NOTES

A NOTE ON SOURCES

The most important sources for an understanding of the life and work of Henry R. Luce are the vast Time Inc. Archives, which combine many of Luce’s personal papers with the archives of the company he founded and led. The archives also contain a small collection of the papers of Briton Hadden and oral histories of a number of other Time Inc. founders.

Another invaluable source is a collection of letters and other materials that were for many decades in the possession of Luce’s first wife, Lila Luce Tyng. My own use of these papers preceded their transfer to Harvard University, where they are now in the possession of the Schlesinger Library at the Radcliffe Institute.

A third important source is the collections of John Shaw Billings, who was one of the most important editors in the first three decades of Time Inc.’s existence. They are held in the South Caroliniana Library at the University of South Carolina, Columbia. Billings joined the company in the 1920s, became managing editor of Time in the 1930s, then the first managing editor of Life, and after that the editorial director of all Time Inc. magazines. His meticulously recorded diary is one of the most revealing sources for an understanding of the day-to-day workings of the company and of his own relationship with Luce. His papers duplicate many documents in the Time Inc. Archives but contain some that are not available elsewhere.

Another important window into the internal workings of Time Inc. is the vast collection of Time dispatches sent to New York from correspondents around the country and the world and preserved by the longtime general manager of the company, Roy Larsen. They are now at the Houghton Library at Harvard University. Also at Harvard are the papers of Theodore H. White, an important Time Inc. journalist in the 1940s and again in the 1960s.

The Clare Boothe Luce Papers in the Manuscripts Division of the Library of Congress are of great value in understanding her long and difficult marriage to Henry Luce. Also in the Library of Congress is another collection of the papers of Henry Luce, much of it duplicative of material in the Time Inc. Archives, but also with some materials not available elsewhere.

An important published work for anyone interested in the history of Time Inc. (and of Henry Luce) is the internally produced three-volume history of the company. The first two volumes are by Robert T. Elson: Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise, 1923–1941 (1968) and The World of Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise, 1941–1960 (1973). The third volume is by Curtis Prendergast: The World of Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Changing Enterprise, 1960–1980(1986). In researching the first two volumes Elson did extensive interviews with Luce, transcripts of which are available in the Time Inc. Archives.

ABBREVIATIONS

BH

Briton Hadden

CBL

Clare Boothe Luce

COHP

Columbia Oral History Project

ERL

Elisabeth Root Luce

FDR

Franklin D. Roosevelt

FDRL

Franklin D. Roosevelt Library

HRL Elson

Robert T. Elson interviews with Henry R. Luce, 1965–66

HRL

Henry Robinson Luce

HWL

Henry Winters Luce

JFKL

John F. Kennedy Library

JSB

John Shaw Billings

JSBD

John Shaw Billings Diary

LC

Library of Congress

LH

Lila Hotz/Lila Hotz Luce

LT

Lila Luce Tyng

MBW

Margaret Bourke-White

PPF

President’s Personal File

PSF

President’s Secretary File

TD

Time Dispatches

THW

Theodore H. White

TIA

Time Inc. Archives

MANUSCRIPT COLLECTIONS

Carl Albert Papers, University of Oklahoma Library

Frank Altschul Papers, Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University

American Friends of Vietnam Papers, Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University

Mary Bancroft Papers, Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University

John Shaw Billings Papers, South Caroliniana Library, University of South Carolina

Margaret Bourke-White Papers, George Arents Collection, Syracuse University Library

Thomas Corcoran Papers, Manuscripts Division, Library of Congress

Russell W. Davenport Papers, Manuscripts Division, Library of Congress

Stephen Early Papers, Franklin D. Roosevelt Library

John Foster Dulles Papers, Seely G. Mudd Library, Princeton University

B. A. Garside Papers, Hoover Institution Archives, Stanford University

Manfred Gottfried Oral History, Time Inc. Archives

Walter Graebner Papers, Time Inc. Archives

Frances Fineman Gunther Papers, Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University

Briton Hadden Papers, Time Inc. Archives

David Halberstam Papers, Mugar Library, Boston University

Stanley Hornbeck Papers, Hoover Institution Archives, Stanford University

Hotchkiss School Archives, Hotchkiss School Library

Ralph Ingersoll Papers, Howard Gottlieb Archival Research Center, Boston University

Institute for Pacific Relations Papers, Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University

Roy Larsen Papers, Time Inc. Archives

Daniel Longwell Oral History, Columbia Oral History Project, Columbia University

Daniel Longwell Papers, Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University

Clare Boothe Luce Papers, Manuscripts Division, Library of Congress

Henry R. Luce Papers, Time Inc. Archives

Henry R. Luce Papers, Manuscripts Division, Library of Congress

Henry W. Luce Papers, Hartford Seminary Foundation

Dwight Macdonald Papers, Sterling Library, Yale University

Nettie McCormick Papers, Wisconsin State Historical Society

Franklin D. Roosevelt Papers, Franklin D. Roosevelt Library

Henry Stimson Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress

W. A. Swanberg Papers, Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Columbia University

Time Dispatches, Houghton Library, Harvard University

Time Inc. Papers, Time Inc. Archives

Rexford Tugwell Papers, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress

Lila Luce Tyng Papers, Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University

Henry A. Wallace Papers, University of Iowa Library

Albert C. Wedemeyer Papers, Hoover Institution Archives, Stanford University

Theodore H. White Papers, Houghton Library, Harvard University

Wendell Willkie Papers, Lilly Library, Indiana University

INTERVIEWS

Jeanne Campbell, New York, N.Y., 1997

Richard Clurman, New York, N.Y., 1993

Thomas Griffith, New York, N.Y., 1995

Henry Grunwald, New York, N.Y., 1997

David Halberstam, New York, N.Y., 2004

Andrew Heiskell, New York, N.Y., 1996

Christopher Luce, New York, N.Y., 1993

Henry Luce III, New York, N.Y., 1993–98

Peter Luce, Denver, Colo., 1997

Elisabeth Luce Moore, New York, N.Y., 1994

David H. C. Read, New York, N.Y., 1995

Leslie Severinghaus, Coconut Grove, Fla., 1992

Lila Luce Tyng, Gladstone, N.J., 1993

PREFACE

1. Henry Luce interviewed by Eric Goldman, May 8, 1966, video, The Open Mind, WNBC Television, “A Profile of Henry R. Luce,” TIA.

2. Henry R. Luce, “The American Century,” Life, February 17, 1941.

3. W. A. Swanberg, Luce and His Empire (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1972).

I AMERICANS ABROAD

1. Charles E. Ronan and Bonnie B. C. Oh, eds., East Meets West: The Jesuits in China, 1582–1773 (Chicago: Loyola University Press, 1988); George H. Dunne, Generation of Giants: The Story of the Jesuits in China in the Last Decades of the Ming Dynasty(Notre Dame, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 1962); John King Fairbank, The United States and China, 4th ed. (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1983), pp. 152–55; William R. Hutchison, Errand to the World: Protestant Thought and Foreign Missions (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), pp. 21–22.

2. James C. Thompson, Jr., Peter W. Stanley, John Curtis Perry, Sentimental Imperialists: The American Experience in East Asia (New York: Harper & Row, 1981), pp. 44–60; John King Fairbank, “The Many Faces of Protestant Missions,” in Fairbank, ed., The Missionary Enterprise in China and America (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1974), pp. 1–10; Jonathan Spence, To Change China: Western Advisers in China, 1620–1960 (Boston: Little, Brown, 1969), pp. 34–56; Michael H. Hunt, The Making of a Special Relationship: The United States and China to 1914 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1983), pp. 26–28.

3. George Marsden, Fundamentalism and American Culture: The Shaping of Twentieth-Century Evangelicalism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1980), pp. 30–31, 48, 86–88, 162–69; Jon H. Roberts, Darwinism and the Divine in America: Protestant Intellectuals and Organic Evolution, 1859–1900 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1988), pp. 213–31; Randall Balmer and Lauren Winner, Protestantism in America (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002), pp. 73–75, 85.

4. William R. Hutchinson, “Modernism and Missions: The Liberal Search for an Exportable Christianity, 1886–1920,” in Fairbank, The Missionary Enterprise in China and America, pp. 110–31; Martin E. Marty, “Protestants and the Chinese Wall,” Reviews in American History 14 (September 1986): 391; Roberts, Darwinism and the Divine in America, pp. 181–208; Balmer and Winner, Protestantism in America, pp. 57–58, 84–85.

5. Clifton J. Philips, “The Student Volunteer Movement and Its Role in China Missions, 1886–1920,” in Fairbank, The Missionary Enterprise in China and America, pp. 91–109; Valentin H. Rabe, The Home Base of American China Missions, 1880–1920(Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1978), pp. 90–93; Hutchison, Errand to the World, pp. 130–32.

6. Arthur T. Pierson, The Crisis of Missions (New York: Robert Carter and Brothers, 1886), p. 27; Philips, “The Student Volunteer Movement,” pp. 92–96.

7. Philips, “The Student Volunteer Movement,” pp. 102–3.

8. Spence, To Change China, pp. 34–36; Akira Iriye, Across the Pacific: An Inner History of American-East Asian Relations (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1967), pp. 17–20; Rabe, The Home Base of American China Missions, pp. 92–106.

9. B. A. Garside, One Increasing Purpose: The Life of Henry Winters Luce (New York: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1948), pp. 23–28.

10. Ibid., pp. 29–34.

11. Ibid., pp. 30–34; Robert E. Speer, A Memorial to Horace Tracy Pitkin (New York: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1903), pp. 62–80; W. A. Swanberg, Luce and His Empire (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1972), pp. 15–17.

12. Garside, One Increasing Purpose, pp. 44–58, 82–83; HWL to Howard Thurman, February 12, 1936, HWL Mss.

13. ERL to HRL, February, n.d., 1942, May 26, 1946, TIA; Garside, One Increasing Purpose, pp. 58–72; Swanberg, Luce and His Empire, p. 17.

14. William R. Hutchison, “Modernism and Missions,” pp. 111–20; Jessie Gregory Lutz, China and the Christian Colleges, 1850–1950 (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1971), pp. 12–24.

15. Garside, One Increasing Purpose, pp. 78–87; Gladys Zehnpfennig, Henry R. Luce: Tycoon of Journalism (Minneapolis: T. S. Denison & Co., Inc., 1969), p. 14; Lutz, China and the Christian Colleges, pp. 28–29; Jane Hunter, The Gospel of Gentility: American Women Missionaries in Turn-of-the-Century China (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1984), pp. 164–66.

16. S. Cecil-Smith to HWL, July 20, 1913, LT; Garside, One Increasing Purpose, pp. 88–94.

17. Arthur H. Smith, Chinese Characteristics (New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1894), pp. 313, 329–30; Charles W. Hayford, “Chinese and American Characteristics: Arthur H. Smith and His China Book,” in Suzanne Wilson Barnett and John King Fairbank, eds., Christianity in China: Early Protestant Missionary Writings (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1985), pp. 153–74; Lawrence D. Kessler, The Jiangyin Mission Station: An American Missionary Community in China, 1895–1951 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996), pp. 43–66; Sidney A. Forsythe, An American Missionary Community in China, 1895–1905 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1971), pp. 21–30; Marty, “Protestants and the Chinese Wall,” pp. 388–89; Hunt, The Making of a Special Relationship, pp. 28–29.

18. Diana Preston, The Boxer Rebellion (New York: Walker & Company, 2000), p. 276; Henry Keown-Boyd, The Fists of Righteous Harmony: A History of the Boxer Uprising in China in the Year 1900 (London: Leo Cooper, 1991), pp. 27–29, 214–15; Jonathan Spence, The Gate of Heavenly Peace: The Chinese and Their Revolution, 1895–1980 (New York: Viking Penguin, 1981), pp. 58–62.

19. Frederic A. Sharf and Peter Harrington, China 1900: The Eyewitnesses Speak (London: Greenhill Books, 2000), pp. 26–28, 151–239; Preston, The Boxer Rebellion, pp. 275–82.

20. Stuart Creighton Miller, “Ends and Means: Missionary Justification of Force in Nineteenth-Century China,” in Fairbank, The Missionary Enterprise in China and America, pp. 273–80.

21. Lutz, China and the Christian Colleges, pp. 108–9, 121; John J. Heeren, On the Shantung Front: A History of the Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A., 1861–1940 (New York: Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church, 1940), pp. 124, 137–39; B. A. Garside, Within the Four Seas (New York: Frederic C. Bell, 1985), pp. 58–59; Garside, One Increasing Purpose, p. 98.

22. Family birth record, TIA.

23. ERL notes, n.d., 1898, TIA.

24. HRL to HWL, June 12, 14, 1903, TIA.

25. Elisabeth Luce Moore interview.

26. Hunter, The Gospel of Gentility, pp. 128–73; Elisabeth Luce Moore interview.

27. Elisabeth Luce Moore interview; Elisabeth Luce Moore oral history, TIA.

28. HRL to parents, December 24, 1916, TIA; Elisabeth Luce Moore interview.

29. HRL to ERL, July 7, 1912, TIA; Elisabeth Luce Moore oral history, TIA; Elisabeth Luce Moore interview.

30. Elisabeth Luce Moore interview; Elisabeth Luce Moore oral history, TIA.

31. HRL to parents, n.d., TIA.

32. HRL to Mary Linen, n.d., 1903, TIA; Garside, Within the Four Seas, p. 58.

33. HRL Elson interview, 1965, TIA; ERL to HRL, August 6, 1918, LT.

34. HRL Elson interview, 1965, TIA; Elisabeth Luce Moore interview.

35. HRL Elson interview, 1965, TIA; HWL to HRL, n.d., 1913, TIA; Rabe, The Home Base of American Missions, pp. 109–71.

36. St. Nicholas, n.d., 1909, TIA.

37. E. Murray to HRL, October 1, 1913, LT; HRL speech, Nov. 17, 1932, LT; Richard H. Goldstone, Thornton Wilder: An Intimate Portrait (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1975), pp. 12–13.

38. HRL to ERL, September 3, 1911, HRL to parents, September 19, 20, 1908, TIA.

39. HRL to parents, October 13, 1909, February 20, 1910, September, n.d., 1908, May 22, September 4, 1910, TIA.

40. HRL to parents, May 16, 1909, September 17, 1911, February 11, July 21, 1912, TIA.

41. HRL to parents, April 3, July 25, 1909, May 8, 1910, n.d., 12, 1911, TIA.

42. HRL Elson interview, 1965, TIA; HRL speech, November 17, 1932, LT.

43. HRL to parents, October 29, 1911, March 10, 1912, HRL to Emmavail and Elisabeth, February 11, 1912, TIA; Spence, The Gate of Heavenly Peace, pp. 94–153.

44. HRL to Miss Dolph, March 4, 1912, HRL to Mrs. Linen, January, n.d., 1912; HRL speech at Saint Thomas Church, New York City, December 13, 1942, TIA.

45. HRL to parents, July 14, 21, 1912, TIA.

46. Elisabeth Luce Moore interview.

47. Ella Shields to ERL, November 7, 1912, Sheldon Luce to Henry Kobler, October 11, 1963, TIA.

48. HRL to ERL, October 31, November 13, multiple n.d., 1912, TIA.

49. HWL to HRL, February 3, n.d., 1912, LT.

50. Elisabeth Luce Moore interview.

51. HRL to ERL, November 6, 1912, HRL to parents, November 8, 1912, TIA.

II THE STRIVER

1. HRL to parents, November 13, 14, 22, 1912, TIA.

2. HRL to parents, November 22, n.d., December 1, 7, 9, 12, 1912, HRL to Emmavail, December 10, 1912, TIA.

3. HWL to HRL, n.d., 1913, LT; HRL Elson interview, 1965, p. 43, TIA.

4. HRL to parents, December 11, 16, 24, 1912, January 12, 19, 1913, TIA; “Idolatry,” a poem by HRL, n.d., 1913, LT.

5. ERL to HRL, January 8, 1913, HWL to HRL, January 10, 13, 1913, LT; HRL to parents, January 26, 1913, HRL to ERL, February 9, 1913, TIA.

6. HRL to HWL, March 14, 1913, LT; HRL to HWL, March 18, 23, 1913, April, n.d., 1913, HRL to ERL, April 7, 1913, TIA; HRL travel diary, n.d., 1913, LT.

7. HRL to ERL, April 14, 1913, TIA; HWL to HRL, May 2, 1913, LT.

8. HRL to ERL, April 14, 1913, TIA; railroad tickets and tour receipts, n.d., 1913, LT; HRL to HWL, April 25, 1913, TIA.

9. Miss Dolph to HWL, August 6, 1913, LT; HRL to parents, August 24, 30, 1913, TIA; Harold Burt to ERL, August 31, 1913, Harold Burt to HRL, September 4, 1913, LT.

10. HWL to HRL, n.d., 1913, ERL to HRL, January 12, 1914, LT.

11. HRL Elson interview, 1965, p. 46, TIA; HWL to HRL, December 11, 1913, ERL to HRL, December 7, 1912, LT.

12. HRL to ERL, n.d., 1913, TIA.

13. E. Digby Baltzell, The Protestant Establishment: Aristocracy and Caste in America (New York: Random House, 1965), pp. 109–42.

14. Lael Tucker Wertenbaker and Maude Basserman, The Hotchkiss School: A Portrait (Lakeville, Conn.: Hotchkiss School, 1966), pp. 1–12; James McLachlan, American Boarding Schools: A Historical Study (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1970), pp. 189–97.

15. HRL to HWL, January 11, 1914, HRL to Emmavail, September 20, 1913, TIA; Wertenbaker and Basserman, The Hotchkiss School, pp. 54–55, 64.

16. HRL to HWL, January 18, 1914, HRL to ERL, November 22, 1913, HRL to HWL, December 4, 1913, January 18, 1914, TIA; Erdman Harris, “Harry Luce ‘16 at Hotchkiss,’” unpublished essay, Hotchkiss School Archives.

17. Paul Bergen to HRL, January 22, 1913, LT; HRL to HWL, October 20, 1913, TIA.

18. HRL to HWL, November 16, 1913, HRL to parents, November 18, 1913, TIA; “Lower Mid Year,” Hotchkiss Literary Monthly, June 1916, Hotchkiss School Archives.

19. H. G. Buehler to HWL, December 29, 1913, HWL to HRL, n.d., 1913, LT; Hotchkiss Record, January 14, 1916, p. 3, Hotchkiss School Archives.

20. HRL to parents, August 27, November 17, 1915, n.d., 1917, TIA; HRL Elson interview, 1965, TIA; Wertenbaker and Basserman, The Hotchkiss School, pp. 47–53.

21. HRL to HWL, September 28, 1913, TIA.

22. HRL to parents, May 16, 1914, HRL to ERL, November 22, 1913, January 15, 1915, TIA.

23. HWL to HRL, December 19, 1913, LT; HRL Elson interview, 1965, p. 38, TIA.

24. Nettie Fowler McCormick to HRL, June 12, August 9, December 13, 1913, HRL to HWL, December 19, 1913, HWL to HRL, December 11, 1913, LT; ERL to HWL, November 2, 1913, Uncle Charlie to HRL, December 13, 1913, ERL to HRL, n.d., 1913, LT.

25. HRL to ERL, December, n.d., 1913, TIA.

26. Nettie Fowler McCormick to HRL, January 14, n.d., 1914, LT.

27. ERL to HRL, January 17, 1914, LT; “Walking Chart,” n.d., 1914, TIA.

28. HRL to HWL, October 18, December 27, 1914, HRL to ERL, January 1, 1915, HRL to parents, August, n.d., 1915, TIA; ERL to HRL, October 10, November 28, 1915, September 1, 1914, HWL to HRL, December 22, 1915, Elisabeth Luce to HRL, October 2, November 3, 1915, Emmavail Luce to HRL, November 22, 1915, LT; B. A. Garside, Within the Four Seas (New York: Frederic C. Bell, 1985), pp. 58–59; Jessie Gregory Lutz, China and the Christian Colleges, 1850–1950 (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1971), pp. 122–23; HRL to parents, August 12, 1915, TIA.

29. HRL to parents, August 19, 1915, TIA.

30. HWL to HRL, April 17, 1914, LT.

31. HRL to HWL, January 8, December, n.d., 1914, HRL to parents, n.d., 1914, TIA.

32. HRL to parents, n.d., 1914, HRL to HWL, October 4, 1914, HRL to ERL, November 2, 1914, HRL to HWL, November 7, 1914, TIA; Hotchkiss Record, n.d., 1915, February 1, 1916, April, n.d., 1916, Hotchkiss School Archives.

33. Hotchkiss Record, October 1, 1915, January 14, 1916; St. Luke’s Society Prayer Meeting announcement, n.d., 1916, LT; HRL to ERL, n.d., 1915, HRL to parents, May 23, 1915, TIA; Hotchkiss Literary Monthly (“the Lit”), November 1914, March 1915, April 1915, May 1915, March 1916, May 1916, June 1916.

34. HRL to ERL, February 23, 1915, TIA; Isaiah Wilner, The Man Time Forgot: A Tale of Genius, Betrayal, and the Creation of Time Magazine (New York: HarperCollins, 2006), pp. 28–29.

35. Daily Glonk, n.d., May 12, 1913, Hadden Mss., TIA; Noel F. Busch, Briton Hadden: A Biography of the Co-Founder of Time (New York: Farrar Straus, 1949), pp. 3–17; Hans L. Wydler, “‘The Late Gargantuan Man’: Briton Hadden, The Other Founder of Time” (senior essay, Yale College, 1988), in Hadden Mss., TIA; Wilner, The Man Time Forgot, pp. 10–16.

36. BH to E. G. Driscoll, June 20, 1914, BH to mother, n.d., 1913, Hadden Mss., TIA; Busch, Briton Hadden, pp. 19–22, 26–28.

37. Undated letters, BH to mother, 1913, 1914, 1915, in BH Mss., TIA; Hotchkiss Literary Monthly, June 1916, Hotchkiss School Archives; Robert T. Elson, Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise, 1923–1941 (New York: Atheneum, 1968), pp. 33–34.

38. Undated letters, BH to mother, 1913, 1914, 1915, in BH Mss., TIA.

39. HRL to HWL, September 9, 1915, TIA; Wilner, The Man Time Forgot, pp. 32–34.

40. HRL to ERL, October, n.d., 1915, TIA.

41. Hothckiss Record, October 1, 1915, March 31, April 18, 1916, and 1915–1916, passim, Hotchkiss School Archives; Busch, Briton Hadden, p. 31; Wydler, “The Late Gargantuan Man,” pp. 7–9; Wilner, The Man Time Forgot, pp. 33–36; Elson, Time Inc., p. 32.

42. HRL to parents, September 26, 1915, HRL to ERL, September 22, 1915, TIA.

43. HRL to HWL, October 14, 1914, TIA; Hotchkiss Record, October 12, 1915, LT; H. G. Buehler to HWL, March 9, 1916, March 9, 1914, TIA.

44. HRL to HWL, March, n.d., 1916, HWL to HRL, April 10, 1916, H. G. Buehler to HRL, with HRL notations, March 9, 1916, LT.

45. HRL to parents, January 12, March 29, May 29, 1916, TIA; Hotchkiss Record, January 18, 1916, Hotchkiss School Archives.

46. HRL to parents, June 7, 25, 1916, HRL 23-2, LC; Wilner, The Man Time Forgot, pp. 33–35, 38–39; John Kobler, Luce: His Time, Life, and Fortune (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1968), pp. 36–37.

III BIG MAN

1. HRL to parents, June 25, 1916, TIA; Erdman Harris to HRL, n.d., September 5, 1915, LT; John Kobler, Luce: His Time, Life, and Fortune (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1968), pp. 36–37.

2. William D. Judson, Jr., ed., Hotchkiss Verse, 1917–1926 (Hotchkiss Literary Monthly, 1926), p. 3.

3. HWL to HRL, December 8, 1915, May 14, 1918, LT; B. A. Garside, One Increasing Purpose: The Life of Henry Winters Luce (New York: Fleming H. Revell Company, 1948), pp. 154–87.

4. HRL to HWL, January 7, 1914, May 13, 21, 1917, March 11, 1918, TIA; Jessie Gregory Lutz, China and the Christian Colleges, 1850–1950 (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1971), p. 123; Garside, One Increasing Purpose, pp. 147–62, 173–88.

5. HRL to parents, April 23, May 29, 1916, TIA; George S. Merriam, The Life and Times of Samuel Bowles (New York: The Century Company, 1885, 2 vols.).

6. HRL to Elisabeth Luce, July 9, 1916, HRL to parents, July 31, n.d., 1916, TIA.

7. HRL to parents, August 7, 1916, TIA.

8. HRL to parents, August 31, 1916, TIA.

9. HRL to parents, October 1, 1916, TIA.

10. Owen Johnson, Stover at Yale (1912; repr., New York: Macmillan Company, 1968), pp. 20–21; Henry Seidel Canby, Alma Mater: The Gothic Age of the American College (New York: Farrar & Rinehart, 1936), pp. 36–40.

11. HRL to parents, January 12, April 8, August 13, 1916, TIA; Canby, Alma Mater,

12. HRL to parents, September, n.d., 1916, TIA.

13. HRL to parents, November 5, December 3, 1916, January 4, 21, March 30, 1917, TIA; Isaiah Wilner, The Man Time Forgot: A Tale of Genius, Betrayal, and the Creation of Time Magazine (New York: HarperCollins, 2006), pp. 41–43.

14. HRL to parents, January 4, March 11, 12, 1917, TIA.

15. HRL to parents, October 1, 8, 1916, TIA.

16. HRL to parents, September, n.d., October 15, 1916, HWL to HRL, October 24, 1916, TIA.

17. HRL to parents, March 31, April, n.d., 14, 1917, TIA.

18. Commencement address, Hotchkiss School, June 13, 1964, Hotchkiss School Archives; HRL to parents, March 29, 1916, TIA.

19. HRL to HWL, September 11, 1918, HRL Elson interview, 1965, p. 48, TIA.

20. HRL to parents, April 14, May 13, 1917, TIA; HWL to HRL, March 21, 1918, Thomas Sammons to HWL, with HWL to HRL note, April 5, 1918, LT.

21. HRL to parents, June 4, 1917, TIA.

22. HRL to parents, April, n.d., June 4, August 12, 1917, TIA.

23. HRL to parents, October 19, 1917, TIA.

24. HRL to parents, October 22, November 22, 28, December 16, 1917, TIA.

25. HRL to ERL, March, n.d., April 21, 1918, TIA.

26. HRL to parents, January 10, 1918, TIA.

27. HRL to parents, January 10, n.d., 20, 1918, ERL to HRL, February 20, 1918, TIA; HWL to HRL, March 4, 1918, LT; Wilner, The Man Time Forgot, pp. 48–50.

28. HRL to ERL, March, n.d., 1919, TIA.

29. HRL to parents, January 10, 1918, TIA; David Ingalls interview, July 28, 1948, Lila Luce Tyng interview; Elisabeth Luce Moore interview.

30. Yale Daily News, January 28, 29, February 1, 1918; HRL speech, June 13, 1963, TIA; Wilner, The Man Time Forgot, pp. 59–60; Lila Luce Tyng interview.

31. Yale Daily News, January 28, 29, February 1, 28, March 9, April 6, 9, 1918.

32. ERL to HRL, September 3, 1918, LT.

33. HRL Elson interview, 1965, TIA.

34. HRL speech, n.d., 1963, TIA; Noel F. Busch, Briton Hadden: A Biography of the Co-Founder of Time (New York: Farrar Straus, 1949), pp. 35–36; Robert T. Elson, Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise, 1923–1941 (New York: Atheneum, 1968), pp. 40–42.

35. HRL to HWL, August, n.d., September 6, 18, 1918, TIA.

36. HRL to HWL, September 11, 1918, TIA.

37. HRL to ERL, September, n.d., October, n.d., 1918, HRL to parents, October 13, 1918, TIA.

38. HRL to ERL, November, n.d., 3, 14, 1918, TIA.

39. HRL to HWL, December 15, 18, 22, 1918, TIA.

40. Henry Seidel Canby, College Sons and College Fathers (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1915), pp. 102–10; Canby, Alma Mater, pp. 58–59.

41. HRL to ERL, February 24, March, n.d., 1919, TIA; Johnson, Stover at Yale, pp. 21–22.

42. HRL to HWL, March 1919, HRL to ERL, May, n.d., 1919, TIA.

43. HRL to HWL, May 16, 1919, HRL to ERL, May, n.d., 1919, TIA; Johnson, Stover at Yale, pp. 305–7; Wilner, The Man Time Forgot, pp. 58–59; LT interview.

44. HRL to parents, August 10, September 25, n.d., December, n.d., 1919, HRL to ERL, n.d., 1920, HRL to ERL, March, n.d., April, n.d., 1920, TIA.

45. HRL to parents, June 20, 1920, TIA; HRL to LH, December, n.d., 1921, LT; Elson, Time Inc., pp. 44–45.

46. HRL to parents, June 20, 1920, TIA.

47. ERL to HRL, July 24, 1918, HWL to HRL, April 19, 21, May 24, July 20, 1918, HRL to HWL, July 8, 1918, LT.

48. HRL to parents, n.d., 1919, January, n.d., 1920, TIA.

49. HRL to parents, July 9, 1920, TIA.

50. Thornton Wilder to HRL, May 17, 1921, LT.

51. “Mr. Luce at lunch with Bob Elson,” memo on interview, April 29, 1965, TIA.

52. HRL to parents, September 2, 16, 1920, HRL to Emmavail, September 14, 1920, TIA.

53. HRL to parents, November 4, 28, 1920, TIA.

54. HRL to LH, December 4, 1921, LT.

55. LH to HRL, January 3, February 13, 1921, HRL to LH, January 1, February 14, March 20, April 8, 16, May 3, 1921, Dance card, Magdalen College, June 20, 1921, HRL to LH, June 2, 7, 10, 24, 29, 1921, LT; HRL to parents, December 1, 16, 24, 1920, April 3, 1921, TIA.

56. HRL to parents, December 24, 1920, TIA; HRL to LH, January 30, March 30, April 6, 1921, LT.

57. HRL to parents, June 21, 1921, TIA.

58. Ibid.

IV “THE PAPER”

1. Isaiah Wilner, The Man Time Forgot: A Tale of Genius, Betrayal, and the Creation of Time Magazine (New York: HarperCollins, 2006), pp. 63–65; HRL Elson interview, 1965, TIA; “Notes on tape,” n.d., TIA.

2. Ben Hecht, “Bedtime Story,” transcript of radio broadcast, September 23, 1958, TIA; HRL Elson interview, 1965, TIA; “Notes on tape,” n.d., 1965, TIA.

3. Alex Groner to Bill Furth, September 30, 1958, summary of Luce’s reaction to Hecht story, Chicago Daily News, July 13, 20, August 10, 30, 1921, clippings in TIA; HRL to parents, n.d., 1921, September 21, 1921, HRL to ERL, n.d., 1921, TIA; “Notes on Luce interview,” 1965, TIA.

4. HRL to parents, n.d., 1921, November, n.d., 1921, HRL to ERL, n.d., 1921, TIA.

5. HRL Elson interview, 1965, TIA; Robert T. Elson, Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise, 1923–1941 (New York: Atheneum, 1968), pp. 54–55.

6. HRL to ERL, n.d., 1921, TIA.

7. HRL to LH, November 28, December 4, 1921, LT.

8. HRL to LH, November 28, 1921, LT.

9. HRL to Henry Justin Smith, editor, Chicago Daily News, n.d., 1921, TIA; HRL to parents, December, n.d., 1921, TIA; HRL to LT, December 1, 1921, LT; New York World clippings, July–August 1921, Hadden Mss., TIA; Matthew Schneirov, The Dream of a New Social Order: Popular Magazines in America, 1893–1914 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1994), pp. 85–91.

10. HRL to Henry Justin Smith, n.d., 1921, TIA.

11. HRL to LH, n.d., 1921, December, n.d., 1921, LT; HRL to parents, n.d., 1921, TIA.

12. HRL to LH, December 4, 1921, LT.

13. HRL Elson interview, 1965, TIA; HRL to LH, December 4, n.d., 1921, LT.

14. HRL to ERL, January, n.d., 1922, HRL to LH, December 12, 1920, LT.

15. HRL to Lila, n.d., 1922, LT; Noel Busch, “Interview with HRL,” June 20, 1939, Hadden to mother, n.d., 1922, Hadden Mss., TIA.

16. HRL to Nettie Fowler McCormick, December 6, 1921, McCormick Collections, Series 2B, Box 177; Noel F. Busch, Briton Haddon: A Biography of the Co-Founder of Time (New York: Farrar Straus, 1949), pp. 64–65; James L. Baughman, Henry R. Luce and the Rise of the American News Media (Boston: Twayne, 1987), p. 24.

17. “Plans and Specifications of the Newspaper Man,” Literary Digest, April 15, 1922, pp. 64–67; Elson, Time Inc., pp. 81–83; Baughman, Henry R. Luce, pp. 24–28.

18. Gay Talese, The Kingdom and the Power (New York: World Publishing Company, 1969), pp. 159–63; Richard Kluger, The Paper: The Life and Death of the New York Herald Tribune (New York: Knopf, 1986), pp. 164–65, 184–86; Columbia Journalism Review 18 (November–December 1980): 73; Baughman, Henry R. Luce, p. 29.

19. Schneirov, The Dream of a New Social Order, pp. 2–6.

20. Ray Stannard Baker, American Chronicle (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1945), pp. 96–101; Frank Luther Mott, A History of American Magazines, 1885–1905 (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1957), pp. 453–505, 589–619; Schneirov, The Dream of a New Social Order, pp. 75–124.

21. Literary Digest, April 15, 1922, pp. 64–67, May 12, 1928, pp. 5–7, 9–11; Mott, History of American Magazines, 1885–1905, pp. 568–79; John Tebbel and Mary Ellen Zuckerman, The Magazine in America, 1741–1990 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1991), pp. 160–61; David Reed, The Popular Magazine in Britain and the United States, 1880–1960 (London: British Library, 1997), pp. 128–29; Theodore Peterson, Magazines in the Twentieth Century (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1964), pp. 154–56.

22. Mott, History of American Magazines, 1885–1905, pp. 575–77.

23. Peterson, Magazines in the Twentieth Century, p. 154.

24. HRL to LH, n.d., 1922, LT; HRL Elson interview, 1965, TIA.

25. HRL to LH, February, n.d., March 21, 1922, LT; Robert T. Elson, The World of Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise, 1941–1960 (New York: Atheneum, 1973), p. 57.

26. Samuel Everitt to HRL, February 10, 1922, LT; Elson, Time Inc., p. 61.

27. HRL to LH, May, n.d., 1922, Time circular, 1922, LT.

28. HRL to LH, May 31, June 2, 1922, LT; “Preliminary Circular,” July 24, 1922, Larsen Mss., TIA.

29. HRL to LH, June 7, 15, 19, n.d., 1922, LT.

30. HRL to LH, April 30, June 7, July 14, 20, 1922, LT; HRL to HWL, n.d., 1922, TIA; HRL Elson interview, 1965, TIA.

31. HRL to LH, August 1, 12, 1922, LT.

32. HRL to LH, July 20, August, n.d., November 8, 1922, LT; “Money Raising,” Luce interview, June 20, 1939, TIA; Elson, Time Inc., pp. 9–14.

33. Time prospectus, 1922, “Specimen Issue,” February 17, 1923, TIA.

34. HRL to LH, n.d., March 4, November 3, 8, 1922, LT; “Early Days,” Luce interview, June 20, 1939, TIA.

35. HRL to LH, March 11, n.d., 1922, TIA; HRL Elson interview, 1965, TIA.

36. Manfred Gottfried oral history, August 4–6, 1961, pp. 1–6, TIA; HRL Elison interview, 1964, TIA.

37. Roy E. Larsen to Celia Sugarman, November 26, 1962, TIA; Larsen oral history, pp. 10–19, TIA; Elson, Time Inc., p. 60; HRL to LH, February, n.d., 1923, LT.

38. HRL to LH, January, n.d., 1923, January, n.d., 25, 29, 1923, LT; Gottfried diary, January 22, 1923, TIA.

39. Time prospectus, 1922, TIA.

40. Ibid.; Time advertising circular, May 1922, LT; Larsen oral history, TIA.

41. Gottfried diary, January 3, 5, 7, 1923, TIA; HRL to LH, n.d., 1922, LT; Notes on Luce-Larsen discussion, January 28, 1957, TIA.

42. HRL to LH, November 8, 1922, LT.

43. HRL to LH, December, n.d., 20, 1922, January, n.d., February, n.d., 1923, LT; Specimen issues, December 30, 1922, February 17, 1923, TIA.

44. HRL to LH, December, n.d., 1922, January, n.d., 29, 1923, LT.

45. HRL to LH, n.d., January 25, 1923, LT; Gottfried oral history, 1964, TIA.

46. Gottfried oral history, 1964, TIA; HRL Elson interview, 1965, TIA.

47. Gottfried oral history, 1961, TIA.

48. Time, March 3, 1923.

49. HRL Elson interview, 1965, TIA; HRL to LH, March, n.d., 1923, LT.

V “TIME: THE WEEKLY NEWS-MAGAZINE”

1. HRL to LH, n.d., 1923, LT.

2. HRL to LH, July 15, 1923, March, n.d., 1923, LT; New York Times, March 2, 1923.

3. HRL to LH, March, n.d., 1923, HRL to Nettie McCormick, July 1, 1923, HRL to parents, March, n.d., 1924, LT; Robert T. Elson, Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise, 1923–1941 (New York: Atheneum, 1968), pp. 70–71.

4. Notes on Luce-Larsen-Paine discussion at Paine 25th anniversary luncheon, January 28, 1957, HRL Elson interview, 1965, TIA; Time Annual Report, 1924, TIA; HRL to LH, May 5, 24, 1923, LT; Elson, Time Inc., pp. 70–71.

5. HRL to LH, n.d., May 8, 1923, Yale, Commencement Week Program, 1923, HRL to LH, June 21, 1923, HWL to H. L. Banghart, September 14, 1923, LT.

6. HRL to LH, March, n.d., 1923, October 7, 1923, LT; Time Inc. President’s Report, December 31, 1923, TIA.

7. HRL Elson interview, 1966, TIA.

8. HRL to Harry Davison, April 15, 1925, “Description of Capital Structure of Time Inc.,” April 10, 1925, HRL Elson interview, 1965, Roy Larsen letter to Saturday Review subscribers, December 2, 1924, TIA; Elson, Time Inc., pp. 77–79.

9. HRL to LH, July 4, 18, 1923, LT.

10. James L. Baughman, Henry R. Luce and the Rise of the American News Media (Boston: Twayne, 1987), p. 38; HRL to Nettie McCormick, n.d., McCormick papers, Series 2B, Box 182.

11. Baughman, Henry R. Luce, p. 38; HRL to Nettie McCormick, n.d., McCormick papers, Series 2B, Box 182.

12. HRL to LH, July 2, 1923, HRL to Lila, n.d., 1923, LT.

13. HRL to LH, n.d., February, n.d., 1923, July 18, 1923, LT.

14. HRL to LH, January 27, n.d., 1923, March, multiple n.d., March 18, 1923, LT.

15. Lila Luce Tyng interview; HRL to LH, March, n.d., 1923, LT.

16. HRL to LH, March, n.d., June, n.d., 1923, October 10, 1923, LT.

17. HRL to LH, June, n.d., 1923, July, n.d., 1923, HRL to Nettie McCormick, July 1, 1923, HRL to LH, July 5, 12, 1923, LT.

18. HRL to LH, October 12, 1923, LT.

19. HRL to LH, October 12, 18, 1923, LT.

20. HRL to LH, July 29, October 15, 19, December, multiple n.d., 1923, LT; W. A. Swanberg, Luce and His Empire (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1972), p. 59.

21. HRL to ERL, December 2, 1923, with undated notations by ERL, TIA; HRL to LH, December 18, 1923, LT.

22. LH to HRL, n.d., 1926, LT.

23. “The Move to Cleveland,” internal memo, n.d, TIA.

24. HRL to LH, May 8, n.d., 1923, LT.

25. “Mr. Luce at lunch with Bob Elson,” memo, April 29, 1965, TIA: HRL Elson interview, 1965, “Summary of Assets and Liabilities,” December 31, 1925, TIA.

26. HRL Elson interview 1965, “The Move to Cleveland,” internal memo, n.d., TIA.

27. HRL to LH, n.d., 1925, n.d., 1926, LT; HRL to parents, n.d., 1924, Beth to HRL, n.d., 1925, HRL Elson interview, 1965, TIA; Cleveland Times, July 29, 1925, August 28, 1925; Cleveland Plain Dealer, August 28, 1925; Samuel Mather to Guy Emerson, n.d., 1925, TIA.

28. Interview with Lila Luce Tyng; “The Move to Cleveland,” memo, n.d., TIA; Larsen memoir, August 1956, TIA.

29. “Time Likes Cleveland,” Clevelander, June 1926, clipping in TIA.

30. Cleveland Plain Dealer, n.d., 1926, Cleveland Press, n.d., 1926, clippings in TIA; “Time Quiz: Questions and Answers,” Dayton, Ohio, April 20, 1926, LT; New York World, March 18, 1927; HRL Elson interview, 1965, TIA.

31. Time Inc. Treasurer’s Report, January 2, 1926, “General Report to the Board of Directors of Time Inc.,” April 1, 1926, Time Inc., President’s Report, January 1, 1927, BH to Larsen, March, n.d., 1927, Larsen Mss.; Larsen, “First Estimate 1927 Budget,” “The Move to Cleveland,” memo, n.d., HRL Elson interview, 1965, TIA; Elson, Time Inc., p. 97.

32. HRL to LH, BH to Harry Davison, July 11, 1957, Larsen memoir, 1956, TIA; HRL Elson interview, 1965, TIA.

33. “Treasurer’s Report,” January 31, 1928, “Facts for Directors,” April 8, 1929, TIA.

34. President’s Report, February 24, 1927, TIA.

35. Noel F. Busch, Briton Hadden: A Biography of the Co-Founder of Time (New York: Farrar Straus, 1949), pp. 134–38, 180–81; HRL Elson interview, 1966, TIA; “Copyright Protection,” editorial in The Chicago Tribune, n.d., 1929, TIA.

36. Staff rosters, 1923, 1924, 1927, 1929, TIA; T. S. Matthews, Name and Address: An Autobiography (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1960), p. 221.

37. Subscription circular, n.d., 1926, TIA.

38. Time, August 3, 1925, August 25, 1930, March 2, 1931; John S. Martin, “Briton Hadden as Editor and Co-Founder of Time,” speech, New Haven, April 27, 1932, TIA.

39. Time, August 10, 1925, October 6, 1924, August 25, 1930; BH memo, n.d., TIA; Robert Withington, “Some New ‘Portmanteau’ Words,” Philological Quarterly 9 (April 1930): 158–64; BH memo, n.d., TIA; Busch, Briton Hadden, p. 114.

40. Time, July 23, May 17, 28, 1923, October 27, 1930, April 6, 1931; Busch, Briton Hadden, p. 144.

41. Matthews, Name and Address, pp. 217–18, 221; Busch, Briton Hadden, p. 133.

42. Joseph J. Firebaugh, “The Vocabulary of Time Magazine,” American Speech, October 1940, pp. 232–42; Busch, Briton Hadden, pp. 110–13; “The Index of Time,” November 1932, Hotchkiss School Archives; “The Log Takes a Lot of Time,” U.S. Naval Academy, March 23, 1928, “Columns,” University of Washington, February 1931, R. T. Johnson to HRL, May 5, 1934; “Time: But Not the Weekly Newsmagazine,” White Company, May 1934, Rochester Times-Union, March 27, 1929, Edmonton Journal, n.d., TIA; ERL to HRL, September 10, 1926, LT.

43. HRL Elson interview, 1965, TIA; HRL speech in Rochester, NY, n.d., 1928, LT; Democratic National Committee receipt, October 29, 1928, LT; Time advertisement in Christian Century, November 13, 1924, TIA.

44. Time, February 4, 1929.

45. Time, March 3, 1923.

46. Dwight Macdonald, “‘Time’ and Henry Luce,” Nation, May 1, 1937, p. 502; Covering History: TIME Magazine Covers, 1923–1997 (New York: Time Inc., 1998); Frederick S. Voss, Faces of Time: 75 Years of Time Magazine Cover Portraits (New York: Little, Brown, 1998), pp. 12–16 and passim.

47. Time, September 14, 1925, March 2, 10, 1923, May 23, 1927.

48. Time, March 24, April 21, August 6, 1923, January 14, 1924, August 10, 1925, October 12, 1931; Richard Washburn Child, “Making of Mussolini,” Saturday Evening Post, June 28, 1924; Child, “What Does Mussolini Mean,” Saturday Evening Post, July 26, 1924; Child, “Mussolini Now,” Saturday Evening Post, March 24, 1928; David Nasaw, The Chief: The Life of William Randolph Hearst (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2000), pp. 323, 355–56, 380, 470–74; John Patrick Diggins, Mussolini and Fascism: The View from America (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1972), pp. 26–28, 42–57.

49. Time, December 10, 1923, June 9, 1930; Swanberg, Luce and His Empire, pp. 76–78.

50. Goldsborough to HRL, n.d., 1929, TIA.

51. Time, March 9, 1936; HRL Elson interviews, 1957, 1965, TIA; Swanberg, Luce and His Empire, pp. 129–30.

52. Busch, Briton Hadden, pp. 192–93; HRL Elson interview, 1966, TIA; Time, March 3, 1927.

53. Time, March 5, April 28, 1923, March 10, 1924, June 1, 1925, May 24, 1926, June 30, 1930.

54. HRL Elson interview, 1965, TIA.

55. Advertising flier, 1925, TIA.

56. Joan Shelly Rubin, “‘Information, Please!’ Culture and Expertise in the Interwar Period,” American Quarterly 35 (1983): 499–517.

57. Sinclair Lewis, Babbitt (1922; repr., New York: Signet, 1950), p. 152; “A Tour Through Time Colony,” advertising pamphlet, 1927, Time circulation map, 1924, Time advertisting circular, 1927, TIA.

58. Copy for Time circular, n.d., TIA; “This Class-Ridden Democracy,” advertising pamphlet, 1928, TIA; “Success comes mysteriously …,” advertising pamphlet, 1929, TIA.

59. Elson, Time Inc., p. 82; Time internal newsletter, January 7, 1929, “A Tour Through Time Colony,” advertising pamphlet, 1928, TIA.

60. Busch, Briton Hadden, pp. 215–16; HRL to Lila, March, n.d., 1923, Lilian Rixey to Noel Busch, June 28, 1948, TIA.

61. HRL Elson interview, 1965, TIA.

62. Tide: Dedicated to the Flow of Business, April 1927, E. D. Kennedy to David Edwin Sanders, October 29, 1928, E. Robin Little memo, April 7, 1953, Lilian Rixey to Noel Busch, October 4, 1948, HRL Elson interview, 1957, Hadden diary, Hadden Mss., TIA.

63. HRL memo to staff, March 15, 1928, TIA; Gottfried oral history, TIA; Lila Luce Tyng interview.

64. “Hadden illness & death,” Time memo, May 5, 1965, HRL Elson interview, 1965, Lilian Rixey to Noel Busch, June 28, 1948, BH to Harry Davison, October 26, 1926, TIA; Lila Luce Tyng interview.

65. Walter Buell to HRL, June 28, 1926, TIA; Lila Luce Tyng interview.

66. HRL to LH, n.d., 1927, LT; Lila Luce Tyng interview.

67. “Hadden Illness & Death,” Time memo, May 5, 1965, TIA.

68. Ibid; “Bulletin on Mr. Hadden,” January 30, 1929, February 5, 1929, TIA; Gottfried oral history, TIA.

69. Gottfried oral history, HRL to Daniel Winter, January 19, 1929, Lilian Rixey to Noel Busch, June 28, 1948, TIA.

70. Time, March 11, 18, 1929.

VI EMPIRE BUILDING

1. Lila Luce Tyng, Elisabeth Luce Moore interviews; HRL to HWL, n.d., 1929, HRL to Board of Directors, May 1929, TIA.

2. Hadden will, Hadden Mss., TIA; Brooklyn Eagle, March 8, 1929; Howard V. Luce to HRL, February 28, 1929, TIA.

3. HRL to Roy Larsen, September 3, 1929, Charles Stillman to Harry P. Davison, September 3, 1929, “Time Inc. Stock,” memo, November 15, 1967, Robert Elson to Jim Linen, April 19, 1966, “Employees’ Stock Purchase Plan,” October 14, 1929, HRL to Davison, September 3, 1929, HRL to Board of Directors, September 4, 1929, TIA.

4. “Financial Prospectus and Plan of Operations,” n.d., 1930, HRL Elson interview, 1965, HRL to Roy Larsen, n.d., 1928, HRL to Harry P. Davison, February 7, May 24, 1929, “Special Report to the Board of Directors,” February 1929, “Report of the Experimental Department,” May 24, 1929, HRL to Davison, May 24, 1929, TIA.

5. “Preface to Fortune,” 1929, form letter, October 21, 1929, TIA.

6. World’s Work, January 1929.

7. Eric Hodgins oral history, 1968, p. 49, COHP.

8. “The American Tycoon,” HRL speech, March 27, 1929, TIA; Louis Galambos, The Public Image of Big Business in America, 1880–1940: A Quantitative Study in Social Change (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1975), pp. 191–21.

9. “The American Tycoon,” HRL speech, March 27, 1929, TIA; Eric Hodgins oral history, 1968, p. 49, COHP; John K. Jessup, ed., The Ideas of Henry Luce (New York: Atheneum, 1969), pp. 221, 223–24, 385–86; James L. Baughman, Henry R. Luce and the Rise of the American News Media (Boston: Twayne, 1987), p. 64; Galambos, The Public Image of Big Business in America, pp. 222–49.

10. Lila Luce Tyng interview; HRL Elson interview, 1965, TIA.

11. HRL to Board of Directors, May 24, 1929, HRL, “Prospectus for a Monthly Magazine,” draft, n.d., 1929, TIA; Announcement of Fortune (advertisement), New York Times, January 24, 1930 (“The First Number of the Most Beautiful Magazine in America”), “Preface to Fortune,” 1930, TIA; Brooklyn Eagle, October 6, 1930; Robert T. Elson, Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise, 1923–1941 (New York: Atheneum, 1968), pp. 140–41; Milton St. John, “True Stories de Luxe,” Nation, March 4, 1931, p. 239; John Huey, Daniel Okrent, Fortune: The Art of Covering Business (Layton, Utah: Gibbs, Smith, 1999).

12. HRL, “Topics for Fortune,” n.d., HRL notes on Fortune, untitled, n.d., “Preface to Fortune,” 1930, HRL, “Prospectus for a Monthly Magazine,” draft, n.d., 1929, TIA.

13. “Preface to Fortune,” 1930, “Announcing Fortune,” form letters to subscribers, July 8, October 21, 1929, “Directive for the Editorial Development of FORTUNE,” n.d., 1947, TIA.

14. C. L. Stillman to Roy Larsen, “April Results,” May 20, 1930, Stillman to HRL, Larsen, June 9, 1929, Larsen to Johnson, August 8, 1930, HRL to Board of Directors, May 24, 1929, TIA; Elson, Time Inc., p. 141.

15. Scott Donaldson, Archibald MacLeish: An American Life (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1992), pp. 209–10.

16. HRL to Board of Directors, May 24, 1929, TIA; HRL to MBW, May 8, 1929, Parker Lloyd-Smith to MBW, May 22, June 10, 1929, MBW to Parker Lloyd-Smith, June 16, 1929, Box 49, MBW Mss.; Elson, Time Inc., pp. 135–36; Vicki Goldberg, Margaret Bourke-White: A Biography(New York: Harper & Row, 1986), pp. 79–100, 105; John R. Stomberg, “Art and Fortune: Machine-Age Discourse and the Visual Culture of Industrial Modernity” (Ph.D. diss., Boston University, 1999), p. 117.

17. Tom Durrance to “Fill,” December 9, 1944, Box 50, MBW Mss.; New York Mirror, September 22, 1930; Goldberg, Margaret Bourke-White, pp. 101–12.

18. Fortune, February 1930; Stephen Bennett Phillips, Margaret Bourke-White: The Photography of Design, 1927–1936 (New York: Rizzoli, 2005), pp. 18–53; Susan Goldman Rubin, Margaret Bourke-White (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999), pp. 22–47; Ronald E. Osman and Harry Littell, Margaret Bourke-White: The Early Work, 1922–1930 (Boston: Godine Paragon, 2005), pp. xxvii–xxxvi, 83–88.

19. Fortune, February 1930; Upton Sinclair, The Jungle (1906; repr., New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 2003), pp. 102–3, 140–41.

20. Fortune, December 1930, July 1930, May 1933, March 1931, August 1931; Terry Smith, Making the Modern: Industry, Art, and Design in America (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993), pp. 159–98; Stomberg, “Art and Fortune,” pp. 125–48; Michael Augspurger, An Economy of Abundant Beauty: Fortune Magazine & Depression America (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2004), pp. 80–85.

21. Fortune, March 1930.

22. HRL, “Aristocracy and Motives,” 1930 speech, TIA; Fortune, September 1932.

23. Fortune, May 1930, April 1930, September 1930, January 1931; Augspurger, An Economy of Abundant Beauty, p. 35; Alfred Chandler, Strategy and Structure: Chapters in the History of the Industrial Enterprise (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1962), pp. 114–62.

24. Milton St. John, “True Stories de Luxe,” pp. 239–40; HRL memo to editors, May 18, 1944, HRL Elson interview, 1966, TIA.

25. HRL, “To members of FORTUNE’s Research Staff,” April 13, 1933, Ingersoll to HRL, April 26, 1933, TIA; Ingersoll to Fortune Researchers, April 27, 1933, HRL to Ingersoll, January, n.d., 1933, January 9, 1933, HRL to Archibald MacLeish, n.d., 1930, TIA; Ingersoll, “Answers to Time Inc. Questions,” March 28, 1956, Ingersoll Mss.; Archibald MacLeish, “The First Nine Years,” Writing for Fortune (New York: Time Inc., 1980), p. 8; Galambos, The Public Image of Big Business in America, pp. 246–49.

26. Robert Coughlan, “A Collection of Characters,” in Writing for Fortune, p. 74; John Chamberlain, “How I Really Learned About Business,” in ibid., p. 28; Dwight Macdonald, “Against the Grain,” in ibid., p. 150; Michael Wreszin, A Rebel in Defense of Tradition: The Life and Politics of Dwight Macdonald (New York: Basic Books, 1994), pp. 22–23; Laurence Bergreen, James Agee: A Life (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1984), pp. 106–8; Roy Hoopes, Ralph Ingersoll: A Biography (New York: Atheneum, 1985), pp. 93–97.

27. Donaldson, Archibald MacLeish, pp. 242–44; Hoopes, Ralph Ingersoll, p. 97; Charles J. V. Murphy, “I Wish My Fortune Years Were Just Beginning,” in Writing for Fortune, pp. 40–43; Fortune, September 1933; Ingersoll to HRL, March 7, 1934, TIA; Fortune, March, May, June, July 1934, February 1936, September 1934.

28. Fortune, July, October 1934.

29. Macdonald to Dinsmore Wheeler, March 8, 1935, Macdonald to Nicholas Macdonald, September 25, 1963, TIA; Michael Wreszin, ed., A Moral Temper: The Letters of Dwight Macdonald (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2001), pp. 52, 352; Wreszin, A Rebel in Defense of Tradition, pp. 47–53; Bergreen, James Agee, pp. 158–77, 244–45, 257–61; William Stott, Documentary Expression and Depression America (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1973, 1986), pp. 259–314.

30. Macdonald to Nancy Rodman, July 20, 1934, TIA; Wreszin, A Moral Temper, p. 49; Fortune, June 1936; HRL Elson interview, 1965, TIA; Dwight Macdonald, “‘Fortune’ Magazine,” Nation, May 8, 1937, pp. 529–30.

31. Macdonald to HRL, n.d., 1936, TIA; Wreszin, A Moral Temper, pp. 67–71; HRL to Ingersoll, April 29, 1933, HRL to Alexander Legge, May 31, 1933, HRL to MacLeish, July 27, 1933, HRL to staff, May 13, 1937, MacLeish to HRL, May 5, 1937, July 18, 1938, Russell Davenport to HRL, February 14, 1951, TIA; Fortune, April 1934, December 1935; HRL Elson interview, 1965, TIA.

32. HRL to Louis Howe, Sept. 15, 1933, HRL to Stephen Early, September 22, 1933, Stephen Early to HRL, Sept. 21, 1933, MacLeish to HRL, n.d., 1937, Hodgins to HRL, November 11, 1936, HRL to Hodgins, November 11, 1936, January 21, 1937, TIA; Elson, Time Inc., pp. 250, 261–64; HRL, “Respectus,” May 10, 1937, HRL to staff, May 13, 1937, TIA.

33. John K. Jessup, “Comments (At Random) on the ‘Respectus,’” n.d., 1937, E. D. Kennedy, “Decline of Fortune,” November 29, 1937, Davenport to HRL, February 14, 1951, Research staff to Davenport, April 7, 1938, TIA.

34. Fortune, October 1936; HRL speech, “Calculability of Abundance,” November 10, 1937, TIA.

35. HRL speech, Rochester, New York, March 1928, HRL speech, Scranton, Pennsylvania, April 19, 1934, TIA; Jessup, The Ideas of Henry Luce, pp. 219, 224–26.

36. Fortune, February, June 1938, February 1939; Joseph Thorndike, “The Liberal and Salutary Path: Fortune Magazine and the Search for a Business Liberalism” (thesis, University of Virginia, 1993), pp. 48–60.

37. Fortune, March 1939, March 1940.

VII “TIME MARCHES ON”

1. HRL, “General Memorandum,” September 3, 1931, “Time Incorporated: Who’s Who and Where,” internal office map, n.d., TIA; JSBD, August 3, 1931; HRL Elson interview, 1966, TIA.

2. HRL to HWL, May 7, 1932, HRL to ERL, n.d., 1932, LT; JSBD, April 22, 1932.

3. Leslie Severinghaus interview.

4. HRL to LH, n.d., 1932, May 12, 1932, HRL to Henry, May 19, 1932, LT; Victoria Colonist, May 9, 1932; Severinghaus journal, pp. 1–12, TIA.

5. HRL to LH, May 27, 1932, LT.

6. HRL to HWL, May 7, n.d., 1932, Severinghaus journal, pp. 12–26, TIA; Leslie Severinghaus interview; Eugene Barnett to Edward Haag, June 1, 1932, Courtland Van Deusen to HRL, May 30, 1932, Nelson Johnson to HRL, June 14, 1932, LT.

7. HRL to LH, June n.d., 1932, Severinghaus journal, pp. 26–31, TIA; W. A. Swanberg, Luce and His Empire (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1972), p. 98.

8. HRL to HWL, May 7, 1932, HRL to LH, June 10, 1932, Severinghaus journal, p. 16, TIA; Leslie Severinghaus interview; Mme. Wellington Koo with Isabella Taves, No Feast Lasts Forever (New York: Quadrangle Books, 1975), p. 189; Sterling Seagrave, The Soong Dynasty (New York: Harper & Row, 1985), pp. 311–13.

9. Seagrave, The Soong Dynasty, pp. 307–8.

10. HRL, “Notes on U.S.S.R.,” August 1932, Severinghaus journal, pp. 33–45, TIA; Leslie Severinghaus interview.

11. HRL memo to Time Editors, n.d., 1933 (“Salaries”), JSB Mss.

12. JSBD, May 15, 1930, May 1, 1931, January 28, October 14, 31, 1932, June 17, 1933; Robert T. Elson, Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise, 1923–1941 (New York: Atheneum, 1968), pp. 158–59.

13. JSBD, January 14, February 18, March 24, November 11, 1932, January 15, April 16, September 28, November 16, 24, 1933, March 22, 1934; HRL Elson interview, 1965, TIA.

14. Skyline dummy, 1931, TIA; Architectural Forum, June 1937; JSBD, March 3, 1932; HRL to MBW, May 10, 1932, Box 49, MBW Mss.; Robert T. Elson, The World of Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise, 1941–1960 (New York: Atheneum, 1973), pp. 186–94; Elson, Time Inc., pp. 322–24.

15. JSBD, September 23, 1935, April 3, 1936; Letters, 1934–1937, TIA; Elson, Time Inc., pp. 204–5.

16. Larsen to Richard Krolik, March 10, 1970, Larsen Mss., TIA; Editor and Publisher, November 3, 1928; David Alan Campbell, “The Origin and Early Developments of the Time Incorporated Radio Series the March of Time” (M.A. thesis, Central Missouri State College, 1969), pp. 26–41; Frank C. Tucker III, “A Critical Evaluation of the March of Time, 1931–1932” (M.A. thesis, Central Missouri State College, 1969), pp. 6–12.

17. HRL Elson interview, 1965, TIA.

18. March of Time script, March 27, 1931, TIA; Tucker, “A Critical Evaluation of the March of Time,” pp. 27–28; Larsen to Richard Krolik, March 10, 1970, Larsen Mss., TIA; Raymond Fielding, The March of Time, 1935–1951 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978), pp. 16–18; Eric Barnouw, Documentary (New York: Oxford University Press, 1974), p. 1310; Elson, Time Inc., pp. 177–80.

19. Larsen to HRL, June 20, 1932, Larsen Mss., TIA; Fielding, The March of Time, p. 19.

20. HRL memo, “The Opportunity,” August 1934, TIA; Christian Science Monitor Weekly Magazine, October 30, 1935, p. 15; HRL to JSB, August 24, 1934, JSB Mss.; Forsyth Hardy, Grierson on Documentary (London: Faber & Faber, 1966), pp. 201–2; James L. Baughman, Henry R. Luce and the Rise of the American News Media (Boston: Twayne, 1987), pp. 77–79; Fielding, The March of Time, pp. 31–32.

21. HRL, “The Opportunity,” August 1934, TIA; William P. Montague, “Public Opinion and the Newsreels,” Public Opinion Quarterly 2 (January 1938): 51; Richard Mersan Barasm, “‘This Is America’: Documentaries for Theaters, 1942–1951,” Cinema Journal 12 (Spring 1973): 22–23; Four Hours a Year (New York: Time Inc., 1936), pp. 3, 21; Fielding, The March of Time, pp. 22–45; Elson, Time Inc., pp. 227–40.

22. HRL to Ingersoll, n.d., 1938, HRL to Thomas J. White, January 31, 1935, TIA; David Nasaw, The Chief: The Life of William Randolph Hearst (New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2000), pp. 506–7.

23. HRL to Hearst, January 31, 1935, Hearst to HRL, February 1, 8, 1935, TIA; “Hearst,” Fortune, October 1935; Ingersoll to Thomas J. White, May 13, 1936, Daniel Longwell to HRL, March 8, 1935, TIA; Four Hours a Year, p. 19; Nasaw, The Chief, pp. 507–8.

24. Dick Duncan to Bob Parker, memo, March 5, 1967, TIA; JSBD, March 15, 1935.

25. Four Hours a Year, pp. 44–47; Fielding, The March of Time, p. 6; “Summer Theaters,” “Wild Ducks,” “Dogs for Sale,” “Pests in 1937,” March of Time, 1935–1937.

26. “Lake Tana, Africa!,” “East of the Suez!,” “War in China,” March of Time, 1936–1937; “Japan—Master of the Orient,” March of Time, 1939.

27. “Inside Nazi Germany,” March of Time, 1938; Fielding, The March of Time, pp. 187–95.

28. Otis Ferguson, “Time Steals a March,” New Republic, February 9, 1938, p. 19; George Dangerfield, “Time Muddles On,” New Republic, August 19, 1936, pp. 43–45; Irving Lerner (using the pseudonym “Peter Ellis”), New Masses, July 9, 1935, p. 30, May 11, 1937, p. 29; Ralph Steiner and Leo T. Hurwitz, “A New Approach to Film Making,” New Theater, September 1935, pp. 22–23; William Alexander, “The March of Time and the World Today,” American Quarterly 29 (Summer 1977): 184–85, 188–92.

29. Raymond Fielding, “Mirror of Discontent: The March of Time and Its Politically Controversial Film Issues,” Western Political Quarterly 12 (March 1959): 145–52; Fielding, The March of Time, p. 201.

30. Raymond Fielding, “Time Flickers Out: Notes on the Passing of the March of Time,” Quarterly of Film, Radio, and TelevisionII (Summer 1957): 354–61.

31. JSBD, November 12, 1931; Lila Luce Tyng interview; Elisabeth Luce Moore interview; HRL Elson interview, 1966, TIA.

32. Sylvia Morris, Rage for Fame: The Ascent of Clare Boothe Luce (New York: Random House, 1997), p. 30; CBL memoir, n.d., CBL Mss.; Alan Brinkley, “Clare Boothe Luce,” Notable American Women: A Biographical Dictionary—Completing the Twentieth Century (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2004), pp. 399–400; Ralph Martin, Henry and Clare: An Intimate Portrait of the Luces (New York: G. P. Putnam, 1991), pp. 27–39, 50–52.

33. Martin, Henry and Clare, pp. 52–56, 69–83; Morris, Rage for Fame, pp. 74–160.

34. Helen Lawrenson, Stranger at the Party: A Memoir (New York: Random House, 1975), pp. 102–5; Morris, Rage for Fame, pp. 161–238.

35. Lila to ERL, Emmavail, and Leslie Severinghaus, August 2, 1932, LT; Laura Z. Hobson, Laura Z: A Life (New York: Arbor House, 1983), pp. 136–38; Morris, Rage for Fame, pp. 240–41.

36. Lawrenson, Stranger at the Party, pp. 114–16; Roy Hoopes, Ralph Ingersoll: A Biography (New York: Atheneum, 1985), pp. 119–121; Morris, Rage for Fame, pp. 240–44.

37. HRL to CBL, December 23, 1934, CBL to HRL, August 15, 1935, CBL Mss.; Morris, Rage for Fame, pp. 242–48; Hoopes, Ralph Ingersoll, pp. 118–21; Martin, Henry and Clare, pp. 140–41.

38. HRL to CBL, January 3, 11, March 5, May 11, 13, July 21, n.d., 1935, November 22, 1937, CBL Mss. HRL to LH, February 7, March 26, 30, n.d., 1935, LT; HRL to Peter Paul Luce, n.d., 1935, LT; HRL to CBL, May 1, 12, 1935, CBL Mss.; HWL to LH, July 17, 1935, Mary Bradley to LH, n.d., 1935, LT Mss.; JSBD, November 9, 11, 23, 1935; Lila Luce Tyng interview; Elisabeth Luce Moore interview.

39. CBL to HRL, August 15, 1935, HRL to CBL, March 7, 1935, CBL Mss.; Morris, Rage for Fame, pp. 251–53.

40. JSBD, November 25, 1935; HRL to LH, n.d., 1935, TIA; Lawrenson, Stranger at the Party, pp. 117–18; Time, November 25, 1935; Morris, Rage for Fame, pp. 276–80.

41. JSBD, May 22, 1936.

42. HRL Elson interview, 1966, Preface to Fortune, August 1929, Larsen oral history, p. 23, TIA; Edmund Wilson, Letters on Literature and Politics (New York: Farrar Straus & Giroux, 1977), pp. 405–6; The New Yorker, September 26, 1926, pp. 13, 19; David Laskin, Partisan: Marriage, Politics, and Betrayal Among the New York Intellectuals (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), pp. 193–94; Michael Augspurger, An Economy of Abundant Beauty: Fortune Magazine & Depression America (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University, 2004), pp. 55–62; Jacques Barzun, The House of Intellect (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1959), pp. 42–45.

43. Elson HRL interview, 1966, TIA; James Thurber, The Years with Ross (New York: Little, Brown, 1957), p. 16; Hoopes, Ralph Ingersoll, p. 76.

44. Ingersoll to Katherine Sergeant White, November 9, 1933, TIA; Ingersoll, “Answers to Time Inc. Questions,” March 28, 1956, Ingersoll Mss.; Fortune, August 1934.

45. “Time … Fortune … Life … Luce,” The New Yorker, November 28, 1936, pp. 20–25; Bernard DeVoto, “Distempers of the Press,” Harper’s, March 1937, p. 447.

46. HRL Elson interview, 1966, Harold Ross to HRL, November 23, 1936, HRL to Harold Ross, November 24, 1936, TIA; JSBD, November 19, 1937.

VIII “LIFE BEGINS”

1. Clare Boothe Brokaw to Condé Nast, May 7, December 9, 1931; HRL to Edna Chase, January 25, 1954, Condé Nast to HRL, October 17, 1938, TIA; John R. Whiting and George R. Clark, “The Picture Magazines,” Harper’s, June 18, 1943, pp. 159–60.

2. Elisabeth Luce Moore interview; Sylvia Morris, Rage for Fame: The Ascent of Clare Boothe Luce (New York: Random House, 1997), pp. 281–84; Laura Z. Hobson, Laura Z: A Life (New York: Arbor House, 1983), pp. 184–85; Helen Lawrenson, Stranger at the Party: A Memoir (New York: Random House, 1975), pp. 65–66.

3. JSBD, August 24, 1936; Andrew Heiskell interview.

4. Elisabeth Luce Moore interview; Roy Hoopes, Ralph Ingersoll: A Biography (New York: Atheneum, 1985), pp. 146–48; Morris, Rage for Fame, p. 287; Wilfred Sheed, Clare Boothe Luce (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1982), pp. 78–79; Ralph G. Martin, Henry and Clare: An Intimate Portrait of the Luces (New York: G. P. Putnam, 1991), pp. 156–60.

5. Clare Boothe Luce, The Women (1937; repr., New York: Dramatists Play Service, 1966), pp. 89–90 and passim.

6. Andrew Heiskell interview; JSBD, September 6, December 29, 1939, October 18, 1941.

7. Elisabeth Luce Moore interview; Henry Luce III interview; Peter Luce interview; HRL to CBL, n.d., 1936, HRL to CBL, December 8, 9, 11, 18, 19, 1936, CBL Mss.

8. HRL to CBL, January 1, 1937, n.d., 1939, CBL Mss.; HRL to Peter Paul Luce, n.d., 1935, LT Mss.; Charles E. Clapp, Jr., to HRL, May, n.d., 1936, Corinne Thrasher to HRL, May 6, 1936, TIA; Architectural Forum, June 1937; Corinne Thrasher to Town of Stamford, February 16, 1939, Allen Grover to HRL, August 3, 1939, Alex Groner to Andrew Heiskell, November 3, 1961, Edward Durrell Stone to HRL, December 19, 1939, HRL to Stone, December 23, 1939, “The Henry R. Luce Estates’ Disaster in the Swamps,” research memo for Time cover story on Stone, TIA; Morris, Rage for Fame, pp. 286, 296–305; Elisabeth Luce Moore interview.

9. HRL to CBL, May 17, 18, November 22, n.d., 1937, June 13, 1939, CBL to HRL, June 1, 3, 1939, CBL Mss.

10. John Cowles to HRL, March 26, 1932, TIA; Isaiah Wilner, The Man Time Forgot: A Tale of Genius, Betrayal, and the Creation of Time Magazine (New York: HarperCollins, 2006), pp. 4, 223; Four Hours a Year (New York: Time Inc., 1936); HRL to Fayette Dow, August 10, 1936, TIA; interview with Daniel Longwell, January 31, 1956, COHP.

11. Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung, February 13, March 21, April 17, 1935; Illustrated London News, April 26, 1930, August 8, 1931, March 11, 1933, April 27, 1935; Vu, January, April 1935, March 1936; Dwight Macdonald to Henri Cartier-Bresson, December 27, 1933, January 22, 1934, TIA; Beaumont Newhall, The History of Photography (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1964), pp. 180–86; HRL, “Organization of Editorial Staff of the Picture Magazine,” n.d., 1936, TIA.

12. Martin Heidegger, “The Age of the World Picture,” in William Lovitt, trans. and ed., The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays (New York: Harper& Row, 1977), p. 133; Hanno Hardt, “Pictures for the Masses: Photography and the Rise of Popular Magazines in Weimar Germany,” Journal of Communication Inquiry 13 (1989): 7–30; Dwight Macdonald, “Kulturbolshevismus Is Here,” Partisan Review, November 1941, pp. 449–50; Bernard Rosenberg, “Attitudes to Mass Culture,” Dissent, Winter 1956, pp. 25–28; John P. Sis, “The Things That Pass,” Commonweal, September 16, 1955, pp. 593–95.

13. HRL Elson interview, 1966, HRL to the Editorial Staffs of Time and Fortune, December 1, 1933, HRL to Collins, November, n.d., 1933, John S. Martin to W. A. Dwiggins, February 28, March 2, 9, 13, 30, 1934, Dwight Macdonald to David Hulburd, March, n.d., 1934, Dwight Macdonald to Jack Sussman, January 23, 1934, C. D. Jackson to HRL, April 9, 1934, Ralph Ingersoll to HRL, April 11, 1934, Roy Larsen to HRL, April 7, 1934, HRL, “Apology: To be read After reading Dummy No. 3,” April, n.d., 1934, HRL, “Important Notice,” June 12, 1934, TIA.

14. HRL Elson interview, 1966, TIA; Longwell to HRL, June 12, 1935, Longwell Mss.; Kurt Korff, “Essential Outline for a New Illustrated Magazine,” n.d., 1936, Kurt Korff to HRL, July 31, 1936, TIA; HRL Elson interview, 1966, TIA; Robert T. Elson, Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise, 1923–1941 (New York: Atheneum, 1968), pp. 269–70; Ingersoll to Korff, April 14, 1936, Ingersoll to the Staff of TIME Inc., n.d., 1936, Ingersoll to Stillman et al., June 8, 1936, MacLeish to Ingersoll, June, n.d., 12, 1936, Ingersoll, “Notes on a Picture Magazine,” May 15, 1936, MacLeish to HRL, June 17, 1936, Ingersoll to HRL, “The Earnings Capacity of Time: The Weekly Newsmagazine,” October 28, 1938, TIA; Ingersoll, “Memorandum,” January 27, 1969, Ingersoll Mss.

15. P. I. Prentice to H. P. Zimmerman, April 29, 1936, H. P. Zimmerman to Charles Stillman, July 21, 1944, TIA; Ingersoll to HRL, November 15, 1936, TIA; Elson, Time Inc., pp. 283–84.

16. P. I. Prentice to HRL, February 24, 25, 27, March 2, 1936, “Operating Figures of The New Magazine,” n.d., 1936, TIA; Ingersoll to Longwell, May 6, 1936, TIA; Elson, Time Inc., p. 283.

17. “Prospectus for a New Weekly Magazine,” n.d., 1936, “Preface to a New Magazine,” n.d., 1936, HRL to Staff, June, n.d., 1936, HRL to H. P. Zimmerman, February 25, 1936, Longwell to Ingersoll, March 26, 1936, Ingersoll to Staff, June 8, 1936, HRL to Sheldon Luce, July 15, 1936, HRL to Dorothy Thompson, August 6, 1936, Dorothy Thompson to HRL, July 15, 1936, HRL, “Recording of a Decision of Major Importance,” August 18, 1936, HRL to Harry Davison, August 12, 1936, HRL to William Griffin, August 19, 1936, “March of Time: The Weekly Picture Magazine,” August, n.d., 1936, HRL to Archibald MacLeish, June 29, 1936, Howard Black to “All Life Representatives,” April 13, 1937, HRL to Rooney Finkenstaedt, January 17, 1938, TIA; McGeorge Bundy, “These Picture Magazines,” Yale Daily News, February 9, 1938, HRL to Bundy, February 28, 1938, Bundy to HRL, March 1, 1938, HRL to Hunt, June 20, 1963, TIA.

18. “Prospectus for a New Weekly Magazine,” n.d., 1935, JSB Mss.; Ingersoll, “Notes on Picture Magazine,” May 15, 1936, Ingersoll to Staff, “Prospectus No. 1,” June 8, 1936, Archibald MacLeish to HRL, June 27, 1936, HRL to MacLeish, June 29, 1936, TIA; HRL, “A Prospectus for a New Magazine,” n.d., 1936, JSB Mss.

19. Laura Hobson to Ingersoll, June 3, 1936, Hobson to HRL, October 19, 1936, Richard de Rochemont to C. D. Jackson, July 28, 1936, HRL to Allan Billingsley, February 25, 1936, Prentice to Ingersoll, May 12, 1936, “Possible Names for Picture Magazine,” n.d., 1936, “Prospectus for a New Weekly Newsmagazine,” n.d., 1936, Larsen to Prentice, August 22, 1936, Ingersoll to Prentice, August 22, 1936, Larsen, “March of Time: The Weekly Picture Magazine,” August 20, 1936, TIA; Elson, Time Inc., pp. 278, 290–91.

20. James A. Linen to HRL, August 7, 1936, HRL to Linen, August 19, 1936, Larsen to subscribers, November 18, 1936, Ingersoll to T. Harry Thompson, October 12, 1936, TIA; Time, October 19, 1936; News-Week, November 28, 1936; New York Herald Tribune, October 8, 1936.

21. “Dummy,” n.d., 1935, TIA; Loudon Wainwright, The Great American Magazine: An Inside History of Life (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1986), pp. 35–37; “Dummy,” n.d., 1936, Robert Chambers to HRL, August 19, 1936, HRL to Harry Davison, August 12, 1936, William Griffin to HRL, August 18, 1936, Paul Hollister to HRL, August 9, 1936, HRL to Hollister, August 12, 1936, Hollister to HRL, August 25, 1936, TIA; Andrew Heiskell interview.

22. “Rehearsal,” September 24, 1936, Ingersoll to Sadler, Longwell, HRL, September 19, 1936, Ingersoll to P. I. Prentice, October 3, 1936, Ingersoll to Laura Hobson, October 5, 1936, HRL to Ingersoll, November 2, 1935, Dorothy Thompson to HRL, October 7, 1936, HRL to Dorothy Thompson, November 19, 1936, Longwell to Kay Mills, October 5, 1936, Longwell to Egmont Arens, October 21, 1936, TIA; Wainwright, The Great American Magazine, pp. 37–40; Elson, Time Inc., pp. 284–87.

23. HRL, “Organization of Editorial Staff of the Picture Magazine,” n.d., 1936, JSB Mss.; HRL to John S. Martin, October 23, 26, 1936, HRL, untitled announcement, October 28, 1936, TIA.

24. JSBD, October 23, 1936; “Billings,” in-house memo, June 30, 1939, TIA; Andrew Heiskell interview.

25. HRL, “To All ‘Life’ Writers,” October 30, 1936, JSB, untitled notes on instructions from HRL, October, n.d., 1936, HRL to Larsen et al., October 19, 1936, HRL, “Editorial Responsibility and Initiative,” November, n.d., 1936, TIA; “Life’s editorial organization,” November, n.d., 1936, JSB Mss.; Longwell, “The Getting of Pictures,” November 16, 1936, TIA.

26. Life, November 23, 30, 1936; Wainwright, The Great American Magazine, pp. 69–79; Terry Smith, “Life-Style Modernity: Making Modern America,” in Erika Doss, ed., Looking at Life Magazine (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 2001), pp. 33–35.

27. HRL letter to Time subscribers, n.d., 1936, P. I. Prentice to J. J. Crowley, November 20, 1936, Roy E. Larsen to subscribers, November 18, 1936, TIA; Wainwright, The Great American Magazine, pp. 62–63; “From the Publishers; Prospectus for the New Life,” December 1936, TIA.

28. P. I. Prentice to Ingersoll et al., November 21, 1936, Misc. photos and photocopies, November–December 1936, Prentice to “All Employees,” December 8, 1936, Information Bulletin, Time Inc., November 1936, American News Company Circular, December 28, 1936, TIA.

29. Prentice to J. J. Crowley, November 20, 1936, Prentice to “All Employees,” December 8, 1936, Prentice to “Newsstand Men,” December 20, 1936, John H. Amadon to editors, December 10, 1936, Prentice to Amadon, December 14, 1936, HRL Elson interview, 1966, TIA; Elson, Time Inc., pp. 277, 297–303.

30. JSBD, February 2, March 22, 1937; Heiskell interview; HRL untitled memo, March 15, 1937, Larsen, “Review of Life as of July 28, 1937,” JSB Mss.; Elson, Time Inc., pp. 300–9.

31. “Report on Production,” n.d., 1937, TIA; JSBD, January 16, 1937; Larsen, “Review of Life as of July 28, 1937,” TIA; “The Current Fad for Picture Mags,” Literary Digest, January 30, 1937; Elson, Time Inc., pp. 301–9.

32. Elson, Time Inc., p. 309.

33. HRL, “Redefinition of Life—Part I,” July 6, 1938, JSB Mss.; Larsen, “Review of Life as of July 28, 1937,” TIA; Larsen, “Life—August 1938,” August 17, 1938, JSB Mss.; Elson, Time Inc., pp. 340–42; Andrew Heiskell interview; Wainwright, The Great American Magazine, p. 98.

34. JSBD, April 15, 1938; HRL to Larsen, JSB, May 10, 1938, HRL to Staff, “Editorial Plan & Organization, May 16, 1938, HRL, “Redefinition of LIFE—Part I,” July 6, 1938, JSB Mss.; HRL to Andrew Heiskell, July 30, 1938, TIA; Larsen to Ingersoll et al., August 22, 1938, JSB Mss.

35. Life, April 10, 1938; JSBD, March 25, 28, April 11, 1938, February 24, March 11, July 8, 1939; Larsen memo to staff, n.d., 1938, TIA; Heiskell interview; Morris L. Ernst, The Best is Yet … Reflections of an Irrepressible Man (New York: Harper & Row, 1945), pp. 138–42; Elson Time Inc., pp. 337–42.

36. JSBD, February 25, 26, March 28, April 15, April 16, 1938; Larsen to Ingersoll et al., August 22, 1938, Andrew Heiskell to Luce, July 29, 1938, TIA; Andrew Heiskell interview.

37. JSBD, August 11, 1937, February 11, 12, 1938, February 11, 1939; HRL, “Redefinition of the editorial contents and purpose of LIFE,” March, n.d., 1937, TIA; HRL, untitled memo, March 15, 1937, JSB Mss.; HRL to Hunt et al., June 20, 1963, “LIFE and People,” n.d., 1938, HRL, “Editorial Plan & Organization,” May 16, 1938, HRL, “Redefinition of LIFE,” July 6, 1938, TIA.

38. Andrew Heiskell interview; Thomas Griffith, How True: A Skeptic’s Guide to Believing the News (Boston: Little, Brown, 1974), pp. 139–42; JSBD, October 22, 1937, August 25, 1939; HRL Elson interview, 1966, TIA; Elson, Time Inc., p. 304; James L. Baughman, Henry R. Luce and the Rise of the American News Media (Boston: Twayne, 1987), pp. 95–98.

39. C. D. Jackson to HRL et al., n.d., 1936, TIA; HRL Elson interview, 1966, TIA; Elson, Time Inc., p. 323–25.

40. HRL Elson interview, 1966, TIA.

41. HRL speech to Association of Advertising Agencies, April 30, 1937, TIA; John K. Jessup, ed., The Ideas of Henry Luce (New York: Atheneum, 1969), pp. 35–43.

42. Wainwright, The Great American Magazine, jacket copy; Douglas Waples, People and Print: Social Aspects of Reading in the Depression (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1937), pp. 5–6, 72.

43. Wilson Hicks, Words and Pictures: An Introduction to Photojournalism (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1952), p. 85; “W. Eugene Smith,” interview in Paul Hill and Thomas Cooper, eds., Dialogue with Photography (New York: Dewi Lewis, 1979), pp. 203–5.

44. Susan Goldman Rubin, Margaret Bourke-White (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999), pp. 56–57; William Stott, Documentary Expression and Thirties America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1973), pp. 5–63; Michael Denning, The Cultural Front: The Laboring of American Culture in the Twentieth Century (London: Verso, 1996), pp. 158–59; Richard Pells, Radical Visions and American Dreams: Culture and Social Thought in the Depression Years (New York: Harper & Row, 1973), pp. 194–251.

45. Erika Doss, “Introduction,” in Doss, ed., Looking at Life Magazine, pp. 11–12; Daniel Longwell interview, January 13, 1956, COHP.

46. Life, November 23, 1936.

47. Life, May 10, 1937.

48. Life, November 30, 1936, November 8, 1937, August 7, 1939, January 24, 1938, April 19, 1937, August 14, 1939, March 22, 1937.

49. Life, November 25, 1940, February 1, 1937, December 7, 1936, February 6, December 11, 1939.

50. Life, April 19, 1937, December 28, 1936.

51. Life, October 10, 1938; “LIFE and People,” n.d., 1938, TIA; Wainwright, The Great American Magazine, pp. 100–1.

52. Life, April 19, May 24, 1937, July 25, September 5, 1938, January 1, 1940.

53. Life, July 18, 1938, February 15, April 12, 1937, November 14, December 26, September 5, 1938, January 13, 1941, October 10, 1938, January 4, 1937.

54. HRL to Longwell, August 12, 1944, Mary Fraser, “Women,” n.d., 1949, TIA.

55. Life, April 11, August 7, 1938, February 6, 1939, May 31, 1937, December 11, 1939; Jeanne Perkins Harman, Such Is Life: An Insider’s View of America’s Greatest Picture Magazine (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1956), pp. 19–23.

56. HRL to JSB, January 16, 1945, TIA; Life, n.d., 1945; Robert B. Westbrook, “I Want a Girl Just Like the Girl that Married Harry James,” American Quarterly 42 (December 1990): 596–602, 610–11.

57. Life, April 24, 1939, December 12, 1938, December 13, October 25, 1937, September 12, 1938; Terry Smith, “Life-Style Modernity: Making Modern America” in Doss, ed., Looking at Life Magazine, pp. 26–28.

58. Alfred Politz Research Inc., AUDIENCE: A Study of the Accumulative Audience of Life (New York: Time Inc., 1950), pp. 20–21; Paul F. Lazarsfeld, Bernard Berelson, and Hazel Gaudet, The People’s Choice: How the Voter Makes Up His Mind in a Presidential Election (New York: Columbia University Press, 1944), pp. 134–36; Carl F. Kaestle, Literacy in the United States: Readers and Reading since 1880 (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1991), pp. 263–66.

59. John Loengard, Life Photographers: What They Saw (Boston: Little, Brown, 1998), p. 20; William Brinkley, The Fun House (New York: Random House, 1961), p. 3; John G. Morris, Get the Picture: A Personal History of Photojournalism (New York: Random House, 1998), pp. 22–23; Carl Mydans, More Than Meets the Eye (New York: Harper Brothers, 1959), p. II; Rudolf Janssens and Gertjan Kalff, “Time Incorporated Stink Club: The Influence of Life on the Founding of Magnum Photos,” in David Nye and Mick Gidley, eds., American Photographs in Europe(Amsterdam: Vu University Press, 1994), pp. 223–42.

IX MAN OF THE WORLD

1. JSBD, March 21, 1939, February 12, 1941.

2. HRL to Dorothy Thompson, January 13, 1939, TIA.

3. HRL to René Chambrun, October 12, 1939, HRL, “Time, War and Truth: When Men Take Sides,” internal memo, n.d., 1939, TIA.

4. HRL to Ingersoll, n.d., 1938, HRL to TIME employees, January 30, 1939, TIA; JSBD, February 14, 1938, April 1, 1939.

5. Patricia Divver, “The Ideology of TIME,” internal memo, July 21, 1953, JSB Mss.; Ingersoll to HRL, October 28, 1938, TIA; JSBD, November 18, 1938, January 25, 26, 1939, April 29, November 13, 1940; James L. Baughman, Henry R. Luce and the Rise of the American News Media(Boston: Twayne, 1987), p. 115.

6. HRL to Eric Hodgins, August 3, 1940, Richardson Wood to HRL, August 16, 1940, Manfred Gottfried to HRL, August 23, 1940, HRL to Managing Editors, November 20, 1939, William Benton to Harold Lasswell, October 3, 1939, HRL memo, “Time, War and Truth: When Men Take Sides,” n.d., 1939, TIA; Charles Wertenbaker, The Death of Kings (New York: Random House, 1954), pp. 21–28; T. S. Matthews, Name and Address: An Autobiography (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1960), pp. 243–48.

7. “The Ideology of TIME,” JSB Mss.

8. Time, May 4, July 20, September 21, November 2, 9, 1936, March 22, July 20, 1937, August 22, October 24, 1938; “The Ideology of TIME,” JSB Mss.

9. Life, January 24, May 23, 1938, October 23, 1939; Fortune, March, May 1937, August 1938, February 1939.

10. Time, March 27, April 17, July 10, September 4, 11, 1938, August 28, 1939; “The Ideology of TIME,” JSB Mss.

11. Life, September 25, 1939.

12. Life, June 10, 17, July 22, August 26, 1940, January 20, 31, 1941; Time, September 16, November 16, 1940, January 6, 1941; “The Ramparts We Watched,” March of Time, 1939; Robert T. Elson, Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise, 1923–1941 (New York: Atheneum, 1968), pp. 381–85; “War and Peace,” Fortune, December 1939.

13. Life, January 13, 1941; The New Yorker, October 25, 1941.

14. HRL to Roy Larsen, Russell Davenport, July 14, 1939, Paul Prentice to HRL, November 14, 1940, TIA.

15. HRL to FDR, June 11, 1940, HRL to Russell Davenport, October 15, 1940, HRL to Dorothy Thompson, January 13, 1939, HRL memo, “Time Inc.’s General Attitude Toward Foreign Policy,” January 18, 1939, HRL to Manfred Gottfried, July 29, 1939, HRL, “Questions and Answers, n.d., 1939, TIA; HRL to Senior Group, “WAR,” July 26, 1940, Longwell Mss.; Clarence Streit, Union Now: A Proposal for a Federation of the Democracies of the North Atlantic (New York: Harper & Bros., 1939), pp. 1–3, 33–35; HRL to Roy Larsen, Russell Davenport, July 14, 1939, TIA.

16. HRL to Senior Group, “WAR,” July 26, 1940, Longwell Mss.

17. “Memorandum for Mr. Luce,” n.d., 1938, “Mr. Luce’s European Trip,” June 22, 1933, TIA; Time, June 17, 1938; HRL dispatch, “Germany,” “Czechoslovakia,” “Paris,” n.d., 1938, TIA; Elson, Time Inc., p. 354.

18. John Gunther to Frances Fineman Gunther, June 26, 1939, Frances Fineman Gunther Mss.

19. HRL to Lila, July 28, 1939, LT; HRL to Manfred Gottfried, July 29, 1939, TIA; New York Times, June 28, July 3, 1939; Alice B. Toklas, What Is Remembered (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1963), p. 161; Richard H. Goldstone, Thornton Wilder: An Intimate Portrait (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1975), p. 148; Time, August 21, 1939; Elson, Time Inc., pp. 409–12; JSBD, January 13, September 15, 1939.

20. HRL to Allen Grover, May 2, 1940, Grover to HRL, May 2, 1940, HRL to Grover, May 3, 1940, HRL to Larsen, May 9, 1940, TIA.

21. HRL dispatch, May 15, 1940, HRL to Roy Larsen, May 10, 1940, CBL to JSB, May 10, 1940, HRL to Roy Larsen, May 11, 1940, HRL to editors, May 11, 1940, George Jean Nathan to HRL, May 23, 1940, HRL to George Jean Nathan, telegram, May 25, 1940, TIA.

22. HRL to Larsen, April, n.d., 1940, HRL radio addresses, May 22, June 1, 1940, TIA.

23. HRL to David Hulburd, May 12, 1940, TIA.

24. Russell Davenport, The Dignity of Man (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1955), pp. 10–11; Fortune, April 1940; Warren Moscow, Roosevelt & Willkie (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1968), pp. 56–60; Ellsworth Barnard, Wendell Willkie: Fighter for Freedom (Marquette: Northern Michigan University Press, 1966), pp. 152–54; Bill Severn, Toward One World: The Life of Wendell Willkie (New York: Ives Washburn, 1967), pp. 114–17; Life, May 13, 1940.

25. Oren Root, Persons and Persuasions (New York: W. W. Norton, 1974), pp. 20–36; Donald Bruce Johnson, The Republican Party and Wendell Willkie (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1960), pp. 63–65; Davenport to Larsen, May 2, 1940; Larsen to HRL, May 2, 1940, TIA.

26. Interview with Corinne Thrasher, W. A. Swanberg Mss.; W. A. Swanberg, Luce and His Empire (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1972), p. 177; Barnard, Wendell Willkie, p. 137.

27. HRL to Davenport, October 14, 1940, HRL to Willkie, October 18, 1940, HRL to Willkie, n.d., 1940, TIA.

28. HRL to Davenport, September 12, 1940 (unsent), HRL to Davenport, October 18, 31, 1940, C. D. Jackson to HRL, October 1, 1940, HRL to Jackson, n.d., 1940, TIA; Vasilia N. Getz to FDR, November 19, 1937, FDR to Homer Cummings, November 19, 1937, J. Edgar Hoover to FDR, December 11, 1937, Corcoran Mss., LC; Alan Brinkley, The End of Reform: New Deal Liberalism in Recession and War (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995), pp. 56–57.

29. Time, May 6, June 10, 24, 1940; Life, May 6, 13, 1940.

30. Life, July 8, 1940; Time, July 8, 1940; Russell Davenport to Roy Larsen, July 8, 1940, TIA.

31. Don Parry to HRL, August 9, 1940, HRL to Gottfried, Norris, Matthews, Larsen, September 18, 1940, TIA.

32. Willkie to Davenport, n.d., 1940, TIA; Time, September 9, 1940; HRL, “Fairly Specific Points about the Willkie Campaign,” August, n.d., 1940, TIA.

33. HRL to Davenport, September 16, 1940, HRL to Willkie, September 30, 1940, TIA.

34. HRL to Davenport, September 13, 30, October 11, n.d., 1940, HRL, “Fairly Specific Points about the Willkie Campaign,” August, n.d., 1940, TIA.

35. New York Times, September 11, October 10, 27, 1940; HRL to Davenport, October 21, 27, 1940, October 28, 1940, HRL to multiple recipients, November 8, 1940, TIA.

36. Willkie to HRL, December 3, 1940, TIA; New York Times, December 3, 1940; HRL to Willkie, March 28, 1941, Willkie to HRL, June 17, 1941, November 17, 1943, March 17, 1944, HRL to Willkie, March 8, June 8, 1944, HRL, “Personal Memo,” July 31, 1944, TIA; Johnson, The Republican Party and Wendell Willkie, pp. 278–80, 300–5; New York Times, October 10, 1944; HRL to Joseph Ball, October 21, 1944, TIA.

37. Stephen Early to HRL, September 5, 1940 (unsent), Early to FDR, January 13, 1942, FDR to Early, January 17, 1942, PSF 132, FDRL; FDR to Early, December 3, 1940, Lowell Mellett to HRL, December 7, 1940, HRL to Mellett, December 11, 1940, FDR to Mellett, December 31, 1940, PPF 3338, FDRL; Time, November 11, 1940.

38. “Meeting at Columbia Club,” minutes, July 11, 1940, Francis P. Miller to HRL, July 19, 1940, HRL to Miller, July 20, 1940, Ward Cheney to HRL, September 23, 1940, HRL to Walter Lippmann, July 29, 1940, TIA.

39. “Memorandum of Meeting,” July 25, 1940, Joseph Alsop to HRL, July 23, 1940, Francis Miller to HRL, July 23, 1940, HRL to Francis Miller, July 25, 1940, HRL, “Memorandum,” July, n.d., 1940, TIA.

40. HRL to Lew Douglas, July 15, 1940, HRL, “War Diary,” July 28, 1940, TIA; Elson, Time Inc., p. 435.

41. HRL, “War Diary, July 27, 1940, TIA.

42. Ibid.; Time, July 29, September 9, 16, 30, 1940; Robert E. Herzstein, Henry R. Luce: A Political Portrait of the Man Who Created the American Century (New York: Scribner’s, 1994), pp. 17–20.

43. HRL to Ward Cheney, November 18, 1940, Cheney to HRL, November 26, 1940, HRL to Cheney, November 27, 1940, TIA.

44. JSBD, December 24, 1940, January 2, 21, February 1, 1941; HRL to Robert McCormick Adams, October 25, 1941, HRL speech to Association of American Colleges, January 9, 1941, HRL speech to Mid-Continent Oil and Gas Association, Tulsa, January 11, 1941, HRL speech to National Automobile Dealers Association, Pittsburgh, January 22, 1941, TIA; Herzstein, Henry R. Luce, pp. 171–74; Elson, Time Inc., pp. 461–64.

45. JSBD, June 1, 1940; Swanberg, Luce and His Empire, pp. 170–71.

46. Life, June 3, July 22, October 28, 1940, June 5, 1939.

47. MacLeish, “Draft of a Statement of Belief,” July 25, 1940, HRL to MacLeish, July 10, 1940, HRL to Leighton Stuart, January 6, 1940, TIA.

48. “When We Say ‘America,’” in John K. Jessup, ed., The Ideas of Henry Luce (New York: Atheneum, 1969), pp. 89–90.

49. “War,” HRL to Senior Group, July 26, 1940, TIA; Elson, Time Inc., pp. 412–13, 461–64; Herzstein, Henry R. Luce, p. 179; Daniel Longwell to HRL, August 5, 1940, Longwell Mss.

50. Life, February 17, 1941; Henry R. Luce, The American Century (New York: Farrar & Rinehart, 1941).

51. “Response to Mr. Luce’s THE AMERICAN CENTURY,” March 14, 1941, TIA; Gail Goodin to The Editor of LIFE, February 22, 1941, Russell B. Coover to HRL, February 18, 1941, H. L. Burton to “Life Inc.,” February 15, 1941, A. Taltosh to HRL, February 16, 1941, J. Frederick Emanuel to “LIFE,” February 17, 1941, Robert E. Duffy to HRL, n.d., 1941, HRL Mss. Boxes 107–108, LC.

52. Freda Kirchwey, “Luce Thinking,” Nation, March 1, 1941; W. A. Swanberg, Norman Thomas: The Last Idealist (New York: Scribner’s, 1976), pp. 250–51; Ronald Radosh, Prophets on the Right: Profiles of Conservative Critics of American Globalism (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1975), pp. 217–18.

53. HRL to Robert A. Taft, May 26, 1943, HRL to William Ernest Hocking, March 23, 1944, HRL to Bartley Crum, October 29, 1957, TIA.

54. Baughman, Henry R. Luce, p. 135.

55. John C. Culver and John Hyde, American Dreamer: A Life of Henry Wallace (New York: W. W. Norton, 2000), pp. 275–80; Edward L. and Frederick H. Schapsmeier, Prophet in Politics: Henry A. Wallace and the War Years, 1940–1945 (Ames: Iowa State University Press, 1970), pp. 29–33.

56. Henry A. Wallace, “The Price of Free World Victory,” in Prefaces to Peace (New York: Simon & Schuster et al., 1943), pp. 369–75.

57. Ibid., pp. 373, 375; Henry A. Wallace to HRL, May 16, 1942, Wallace Diaries, vol. 10, p. 1575, Wallace Mss.; Richard J. Walton, Henry Wallace, Harry Truman, and the Cold War (New York: Viking Press, 1976), pp. 10–14; Jessup, The Ideas of Henry Luce, pp. 121–22; Dwight Macdonald, “The (American) People’s Century,” Partisan Review 9 (July–August 1942): 294–301; Eric Foner, The Story of American Freedom (New York: Norton, 1998), pp. 232–33.

58. Wallace, “The Price of Free World Victory,” pp. 374–75.

59. HRL to Stanley K. Hornbeck, November 13, 1939, Hornbeck to HRL, November 18, 1939, HRL to Ambassador Hu, February 14, 1941, Box 281, Hornbeck Mss.; “Five Years of United China Relief,” n.d., 1945, Lauchlin Currie to HRL, April 12, 1941, HRL to Thomas W. Lamont, April 15, 1941, United China Relief financial statement, April 19, 1941, HRL to James G. Blaine, March 22, 1941, HRL to Bernard Baruch, April 19, 1941, TIA; HRL to Frank Altschul, Altschul Mss.; Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., to HRL, April 2, 1941, TIA.

60. Jonathan D. Spence, The Gate of Heavenly Peace: The Chinese and Their Revolution (New York: Viking, 1981), pp. 275–352; Takashi Yoshida, The Making of the “Rape of Nanking”: History and Memory in Japan, China, and the United States (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), pp. 11–42; HRL, “China: To the Mountains,” June 4, 1941, Helen Meyer to HWL and ERL, May 16, 1941, “Mr. Luce Comes Back From China,” compilation of HRL cables, n.d., 1941, HRL to Thomas W. Lamont, April 22, 1941, TIA.

61. HRL, “China: To the Mountains,” June 4, 1941, TIA.

62. Ibid.

63. Ibid.; “Mr. Luce Comes Back From China,” unsigned Time Inc. Memo, n.d., 1941, TIA; New York Times, June 18, 19, November 30, 1941; Helen Meyer to HWL and ERL, May 16, 1941, HRL CBS radio speech, June 11, 1941, HRL speech at United China Relief dinner, June 18, 1941, HRL speech to Rochester Chamber of Commerce, April 22, 1942, HRL to Gottfried, November 3, December 26, 1941, TIA; HRL to Larsen et al., June 16, 1941, JSB Mss.

64. Theodore H. White, In Search of History: A Personal Adventure (New York: Harper & Row, 1978), pp. 13–55; Thomas Griffith, Harry & Teddy (New York: Random House, 1995), pp. 8–14.

65. THW to David Hulburd, June 9, 1939, TD; “Ploughshares Into Swords,” unpublished manuscript, 1939, THW to Gerson Herzel, October 4, 1940, THW Mss.; Theodore H. White, “China the Ally,” Fortune, September 1941.

66. Time, May 19, June 2, 9, 1941; Life, May 26, 1941; Elson, Time Inc., p. 467.

67. Time, November 17, December 8, 1941; New York Times, November 26, 27, 1941; Washington Post, November 27, 1941.

68. Time, December 8, 1941; Life, December 8, 1941.

69. Elson, Time Inc., p. 484; Swanberg, Luce and His Empire, p. 189; Time, December 15, 1941; Life, December 15, 1941; JSBD, December 17, 1941; Elisabeth Luce Moore interview.

70. Swanberg, Luce and His Empire, p. 189; HRL to Ursula Vossvon Wehren, June 25, 1948, TIA; Elisabeth Luce Moore interview; Leslie Severinghaus interview.

71. HRL to FDR, December 16, 17, 1941, FDR to HRL, December 22, 1941, PPF 3338, FDRL.

X TIME INC. GOES TO WAR

1. JSBD, February 25, 1942, December 29, 1944; Time Inc., “Memorandum for U.S. Employment Service: The News Publishing Activities of TIME Incorporated,” September 24, 1942, JSB Mss.; “News for the Gulf,” Business Week, September 25, 1943.

2. “Analysis of Roper Survey, June 1942,” n.d., TIA; THW to David Hulburd, June 14, October 11, 1942, THW Mss.; Time Inc., “Memorandum for U.S. Employment Service: The News Publishing Activities of TIME Incorporated,” September 24, 1942, JSB Mss.; Robert E. Herzstein, Henry R. Luce: A Political Portrait of the Man Who Created the American Century (New York: Scribner’s, 1994), pp. 397–99; Robert T. Elson, The World of Time Inc.: An Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise, 1941–1960 (New York: Atheneum, 1973), pp. 37–42.

3. Life, December 15, 22, 1941; HRL speech before a Life dinner meeting, July 17, 1942, TIA; HRL, “Basis for an Editorial Program for all Publications in 1943,” JSB Mss.

4. P. I. Prentice to HRL, September 7, 1945, H. R. Hodgins to C. B. Yorke, “Time Inc.—Influence and Responsibility, Report No. 2,” March 31, 1944, HRL to Jessup, JSB, Longwell, August 23, 1944, Thurman Arnold to HRL, September 9, 1943, HRL to Arnold, September 13, 1943, Arnold to HRL, October 23, 1943, TIA; T. S Matthews to HRL et al., September 17, 1944, JSB Mss.; Princeton University Library Chronicle, February 1944; Michael G. Carew, The Power to Persuade: FDR, the Newsmagazines, and Going to War, 1939–1941 (Lanham, Md.: University Press of America, 2005), pp. 66–71.

5. HRL to Managing Editors et al., June 7, 1944, JSB Mss.; HRL to All Members of TIME INC., June 23, 1944, TIA; HRL, “Basis of an Editorial Program for all Publications in 1943,” January 1943, JSB Mss.; HRL to The Senior Editors of TIME, December 18, 1943, John Hersey to HRL, July 27, 1944, TIA; HRL to JSB et al., June 16, 1944, HRL to Gottfried, November 13, 1944, JSB Mss.

6. HRL to Eric Hodgins et al., March 6, 1944, HRL to T. S. Matthews et al., October 5, 1944, HRL to staff, February 11, 1944, TIA; Elson, World of Time Inc., pp. 60–61.

7. Life, October 12, 1942; HRL to “some of my friends in Great Britain,” November 11, 1942, C. D. Jackson to HRL et al., October 17, 1942, T. S. Matthews to David Hulburd, London Cable 5250, October 12, 1942, TIA; HRL to Ed Lockett, July 22, 1943, HRL statement “to members of the British Press,” October 15, 1942, JSB Mss.; Andrew Heiskell oral history, COHP; Andrew Heiskell interview.

8. Whittaker Chambers, Witness (New York: Random House, 1952), pp. 86–87, 193–96; Sam Tanenhaus, Whittaker Chambers (New York: Random House, pp. 3–163.

9. Whittaker Chambers, n.d., internal memo, TIA; Time, February 12, 1940; HRL to Chambers, May 6, 1942, TIA; Tanenhaus, Whittaker Chambers, pp. 166–67.

10. Time, January 6, 1941, February 16, 1942; Tanenhaus, Whittaker Chambers, pp. 172–73.

11. Manfred Gottfried oral history, Time Inc., 1961, pp. 161–62, TIA; Time, July 17, August 7, 14, 1944; Chambers, Witness, pp. 496–500; Elson, World of Time Inc., pp. 104–5.

12. Fillmore Calhoun to Allen Grover, February 6, 1945, John Hersey to HRL, February 1945, Chambers to HRL, September 18, November 10, 1944, “Excerpt from Billings Monthly Editorial Report,” January 17, 1945, TIA; Chambers, Witness, pp. 497–98; HRL to JSB, January 6, 1945, JSB Mss.; Chambers to HRL, January, n.d., 1945, TIA; JSB to Charles Wertenbaker, January 15, 1945, Wertenbaker to JSB, January 15, 1945, JSB Mss.; HRL to Chambers, January 17, 1945, TIA.

13. Time, March 5, 1945; JSBD, February 19, 22, 1945.

14. JSBD, November 20, 22, 1944; Chambers, Witness, pp. 501–4; Chambers to HRL, November 4, 1945, TIA; Tanenhaus, Whittaker Chambers, pp. 194–96.

15. Time, March 22, 1943; JSBD, April 19, 21, 1944; Elson, World of Time Inc., pp. 118–19.

16. Pearl Buck to HRL, n.d., 1943, HRL, “Private Memorandum on Pearl Buck’s Article on China,” n.d., 1943, TIA; Life, May 10, 1943, May 1, 1944; THW to David Hulburd, March 13, May 15, June 22, 1943, “Cable from T. H. White,” n.d., 1943, HRL to JSB, March 24, 1944, HRL to THW, April 3, 1944, THW to HRL, April 12, 1944, TIA; Theodore H. White, In Search of History: A Personal Adventure (New York: Harper & Row, 1978), pp. 207–8; Peter Conn, Pearl S. Buck: A Cultural Biography(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), pp. 272–73; Patricia Nels, China Images in the Life and Times of Henry Luce (Savage, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 1990), pp. 104–6; THW to HRL, May, n.d., 1944, THW Mss.

17. HRL to THW, July 19, 1943, TIA; HRL to JSB, March 24, 1944, HRL to THW, April 3, 1944, HRL to Managing Editors, June 12, 1944, THW to HRL, July 21, 1944, JSB Mss.; Elson, World of Time Inc., p. 121.

18. Barbara Tuchman, Stilwell and the American Experience in China, 1911–1945 (New York: Macmillan, 1971), chaps. 9–20, and pp. 340, 354–57; White, In Search of History, pp. 176–79; Thomas Griffith, Harry & Teddy (New York: Random House, 1995), pp. 80–81; THW to HRL, October 19, 1944, TIA.

19. Time, November 13, 1944; HRL to Brooks Atkinson, November 21, 1944, TIA.

20. THW, “Chungking Cable No. 23,” November 21, 1944, TD; HRL to THW, December 13, 1944, THW to Matthews, January, n.d., 1945, TIA; Time, March 1, 1943, December 18, 1944, January 1, 1945; Life, March 1, 1943.

21. William Palmer Taylor to James Linen, December 9, 1944, Mary Johnson Tweedy to HRL, February 26, 1945, TIA; Richard Watts, “Reading Luce in China,” New Republic, December 3, 1945, pp. 740–42; HRL to Management Executive Committee, March 12, 1945, TIA.

22. JSBD, August 13, 1945; HRL to THW, August 14, 1945, JSB Mss.; THW, “Chungking Cable No. 250,” August 14, 1945, TD; THW to HRL, August 15, 1945, JSB Mss.; HRL radio address, November 14, 1943, TIA; White, In Search of History, pp. 209–13.

23. THW to HRL, June 26, 1946, HRL to JSB, August 13, 1945, TIA; HRL to Charles Wertenbaker et al., July 1, 1946, JSB Mss.; Corinne Thrasher to Allen Grover, July 3, 1946, HRL to THW, June 29, 1946, TIA; THW to HRL, August 1, 1946, THW Mss.; JSB to HRL, July 15, 1946, THW to HRL, August 1, 1946, JSB Mss.; JSBD, February 26, 1945; CBL to Patricia Neils, January 22, 1985, CBL Mss.; Theodore H. White and Annalee Jacoby, Thunder Over China (New York: A. M. Sloane Assocs, 1946); White, In Search of History, pp. 246–49; Griffith, Harry & Teddy, pp. 152–60; Joyce Hoffmann, Theodore H. White and Journalism as Illusion (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1995), pp. 72–74.

24. FDR to Stephen Early, January 17, 1942, TIA; HRL to Early, January 10, 1942, Early to FDR, January 13, 1942, HRL to Early, January 19, 1942, Early Mss.; Life, December 15, 1941; Time, January 12, 1942; Felix Belair to HRL, January 19, 1943, TIA.

25. JSBD, January 21, 1942; FDR to Sumner Welles, February 28, 1942, Welles to FDR, March 7, 1942, PSF Welles 2-42, FDRL.

26. JSBD, January 8, 1942; HRL to Managing Editors, November 1, 1943, JSB Mss.; HRL to T. S. Matthews, February 11, 1943, HRL to Raymond Clapper, December 4, 1943, Clapper to HRL, December 6, 1943, TIA.

27. Richard Norton Smith, The Colonel: The Life and Legend of Robert R. McCormick (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1997), pp. 432–40; Henry Stimson Diary, vol. 41, September 27, 1943, Stimson Mss., LC; HRL to George C. Marshall, March 27, 1943, HRL to John J. McCloy, August 26, 1943, PPF 3338, FDRL; HRL to FDR, October 23, 1943, PPF 2442, FDRL; JSBD, August 30, 1944; HRL to George C. Marshall, April 27, 1944, George C. Marshall to HRL, June 7, 1944, TIA; Elisabeth Luce Moore interview.

28. HRL to Gottfried, July 28, 1944, HRL to JSB, July 14, 1944, JSB Mss.

29. HRL to Larsen, August 23, 1943, TIA; Jessup to HRL, August 30, 1944, JSB Mss.; Richard Watts, Jr., “Reading Luce in China,” pp. 741–42; Warren Breed, “Social Control in the Newsroom,” Social Forces 33 (May 1955), 326–35.

30. HRL, Memo to staff, February 11, 1944, TIA; HRL to Gottfried, November 5, 1942, HRL to The Policy Committee, July 12, 1944, HRL Confidential Memo, February 10, 1944, JSB Mss.; Culbert Olson to HRL, November 11, 1942, HRL to Olson, January 29, 1943, TIA; R. L. Buell, “Republican Reorganization,” November 29, 1944, HRL to Jessup, November 30, 1944, JSB Mss.; Herzstein, Henry R. Luce, p. 377.

31. HRL to CBL, May 5, 1943, October 19, 1943, CBL Mss.; JSBD, January 31, 1945.

32. CBL Diary, April 19, n.d., CBL Mss.; JSBD, October 18, 1941, July 1, 1942; Sylvia Morris, Rage for Fame: The Ascent of Clare Boothe Luce (New York: Random House, 1997), pp. 460–61.

33. CBL to HRL, November 23, 1941, November 23, 1942, CBL Mss.; Morris, Rage for Fame, pp. 442–44; CBL speech to Connecticut State Republican Convention, September 10, 1942, CBL Mss.; New York Times, September 11, 1942.

34. Morris, Rage for Fame, pp. 360, 442; CBL to HRL, November 23, 1942, CBL Mss.

35. JSBD, June 22, 1943; Ralph G. Martin, Henry and Clare: An Intimate Portrait of the Luces (New York: G. P. Putnam, 1991), pp. 246–50.

36. HRL to CBL, n.d., 1943, CBL Mss.; HRL to JSB et al., August 12, 1944, JSB Mss.

37. HRL to Ann Brokaw, February 16, 1939, April 13, 1940, n.d., Helen Meyer to Ann Brokaw, May 16, 1941, CBL Mss.; Stanford Magazine, July-August 2003; Time, January 24, 1944; HRL to CBL, January 11, 1944, CBL Mss.; W. A. Swanberg, Luce and His Empire (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1972), p. 232; JSBD, January 22, September 6, November 8, 1944; Elisabeth Luce Moore interview.

38. HRL to JSB et al., May 12, 1943, HRL to Gottfried, May 27, 1943, TIA.

39. HRL to Editors, February 15, August 17, 1943, TIA; Fortune, May 1945; Elson, World of Time Inc., pp. 128–30.

40. HRL to CBL, n.d., 1943, CBL Mss.

41. HRL to Managing Editors, August 17, 1943, HRL to Policy Committee, October 30, November 3, 1940, TIA.

42. HRL to William Ernest Hocking, July 30, 1943, March 23, 1944, William Benton to HRL, November 1, 1943, TIA; HRL to Lippmann, January 3, 1943, Lippmann memo, January, n.d., 1943, HRL to Lippmann, January 5, 1943, Lippmann to HRL, January 6, 1943, HRL to Lippmann, February 25, 1943, Lippmann to HRL, March 8, 1943, Lippmann Mss., Yale.

43. HRL address, Ohio State University Commencement, June 11, 1943, JSB Mss.; HRL, “The Practice of Freedom: A Memorandum on the Fundamental ‘Attitudes and Convictions’ of TIME INC.,” August 1943, TIA; HRL, “Articles of Faith,” September 6, 1943, JSB Mss.

XI LOSING CHINA

1. Time, April 23, 30, 1945; Life, April 30, 1945; Fortune, May 1945; JSB to editors, August 14, 1945, JSB Mss.

2. HRL to Eleanor Roosevelt, April 13, 1945, TIA; JSBD, April 12, 1945; HRL unpublished memoir, n.d., TIA; JSBD, May 14, 1948; HRL to T. S. Matthews et al. January 16, 1947, JSB Mss.; John K. Jessup, ed., The Ideas of Henry Luce (New York: Atheneum, 1969), p. 18; Robert E. Herzstein, Henry R. Luce: A Political Portrait of the Man Who Created the American Century (New York: Scribner’s, 1994), p. 377; HRL to Truman, April 17, 1945, TIA.

3. HRL to JSB, May 27, 1945, JSB Mss.; Robert T. Elson, The World of Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise, 1941–1960 (New York: Atheneum, 1973), pp. 131–33.

4. HRL, unpublished memoir, 1966, TIA; David Hulburd to HRL, May 18, 1945, “Memo to Mr. Luce from Mr. Mayer,” May, n.d., 1945, JSB Mss.; Bill Gray to Eleanor Welch, May 20, 1945, TIA; Bill Gray Cable #122, May 21, 1945, Shelly Mydans cable to David Hulburd, May 26, 1945, JSB Mss.

5. Bill Gray to Eleanor Welch, May 20, 1945, JSB Mss.; Elson, World of Time Inc., p. 133.

6. Time, August 20, 1945.

7. HRL to Daniel Longwell, August 27, 1945, HRL to T. S. Matthews, November 12, 16, 1945, HRL to JSB, August 23, 1945, TIA.

8. Time, December 15, 22, 1941, January 26, 1942, August 7, 1944; Life, December 22, 1941, September 6, 1943; Fortune, February 1942, April 1944; Time, November 30, 1942, June 21, August 9, 1943; Pearl S. Buck to HRL, December 18, 1941, HRL to Pearl S. Buck, December 19, 1941, Pearl S. Buck to HRL, December 19, 1941, TIA; John W. Dower, War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War (New York: Pantheon, 1986), pp. 37, 58, 65–67, 161, 181, 189, 224, 330.

9. HRL, unpublished memoir, 1966, JSB to Tasker et al., “The Chinese Communists,” August 24, 1945, TIA; Elisabeth Luce Moore interview; Christina Klein, Cold War Orientalism: Asia in the Middlebrow Imagination, 1945–1961 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003), pp. 176–77.

10. HRL to Leighton Stuart, September 24, 1945, TIA; THW, Chungking Cable 242, Part II, August 13, 1945, HRL to Tasker, August 13, 1945, HRL to THW, August 14, 1945, THW, Chungking Cable 250, August 14, 1945, Eleanor Welch to THW, August 14, 1945, THW, Chungking Cable 251, August 14, 1945, Chungking Cable 253, August 15, 1945, JSB Mss.; Eleanor Welch to THW, August 15, 1945, HRL to Mme. Chiang Kai-shek, October 28, 1943, TIA; JSBD, April 27, August 28, 1945.

11. HRL Cable 1, October 7, 1945, HRL cable, “Tsingtao: Fastest Growing City in China,” October 21, 1945, TIA; HRL and Charles Murphy Cable, October 27, 1945, JSB Mss.; HRL to Chiang Kai-shek, April 21, July 7, 1945, TIA.

12. HRL cables to JSB, October 19, 20, 1945, JSB Mss.; “Mr. Luce’s Chungking Diary,” October 1945, TIA.

13. “Mr. Luce’s Chungking Diary,” HRL to Mme. Chiang Kai-shek, October 29, 1945, TIA.

14. HRL to Mme. Chiang Kai-shek, October 28, 1943, TIA; Henry A. Wallace diary, vol. 23, November 1, 1945, Wallace Mss.; HRL to Jessup, November 13, 1945, JSB Mss.

15. CBL diary, April 9, 1937, n.d., 1944, CBL Mss.; JSBD, August 7, 1945; CBL to HRL, n.d., 1947, CBL Mss.

16. Time, February 25, 1946; JSBD, February 13, 17, 1946; CBL to HRL, n.d., 1947, ERL to CBL, February 20, 1946, CBL Mss.; Elisabeth Luce Moore interview.

17. CBL to HRL, n.d., 1947, CBL memo, “Suffering Excruciating Emotional and Mental Misery,” August 10, 1947, CBL Mss.; Ralph G. Martin, Henry and Clare: An Intimate Portrait of the Luces (New York: G. P. Putnam, 1991), pp. 258–62; JSBD, August 27, 1947.

18. JSBD, August 11, 17, 1947.

19. CBL to HRL, n.d., 1947, HRL to CBL, July, n.d., 1947, HRL to CBL, n.d., 1947, HRL to CBL, February, n.d., 1948, CBL Mss.; JSBD, August 17, 1946, September 25, 1947.

20. CBL to HRL, n.d., 1946, HRL to CBL, n.d., 1946, HRL to CBL, n.d., 1947, CBL Mss.

21. Andrew Heiskell interview; Gore Vidal, “The Woman Behind the Women,” The New Yorker, May 26, 1997, p. 74.

22. JSBD, March 5, 1946; Matthews to HRL, February, n.d., 1946, HRL, “Editorial Program for TIME in 1946,” March 6, 1946, Margaret McConnell to Roy Alexander, November 5, 1946, TIA.

23. T. S. Matthews to HRL, August 30, 1948, HRL, “Editorial Program for TIME in 1946,” March 6, 1946, HRL, “Agenda for Discussion,” November, n.d., 1949, Henry Grunwald to T. S. Matthews, June 10, 1949, TIA; Elson, World of Time Inc., pp. 207–9.

24. JSBD, January 6, 16, 25, December 10, 20, 1946, May 27, June 4, July 21, 22, 1947, February 9, 12, 17, March 11, 1948.

25. HRL to JSB et al., February 13, 1948, HRL, “Directive for the Editorial Development of Fortune,” March 23, 1948, JSB Mss.

26. HRL, “Directive for the Editorial Development of Fortune,” March 23, 1948, JSB Mss.; JSBD, March 22, 1948.

27. JSBD, July 20, 1948; Elson, World of Time Inc., pp. 201–3.

28. JSBD, May 20, 1946; Elson, World of Time Inc., pp. 187–89.

29. Elson, World of Time Inc., p. 192; HRL to Joseph Thorndike, n.d., 1948, TIA.

30. JSBD, October 20, 1948, August 5, 1949; Elson, World of Time Inc., pp. 187–88.

31. HRL to Editors, October, n.d., 1948, TIA; Elson, World of Time Inc., pp. 192–93; JSBD, October 21, 1948; HRL to Thorndike, March 1, 1948, TIA.

32. HRL to Thorndike et al., October 20, 1948, HRL to JSB et al., August 9, 1949, JSB Mss.; HRL to Thorndike et al., October 28, 1948, TIA.

33. HRL to Thorndike, March 1, October 20, 1948, TIA; HRL, “Notes on Life,” August 9, 1949, JSB Mss.

34. HRL to JSB et al., January 23, 1946, JSB Mss.; JSBD, January 23, 1946; Life, January 7, 1946; Elson, World of Time Inc., pp. 155–56.

35. JSBD, January 19, 23, March 5, November 12, 27, 1946; HRL to Churchill, January 14, 1948, TIA; John Osborne, “Recollections of Winston Churchill at Dinner at the Union Club, New York,” April 5, 1949, JSB Mss.; JSB, “Churchill Dinner, Ritz Carlton March 25, 1949,” JSB Scrapbook #49, transcripts of March 25, 1949, dinner for Churchill, JSB Mss.

36. Churchill to HRL, November 22, 1947, Graebner Mss.; HRL to Churchill, January 14, 1948, JSB Mss.

37. Walter Graebner to HRL, January 23, 1947, JSB Mss.; Elson, World of Time Inc., pp. 216–20; JSBD, December 2, 1947, February 10, 1948; Life, December 8, 1947; Walter Graebner to Ed Thompson, November 26, 1953, Graebner Mss.

38. New Republic, July 21, 1945.

39. HRL to Schlamm, January 26, 1948, JSB Mss.; JSBD, January 16, 19, March I, 1948, February 16, 17, 23, July 5, 1949.

40. Time, September 24, 31, 1945.

41. John Robinson Beal, Marshall in China (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1970), pp. 1–8; HRL to Henry Stimson, November 21, 1946, HRL Memo, November 17, 1945, TIA.

42. John J. McCloy to HRL, November 15, 1946, TIA; Beal, Marshall in China, pp. 113, 283, 341; Robert E. Herzstein, “Henry Luce, George Marshall, and China: The Parting of the Ways in 1946,” in Larry Bland, ed., George C. Marshall’s Mission to China, December 1945–January 1947 (Lexington, Va.: George C. Marshall Foundation, 1998), pp. 115–45; HRL to D’Orsay Hurst, July 4, 1947, TIA.

43. HRL to George C. Marshall, November 29, 1945, HRL to James Forrestal, August 12, 1946, HRL to Leighton Stuart, October 7, December 7, 1946, May 17, 1947, TIA; Leighton Stuart, Fifty Years in China: The Memoirs of John Leighton Stuart (New York: Random House, 1954), pp. 179–85; Time, October 28, December 30, 1946.

44. JSBD, August 22, 23, 1946; Life, September 2, 1946.

45. HRL to Wes Bailey, March 16, 1946, TIA.

46. Beal, Marshall in China, pp. 243–44, 260–62, 264; HRL unpublished memoir, 1966, TIA; Sterling Seagrave, The Soong Dynasty (New York: Harper & Row, 1985), pp. 430–34.

47. Beal, Marshall in China, pp. 260–62, 264; HRL unpublished memoir, 1966, TIA.

48. HRL unpublished memoir, 1966, Fred Gruin, “Reminiscence,” March 2, 1967, Fred Gruin memo, March 7, 1985, TIA.

49. Beal, Marshall in China, pp. 264–66; HRL unpublished memoir, 1966, pp. 20–21, 21, 22; Robert E. Herzstein, Henry R. Luce, Time, and the American Crusade in Asia (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005), pp. 73–74.

50. Life edit memo, n.d., 1946, TIA; JSBD, August 8, October 7, 1946, September 25, October 7, December 16, 1947; HRL to William C. Bullitt, July 3, 1947, TIA; Life, October 13, 1947; Time, October 13, 1947; Charles Edison to HRL, October 14, 1947, TIA.

51. HRL notes on China trip, October, n.d., 1946, TIA.

52. JSBD, November 14, 15, 1946, February 13, 21, 1947, HRL to Wertenbaker et al., May 21, 1946, HRL to Matthews et al., September 27, October 7, 1946, TIA; HRL to William Gray, December 9, 1946, JSB Mss.; Boyce Price to HRL, April 8, 1947, TIA.

53. HRL to Arthur Vandenberg, January 12, 1948, HRL to Robert Lovett, January 22, 1948, TIA; HRL to Max Ways and John Osborne, August 12, 1948, JSB Mss.

54. HRL to Henry Stimson, January 15, 1948, Stimson to HRL, March 31, 1948, HRL to Stimson, April 20, 1948, Stimson to HRL April 28, 1948, HRL to JSB et al., February 27, 1946, Charles Edison to HRL, October 14, 1947, Fred Gruin memo, May 18, 1984, TIA; Elisabeth Luce Moore interview.

55. Allen Grover to HRL, April 3, 1951, TIA; Edward C. Carter to HRL, May 23, 1933, August 11, 1934, HRL to Edward Carter, August 16, 1941, Institute for Pacific Relations Mss.; HRL to Juan Trippe, September 22, 1943, TIA; HRL to Edward Carter, May 26, 1941, Institute for Pacific Relations Mss.

56. Edward C. Carter to HRL, May 23, 1933, Kohlberg to Philip C. Jessup, March 15, 1946, Kohlberg to HRL, August 8, 1946, Institute for Pacific Relations Mss.

57. Allen Grover to HRL, April 3, 1951, TIA; Douglas Auchincloss to HRL, January 7, 1943, Boyce P. Price to HRL, August 30, 1946, HRL to Edward Carter, August 9, September 4, 1946, Institute for Pacific Relations Mss.; HRL to Alfred Kohlberg, August 9, 1946, Edward Carter to HRL, September 18, 22, 1946, Bernard Barnes to Edward Carter, November 26, 1947, HRL to Griffith, December 5, 1949, TIA.

58. Albert Wedemeyer to HRL, July 2, 1946, Wedemeyer Mss.; Jim Shepley to Allen Grover, transcript of telephone conversation, July 26, 1946, TIA.

59. Wedemeyer to HRL, October 10, 1947, Wedemeyer Mss.

60. HRL to General Chang Chun, September 21, 1946, TIA; Keith Eiles, “The Man Who Planned the Victory,” Hoover Digest, 2001, Hoover Institute On-line Publications; Wedemeyer to HRL, October 10, 1947, HRL to George C. Marshall, October 7, 1947, Wedemeyer Mss.; Time, October 6, 1947; Department of State, United States Relations with China (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1949), pp. 758–814.

61. United States Relations with China, pp. vii–xiv.

62. Eddie Jones to Dave Hulburd, November 26, 1948, TIA; Paris Dispatch 7126, John Osborne, November 16, 1948, TD.

63. Shanghai Dispatch 592, William Gray, January 29, 1948, TD; HRL to JSB, March 8, 1948, TIA.

64. HRL to Leighton Stuart, May 25, 1948, Mme. Chiang Kai-shek to HRL, June 15, 1948, TIA; JSBD, September 16, 1948.

65. Life, April 5, 1948; HRL to Robert Lovett, January 22, 1948, HRL to Leighton Stuart, January 27, 1948, HRL to Max Ways and John Osborne, August 12, 1948, “Truman, China and History,” Time Inc. internal report, n.d., 1961, HRL to Osborne and Ways, November 27, 1948, TIA.

66. HRL to Larsen, June 17, 1946, TIA; Time, March I, 15, 1948; Rexford Tugwell diary, June 10, 1944, Tugwell Mss., LC.

67. HRL speech, June, n.d., 1948, TIA; Time, March I, 15, July 5, November 1, 8, 15, 1948.

68. JSBD, December 24, 1928, May 20, 1949; HRL to Chiang Kai-shek, December 24, 30, 1948, Chiang Kai-shek to HRL, January 17, 1949, TIA.

XII COLD WARRIORS

1. HRL to Roy Larsen, February 6, 1948, TIA; HRL to Max Ways, January 29, 1948, HRL to T. S. Matthews, February 4, 1948, JSB Mss.; JSBD, March 5, 1948, May 31, 1949, January 25, 1954; JSB, “Luce Talk,” June 29, 1950, “Random Luce Notes,” January 5, June, n.d., 1949, JSB Scrapbook #49, JSB Mss.

2. Merlyn Pitzele to HRL, December 28, 1948, TIA; Business Week, March 6, 1948; Elisabeth Luce Moore interview; Henry Luce III interview; Andrew Heiskell interview.

3. Herbert Bayard Swope to HRL, January 9, 1950, TIA; New Republic, January 30, 1950; New York Times, January 4, 15, 16, February 1, 1950; JSBD, January 4, 5, 6, 10, 12, 13, 16, 20, 24.

4. HRL, “Memo to Staff,” September 8, 1950, “Luce to Take Sabbatical,” FYI, September 15, 1950, JSB Mss.; JSBD, September 1, 7, 11, 18, 1950, January 22, 26, 1951, January 26, 1952, April 6, 1953.

5. JSB to Grover, n.d., 1950, JSB Mss.; Robert T. Elson, The World of Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise, 1941–1960 (New York: Atheneum, 1973), p. 252; HRL to JSB, March 3, 1946, “Random Notes on some people in the West,” February 14–23, 1946, “Notes on a Trip to Portland, Seattle, Butte, Anaconda & Chicago,” June, n.d., 1948, “Notes on a journey to Cincinnati, St. Louis, Fort Worth and Snyder, Texas,” October 31, 1949, TIA.

6. Connie White to family, June 15, 1946, CJBW and WWW to “Our Parents,” June 12, 1947, HRL, “Notes on conversation with Mr. Attlee,” March 8, 1948, HRL to John Osborne, August 16, 1947, “Western Civilization,” May 1949, Allen Grover to JSB, May 1, 1946, “Notes on Trip to Germany and Austria,” n.d., 1946, “Mr. Luce’s Trip to Europe—1949: List of People,” JSB Mss.; HRL memo, n.d., December 1952, HRL, “1953 in Asia,” n.d., 1952, TIA; Life, February 23, 1953

7. HRL, “Five Day Voyage of Max Thornburgh and Henry Luce Through the Northern Provinces of Persia,” November 1950, HRL to Roy Alexander, “Policy Memorandum on Iran,” December 5, 1950, TIA.

8. HRL, “Five Day Voyage of Max Thornburgh and Henry Luce Through the Northern Provinces of Persia,” November 1950, HRL to Roy Alexander, “Policy Memorandum on Iran,” December 5, 1950, HRL to JSB, November, n.d., 1950, TIA.

9. Allen Weinstein, Perjury: The Hiss-Chambers Case (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1978), pp. 161–65, 174–76, 184–95; William Allen White, Jr., to HRL, January 31, 1950, TIA; John Early Haynes and Harvey Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (New Havenk Conn.: Yale University Press, 1999), pp. 167–73.

10. JSBD, August 17, 20, 1948, February 25, 1949; Elson, World of Time Inc., p. 238.

11. JSBD, December 9, 18, 1948, March 9, 10, 1950; James A. Linen to Staff, December 10, 1948, TIA; Weinstein, Perjury, pp. 276–77.

12. JSBD, April 21, 24, 26, 1950.

13. HRL to André Laguerre, “A Letter on General Policy,” February 14, 1949, TIA; HRL to JSB et al., September 14, 1946, JSB Mss.; HRL to Matthews and Alexander, May 10, 1946, HRL to Thorndike, June 9, 1949, TIA.

14. Time, June 12, 1950, January 8, May 21, October 1, 1951, February 11, March 3, December 29, 1952, January 12, March 16, 1953; Elizabeth Carter Vincent to HRL, February 20, 1953, HRL to Elizabeth Carter Vincent, March 5, 1953, TIA.

15. Time, May 1, 1950, October 1, May 21, 1951, February 11, March 10, 1952; HRL to Albert Dick, April 22, 1950, TIA; Robert P. Newman, Owen Lattimore and the “Loss” of China (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992), pp. 200–1, 396–97.

16. David M. Oshinksy, A Conspiracy So Immense (New York: Free Press, 1983), pp. 72–114; Thomas C. Reeves, The Life and Times of Joe McCarthy (New York: Stein & Day, 1982), pp. 161–234.

17. HRL to Philip Jessup, February 4, 1947, n.d., 1950, HRL to JSB, March 6, 1946, HRL to Matthews, April 9, 1946, TIA; JSBD, September 21, 1950; Elson, World of Time Inc., p. 276.

18. Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., The Vital Center (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1948), pp. 35–50, 159–60.

19. Oshinsky, A Conspiracy So Immense, pp. 191–97; Barry Goldwater, Why Not Victory (New York: Macfadden-Bartel, 1962).

20. George F. Kennan, Memoirs, 1925–1950 (Boston: Little, Brown, 1967), pp. 547–57.

21. “X” [George F. Kennan], “The Sources of Soviet Conduct,” Foreign Affairs 25 (July 1947): 566–82.

22. John Lewis Gaddis, Strategies of Containment (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982), pp. 55–65.

23. Time, February 24, March 24, 1947; JSBD, February 3, September 23 1949; HRL to JSB, January 2, 1946, HRL to Robert Elson, March 7, 1947, TIA; HRL to JSB, July 20, 1950, JSB Mss.

24. HRL, “Dulles,” n.d., 1946, TIA; HRL to Matthews et al., February 27, 1948, JSB Mss.; JSBD, January 4, 1951.

25. JSBD, July 14, 21, 1950; Elson, World of Time Inc., p. 282.

26. JSBD, December 8, 1950, January 10, February 16, 1951; Elson, World of Time Inc., p. 290; Life, December 11, 1950, January 8, 1951.

27. HRL to Alexander et al., April 5, 1950, March 7, 1951, TIA; Life, January 8, 1951; JSBD, February 14, August 11, December 5, 1950.

28. JSBD, January 19, 1951.

29. John W. Spanier, The Truman-MacArthur Controversy and the Korean War (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1959), pp. 191–92; William Stueck, “The March to the Yalu: The Perspective from Washington,” in Bruce Cumings, ed., Child of Conflict: The Korean American Relationship, 1943–1953 (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1983), pp. 219–37; William Manchester, American Caesar: Douglas MacArthur, 1880–1964 (Boston: Little, Brown, 1978), pp. 638–40; JSBD, April 11, 13, 1951.

30. HRL, “Notes,” April 24, 1951, TIA; Time, April 23, 1951.

31. HRL, “Private Notes,” April 25, 1951, TIA.

32. JSBD, April 24, 1951; HRL to Matthews et al., December 10, 1951, HRL to Matthews, December 15, 1951, TIA; Time, January 7, 1952.

33. Life, April 23, 1951; HRL, “Memo to Myself,” July 11, 1955, TIA.

34. Elson, World of Time Inc., pp. 301–9; HRL unpublished memoir, pp. 46–54, TIA.

35. Allen Grover to Harold E. Talbott, January 31, 1952, Talbott to Grover, February I, 1952, Eisenhower to HRL, January 8, 1952, TIA; Life, January 7, 21, 1952; Time, January 7, 14, 1952; Andrew Heiskell interview; Elisabeth Luce Moore interview; Elson, World of Time Inc., pp. 301–9; HRL unpublished memoir, pp. 46–54, TIA.

36. JSBD, June 16, 19, September 3, 12, 16, 18, 22, October 23, 1952; HRL, “Notes on the Convention,” n.d., 1952, TIA; Time, July 7, 14, 1952; Henry Cabot Lodge to HRL, July, n.d., 1952, Bob Elson to Miss Thrasher, September, n.d., 1952, “Mr. Luce’s Schedule for Joining the Eisenhower Train,” September 17, 1952, TIA; Elson, World of Time Inc., p. 308.

37. HRL to T. S. Matthews, October 25, 1952, HRL to C. D. Jackson, September 17, October 23, 1952, HRL to Eisenhower, September 3, 1952, Eisenhower to HRL, September 17, 1952, HRL, “Illinois,” n.d., 1952, TIA; JSBD, October 23, 27, November 6, 1952; Elson, World of Time Inc., pp. 315–20; Robert Manning, The Swamp Root Chronicle: Adventures in the Word Trade (New York: Norton, 1992), pp. 150–52.

38. Time, November 3, 1952.

39. “Memo from Henry R. Luce,” June 25, 1952, TIA; Life, May 19, 1952; HRL, “Concerning the World Struggle,” n.d., 1952, TIA; Robert E. Herzstein, Henry R. Luce, Time and the American Crusade in Asia (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005), pp. 162–63.

40. HRL to Andrew Heiskell et al., November 5, 1952, TIA.

41. HRL to Eisenhower, January 5, 1953, Eisenhower to HRL, January 5, 1953, HRL to Alexander et al., December 17, 1953, TIA; JSBD, December 22, 1952, January 7, 8, 9, 19, February 2, 27, 1953.

42. JSBD, March 20, June 19, 1953; HRL to Editors, August, n.d., 1953, TIA; Elisabeth Luce Moore interview; Richard Challener, interview with HRL, July 28, 1965, John Foster Dulles Mss.

43. HRL to Editors, “Foreign Policy—Time Inc.,” July 9, 1954, HRL to Editors, “Mistakes of the Last Ten Years (Pre-Eisenhower),” August 10, 1954, HRL, “Elaboration of preceding summary of Policy for Survival,” August 12, 1954, C. D. Jackson to Editors, August 26, 1954, “Preface,” n.d., 1954, TIA.

44. HRL, “Dulles,” n.d., 1953, HRL to Thompson et al., January 17, 1955, “Reverberation Over Dulles Statement,” n.d., 1956, Jim Pitt to Bernard Barnes, January 18, 1956, TIA; Life, January 16, 1956; New York Times, January 22, 1956; Time, January 23, 1956.

45. HRL to Jean de Lattre, May 17, 1949, de Lattre to HRL, October 10, 1951, HRL to de Lattre, October 26, 1951, comment of HRL on Laguerre Memo on Talk with De Lattre, n.d., 1950, HRL, “1953 in Asia,” n.d., 1952, HRL, “America and Asia,” n.d., 1952, TIA; Life, February 23, 1953.

46. HRL, “1953 in Asia,” n.d., 1952, TIA; JSBD, August 4, 1953; JSB to HRL, August 4, 1953, JSB Mss.; HRL to JSB, August 5, 1953, W. A. Swanberg Mss.; Dowling to HRL, July 11, August 5, 1953, JSB Mss.

47. Time, November 22, 1954; William H. Hunter, “The War in Vietnam, Luce Version,” New Republic, March 23, 1963, pp. 15–17.

48. HRL to Jessup, September 10, 1951, TIA.

49. HRL to Gottfried, April 4, 1944, TIA.

50. John K. Jessup, ed., The Ideas of Henry Luce (New York: Atheneum, 1969), pp. 179–90; Elisabeth Luce Moore interview; JSBD, April 6, 1951; HRL to William Ernest Hocking, March 21, 1952, TIA.

51. Harold R. MacKinnon, The Secret of Mr. Justice Holmes (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1950); Jessup, The Ideas of Henry Luce, pp. 154–59; JSBD, June 10, 11, 1952.

52. HRL, “Peace is the Work of Justice,” Connecticut Bar Journal 30 (December 1956): 340–53; HRL, “Peace is the Work of Justice,” (revised) October 23, 1956, Carl Albert Mss., University of Oklahoma; HRL memo, February 15, 1943, TIA; JSBD, February 14, 20, 1950.

53. JSBD, July 3, November 6, 1953.

54. William Ernest Hocking, The Meaning of God in Human Experience (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1916), pp. 3–6, 68–70; HRL to Hocking, March 21, 23, 28, 1952, June 29, 1956, May 24, 1957, October 16, 1965, Hocking to HRL, June 22, 1956, May 13, 1957, September 27, October 31, 1965, TIA.

55. Richard Challener, “Transcript of a Recorded Interview with Henry Luce,” John Foster Dulles Oral History Project, Princeton University Library, pp. 10–13; HRL to J. E. Wallace Sterling, April 7, 1955, Oscar Hammerstein to HRL, December 26, 1958, Robert Menzies to HRL, March 25, 1957, Dulles to HRL, May 10, 1957, HRL to Dulles, May 24, August 8, September 7, 16, 1957, HRL, “Talk with Secretary Dulles at D.O.S.,” August 22, 1957, Philip K. Crowe to HRL, June 3, 1958, HRL to Thomas J. Watson, May 2, 1959, TIA.

56. Rhyne, Malone, Griswold, HRL, “Aide-Memoire for the Secretary of State,” July 1, 1958, Malone, “Memorandum re Meeting with John Foster Dulles,” July 1, 1958, Malone to Earl Osborn, July 4, 1958, HRL to Charles Rhyne, May 11, 1959, TIA.

57. HRL speech, St. Louis University, November 16, 1955, Jim Shepley to Fred Gruin, July 2, 1958, HRL to Eisenhower, July 17, 1958, Eisenhower to HRL, July 18, 1958, HRL to Eisenhower, July 22, 1958, Ann Whitman to C. D. Jackson, n.d., Eisenhower to HRL, December 20, 1958, TIA.

58. David Stebenne, Modern Republican: Arthur Larson and the Eisenhower Years (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006), pp. 224–25, 232–34; HRL to Arthur Larson, July 23, 1958, “A Presidential Commission on the Rule of Law,” n.d., 1958, Arthur Larson to HRL, August 1, 6, 1958, HRL to Arthur Larson, August 4, 1958, HRL to Eisenhower, August 4, 1958, Eisenhower to Arthur Larson, August 11, 1958, Arthur Larson to HRL, May 15, 1959, HRL to Charles S. Rhyne, May 11, 1959, TIA.

59. HRL to Arthur Larson, December 15, 1958, Arthur Larson to HRL, December 14, 1959, HRL to John Jessup, February 19, 1960, TIA; Time, September 7, 1959, November 22, 1963; HRL to Eustace Seligman, February 3, 1960, Barry Goldwater to HRL, February 1, 1962, HRL to Barry Goldwater, February 5, 1962, HRL to William O. Douglas, February 8, 1965, HRL to Tom Clark, February 8, 1965, TIA; Arizona Republic, January 22, 1965; Challener, “Transcript of a Recorded Interview with Henry Luce,” pp. 14–15; Stebenne, Modern Republican, pp. 228–34.

60. “HRL Travel Schedules,” April 1953–December 1956, TIA; Elisabeth Luce Moore interview.

61. “Chronology of Events,” 1953, CBL diary, January 6, 9, 10, 25, 1953, CBL Mss.

62. CBL diary, February 3, 1953, CBL Mss.; HRL to CBL, January 17, April 5, n.d., 1954, Jim Bell to Time desk, February 28, 1967, TIA; JSBD, June 9, 1953; Luigi Barzini to HRL, June 12, 1956, TIA; JSBD, April 4, 1953; “The Reminiscences of William Morrow Fechteler” (1962), pp. 139–40, 172, COHP.

63. JSBD, September 10, 22, 1953, January 23, 1954; HRL to Eisenhower, April 27, 1953, HRL to C. D. Jackson, December 1, 1954, Charles Auchincloss to HRL, April 25, 1953, HRL to Charles Auchincloss, April 30, 1953, HRL to Bernard Berenson, May 18, 1955, HRL to Enrico Minola, December 2, 1953, HRL to Giuseppe Medici, March 13, 1954, HRL, “Conversation of Malgodi,” August 31, 1956, TIA.

64. Mario del Pero, “Containing Containment: Rethinking Italy’s Experience During the Cold War,” Journal of Modern Italian Studies 8 (2003): 532–55; Mario del Pero, “American Pressures and Their Containment in Italy during the Ambassadorship of Clare Boothe Luce, 1953–1956,” Diplomatic History 28 (2004): 407–39.

65. Del Pero, “American Pressures,” pp. 421–27.

66. Letitia Baldrige, “My Life with Mrs. Luce,” Town and Country, n.d., pp. 78–82, TIA.

67. Ibid., p. 82; Elisabeth Luce Moore interview; Ralph G. Martin, Henry and Clare: An Intimate Portrait of the Luces (New York: G. P. Putnam, 1991), pp. 330–32.

68. Elisabeth Luce Moore interview; Henry Luce III interview; Richard Clurman interview; Martin, Henry and Clare, pp. 352–54.

XIII NATIONAL PURPOSE

1. HRL unfinished memoir, pp. 46–48, TIA.

2. Robert T. Elson, The World of Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise, 1941–1960 (New York: Atheneum, 1973), pp. 394–95; Thomas Griffith, The Waist-High Culture (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1959), pp. 100–3.

3. Time, July 4, 1955, September 3, 1956, February 22, 1954; HRL, “Republican Nominations,” July 27, 1965, HRL Mss., LC.

4. Carlos Romulo speech to American Society of Newspaper Editors, April 16, 1959, TIA; Fact, January–February 1964; “The Time Version,” Commonweal, November 15, 1957; HRL to William V. Griffin, August 12, 1955, TIA.

5. Life, December 3, 1945; Wendy Kozol, Life’s America: Family and Nation in Postwar Photo-Journalism (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994), pp. 19–21.

6. Life, November 15, 29, 1954, June 13, July 25, 1955, January 16, 30, April 9, September 10, 1956, August 25, 1958.

7. Life, February 14, December 12, 1955.

8. Life, December 6, 1954, January 31, April 11, May 2, August 8, 1955, June 18, October 29, 1956, July 29, October 7, 1957.

9. René Carpenter to Edward Thompson, September 25, 1959, Edward Thompson to René Carpenter, October 1, 1959, Carmichael to Graves, memorandum, February 20, 1959, TIA; New Yorker, October 15, 1960; Esquire, July 1960; Edward Thompson to John Glenn, January 13, 1962, HRL to C. D. Jackson, March 2, 1962, TIA; Walter Cunningham, The All-American Boys (New York: Macmillan, 1978), pp. 167–68; Life, August 17, 1959; Loudon Wainwright, The Great American Magazine: An Inside History of Life(New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1986), pp. 251–79; Tom Wolfe, The Right Stuff (New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1979), pp. 140–42.

10. Andrew Heiskell interview; Life, February 21, May 23, 1955, May 7, 1956, October 14, 1957, September 29, October 6, 20, November 3, December 8, 1958, June 20, October 19, 1959.

11. Life, November 22, 1954, July 4, 1955, December 24, 1956; Kozol, Life’s America, pp. 69–75.

12. Editors of Fortune, The Changing American Market (Garden City, N.Y.: Hanover House, 1955), pp. 7–12, 197–229; Fortune, August 1953; Life, September 6, 1954, June 20, August 15, 1955, January 23, June 18, 1956, February 18, September 23, 1957, March 17, 1958.

13. JSBD, June 9, 16, July 27, 28, 1953.

14. JSBD, July 7, 9, 27, 28, August 6, 13, 1953; Elson, World of Time Inc., pp. 342–43, 348.

15. JSBD, August 18, 19, 21, 25, September 3, 14, 18, 25, 1953; HRL speech to Sports Illustrated staff, n.d., 1965, TIA; Elson, World of Time Inc., pp. 343–45.

16. JSBD, September 25, November 17, December 14, 15, 18, 1953, January 27, 1954.

17. JSBD, March 16, 30, 31, 1954; Andrew Heiskell interview; HRL to Leo Burnett, October 13, 1955, TIA.

18. Sports Illustrated, August 16, 1954.

19. Ibid.

20. Frank Deford, “Introduction,” in Sports Illustrated: The Anniversary Book (New York: Time Inc., 2004), pp. 10–11; Sports Illustrated, August 16, 1954–August 9, 1955.

21. Sports Illustrated, August 23, 1954, May 16, June 13, December 5, 1955, December 20, 1965; Rob Fleder, ed., Sports Illustrated: Fifty Years of Great Writing, 1954–2004 (New York: Time Inc., 2004).

22. Sports Illustrated, January 2, 1956.

23. Audrey Foote, Journal Entry, Paris 1956, Timothy Foote to Henry Luce III, n.d., 2000, Henry Luce III to Timothy Foote, February 14, 2000, privately held; Corinne Thrasher to Grace Cunningham, January 28, 1959, TIA.

24. Andrew Heiskell interview, Elisabeth Luce Moore interview; Mary Bancroft to HRL, May 13, 1950, Bancroft diary, February 9, 1957, January 17, 1960, Bancroft Mss.

25. Andrew Heiskell interview; Elisabeth Luce Moore interview; Henry Graff interview; JSBD, January 12, 1953; Richard Clurman interview; Mary Bancroft diary, December 10, 1950, Bancroft Mss.

26. Mary Bancroft to HRL, April 22, 1958, Bancroft to W. A. Swanberg, July 31, 1971, Bancroft Mss.

27. Mary Bancroft to HRL, September 7, 28, 1947, Bancroft to Allen Dulles, September 27, 1947, Bancroft memo, January 22, 1971, Bancroft Mss.

28. Mary Bancroft to HRL, September 7, 1947, February 18, 1948, n.d., 1951, Bancroft memo, January 22, 1971, Bancroft Mss.

29. Mary Bancroft to HRL, July 10, 1951, April 22, 1958, Bancroft Mss.; HRL to Bancroft, August 10, December, n.d., 1948, May 11, 13, 19, 1949, November 26, 1949, February 22, May 7, 1950, Bancroft to W. A. Swanberg, March 15, 1971, W. A. Swanberg Mss.

30. Mary Bancroft diary, February 9, May 3, 1957, January 17, 1960, Bancroft to HRL, January 1, 1948, February 25, 1952, July 17, 1955, Allen Grover to Bancroft, June 10, 1954, Bancroft Mss.

31. HRL to Mary Bancroft, June 10, 1950, Swanberg Mss.; Bancroft to HRL, February 25, 1952, July 17, 1955, February 19, 1956, Bancroft diary entry, January 17, 1960, Bancroft Mss.; Corinne Thrasher to HRL, July 10, 1947, TIA.

32. Mary Bancroft to HRL, August 20, 1959, Bancroft Memo, December 1, 1970, Bancroft Mss.

33. Mary Bancroft diary, February 9, 1957, Bancroft Mss.

34. Jeanne Campbell interview; transcript of Jeanne Campbell interview with W. A. Swanberg, September 16, 1972, W. A. Swanberg Mss.; Daily Telegraph (London), November 29, 1996; Wilfred Sheed, Clare Boothe Luce (New York: E. P. Dutton, 1982), pp. 125–26; Ralph G. Martin, Henry and Clare: An Intimate Portrait of the Luces (New York: G. P. Putnam, 1991), pp. 335–37.

35. Jeanne Campbell interview; Campbell-Swanberg interview, n.d., Swanberg Mss.

36. Jeanne Campbell interview; Daily Telegraph (London), September 23, 2007; Martin, Henry and Clare, pp. 344–46.

37. Jeanne Campbell interview; Campbell-Swanberg interview, Swanberg Mss.; W. A. Swanberg, Luce and His Empire (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1972), pp. 403–4; Martin, Henry and Clare, pp. 344–48.

38. New York Times, March 25, 1966; Alex Groner to Andrew Heiskell, November 3, 1961, Bill Furth to Heiskell, November 30, 1961, Ralph Paine to HRL, October 30, 1961, HRL to Paine, November 13, 1961, “Notes of phone call from HRL in Honolulu,” August 2, 1965, TIA; New York Times, March 25, 1966.

39. Mary Bancroft to W. A. Swanberg, May 1, 1971, Bancroft Mss.; Jeanne Campbell interview; Elson, World of Time Inc., pp. 428–29; Martin, Henry and Clare, pp. 346–48.

40. Elisabeth Luce Moore interview; Elson, World of Time Inc., pp. 428–29; Martin, Henry and Clare, pp. 346–48; Time, September 29, 1958.

41. Time, September 8, 1959, May 16, 1960.

42. “Let There be Life!” Nation, November 23, 1957, p. 378; New York Herald-Tribune, September 17, 1959; John W. Jeffries, “The ‘Quest for National Purpose’ of 1960,” American Quarterly 30 (Autumn 1978): 453–55.

43. “The Reminiscences of Robert Hutchins,” 1967, pp. 77–78, COHP; HRL to Hutchins, December 15, 1946, TIA; New York Times, June 14, October 19, 1957, July 14, 1958.

44. W. A. Swanberg, Norman Thomas: The Last Idealist (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1976), p. 377; Norman Thomas to HRL, June 20, 1956, HRL to Thomas, June 25, 1956, Bill Furth to Hedley Donovan, June 25, 1956, HRL to Marshall Berger, June 23, 1958, HRL to Hubert Humphrey, August 20, 1959, TIA.

45. Elson, World of Time Inc., pp. 464–65; Max Ways, Beyond Survival (New York: Harper Bros., 1959).

46. HRL to John Courtney Murray, January 6, 9, 1960, HRL to Archibald MacLeish, February 16, 1960, HRL, “The Age We Enter,” January 1958, HRL, “The Future of the American Proposition,” n.d., 1962, TIA.

47. New York Times, February 7, 8, 1960; President’s Commission on National Goals, Goals for Americans (Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1960); Stephen R. Graubard, “The Nation’s Goals,” Commonweal 73 (1961): 379–81.

48. John K. Jessup et al., The National Purpose (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1960).

49. Adlai Stevenson, “‘Extend Our Vision … to All Mankind,’” pp. 22–23, 34–35, Archibald MacLeish, “‘ We have Purpose … We All Know It,’” pp. 41–42, Clinton Rossiter, “We Must Show the Way to Enduring Peace,” pp. 87–88, David Sarnoff, “‘Turn Cold War Tide in America’s Favor,’” pp, 49–50, Walter Lippmann, “National Purpose,” pp. 131–32, Albert Wohlstetter, “No Highway to High Purpose,” pp. 106–7, James Reston, “Our History Suggests a Remedy,” pp. 116–17, all in Jessup et al., The National Purpose.

50. Jeffries, “The ‘Quest for National Purpose’ of 1960,” pp. 467–70; Joe David Brown to HRL, August 19, 1952, HRL, “The Future of the American Proposition,” n.d., 1962, TIA; Elson, World of Time Inc., p. 464.

51. Life, July 19, August 30, 1937, October 3, 1938, March 21, 1949; “Life and Negroes,” memo, n.d., 1939, Edward S. Lewis to HRL, March 23, 1949, J. G. Coughlin to HRL, May 23, 1949, Peter Prentice to HRL, October 13, 1943, HRL to editors, October 14, 1943, TIA.

52. HRL to JSB, March 25, 1956, Edward K. Thompson memo, March 21, 1956, Moffett to Thompson, November 16, 1956, Dick Stolley to Edward K. Thompson et al., October 4, 5, 6, 8, 1956, Edward K. Thompson to Bob Wallace et al., December 4, 1956, TIA; Life, February 20, 1956, September 16, 23, 30, October 7, 1957; Time, October 7, 1957; Long to Rowen et al., April 27, 1961, Edward K. Thompson to Sam G. Sanders, February 22, 1963, TIA; Andrew Heiskell interview.

53. Time, December 2, 1957.

54. John F. Kennedy, Why England Slept (New York: W. Funk, Inc., 1940); HRL, “Foreword to John Kennedy’s book Why England Slept,” July 1940, TIA; John Steele, interview with Henry R. Luce, November 11, 1965, pp. 1–3, JFKL; John F. Kennedy to HRL, July 9, 1940, TIA.

55. HRL to Nixon, April 28, 1959, Nixon to HRL, February 24, 1958, February 13, 1959, HRL to Nixon, July 29, 1960, William Benton to HRL, August 1, 1960, HRL to William Benton, August 2, 1960, Jacqueline Kennedy to HRL, n.d., 1954, Time Inc. Newsletter, August 12, 1960, TIA; Steele, interview with Luce, November 11, 1965, pp. 8, 13–18, JFKL; Henry Luce III interview.

56. Richard Clurman interview; Andrew Heiskell interview; Life, August 15, 1960; Elson, World of Time Inc., pp. 472–75; New York Times, August 5, 6, 1960.

57. Steele, interview with Luce, November 11, 1965, pp. 9–12, 18, JFKL; Albert Furth to Bela Kornitzer, June 15, 1962, TIA; Henry Luce III interview.

58. Steele, interview with Luce, November 11, 1965, pp. 18–20, JFKL; HRL to Nixon, November 14, 1960, HRL memo, July, n.d., 1960, TIA; John Pollack, Billy Graham: Evangelist to the World (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1979); John Pollack memo, n.d., HRL to William Dwight Whitney, January 26, 1961, TIA; Life, August 15, 1960; Elson, World of Time Inc., pp. 475–76.

59. Philip L. Graham to HRL, December 29, 1960, “Inauguration Schedule,” Eme-line Nollen to Mrs. William Scarlett, June 6, 1961, “Foreword to … Why England Slept,” 1961, TIA.

60. HRL to Joe David Brown, September 29, 1962, TIA; Steele interview with HRL, November 11, 1965, pp. 22–31, JFKL; John F. Kennedy, “Message to Time’s Fortieth Anniversary Dinner,” May 6, 1963, TIA; David Halberstam, The Powers That Be (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1979), pp. 351–67.

61. John F. Kennedy to HRL, June 12, August 9, 1962, HRL to John F. Kennedy, June 23, August 10, 1962, TIA; Steele interview with HRL, pp. 34–37, JFKL; Otto Fuerbringer to John Steele, December 1, 1962, HRL, “Meeting with JFK on Monday, October 24, 1962,” Fuerbringer to HRL, December 1, 1962, TIA.

62. Time, November 29, 1963; Life, November 29, 1963; Curtis Prendergast, The World of Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Changing Enterprise, 1960–1980 (New York: Atheneum, 1986), pp. 120–33.

63. Time, November 29, 1963; Life, December 9, 1963; Theodore H. White, In Search of History: A Personal Adventure (New York: Harper & Row, 1978), pp. 518–26.

64. Steele interview with HRL, pp. 41–42, JFKL; Elisabeth Luce Moore interview; Henry Luce III interview.

XIV LETTING GO

1. HRL to CBL, n.d., 1960, CBL Mss.; Jeanne Campbell interview; Elisabeth Luce Moore interview.

2. CBL to John Courtney Murray, October 25, 1959, CBL to HRL, n.d., 1959, CBL untitled, undated memo, 1959, CBL to HRL, n.d., 1959, CBL Mss.

3. HRL to John Courtney Murray, n.d., 1960, CBL Mss.

4. CBL to HRL, n.d., 1959, CBL untitled, undated memo, n.d., 1960 CBL MSS.; Elisabeth Luce Moore interview.

5. Ralph G. Martin, Henry and Clare: An Intimate Portrait of the Luces (New York: G. P. Putnam, 1991), pp. 367–72.

6. CBL to John Courtney Murray, October 25, 1959, n.d., 1960, CBL, “Memo for John Courtney Murray,” n.d., 1960, HRL to John Courtney Murray, n.d., 1960; CBL Mss., Elisabeth Luce Moore interview.

7. CBL to Gerald Heard, June 26, 1951, CBL to Sidney Cohen, n.d., 1961, CBL memo, n.d., 1960, Gerald Heard to CBL, February 15, 1966, CBL Mss.; New York Times, March 2, 1968; Norman O. Brown, Love’s Body (New York: Random House, 1966); Theodore Roszak, The Making of a Counter Culture: Reflections on the Technocratic Society and its Youthful Opposition (Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday, 1969).

8. CBL to Sidney Cohen, n.d., 1961, “Report to Dr. Sidney Cohen,” April 30, 1962, CBL Mss.; Financial Times, August 7, 1982; Washington Post, October 22, 1996.

9. HRL to Michael Barrie, July 21, 1959, TIA; “HRL took 100 Gamma of L.S.D.,” n.d., 1960, CBL to Sidney Cohen, March 12, 1960, HRL to Gerald Heard, April 21, 1960, CBL diary, “LSD experiments,” n.d., 1960, September 11, 1963, CBL to HRL, April 20, 1960, Gerald Heard to HRL, February 9, 1960, March 1, 1961, January 28, September 7, 1963, CBL Mss.; New York Post, March 2, 1968; Michael Barrie to HRL, July 27, 1961, Albert Furth to Ken Froslid, September 18, 1961, TIA.

10. HRL to CBL, n.d., 1960, CBL memo, n.d., 1960, HRL to John Courtney Murray, n.d., 1960, CBL to John Courtney Murray, October 25, 1959, CBL Memo to John Courtney Murray, “‘Go in Peace’ or ‘Stay in Peace,’” n.d., 1960, CBL, “Imaginary Interview,” June 10, 1960, CBL Mss.

11. CBL to HRL, February 29, 1960, CBL, “Pulling for the Horizon,” March 18, 1960, CBL, “What happens to me without you,” n.d., 1960, HRL to CBL, July 20, 1960, n.d., 1960, CBL, “A Memo to Harry about Diminishments,” n.d., 1960 (annotated later), CBL to HRL, November 26, 1961, HRL to CBL, n.d., 1962, August 8, 1962, May 6, 1966, CBL Mss.

12. HRL to Peter Luce, May 17, 1950, February 18, 1953, TIA; JSBD, December 28, 1949; HRL to CBL, July, n.d., 1959, CBL diary, n.d., 1960, CBL Mss.; Henry Luce III interview; Peter Luce interview; Elisabeth Luce Moore interview; Christopher Luce interview.

13. Elisabeth Luce Moore interview; Henry Luce III interview; HRL to Chiang Kai-shek, October 23, 1957, April 26, 1958, “The National Presbyterian Church,” May 23, 1972, Emmie Nollen to Gloria Conn, July 8, 1965, HRL, “Two Assurances of Faith” (New York: Henry Luce Foundation, 1964), TIA.

14. JSBD, October 7, 1950, August 20, 1951; HRL to James A. Pike, December 23, 1961, Pike to HRL, December 29, 1961, HRL to André Laguerre, February 23, 1954, HRL to Claude E. Forkner, June 30, 1956, HRL to Henry Van Dusen, June 28, 1962, Van Dusen to HRL, n.d., 1964, HRL to Van Dusen, September 10, 1964, TIA; New York Times, January 10, 1946.

15. “Declaration of Intent of Henry Robinson Luce,” April 7, 1952, CBL Mss.; HRL to Bishop G. Bromley Oxnam, n.d., 1949, Oxnam to HRL, January 3, 1950, Harold Matson to Robert Coughlan, August 11, 1948, HRL to Evelyn Waugh, August 18, 1949, HRL to Matthew Cavell, March 4, 1946, HRL to Editors, “The Catholic Faith,” n.d., 1960, TIA; “The Time of Henry Luce’s Life,” Christian Century, May 22, 1963.

16. HRL, “A Speculation about A. D. 1980,” December 1955, TIA; “Random Notes on HRL’s random remarks about Courtney-Murray,” n.d., 1960, CBL to HRL, n.d., 1960, CBL Mss.; HRL to Henry Sloane Coffin, October 21, 1948, Coffin to HRL, October 22, 1948, HRL to Archibald MacLeish, May 16, 1959, HRL to Bishop James A. Pike, December 23, 1961, TIA.

17. Andrew Heiskell interview; Henry Luce III interview; Robert T. Elson, The World of Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Publishing Enterprise (New York: Atheneum, 1973), pp. 331–34.

18. JSBD, July 16, 1947, January 3, 1951, March 20, 1952.

19. Elson, World of Time Inc., pp. 331–34; JSBD, January 5, 1951; Andrew Heiskell interview; Henry Luce III interview.

20. Henry Luce III interview; CBL memo, n.d., 1960, CBL Mss.; Elson, World of Time Inc., pp. 331–34; Curtis Prendergast, The World of Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Changing Enterprise, 1960–1980 (New York: Atheneum, 1986), p. 8.

21. HRL to Staff, April 21, 1960; New York Times, April 22, 1960, April 17, 1964; Prendergast, World of Time Inc., pp. 11–12; W. A. Swanberg, Luce and His Empire (New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1972), pp. 442–43; Henry Luce III interview.

22. New York Times, May 7, 1963; Advertising Age, March 25, 1963; Murray Gart to HRL, May 8, 1963, HRL to Paul Tillich, May 14, 1963, TIA; Andrew Heiskell interview.

23. HRL, “Life: A New Prospectus for the Sixties,” n.d., 1962, TIA; Prendergast, World of Time Inc., pp. 37–48; Loudon Wainwright, The Great American Magazine: An Inside History of Life (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1986), pp. 336–39.

24. Andrew Heiskell interview; Henry Luce III interview; Prendergast, World of Time Inc., pp. 65–80.

25. Andrew Heiskell interview; Richard Clurman interview; HRL memo to staff, n.d., 1964, “Books,” TIA; Prendergast, World of Time Inc., pp. 87–100.

26. Henry Grunwald interview; Andrew Heiskell interview; HRL, “The Rim of Asia, 1964,” n.d., 1964, TIA.

27. John Steele to Otto Fuerbringer and R. Clurman, December 12, 1964, Lyndon B. Johnson to HRL, December 5, 1963, November 10, 1964, Fischer to HRL, July 16, 1964, John Steele to HRL, February 6, 1965, Lyndon B. Johnson to HRL, March 24, September 8, 1965, HRL to Lyndon B. Johnson, August 16, 1965, Robert Storey to HRL, July 9, 1965, HRL to Harry McPherson, September 3, 1965, TIA.

28. HRL to Lyndon B. Johnson, July 16, 1960, Lyndon B. Johnson to HRL, July 26, 1960, HRL to Lyndon B. Johnson, November 17, 1960, November 27, 1963, May 13, 1964, HRL speech, Washington, D.C., January 26, 1965, TIA.

29. HRL, “The Significance of the Goldwater Nomination,” n.d., 1964, HRL to Arthur Goodhart, July 28, 1964, HRL to Hedley Donovan, August 13, 1964, HRL to Leo Burnett, October 26, 1964, HRL to Thomas Griffith, September 4, 1964, TIA; Time, October 30, 1964; Life, October 30, 1964; Henry Luce III interview.

30. Robert Elson to John Courtney Murray, April 28, 1966, Murray to Elson, May 4, 1966, “Notes on a Conversation,” April 28, 1966, TIA.

31. John W. O’Daniel to HRL and CBL, March 29, 1957, O’Daniel to HRL, May 15, 20, 31, 1957, HRL to O’Daniel, May 24, June 10, December 18, 1957, American Friends of Vietnam Mss.; Leo Cherne to HRL, April 12, 1957, HRL to Cherne, April 15, 1957, press release, May 2, 1957, TIA; cable to LIFE, April 23, 1957, TD; Time, February 11, October 21, 1957, February 8, 1959, May 7, 1960.

32. Dwight D. Eisenhower to HRL, May 12, 1957, HRL to Henry Cabot Lodge, April 14, 1961, Lodge to HRL, April 19, 1961, December 13, 1965, HRL to Lodge, September 15, 1966, Lodge to HRL, September 20, 1966, TIA; Time, February 26, 1965; Elisabeth Luce Moore interview; Richard Clurman interview.

33. Hugh Sidey to HRL, February 16, 1967, TIA; Andrew Heiskell interview.

34. Time, November 30, 1962, August 9, October 11, 1963; Richard Clurman interview; David Halberstam interview; David Halberstam, The Powers That Be (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1979), pp. 459–67.

35. New York Times, April 17, 1964.

36. Time, April 24, 1964; “The Luce-Donovan Dinner,” May 25, 1964, TIA; Henry Grunwald interview.

37. HRL to G. D. Birla, March 8, 1966, HRL to Norman Chandler, August 25, 1965, “Notes of phone call from HRL in Honolulu,” August 2, 1965, TIA; CBL, “Notes on HRL’s health,” May 25, 1972, CBL Mss.

38. Cass Canfield to HRL, July 18, 1959, Michael Bessie to HRL, January 5, 1965, April 16, 1966, HRL to Michael Bessie, January 8, 1965, April 19, 1966, HRL unpublished memoir, n.d., 1966–67, TIA.

39. HRL unpublished memoir, n.d., 1966–67, TIA.

40. Dr. Milton Benjamin Rosenbluth, Medical Summary, November 30, 1942, Rosenbluth to HRL, April 20, 1951, Julius Ochs Sulzberger, October 31, 1947, TIA; “The Practical Management of Hypertension,” Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine XX (November 1944): 557–74; CBL, untitled memo on HRL’s health, May 25, 1972, CBL Mss.

EPILOGUE

1. Time, May 10, 1967; Newsweek, May 13, 1967; New York Times, March 1, 1967; Curtis Prendergast, The World of Time Inc.: The Intimate History of a Changing Enterprise, 1960–1980 (New York: Atheneum, 1986), pp. 203–7.

2. New York Times, March 1, 2, 4, 1967.

3. CBL, untitled memo on HRL’s health, May 25, 1972, CBL Mss.; HRL Elson interview, 1964, TIA; HRL to LH, March, n.d., 1932, LT Mss.; HRL will, April 15, 1964, TIA; New York Times, March 1, 2, 4, 1967.

4. Andrew Heiskell interview; Time, December 19, 1972; Life, December 29, 1972; Loudon Wainwright, The Great American Magazine: An Inside History of Life (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1986), pp, 340–45, 412–31.

5. New York Times, March 1, 1967.

6. Andrew Kopkind, “Serving Time,” New York Review of Books, September 12, 1968.

7. Richard Hofstadter, “The Paranoid Style in American Politics,” Harper’s, November 1964, pp. 77–86; Hofstadter, The Paranoid Style in American Politics (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1966); Theodor W. Adorno, Culture Industry (London: Routledge, 1991); T. W. Adorno, Else Frenkel-Brunswik, Daniel J. Levinson, and R. Nevitt Sanford, The Authoritarian Personality, ed. Max Horkheimer and Samuel Flowerman (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1950).

8. New York Times, March 1, 1967.

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