Biographies & Memoirs




Alonso de Borja born at Játiva in Valencia, Spain.


Start of Great or Western Schism, dividing Roman Church.



Alfonso V becomes king of Aragon.



Alonso de Borja enters service of Alfonso V.


Oddone Colonna elected Pope Martin V.



Martin V returns papacy to Rome, ending long exile.



Rodrigo de Borja born at Játiva.


Gabriele Condulmer elected Pope Eugenius IV.



Alfonso V drives Angevins from Naples, assumes Neapolitan crown.



Alonso de Borja appointed to College of Cardinals, moves to Rome following year.



Tommaso Parentucelli elected Pope Nicholas V.



Birth of Isabella, future queen of Castile.



Birth of Ferdinand II, future king of Aragon.



Constantinople falls to Ottoman Turks.



Cardinal Alonso Borgia elected Pope Calixtus III, appoints Rodrigo Borgia protonotary apostolic and Pedro Luis Borgia commander of Castel Sant’Angelo.



Rodrigo Borgia is made a cardinal, Pedro Luis captain-general of papal army.



Rodrigo appointed vice-chancellor of Church.



Rodrigo appointed bishop of Valencia.


Alfonso V dies, to be succeeded as king of Naples by son Ferrante (Ferdinand I).


Calixtus III dies; Enea Silvio Piccolomini succeeds as Pope Pius II.


Death of Pedro Luis Borgia.


Athens falls to Turks.



Cardinal Rodrigo rebuked by Pius II following garden party in Siena.



Birth of Louis of Orléans, future Louis XII of France.



Start of sixteen-year war between Venice and Ottoman Empire.



Pietro Barbo elected Pope Paul II.



Negropont captured by Turks.


Birth of Charles VIII of France.



Francesco della Rovere elected Pope Sixtus IV.


Rodrigo Borgia appointed papal legate to Iberian peninsula.



Probable year of Cesare Lanzol y de Borja’s birth in Spain.



Probable year of birth of Cesare’s brother Juan Lanzol y de Borja.



Pazzi Conspiracy against Medici family in Florence.


Beginning of Pope Sixtus’s Italian War, which will continue two years.



Lucrezia Lanzol y de Borja born.


Ottoman Turks occupy Otranto in southern Italy.



Probable year of death of Guillen Ramón Lanzol, father of Pedro Luis, Cesare, Lucrezia, and others.


Ludovico Sforza, as regent, wins control of the duchy of Milan.


Death of Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II; son and successor Bayezid II withdraws Turkish troops from Otranto.



Giovanni Battista Cibo elected Pope Innocent VIII.



Pedro Luis Lanzol y de Borja is made duke of Gandía by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain.



Murder of Girolamo Riario, nephew of Sixtus IV and husband of Caterina Sforza.



Charles VIII of France marries Anne of Brittany.


Cesare Borgia appointed bishop of Pamplona.



Death of Lorenzo de’ Medici.


Election of Rodrigo Borgia as Pope Alexander VI.


Archbishopric of Valencia is conferred on Cesare.


Christopher Columbus sails west from Spain, seeking Japan, China, and India.



Borgia marriages: Juan to Maria Enriquez de Luna of Spain, Lucrezia to Giovanni Sforza, Jofrè to Sancia of Aragon.


Cesare is appointed to College of Cardinals.


Columbus returns from his first voyage of discovery.


Papal bull divides newly discovered territories between Spain and Portugal.



Death of Ferrante of Naples; succeeded by son Alfonso II.


French invasion of Italy by Charles VIII.


Expulsion of Medici family from Florence.



Alfonso II of Naples abdicates; succeeded by son Ferrandino (Ferdinand II).


Charles VIII meets Alexander VI in Rome, enters Naples in triumph.


Holy League formed to resist French occupation.


Following Battle of Fornovo, Charles withdraws to France.



Death of Ferrandino of Naples; succeeded by uncle Don Fadrique (Federico I).



Friar Girolamo Savonarola of Florence is excommunicated after calling for a council to depose Alexander VI.


Alexander makes war on Orsini; death of Virginio Orsini.


Murder in Rome of Juan Borgia, second duke of Gandía.


Annulment of Lucrezia Borgia’s marriage to Giovanni Sforza.



Murder of Pedro Calderón, Lucrezia’s alleged lover.


Death of Charles VIII; succeeded by Louis XII, who later agrees with Venice to partition Milan.


Lucrezia wed to Alfonso of Aragon, duke of Bisceglie.


Cesare is allowed to resign from College of Cardinals; travels to French court at Chinon, France; is made duke of Valentinois; wed to Charlotte d’Albret.


Savonarola, discredited, is executed by Florentine civil authorities.



Louis XII marries Anne of Brittany, seizes Milan and Genoa.


Pope Alexander excommunicates Romagna lords, seizes territories of the Gaetani.


Vasco da Gama returns to Lisbon from voyage to India.


Cesare’s first impresa captures Imola, besieges Forlì.


Lucrezia gives birth to son, Rodrigo of Aragon.



Cesare captures Caterina Sforza.


Duke of Bisceglie is attacked and gravely wounded, subsequently strangled.


Cesare launches second impresa, besieges Faenza.


Spain and France agree to partition kingdom of Naples.



Alexander creates Cesare duke of Romagna.


Don Fadrique abdicates as king of Naples, retires to Anjou.


Lucrezia is married to Alfonso d’Este.



Arezzo rebels against Florence.


Cesare launches third impresa, captures Urbino and Cesena.


Machiavelli and Soderini meet Cesare at Urbino.


Conspiracy of condottieri against Cesare.


Cesare makes surprise visit to Louis XII at Milan, renews alliance.


Machiavelli visits Cesare at Imola.


Cesare resumes offensive, advances to Senigallia.



Vitelli and Oliverotto strangled at Senigallia.


Alexander and Cesare launch war on Orsini.


Gonsalvo captures city of Naples for Spain.


Death of Alexander VI, election of Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini as Pope Pius III.


Death of Pius III, election of Giuliano della Rovere as Pope Julius II.



Having earlier become the prisoner of Julius II at Ostia and subsequently freed, Cesare is again arrested, at Naples, this time by Gonsalvo, transported as prisoner to Spain.


Death of Isabella of Spain.



Lucrezia becomes duchess of Ferrara upon death of Ercole d’Este.


Cesare transferred from Chinchilla to Medina del Campo.



Cesare escapes from Medina del Campo, makes way to Navarre.



Cesare killed in battle.



Death of Lucrezia.

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