1753 (NAR, 425, 430- 31). Concern about water quality: EST, 32-33, 42 (NEW, 254-55, 257). Mosquitoes at Jamestown: Noël Hume, Here Lies, 68-69. Health threats during drought: Rutman and Rutman, “Agues,” 33-34, 38, 50; Kupperman, “Apathy,” 24-25, 28- 34, 36 (prisoner of war comparison), and “Climates,” 213-14, 228-29, 231-33; Blanton, Medicine, 47-55, 62-69; Adams, Best, 164-67; Bernhard, “Men,” 605, 615, and “Bermuda,” 58-59; Price, Love, 55-56 (concentration camp comparison).

Reunited fleet disobeyed Gates’s Barbuda order: Glover and Smith, Shipwreck , 98. “The Unity,” “having cut her”: PIL, 4:1733-34 (FIR, 2:281, 282). “In the tail”: SMI, 2:219-20. “Houses few”: ANC, 29. Argall’s voyage to Jamestown: SMI, 1:267, 2:216-17; FIR, 2:285; Eaton, “Voyage”; Connor, “Argall,” 163-64. Wounding of John Smith, arrival of the Virginia, Smith’s departure for England: SMI, 1:128, 272-73, 2:223-25, 231-32; FIR, 2:253; REL, 245-46; TRU, 14 (NAR, 365); Bernhard, “Men,” 608-9; Brown, Republic, 109. “Sir Thomas Gates”: NEW, 287. Starving Time details, “famine beginning,” “to do those things”: REL, 247-51. Events during Jamestown famine: EST, 36-43 (NEW, 255-57); Neill, History, 408; ANC, 29; SMI, 2:232-33; Sainsbury, State Papers: Colonial, 1:39; FIR, 1:150; Fausz, “Blood,” 25-27.

Chapter Eleven

“Our royal”: 5.1.237, ARD, 279. Pierce family details: Dorman, Purse, 1:30, 31, 2:797-800, 3:24. Reuniting of the Pierces: Bernhard, “Men,” 616-17. “Our much-grieved”: PIL, 4:1748-49 (NAR, 419). “A homely thing”: SMI, 3:295. Church building details: Lounsbury, Church, 3-4. “Viewing the fort”: PIL, 4:1749 (NAR, 419). “Our governor Sir”: NAR, 446. “There was a general”: PIL, 4:1749-52 (NAR, 419- 27). “Every man glad”: ANC, 29. “Most of our men”: REL, 251. Careening of ships: Mainwaring, Dictionary, 117-19.

Gates’s posting of laws (an editor’s note not reprinted in NAR says they numbered 21): PIL, 4:1749 (NAR, 420). Flaherty in commentary in Strachey, For the Colony (1969), xvi, xviii, xxiii, argues that based on language style the first nineteen laws published later by Strachey may safely be attributed to Gates. Because the language of the nineteenth is ambiguous, I have attributed the first eighteen to him. Laws rooted in military code and more severe than civil law: Flaherty in Strachey, For the Colony (1969), ix, xv, xxvi-xxviii, xxxii; GEN, 2:529; Linebaugh and Rediker, Hydra, 18. “Have a bodkin,” “disgraceful words,” “tied head and feet,” “no man shall ravish”: Strachey, For the Colony (1612), 3, 5, 7 (1969 edition, 10-14).

Virginia departed in advance for Point Comfort: NAR, 456, 458. Date of departure, “he commanded,” “his own company”: PIL, 4:1752 (NAR, 427). “Quitted Jamestown”: ANC, 29. “About an hour”: PIL, 4:1752 (NAR, 427). Longboat meets Jamestown vessels: NAR, 458; EST, 45-46 (NEW, 257). Delaware in NAR, 466, says Gates intended to wait ten days at Point Comfort for Delaware’s fleet before leaving for Newfoundland. The contention lacks credibility, given Gates’s precarious food supply, and I have attributed it to an attempt by Delaware to deflect criticism from Gates for deciding to abandon the colony. Alternately, Kelso, Buried , 40, 91-92, notes that Point Comfort was rich in shellfish that could have sustained the colonists if they had waited there for Delaware.

Delaware expected to follow Gates fleet with a thousand people in nine ships: Brown, Republic, 101; GEN, 1:358. Delaware actually carried 150 colonists plus crew in three ships: NAR, 465; NEW, 219. Higher estimates of Delaware contingent: Rich, Newes [6] (NAR, 376) (170); ANC, 30 (250); REL, 251-52 (300). Names of Delaware’s ships: NAR, 454-55. “Made our hearts”: NAR, 446. “Revived all”: DIS, 21-22 (VOY, 115). “The great grief”: ANC, 30. I have reconciled conflicting statements about Gates’s location in PIL, 4:1752 (NAR, 427), and ANC, 30, by presuming that Gates sent most of his fleet back to Jamestown immediately and later rode the Virginia up river in convoy with Delaware’s ships. “It was seasoned”: NAR, 456.

Argall brought news of the loss of the Sea Venture to England by November 9, 1609: FIR, 2:285-86. “Were dashed”: FIR, 2:278. Ships lost off France, “they tell me”: FIR, 2:286, 289. “Unruly youths,” “vile and scandalous,” “color their own,” “cheer themselves,” “these devices infused,” “lascivious sons”: Virginia Company, Publication (GEN, 1:354-55). TRU registered for publication December 14, 1609: Barbour, Three, 284. Sea Venture wreck widely discussed in London: Bristol, Shakespeare, 63. “Ignorant rumor,” “we will call,” “is he fit,” “so small a root,” “blessed and unexpected,” “perhaps bound in,” “the loss of him,” “against some doubt”: TRU, 2, 5, 14, 15, 17 (NAR, 358-59, 365-67). “Some say that”: FIR, 2:288. “Loose, lewd,” “the very excrements,” “such fellows,” “let no wise man”: Crashaw, Sermon [38], [44]-[45]. Delaware’s voyage preparations: Quinn, “Pious,” 554. Departure date, number of ships and passengers: NAR, 465.

Chapter Twelve

“Savages and men”: 2.2.57, ARD, 210. Date of Delaware’s arrival in Jamestown, his entry into the palisade, newly appointed officers, “his lordship landing fell”: PIL, 4:1752, 1754 (NAR, 427, 432-33). The rank Strachey attributes to Scot, “ancient” (i.e., bearer of the ancient colors), is “ensign”: Oxford English Dictionary . Weynman is Delaware’s first cousin: Barbour, Pocahontas, 76. “I delivered some”: NAR, 458-59. Delaware’s report home: NAR, 454-64. Strachey calls recipient of his letter “Excellent Lady”: PIL, 4:1734, 1742, 1756 (NAR, 383, 402, 438). Recipient was likely Lucy Harrington, Countess of Bedford: Wilkinson, Adventurers , plate facing 47; Tucker, Bermuda Today and Yesterday, 35 (see full analysis above in notes to chapter eight).

“I set the sailors”: NAR, 466. Virginia Company thought colony had livestock: PIL, 4:1754 (NAR, 433). “I dispatched Sir”: NAR, 466-67. Somers’s departure date: NAR, 459-60. Silvester Jourdain in DIS, 23 (VOY, 116), gives the same date. “Now we are”: NAR, 446. Sheltering from a rainstorm, to sea June 23: NEW, 303. Butler’s contention in BER, 15, that Somers had a secret pact with the men left behind to return to Bermuda is not credible. Refurbishing of Jamestown: NAR, 466. “Pretty chapel,” “shall have a chancel”: PIL, 4:1752-53 (NAR, 429). Delaware brought four preachers: FIR, 2:279. Church schedule, “every Sunday when” (Strachey meant that the total number of gentlemen and halberdiers was fifty rather than that there were fifty halberdiers): PIL, 4:1753 (NAR, 429). Jamestown artifact cache probably dates to Delaware’s cleanup: Kelso, Buried, 101, 103.

Physical seasoning of colonists fresh from England: Kupperman, “Climates,” 215, 220, 232. Delaware’s illnesses, “presently after my,” “I was upon”: NEW, 263. Alleged fate of Ravens’s expedition, diplomatic emissaries, “Powhatan returned no”: PIL, 4:1748, 1755-56 (NAR, 418, 435-37). Negotiations with the Powhatans: REL, 253. Strawberries outside the palisade: FIR, 1:161. Colonists killed gathering strawberries, “certain Indians,” “now being startled”: PIL, 4:1755 (NAR, 434-35, 437). Strachey at Kecoughtan attack (I have presumed him to be at Jamestown unless explicit evidence places him outside the palisade): PIL, 4:1755 (NAR, 435). “Being landed he,” “fell in upon”: REL, 252. Kecoughtan attack, construction of English fort: ANC, 30; Fausz, “Blood,” 6, 32. Kecoughtan description, “many pretty copses,” “maracock apple” (editor Major identifies the maracock apple as the passionflower): HIS, 60 (NAR, 626-27). French vintners sent to Jamestown: EST, 58-59 (NEW, 260). “We proposed to set”: PIL, 4:1755 (NAR, 435). “Behold the goodly”: HIS, 120 (NAR, 678-79). Hostage’s hand severed: PIL, 4:1756 (NAR, 437); REL, 255.

Gates’s return to England: SMI, 1:277, 2:236. Returning ships are Blessing and HerculesGEN, 1:455. Delaware’s report home: NAR, 454-64. Capture of Tackonekintaco and Tangoit, “the Indians of Warraskoyack”: PIL, 4:1756 (NAR, 437- 38); HIS, 58-59 (NAR, 624-25). Analysis of Strachey’s conflicting accounts of the incident: Townsend, Pocahontas, 98-99, 196; Vaughan, Transatlantic, 51, 278. Percy’s attack on Paspahegh, participation of “Master Stacy”: SMI, 2:236. “Master Stacy” is Strachey: Culliford, Strachey, 121. “We fell in upon,” “my soldiers did,” “marching about fourteen,” “I replied that,” “although Captain Davis”: REL, 253-54.

Chapter Thirteen

“To see a dead”: 2.2.32, ARD, 208. Argall’s Sagadahoc expedition: NEW, 302-7. Argall’s return to Jamestown: REL, 252. Argall names Delaware Bay: Fausz, “Argall,” 588; Barbour, Pocahontas, 83. “Fell upon two”: HIS, 59 (NAR, 625). Warraskoyack raid description: REL, 254-55. Arrival of the DaintyANC, 30. Dainty left England soon after arrival of Swallow: GEN, 1:393; Brown, Republic , 125. “The Indians hold,” “thus it looks”: GEN, 1:392. Return of the Swallow, “these are that scum”: EST, 36-38 (NEW, 255-56). “My lord for an,” “the party being thrown”: REL, 255. Expedition upriver, conflict at Appomattox: HIS, 56 (NAR, 622); NAR, 521; ANC, 30; REL, 255-56; NEW, 301.

Argall’s Patawomeck expedition: NEW, 264-65; HIS, 38-39 (NAR, 606). Spelman biography: NAR, 62; Fausz, “Middlemen,” 45. “With this King”: NAR, 485-86. “About Christmas,” “sitting (the weather),” “we have five,” “a man and,” “after they are dead,” “they find their forefathers” (asides identifying Iopassus as the speaker have been silently removed): HIS, 98-100 (NAR, 658-61). Death of Wowinchopunck: Rountree, Pocahontas, Powhatan, 153-54. Attack on the blockhouse: REL, 256. Blockhouse attack, “overthrew him”: HIS, 59-60 (NAR, 625-26). Expedition upriver: NEW, 264; HIS, 131-32 (NAR, 687-88); ANC, 30. Death of Kemps: HIS, 53 (NAR, 619). Death of Weynman, “death was much”: REL, 252. Weynman biography: GEN, 2:1049. Delaware’s departure and voyage home: NEW, 263-64; SMI, 1:277, 2:237; REL, 257; Stow, Annales(1632), 1018. “At his going”: ANC, 30-31. “Showing more valor,” “where being five,” “Paspahegh, Paspahegh”: REL, 257-58. Second blockhouse battle: Fausz, “Blood,” 6, 36-37.

Arrival of the HerculesANC, 31; NAR, 521. Arrival of the same ship (mistakenly called the Blessing): REL, 258. “I am much grieved,” “I am going”: Scull, Evelyns, 63-65 (GEN, 1:441-42). EST registered for publication November 8, 1610: Stationers’ Company, Registers, 3:202. Virginia Company shifts focus with news of castaways’ survival: Sievers, “Evidence,” 143-44. Rich’s biography: NAR, 54, 372. “Soldier blunt”: Rich, Newes [1] (NAR, 373). “A casicke or son”: Parker, Van Meteren’s, 67. Machumps under suspicion in the disappearance of Namontack: SMI, 2:350. Machumps circulates freely in Jamestown after the Bermuda episode: HIS, 26, 54, 94 (NAR, 596, 619, 655); Whitaker, NAR, 550.

Elements seemingly transferred from Strachey’s letter to the “Excellent Lady” (later “True Reportory”) to EST include the description of passengers lamenting the pounding of the ship, the statement that two thousand tons of water was bailed and pumped during the storm, the exaggerated suggestion that the bailers nearly drowned as they labored, the phrasing of the description of the landing of the hundred and fifty voyagers, and the account of bellowing castaways attracting cahows and selecting the heaviest for killing: PIL, 4:1735-37, 1741 (NAR, 385, 387, 390, 399); EST, 21-22, 23, 24 (NEW, 252-53). Despite how it may appear to readers of PIL, however, Strachey does not quote EST in “True Reportory” (that would not be possible, since EST was written after “True Reportory” reached England). “True Reportory” ends in PIL at line 55 on 4:1756; the line beginning “after Sir Thomas Gates his arrival” (NAR, 438) is the voice of the editor of PIL introducing a reprint of EST. As Ashe notes in “Strachey,” 509, this misconception has prompted some commentators to exaggerate the echoes of “True Reportory” in EST. Nevertheless, the echoes between the two texts constitute compelling evidence that “True Reportory” was used in crafting EST.

List of fortuitous events of the Gates expedition: EST, 46-48, 68 (NEW, 257- 58, 262). Martin’s letter to Strachey: Culliford, Strachey, 123-25. Dale’s biography: Rutman, “Historian,” 285, 289-94.

Chapter Fourteen

“I fear a madness”: 5.1.116, ARD, 270. Dale’s arrival in Virginia: GEN, 1:442- 43; ANC, 31. “The twelfth of May”: NAR, 520-23. “Their daily and usual”: Hamor, Discourse, 26 (NAR, 821) (repeated in SMI, 2:239). “Sir Thomas Dale, at his”: ANC, 35. “Sir Thomas Dale immediately”: ANC, 31. Strachey, For the Colony, 1 (1612) (1969 edition, 9), says Delaware merely “exemplified and approved” the laws of Gates, thereby indicating that Gates and Dale were the only authors. The language shifts distinctly after the first eighteen laws, see Flaherty in Strachey, For the Colony(1969), xvi, xviii, xxiii. Therefore, I have attributed all but the first eighteen published laws to Dale. June 22 date, content of the laws, “to do the necessities,” “be whipped,” “outrage or injure”: Strachey, For the Colony (1612), 1, 10-12, 13, 16-17, 23, 27-28, 29, 44 (1969 edition, 15, 17-19, 22-23, 29, 32-34, 49-50). Passing the pikes defined: Dean, “Polearms,” 111.

Strachey on close terms with Dale (Strachey carries Dale’s laws and hawks to England): Strachey, For the Colony (1612) [v]-[vi] (1969 edition, 3-4); HIS, 125 (NAR, 682). Dale’s construction projects: REL, 258. Well found by Jamestown archaeologists may date to Dale’s construction period: Kelso, Buried, 116, 119, 123-24. “Severe and strict,” “with all severity”: Hamor, Discourse, 27 (NAR, 822). Strachey participation in upriver expedition: HIS, 124 (NAR, 682). Upriver expedition plans, Namontack’s fate a mystery to Wahunsenacawh: Hamor, Discourse, 26-27, 38 (NAR, 822, 831). “Comes to and fro,” “before their dinners” (with aside silently removed), “the people have houses,” “preserved seven”: HIS, 26, 54, 94 (NAR, 596, 619, 655). Roanoke colony background: Price, Love, 8-9.

“In these conflicts”: REL, 258-59. “As our men,” “otherwise he threatened,” “one night our men,” “thanks be to God”: NAR, 549-50. General use of poisons and drugs by Powhatans: NAR, 110, 121; Barbour, Three, 256; Fausz, “Middlemen,” 55. “A fantasy possessed” (despite Percy’s placement of the episode “in an Indian’s house,” it is clear he is describing the same event): REL, 259. Episode probably is jimsonweed poisoning: Noël Hume, Adventure, 301-5. New World use of jimsonweed as hallucinogen: Cichoke, “Herbal,” 85. “I found in an,” “they are assured”: HIS, 124 (NAR, 682).

Background on Spanish claims: Wright, “Spanish,” 452-55, 458, 470; FIR, 1:114-16. Details of Spanish ship episode, “Don Diego said”: NAR, 534-37. “One of the mariners”: NAR, 546. “Their intent was”: REL, 259-60. “Are here so few”: NAR, 558. Background on Gates’s arrival: REL, 260-61; SMI, 1:277, 2:241; ANC, 31; NEW, 264. War preparations, “it was an English”: Hamor, Discourse, 28-29 (NAR, 823-24). “The choicest persons,” “it is not intended”: GEN, 1:445, 463. Delaware’s stop in the Azores: NAR, 525-26. “I found help”: NAW, 264. Death of Gates’s wife, names of his daughters: GEN, 2:895. “His lady died”: GEN, 2:532. Dale’s departure upriver, Gates’s plans to develop Jamestown: Hamor, Discourse, 29-30 (NAR, 823-25).

Strachey probably returned to England on Prosperous: Culliford, Strachey, 126. Last record of Strachey in Virginia (interrogation of Spanish prisoners, June or July 1611): REL, 259-60; Wright, “Spanish,” 455, 473. First record of Strachey back in England (registering For the Colony for publication, December 13, 1611): Culliford, Strachey, 126. Only one ship known to have gone from Jamestown to England during period departed after August 17 date of Dale report to England (NAR, 552-58) and arrived before November 5 when Velasco reported it at port (GEN, 1:523-24, 527). Ship identified as Prosperous (GEN, 1:497; Brown, Republic, 161). Brown mistakenly places Strachey aboard a ship that left before the Spanish interrogation: Brown, Republic, 154-55, 160-61. Brown tacitly acknowledges error by stating elsewhere Strachey arrived home late October or early November 1611: GEN, 1:529, 2:1024. Letters dated August 9 and 17, 1611, likely carried home by Strachey: NAR, 548-59. Strachey carried the laws to England: ANC, 31. “I brought home,” Strachey finds cat’s claws: HIS, 124, 125 (NAR, 682).

Chapter Fifteen

“Carry this island”: 2.1.91-92, ARD, 190. Virginia ship arrived during week previous to November 5 (i.e., a few days before or after November 1): GEN, 1:523- 24, 527. Ship was ProsperousGEN, 1:497; Brown, Republic, 161. Strachey lodging in Blackfriars, “during the time”: For the Colony(1612) [v]-[viii] (1969 edition, 3-7). For the Colony registered for publication December 13, 1611, Tien lawsuit: Culliford, Strachey, 126, 128, 132-33. Donne’s new patron, death of Countess of Bedford’s infant: Lawson, Shadows, 110-13. Strachey carries hawks from Virginia: HIS, 125 (NAR, 682).

Documentary evidence of Whitehall debut of Tempest: Cunningham, Extracts , 210; ARD, 1, 6; Bullough, Sources, 8:237; Demaray, Spectacles, 4. Nineteenth-century charge that the record of the debut is a forgery is false: Bender, “Day,” 254; Law, “Produced,” 151-52. Cunningham, Extracts, 225-26; Law, “Produced,” 153-54; Marshall, “Imperium,” 376, argue that Tempest would have appeared before the public in advance of a royal performance, but no documentary evidence supports this view, which runs counter to theatrical tradition that places great value on debuts. Demaray, Spectacles, 76-79, 81-83, 88-91, argues convincingly that the stage directions in Tempest were written for the Masquing House rather than the Blackfriars Theater—evidence that Shakespeare expected a Masquing House debut.

History and layout of Masquing House: Thurley, Whitehall, 68-82; Law, “Produced,” 150, 152-53, 159, 162-63; Demaray, Spectacles, 8-9, 75-77, 95, 153. Likely composition of Tempest cast: Sturgess, Jacobean, 76; ARD, 8. “The imagination,” “had in her hair”: Law, “Produced,” 163. “Waves capering,” “a tempest so artificial”: Demaray, Spectacles, 92-93. Strachey visited Blackfriars Theater up to three times a week as a shareholder: Culliford, Strachey, 54-55.

Shakespeare’s life during the time when he wrote Tempest: Greenblatt, Will, 361, 366, 370, 373, 377. Closures of London theaters during plague epidemics: Chute, Shakespeare, 290; Holland in Shakespeare, Tempest (Pelican), viii-ix; Bradbrook, Shakespeare, 207, 250. Popularity of the London theater: Gurr, Playgoing , 64-69; Holland in Shakespeare, Tempest (Pelican), vii-viii, xiii. Document that places Shakespeare in Stratford in June 1609, stage directions in Tempest suggest Shakespeare was away from London and did not expect to attend rehearsals: Ackroyd, Shakespeare, 471-72, 477-78.

Similarity of names in Thomas’s Historie of Italie and Tempest: Nosworthy, “Narrative,” 282-83; Chambers, Study, 1:494; Orgel in Shakespeare, Tempest (Oxford), 42-43. England’s Mediterranean trade may have inspired Tempest setting: Cawley, Unpathed, 237. Shakespeare’s fondness for Mediterranean settings: Bullough, Sources, 8:245. Shakespeare’s overlay of New World story on Old World setting in Tempest: Hulme, Encounters, 107-9, and “Hurricanes,” 71-72.

Complexity is mark of Shakespeare’s work: Bullough, Sources, 8:247, 271-72. Shakespeare often drew material from books and contemporary events: Wood, Search, 354-78. Literacy of Shakespeare’s audience: Gurr, Playgoing, 64-65. Shakespeare’s use in Tempest of Virgil, Ovid, Montaigne: Holland in Shakespeare, Tempest (Pelican), xxix-xxx; Dymkowski, “Production,” 3. Montaigne’s Golden Age theme in Tempest: Bullough, Sources, 8:243, 255; ARD, 193, 196; Fitzmaurice, “Every,” 32-35, 41; Ebner, “Ideal,” 161, 165, 167, 173. Shakespeare’s use of Montaigne shows New World focus: Hart, Columbus, 137. Shakespeare characters frequently debate topical issues: Ackroyd, Shakespeare, 468-69, 472-74; Hamlin, “Inde,” 34-35; Willis, “Shakespeare’s,” 258, 265; McDonald, “Reading,” 15.

Shakespeare’s use of travel narratives in earlier plays: Bullough, Sources, 8:240, 242, 249, 255; Hamlin, “Inde,” 16, 38. Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo (“Gonzalus Ferdinandus Oviedus”): Willes, Travayle, 185. Shakespeare’s possible use of Oviedo’s name: Gayley, Shakespeare, 62; Cawley, “Use,” 715; Brockbank, “Conventions,” 193. Patagonian deity Setebos: Pigafetta in Willes, Travayle, 434 (verso), 435 (verso). Shakespeare’s use of Pigafetta’s narrative: ARD, 40-41, 176. Caliban’s references to Setebos: 1.2.374, 5.1.261, ARD, 176, 280.

Bermuda sea monster: Hartop in Hakluyt, Navigations, 3:493. Hartop biography: Mancall, Hakluyt’s, 232-33. Shakespeare’s possible use of Hartop’s account: Bristol, Shakespeare, 83; Mathew, Image, 53; Payne, By Me, 370. Other uses of Hakluyt’s Navigations in TempestARD, 49. Bremo in Mucedorus as model for Caliban: Vaughan, Caliban, 69; ARD, 60; Hamlin, “Inde,” 28-29, 31-33, 37, 42; Demaray, Spectacles, 21. Thirty-five New World people displayed in England during Shakespeare’s lifetime: Vaughan, “Trinculo’s,” 50, 51, 58, 59. Dates of Namontack’s visits to England, Jonson’s allusion to Namontack in Epicoene: Vaughan, Transatlantic, 46-48. “Shrewd, subtle”: SMI, 1:216. Namontack’s positive report about England: NAR, 450-51.

Public enthusiasm for the Virginia enterprise: Marx, Machine, 34, 68; Rowse, Southampton, 238; Bullough, Sources, 8:240; Bradbrook, Shakespeare, 228-29. Shakespeare’s connection to men affiliated with the Virginia Company: Gayley, Shakespeare, 18, 20-22, 24, 27-30, 37; Ebner, “Ideal,” 166; Bullough, Sources, 8:239; Fitzmaurice, Humanism, 62. Earl of Southampton’s connections to Shakespeare and the Virginia Company: Rowse, Southampton, 234-62; Ebner, “Ideal,” 166; Bailey, “Founders,” 10. Earl’s name first on list in second charter: NEW, 207. King James’s skeptical interest in Jamestown: FIR, 1:119. James’s interest important for the success of any London play: Brown, “Darkness,” 48. Number of King’s Men royal performances: Demaray, Spectacles, 10, 74-75. King’s Men perform for king during plague epidemic: Ackroyd, Shakespeare, 465. Vetting of plays by court officials, “rehearsed, perfected”: Demaray, Spectacles, 7-8, 50, 75.

“Nothing that is good”: Crashaw, Sermon [61]. Earlier references to Virginia in London plays: Demaray, Spectacles, 5-7; Gayley, Shakespeare, 76-80. Tempest audience would have recognized New World elements: Demaray, Spectacles, 14-16, 57-58, 101-9, 142; Gillies, “Masque,” 676. Shakespeare may have had Princess Elizabeth’s engagement in mind when he wrote Tempest: Srigley, Images, 116-22; Demaray, Spectacles, 10-11, 13, 20, 145. “Tragical comedy”: EST, 26 (NEW, 253). Shakespeare’s experiment with tragicomedy late in his career: Demaray, Spectacles, 18-19, 46-47, 64-65.

Vaughan, Caliban, 118, and Chalmers, Account, 20, note that in 1797 modern scholars first proposed parallels between The Tempest and the Virginia chronicles. The question of whether the correlations are legitimate has been debated ever since, most actively in the early twentieth century. Cawley was an ardent proponent from 1926 to 1940, and contends in Elizabethan, 339, that “nobody in his right mind” can deny the parallels. Stoll in “Fallacies,” 487, takes the opposite point of view, arguing “this proof rests upon a few slight verbal parallels, most precariously.” While a few scholars still dispute the point (Bergeron, Romances, 178, for example, admits only “an occasional parallel”), the prevailing opinion today is that the play is indeed based on the narratives. To Ebner, “Ideal,” 166, it is “universally agreed”; to Bullough, Sources, 8:271, “the adventures of the Virginian voyagers suggested both his title and setting”; to Marx, Machine, 34-35, there are “unmistakable echoes”; to Vaughan and Vaughan in ARD, 1, 40-42, 54, 73, 100-101, 287, scholars are “almost unanimous” in agreeing that the parallels exist, though their importance remains open to question. The most recent treatments are Stritmatter and Kositsky, “Revisited” (dispute connection), and Vaughan, “Evidence” (favors connection).

Phrases from four Virginia narratives echo unmistakably in Tempest—Strachey’s “True Reportory” in PIL; Jourdain’s DIS; Virginia Company’s TRU and EST: Bullough, Sources, 8:238-39; Gayley, Shakespeare, 45-46, 49; Gillies, “Masque,” 681, 703; editor Haile in NAR, 381-82; Culliford, Strachey, 151-52. Shakespeare may also have used Rich’s Newes and John Smith’s True Relation (SMI, 1:23-117): editors Vaughan and Vaughan in ARD, 42-43. Shakespeare may also have used Crashaw’s Sermon: Gillies, “Masque,” 704. Beyond specific language parallels, Shakespeare drew the general theme of colonial expansion from the travel narratives: Marx, Machine, 68; Brown, “Darkness,” 48; Bullough, Sources, 8:240; Holland in Shakespeare, Tempest (Pelican), xxix; editors Vaughan and Vaughan in ARD, 47; Salingar, “World,” 209, 212.

Shakespeare’s most important source, Strachey’s “True Reportory,” was not published until 1625 in PIL (no manuscript is extant). The 1625 published work carries a date of July 15, 1610, and was evidently circulating in England at the time Shakespeare was writing The Tempest (a common practice of the day). Schmidgall, “Primaleon,” 433-35, proposes Welby as Shakespeare’s source for Strachey’s manuscript. Welby in Jourdain, Plaine, 8, says “more full.” Hotson, I, William, 217-26, proposes that Shakespeare’s associate Dudley Digges was the source. Sanders, “Colony,” 119, reports a tradition among Strachey’s descendants that his accounts were a Tempest source.

Capacity of the Blackfriars and similar theaters: Greenblatt, Will, 368; Holland in Shakespeare, Tempest (Pelican), xi. Onstage seating: Ackroyd, Shakespeare , 466. Estimate of weekly theater attendance, capacity of circular playhouses: Holland in Shakespeare, Tempest (Pelican), viii. Parallel history of open-air and enclosed theaters: Gurr, Playgoing, 14. Globe and Blackfriars ticket price comparison: Gurr, “Tempest’s,” 101. All classes mixed in both theaters: Chute, Shakespeare , 291. “A man shall not be”: Gurr, Playgoing, 45. History of the Blackfriars: Greenblatt, Will, 367; Ackroyd, Shakespeare, 465-66; Seltzer, “Last,” 127; Chute, Shakespeare, 290. Blackfriars religious exemptions persisted: Bradbrook, Shakespeare , 205; Gurr, Playgoing, 27. Changes in playwriting caused by rise of enclosed venues: Seltzer, “Last,” 127, 130, 152, 158; Dymkowski, “Production,” 5; Ackroyd, Shakespeare, 466-467; Holland in Shakespeare, Tempest (Pelican), xi. Tempest elements suggest it was written for the Blackfriars: Seltzer, “Last,” 128-29; Ackroyd, Shakespeare, 487; Dymkowski, “Production,” 4; Gurr, “Tempest’s,” 92-94; Demaray, Spectacles, 74.

A 1669 publication states Tempest previously played at the Blackfriars: Dymkowski, “Production,” 5; Demaray, Spectacles, 11-12, 144. Early Tempest performances in Blackfriars and Globe may be presumed: Demaray, Spectacles, 75; Nagler, Stage, 102. No document places Strachey at a performance of Tempest; I have presumed he would have attended based on his interests in theater and the New World. Blackfriars description, standard 2:00 p.m. start time: Fraser, Shakespeare , 207-10; R. Frye, Life, plates 58, 96; Gurr, Playgoing, 30-34, 39. Blackfriars description: Nagler, Stage, 93-97; Demaray, Spectacles, 4-5, 12, 96; Stephenson, London, 307. Blackfriars description, site of Henry VIII’s divorce trial: Bradbrook, Shakespeare, 206, 250-51.

Chapter Sixteen

“Into something”: 1.2.402, ARD, 178. “First, the Tempest”: TRU, 17 (NAR, 367, modernized). Parallel “tempest” passages: Cawley, “Use,” 690; Bristol, Shakespeare , 67. Word “Tempest” also in John Smith’s True RelationSMI, 1:27, 83, 85. Imagery evoked by “tempest”: Cummings, “Alchemical,” 131-40. “A tempestuous noise”: stage direction before 1.1.1, ARD, 143. Stage directions are by Shakespeare or later editor: ARD, 127, 141-43. “Gape at widest”: 1.1.59, ARD, 148. “Glut of water”: PIL, 4:1735 (NAR, 385). Parallel “glut” passages: Cawley, “Use,” 692, 699; Gayley, Shakespeare, 55; ARD, 148 (Shakespeare also uses “glut” in 3.2, Henry IV, Part 1). “Mercy on us!”: 1.1.60, ARD, 148. “There was not,” muffled cries of passengers: PIL, 4:1735 (NAR, 385-86). “A plague upon”: 1.1.35-36, ARD, 146. Parallel muffled cries passages: Cawley, “Use,” 692-93; Gayley, Shakespeare, 54-55; Bullough, Sources, 8:240. “As leaky as”: 1.1.46-47, ARD, 147. Parallel leaky ship passages: Gayley, Shakespeare, 54.

“An honest old”: cast list, ARD, 140. “Roaring,” “a hell of,” “the sea swelled,” “at length did”: PIL, 4:1735 (NAR, 384-85). “Put the wild,” “stinking pitch,” “the sea, mounting,” “dashes the fire”: 1.2.2-5, ARD, 149. Parallel stormy sky passages: Bullough, Sources, 8:240; Cawley, “Use,” 691; Gayley, Shakespeare, 56. Blackfriars stage effects: Gurr, “Tempest’s,” 95; Nagler, Stage, 97. Shakespeare’s “sulphurous” and “stinking pitch” lines evoke stage effects: ARD, 149, 163. Strachey uses “amazement”: PIL, 4:1735-37 (NAR, 384, 386, 389). Shakespeare uses “amazement”: 1.2.14, 1.2.198, 5.1.104, ARD, 150, 163, 270. Parallel “amazement” passages: Gayley, Shakespeare , 54; Cawley, “Use,” 692; Bullough, Sources, 8:240. Ariel’s likely costume: Egan, “Costume,” 63; Law, “Produced,” 161-62; Saenger, “Costumes”; Demaray, Spectacles, 71, 78.

“I boarded,” “all but mariners”: 1.2.196-201, 210-15, ARD, 162-64. “Make many constructions,” “an apparition”: PIL, 4:1737 (NAR, 388-89). Parallel St. Elmo’s fire/Ariel passages: Bullough, Sources, 8:240; Brockbank, “Conventions,” 187; Bailey, “Founders,” 9; Brown, Republic, 114. Science of St. Elmo’s fire: Schonland, Thunderbolts, 44-48, 61, 92, 146; Barry, Weather, 355. Nautical maneuvers in Tempest: Allen, “Shakespeare’s.” “Safely in harbour”: 1.2.226-29, ARD, 165. Analysis of Tempest Bermuda reference: Vaughan and Vaughan, ARD, 165; Bullough, Sources, 8:266; Gayley, Shakespeare, 59; Kathman, “Dating.” Interpretation of Ariel’s line to mean Tempest ship is hidden in a place from which Ariel was sent to Bermuda and not one on Bermuda: Stoll, “Fallacies,” 487; Knapp, Empire, 220-21.

Bermuda’s reputation as a Devil’s Isle influenced crafting of Tempest: Gayley, Shakespeare, 54; Kathman, “Dating.” Word “devil” used a dozen times in Tempest : Kathman, “Dating.” Parallel enchanted island passages: Gayley, Shakespeare , 54; Bullough, Sources, 8:240, 243; Cawley, “Use,” 696-98, 705; Vaughan and Vaughan in ARD, 41-42; Brockbank, “Conventions,” 184-85, 189-90. “Shut up hatches”: PIL, 4:1737 (NAR, 390). “They were so overwearied,” “fallen asleep”: Jourdain, DIS, 6 (VOY, 106-7). “The mariners all,” “to the King’s ship,” “we were dead”: 1.2.230-32, 5.1.97-99, 5.1.230-31, ARD, 165, 269, 278. Parallel sleepy mariner passages: Bullough, Sources, 8:240; Brockbank, “Conventions,” 189; Cawley, “Use,” 695-96. “The rest o’th’ fleet”: 1.2.232-37, ARD, 165-66. Parallel fleet unification passages: Salingar, “World,” 213-14; Kathman, “Dating.” “Sadly up the river”: PIL, 4:1748 (NAR, 419).

“A savage”: cast list, ARD, 140. Caliban’s likely costume: Saenger, “Costumes”; Demaray, Spectacles, 71. Terms used to describe Caliban in TempestARD, 216, 225-26, 280-83. “Tortoise”: 1.2.317, ARD, 172; “a man or a fish”: 2.2.24-25, 208; “half a fish”: 3.2.28, 226; “legged like a man”: 2.2.32-33, 208-9; “mooncalf”: 2.2.105, 109, 132-33 and 3.2.20-21, 213, 214, 226. “A kind of meat,” “feeding upon sea-grass”: PIL, 4:1741 (NAR, 400). Parallel sea turtle and moon passages: Gayley, Shakespeare, 60; Cawley, “Use,” 717; Kathman, “Dating.” “Wouldst give me”: 1.2.334-35, ARD, 173. “The berries whereof”: PIL, 4:1739 (NAR, 395). Parallel berry drink passages: Gayley, Shakespeare, 60; Cawley, “Use,” 709; Bullough, Sources, 8:240; Kathman, “Dating.” “Upon the coast”: PIL, 4:1735 (NAR, 386). Strachey’s voyage to Turkey: Culliford, Strachey, 68-70. Sycorax’s banishment from Algiers: 1.2.260-66, ARD, 167-68. Parallel Algiers passages: Gayley, Shakespeare, 58.

“Powhatan, understanding,” “most trusty messenger”: SMI, 1:93-95 (“nonpareil” repeated: SMI, 1:274). “And that most deeply”: 3.2.98-103, ARD, 230; “a savage”: cast list, 140. Parallel “nonpareil” and Rawhunt passages: Luce in Shakespeare, Tempest (1901), 159-60; Knapp, Empire, 337-38; Vaughan and Vaughan, ARD, 230. Bullough, Sources, 8:241, rejects link between Pocahontas and Miranda. Cooke in his 1885 novel My Lady Pocahontas has a fictionalized Pocahontas attend a performance of The Tempest at the Globe (there is no evidence that she actually did so), see Mossiker, Pocahontas, 266-67. “No more dams”: 2.2.176, ARD, 217 (a footnote cautions that weirs were also used in England). Analysis of Caliban’s statement on dams: Kupperman, Project, 249-50. “When they will not,” “were I in England”: 2.2.27-29, 31-32, ARD, 208 (a footnote cautions that Trinculo may also have meant he would have an advertising sign painted). Analysis of Caliban as New World man: Hamlin, “Inde,” 23-26, 36-37. Ferdinando Weynman mentioned: PIL, 4:1752, 1754 (NAR, 427, 433). Parallel Ferdinand/Ferdinando names: Frey, “Tempest,” 38. “Wooden slavery,” “for your sake”: 3.1.62, 3.1.66-67, ARD, 222-23. “To fell, carry”: PIL, 4:1743 (NAR, 404). “Full fathom five”: 1.2.397-402, ARD, 178. Parallel undersea passages: Salingar, “World,” 210: Hayward, Bermuda, 119.

Chapter Seventeen

“Such stuff”: 4.1.156-57, ARD, 254. Remora story: PIL, 4:1736 (NAR, 388). “What strange fish”: 2.1.113-14, ARD, 191. Franciso suggests Ferdinand survived: 2.1.114-23, ARD, 191-92; “have more widows”: 2.1.133-35, 192; “uninhabitable”: 2.1.40, 188. Parallel “inaccessible” and “uninhabitable” passages: Cawley, “Use,” 702; Kathman, “Dating.” “Some monster”: 2.2.64-65, ARD, 211; “pied ninny,” “scurvy patch”: 3.2.61, 228. Background on Trinculo descriptions: ARD, 140, 142, 228. Parallel Stephen/Stephano names: Gayley, Shakespeare, 63-65; Cawley, “Use,” 715; Kennedy, Isle, 62. “Many a butt”: PIL, 4:1737 (NAR, 389) (the Sea Venture casks were emptied over the side while the Tempest casks went overboard whole). “I escaped upon”: 2.2.118-20, ARD, 213-14. Parallel cask passages: Bullough, Sources, 8:267; Gayley, Shakespeare, 61; Cawley, “Use,” 690.

“Get thee young”: 2.2.168-69, ARD, 217. “Sea-mew”: PIL, 4:1740 (NAR, 398). “Scamel” possible misprint of “seamel”: Holland in Shakespeare, Tempest (Pelican), 45. Tempest only known use of the word “scamel” (with the exception of “doubtful” 1866 reference): Oxford English Dictionary. Parallel “sea-mews”/“scamels” passages: Gayley, Shakespeare, 60; Cawley, “Use,” 711; Bullough, Sources, 8:240. “Bat-fowling”: 2.1.185, ARD, 197. “Lowbelling”: PIL, 4:1741 (NAR, 399). Parallel “bat-fowling”/“lowbelling” passages: Vaughan and Vaughan, ARD, 197; Gayley,Shakespeare, 60; Cawley, “Use,” 711. “Hollow burst”: 2.1.312-13, ARD, 206; “be not afeard”: 3.2.135-38, 232; “strange and several”: 5.1.232-34, 278.

“Bloody issues,” “desire forever”: PIL, 4:1743, 1745 (NAR, 404, 410). “Bloody thoughts”: 4.1.220-21, ARD, 258; “let me live here”: 4.1.122, 251; “had I plantation”: 2.1.144, 193. Parallel mutineer motivations passages: Gayley, Shakespeare, 61; Bullough, Sources, 8:240; Kathman, “Dating”; Cawley, “Use,” 713. Ariel similar to English indentured servants: Holland in Shakespeare, Tempest (Pelican), xxxi. Caliban similar to Bermuda mutineers: Brockbank, “Conventions,” 196. “Had I plantation,” “Golden Age,” “no occupation,” “everything advantageous,” “true, save means,” “all idle—whores”: 2.1.52-53, 144, 155-57, 167, 169, ARD, 188, 193, 195, 196. Shakespeare’s use of Montaigne: Vaughan and Vaughan in ARD, 193; Bullough, Sources, 8:243, 255; Ebner, “Ideal,” 161, 164-68, 173. Parallels between Gonzalo’s speech (and his mocking colleagues) and Virginia Company’s publications (and the company’s critics): Marx, Machine, 36-66; Vaughan and Vaughan, ARD, 4-5; Holland in Shakespeare, Tempest (Pelican), xxix-xxx; Cheyfitz, Poetics, 67-68; Knapp, Empire, 221-22; Gillies, “Masque,” 682-83; Hamlin, Image, 118-24.

Prospero and Caliban threaten to force others to drink brine: 1.2.463, 3.2.64- 65, ARD, 182, 228. “Fens, marshes”: PIL, 4:1740 (NAR, 398). “All the infections”: 2.2.1-3, ARD, 207; “filthy-mantled”: 4.1.182, 256; “I do smell”: 4.1.199, 257. Parallel contaminated water passages: Gillies, “Masque,” 684, 691; Gayley, Shakespeare, 59-60; Cawley, “Use,” 702, 708; Kathman, “Dating.” “A low level”: PIL, 4:1752 (NAR, 428-29). Tempest debate on Queen Dido: 2.1.77-102, ARD, 189-91. Parallel Dido passages: Cawley, “Use,” 706; Kathman, “Dating”; Salingar, “World,” 209-10.

Musical instruments used during Shakespeare’s plays: Lindley, Music, 235- 39. “Strange and solemn,” “several strange,” “gentle actions”: stage directions before 3.3.18, ARD, 235; harpy scene: 3.3.53-82, 238-40. Levitation machines and trick tables, “a bucket into”: Demaray, Spectacles, 66, 76-91, 97-98, 155, 160-61. Tempest goddesses section: 4.1.60-138, ARD, 246-53; Jonson on “sitting in a throne”: 68; “Juno descends”: stage direction before 4.1.73, 248; “sunburned sicklemen”: 4.1.134, 252; “reapers properly,” “to a strange hollow”: stage directions after 4.1.138, 253; “glistering apparel”: stage direction after 4.1.193, 257. Spangled costumes likely used: Demaray, Spectacles, 78. “Two suits of apparel”: PIL, 4:1745 (NAR, 410). Parallel two suits passages: Gayley, Shakespeare, 61-62; Kathman, “Dating.” “The murmuring”: PIL, 4:1746 (NAR, 411). “A noise of hunters”: stage direction before 4.1.255, ARD, 261; “you sty me”: 1.2.343, 174. Parallel hogs/“sty” passages: Bristol, Shakespeare, 88. Tempest chess scene: 5.1.172-77, ARD, 274-75.

Parallel Gates/Prospero passages: Marx, Machine, 34-36; Bullough, Sources, 8:242, 272, 273; Cheyfitz, Poetics, 67; Fulton, “Pamphlets,” 5-7; Brockbank, “Conventions,” 186-87. Gates’s reaction to Blunt killing: PIL, 4:1755 (NAR, 434-35). Parallel between Gates’s reaction to Blunt and Prospero interaction with Caliban: Mowat in Shakespeare, Tempest (New Folger Library), 193-94; Kathman, “Dating”; Berger, “Miraculous,” 261-62. “Thou most lying”: 1.2.345-49, ARD, 174. Parallel between Shakespeare’s biography and Prospero’s speech: McGinn, Philosophy , 143-46, 150; Greenblatt, Will, 372-73. “The solemn temples”: 4.1.153-56, ARD, 254. “I have both in”: Strachey, For the Colony (1612), v (1969 edition, 3).

Chapter Eighteen

“Our revels”: 4.1.148, ARD, 253. Strachey’s attempts to find a patron: Barbour, Three, 302. Strachey’s literary debt to John Smith: Barbour in SMI, 1:124-25. Strachey biography, “this last dismal,” “my hour is come”: Culliford, Strachey, 128, 130, 133, 140-41. Additional Strachey biography: Wright in VOY, xvii; Haile in NAR, 62-63. Performance of Tempest at Princess Elizabeth’s wedding: Law, “Produced,” 164; Bullough, Sources, 8:237; Demaray, Spectacles, 80. “The malicious”: Johnson, Life, 4. Analysis of Johnson’s statement: Salingar, “World,” 210- 11; Nuzum, “Company,” 17. Contemporary audiences would have recognized New World theme of Tempest: Lee, “Visits,” 342; Lindley in Shakespeare, Tempest (New Cambridge) [43].

Shakespeare’s life during Tempest period: Greenblatt, Will, 373, 378-79; Chute, Shakespeare, 298-99; Gurr, “Tempest’s,” 93-94. “Gentlemanlike”: Chute, Shakespeare, 298. Shakespeare’s purchase of Blackfriars gatehouse: Greenblatt, Will, 379; Chute, Shakespeare, 306; Bradbrook, Shakespeare, 226; Fraser, Shakespeare , 250. Globe fire description, “some of the paper,” marriages of Shakespeare’s daughters: Greenblatt, Will, 379-80; Bradbrook, Shakespeare, 222-23, 225. Parallels between Shakespeare and daughters and Prospero and Miranda: McGinn, Philosophy , 145, 147; Bradbrook, Shakespeare, 224-25. Shakespeare’s will and death, “Shakespeare, [poet Michael] Drayton”: Greenblatt, Will, 384-88. Importance of the First Folio: Demaray, Spectacles, 1-3. “He was not of”: Jonson in Shakespeare, Mr. William Shakespeares (First Folio) [vi].

Chapman’s Virginia play: Gillies, “Masque,” 673-74; Demaray, Spectacles, 94, 112-16. “If there be never,” “he is loth to”: Jonson in ARD, 7-8. “O, I, moon-calves!”: Jonson in Demaray, Spectacles, 119-20. Fletcher’s Sea Voyage, Taylor the Water Poet: McMullan, Unease, 197-99, 240-43; Kennedy, “Significance,” 28-32, 35. Analysis of Taylor’s poetry, “Epitaph in the Barmooda,” “Epitaph in the Utopian,” “Caleb Quishquash”: Malcolm, Origins, 19, 140-41.

Matthew Somers’s return to England with body of uncle: SMI, 1:277-78, 2:350-52; Burrage, Lost, 5; Craven, “Hughes,” 76. Parish register says Somers’s body buried June 4, 1611 (suggesting his nephew reached port in late May): Malone, Account, 20. George Somers stopped on the coast north of Jamestown before crossing to Bermuda: SMI, 1:277, 2:350; Oldmixon, Empire, 441. Ring purported to bear Somers coat of arms found on Connecticut beach in 1924: Kennedy, Isle, 57. Two men previously left on Bermuda join Somers on arrival: BER, 15. Somers’s death by food poisoning: Stow, Annales (1615), 944, and (1632), 1018; SMI, 1:277. Pig-bel probably killed Somers: Puntis, “Pig-bel.” Symptoms of pig-bel: Merck & Co., “Clostridial.” Somers died November 9, 1611: Sainsbury, State Papers: Colonial, 1:10; Green, State Papers: Domestic, 2:268. Notice of Somers’s death: SMI, 2:350-51; Burrage, Lost, 5; REL, 252; Craven, “Hughes,” 76; BER, 15. “A surfeit”: Stow, Annales (1632), 1018.

Somers’s body buried England and heart buried Bermuda: SMI, 2:351, 378. Heart burial mentioned on 1620, 1876, 1959 memorials: Darrell, Links, 8, 9, 13. Heart burial site in or near the modern Somers Garden in St. George’s: editor Lefroy in BER, 305-8. Alternatively, heart burial site near campsite of castaways: Zuill, “Cast Away,” 66. Embalming methods, hearts routinely buried separately: Guibert, Physitian, 143-47. History of ceremonial heart burial, salt common preservative when bodies sent home: Bradford, Heart, 38, 40-42, 45, 47, 51-52, 54-58, 169-72, 177-78. Dual practical and ceremonial purposes for removing heart: Chamberlain and Pearson, Earthly, 26-28. Somers’s body transported in cedar chest, “his heart and bowels” (Butler’s claim that sailors were unaware body was on board is not credible): BER, 15-16.

Somers’s men defied his wishes, sailed for England, left three men on Bermuda: Burrage, Lost, 5; Craven, “Hughes,” 76; BER, 16; SMI, 2:351. “His body by”: SMI, 1:277-78, 2:351. Parish register says Somers buried June 4, 1611: Malone, Account , 20. Somers’s burial lost during church restoration: editor Lefroy in BER, 307-8. New monument dedicated 1980: Ware, “Journey,” 22. Settlement of Somers’s estate July 26, 1611: Sainsbury, State Papers: Colonial, 1:10; Green, State Papers: Domestic, 2:268. Somers’s will details: Broadley, “Will.” “Sir George Somers”: NAR, 709. Renaming of Bermuda as the Somers Islands: Neill, History, 64-65; Stow, Annales (1615), 945. “In the year 1611”: SMI, 2:378. Bermuda monuments to Somers: BER, 15-16, 305-6; Darrell, Links, 8-10; Jones, Bermuda, 28-29. “Riotous and disorderly”: Pope, “Somers,” 31.

Return of StarrHIS, 130 (NAR, 686); Brown, Republic, 157, 162-63; Barbour in SMI, 1:130. “He hath sent his”: Neill, History, 52. Gates’s biography: NAR, 46- 47; Sheehan, “Gates”; GEN, 2:894-96. Gates’s use of Bermuda limestone in Jamestown house: Kelso, Buried, 23, 107, 109; Lounsbury, Church, 2; D’Alto, “Hurricane,” 62. Gates’s death: Sainsbury, “Death”; Morey, Gates, 15. Pierce biographies: Dorman, Purse, 1:30, 31, 2:797-800, 3:24; Bernhard, “Men,” 616-17. “Mistress Pierce”: SMI, 3:218. Clark biography: REL, 260, 274; SMI, 2:254-55; NAR, 44-45, 49-50; Wright, “Spanish,” 455-57. Hopkins biography: Johnson, “Origin,” 165-69; Dorman, Purse, 2:355-56. Clark’s and Hopkins’s Mayflower history: Philbrick, Mayflower , 24-26, 38-39, 70; Anderson, Pilgrim, 111, 271-75.

Epilogue

Uranus’s moons: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, “Planetary.” Early essays on parallels between Jamestown chronicles and Tempest: Vaughan, Caliban, 118-20; Marshall, “Imperium,” 381-82; Culliford, Strachey, 1-2. Shakespeare’s late plays: Lytton Strachey, Books, 51-69. Lytton Strachey’s descent from William Strachey: Sanders, Family, 53, 65, 108-9.

Recent essays on Tempest as colonial-themed play: Vaughan, Caliban, 118- 71; Hulme and Sherman, Travels, 171-78; McDonald, “Reading,” 15-17; Fiedler, Stranger, 208-9; Gillies, Geography, 153-55; Griffiths, “Colonialism”; Brotton, “Contesting,” 25-31. Recent essays that downplay the colonial interpretation of Tempest: Bate, “Humanist,” 6; Bloom in Shakespeare, Tempest (Riverhead), 3-4; N. Frye, “Tempest,” 49; Hadfield, Literature, 242-45. “A prologue”: Marx, Machine , 72. “A kaleidoscope”: H. Smith, Interpretations, 1. “A complex Rorschach blot”: Hamlin, Image, 118. Shakespeare authorship question: Looney, Identified; Baron, De Vere; Farina, De Vere; Michell, Who Wrote; McCrea, Case; Stritmatter and Kositsky, “Revisited.”

“Magnificent—it has some,” “notably good”: Jones and Walcutt, Literature, 58, 65. Strachey’s documentation of the Powhatans: Porter, Inconstant, 325-38. “One of the finest”: Quinn in NEW, 288. “The large Strachey vocabulary”: Barbour, Three, 299. “Could trace,” “Sea Vulture,” “bitter feud,” “a complete schism” “the three kings”: Irving, Wolfert’s, 62-71, 315. Kipling on Sea Venture and Tempest: Kipling, How Shakespeare, and “Tempest”; Stamers-Smith, “Kipling”; Franssen, “Bard.” “Seven months among mermaids”: Kipling, Limits, 169-70. “The Sea Venture”: Joyce, Ulysses, 1:439. Background on Joyce allusion: Thornton, Allusions , 197. Strachey in Dark Lady: O’Neal, Dark, 5, 9, 11, 21-22, 34-35, 80-81, 186, 211, 219, 222-25, 228, 242-43, 252-53, 257, 294-303, 306-13. Césaire’s Une Tempête analyzed, “unmasking the brutality,” “In Une Tempête”: Sarnecki, “Mastering,” 276, 280. Durham’s Caliban masks, “one time Prospero”: Hulme and Sherman: Travels, 175-79.

Hogs became scarce on Bermuda: Hughes, Letter [7]. Early regulations to protect cahow: BER, 4; SMI, 2:342-43. Colonists’ uses of Bermuda plants, early regulations to protect plants: Bernhard, “Bermuda,” 61; Stamers-Smith, “Flora,” 116-17; Collett, Plants, 56-57, 78, 83. Introduction of foreign crops: Stamers-Smith, “Flora,” 120-24; Phillips-Watlington, Botanical, 114. Count of native and introduced flora: Phillips-Watlington, Botanical, 15-18. Cedar epidemic of 1940: Stamers-Smith, “Flora,” 117; Phillips-Watlington, Botanical, 15. Impact of habitat reduction on birds: Amos, Birds, 21. Rediscovery of the cahow in 1951: Murphy and Mowbray, “Cahow”; Bowen and Andrews, “Starving,” 63; Amos, Birds, 39-40; Kennedy, Isle, 261. Commercial use of island cavern as “Prospero’s Cave”: Stamers-Smith, “Kipling,” 104. Cave creatures named for Prospero and Somers: Sterrer and Iliffe, “Mesonerilla,” 509-10, 512; Hart and Manning, “Cavernicolous,” 441-42.

Celebration of Somers’ Day: Emanuel, Divine, 51. Plaques commemorating Somers, 1984 statue of Somers: Darrell, Links, 8-15; Fountain, “Statue.” Somers’s legacy as a mariner: Haile in NAR, 61-62, 445. Discovery of ring that may have belonged to Somers: Kennedy, Isle, 57. Raising of guns from Sea Venture, “to make a discovery”: BER, 26, 290; SMI, 2:355, 387. “Arguably the most”: Armitage, “Victuals,” 8. Discovery of wreck and artifacts: Wingood, “Report” (1982), 333- 34, 337, 341-45. Further details on wreck discovery: Jones, Bermuda, 26; Kennedy, Isle, 260; Wright, Story, 22. Jamestown archaeological dig, discovery of ring that may have belonged to Strachey: Kelso, Buried, 44-55, 89-93, 111-15, 126-39, 141-60, 170, and “Shakespearean,” 187-89.

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