Biographies & Memoirs

References

ABBREVIATIONS

CHA - Caroline Herschel’s Autobiographies, edited by Michael Hoskin, Scientific Publications Ltd, Cambridge, 2003

CHM - Memoir and Correspondence of Caroline Hesrchel, edited by Mrs John Herschel, Murray, 1879

HD Archive - Humphry Davy Manuscripts and scientific instruments held at the Royal Institution, London

HD Mss Bristol - Humphry Davy Mss at Somerset Record Office, Bristol

HD Mss Truro - Humphry Davy Mss at the Cornwall Record Office, Truro

HD Works - Humphry Davy, Collected Works, edited by John Davy, 9 vols, 1839-40

JB Correspondence - The Scientific Correspondence of Sir Joseph Banks 1765-1820, edited by Neil Chambers, 6 vols, Pickering & Chatto Ltd, 2007

JB Journal - Joseph Banks, Manuscript of the Endeavour Journal 1768-1770, University of New South Wales (internet transcript). See also The Endeavour Journal of Sir Joseph Banks, edited by J.C. Beaglehole, Public Library of New South Wales, 2 vols, 1962; and Joseph Banks, Endeavour Journal Ms, 1768-70 (facsimile edition, London Library)

JB Letters - The Selected Letters of Sir Joseph Banks 1768-1820, edited by Neil Chambers, Imperial College Press, Natural History Museum and Royal Society, The Banks Project, 2000

JD Fragments - Humphry Davy, Fragmentary Remains, edited by John Davy, 1858

JD Life - The Life of Sir Humphry Davy, by John Davy, 2 vols, 1836

JD Memoirs - Memoirs of Sir Humphry Davy, by John Davy, 1839 (included in vol 1 of HD Works)

Park Mss - ‘Letters and Papers relating to Mungo Park’s last Journey’, British Library Add Mss 37232.k and Add Mss 33230.f

WH Archive - Private archive, John Herschel-Shorland, Norfolk

WH Chronicle - The Herschel Chronicle, edited by his granddaughter Constance A. Lubbock, CUP, 1933

WH Mss - William Herschel Manuscripts, Cambridge University Library microfilm, from manuscripts held at the Royal Astronomical Society, London

WH Papers - The Collected Scientific Papers of Sir William Herschel including Early Papers hitherto Unpublished, edited by J.L.E. Dreyer, 2 vols, Royal Society and Royal Astronomical Society, 1912

Prologue

1 The notion of ‘Romantic science’ has been pioneered by Jan Golinski, Science as Public Culture, 1760-1820, CUP, 1992; Andrew Cunningham and Nicholas Jardine, Romanticism and the Sciences, CUP, 1990; Mary Midgley, Science and Poetry, Routledge, 2001; Tim Fulford, Debbie Lee and Peter J. Kitson, Literature, Science and Exploration in the Romantic Era, CUP, 2004; and Tim Fulford (editor), Romanticism and Science, 1773-1833, a 5-vol anthology, Pickering, 2002

2 Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Philosophical Lectures 1819, edited by Kathleen Coburn, London, 1949; and The Friend 1819, ‘Essays on the Principles of Method’, edited by Barbara E. Rooke, Princeton UP, 1969. See Richard Holmes, Coleridge: Darker Reflections, 1998, pp480-4, 490-4

3 Wordsworth, The Prelude, 1850, Book 3, lines 58-64

4 Coleridge, Aids to Reflection, 1825; see Holmes, op. cit., pp548-9

5 Plato’s wonder as interpreted by Coleridge in ‘Spiritual Aphorism 9’, Aids to Reflection, 1825, p236

Chapter 1: Joseph Banks in Paradise

1 JB Journal, 18 October 1768

2 Ibid., 11 April 1769

3 JB letter to Pennat, November 1768; from Harold Carter, Sir Joseph Banks, British Library, 1988, p76

4 JB Journal, 14 April 1769

5 Hector Cameron, Sir Joseph Banks, 1952, p6

6 Vanessa Collingridge, Captain Cook, 2003, p158

7 JB Journal, 2 May 1769

8 James Cook, Journal, 2 May 1769

9 JB Journal, 2 May 1769

10 JB Journal, ‘On the Customs of the South Sea Islands’, pp120-50, essay dated August 1769

11 Patrick O’Brian, Joseph Banks, Harvill, 1989, p65

12 Ibid.

13 John Gascoigne, Joseph Banks and the English Enlightenment, 1994, p17

14 Ibid., p88

15 Lady Mary Coke, Journals, August 1771, p437

16 JB letter to William Perrin, February 1768, from Gascoigne, p16

17 JB Journal, 10 September 1768

18 JB Journal, p23

19 O’Brian, p65

20 White, 8 October 1768; from Richard Mabey, Gilbert White, Century, 1986, p115

21 JB Journal, 16 January 1769

22 Ibid., 25 March 1769

23 Ibid., 17 April 1769

24 Sydney Parkinson, A Journal of a Voyage in the South Seas, 1773, p15

25 JB Journal, 30 April 1769

26 Ibid., 29 April 1769

27 Ibid., 25 April 1769

28 Ibid., 22 April 1769

29 Ibid., 4 June 1769

30 James Cook, Journal, Tuesday, 6 June 1769

31 Parkinson, Journal, from Collingridge, p166

32 JB Journal, 10 May 1769

33 JB Journal, pp120-50, essay dated August 1769

34 JB Journal, 3 June 1769

35 Ibid., 28 April 1769

36 Ibid., 28 May 1769

37 Ibid., 29 May 1769

38 Ibid., 12 May 1769

39 Ibid., 10 June 1769

40 Ibid., 13 June 1769

41 Ibid., 14 June 1769

42 Ibid., 18 June 1769

43 Ibid., 24 June 1769

44 Ibid., 19 June 1769

45 Ibid., 22 June 1769

46 Parkinson, Journal, 1773, p32; and O’Brian, p101

47 James Cook, Journal, 30 June 1769

48 JB Journal, 28 June 1769

49 Ibid., 30 July 1769

50 Ibid., 29 June 1769

51 JB Letters, ‘Thoughts on the Manners of the Otaheite’, 1773, p332

52 JB Journal, 3 July 1769

53 Ibid., 12 July 1769

54 Ibid.

55 Ibid.

56 JB Letters, 6 December 1771, p20

57 Parkinson, Journal, 1773, p66

58 JB Journal, ‘On the South Seas’, August 1769, p124

59 Ibid., p128

60 Ibid., p132

61 Ibid.

62 JB Journal, (end) August 1770. Cook’s entry of the same date describes the natives as ‘in reality…far more happier than we Europeans’

63 JB Journal, 3 September 1770

64 O’Brian, pp145-6

65 JB Letters, 13 July 1771, p14

66 Gascoigne, p46

67 O’Brian, p66

68 Lady Mary Coke, Journals, August 1771, from Edward Smith, Joseph Banks, p22n

69 O’Brian, p151

70 Robert Thornton MD, Preface to An Introduction to Botany, by James Lee, 1810, ppxvii-iii

71 Gascoigne, p17

72 Thornton, 1810, ppxviii

73 Cameron, p44

74 Ibid., p 45

75 Ibid., p46

76 James Boswell, Journal, 22 March 1772

77 John Hawkesworth, ‘Tahiti’, in Voyages Undertaken in the Southern Hemisphere, 1773; the section can also be found in Fulford, Romanticism and Science, vol 4, pp158-9

78 JB, ‘Thoughts on the Manners of the Otaheite’, 1773, JB Letters, p330

79 JB letter, 30 May 1772, from O’Brian, p158

80 Lord Sandwich to Banks, 20 June 1772, in JB Letters, Appendix V, p354

81 JB Letters, Appendix V, p355

82 Rev William Sheffield, letter to Gilbert White, 2 December 1772, from O’Brian, p168

83 Daniel Solander, 16 November 1776, Collected Correspondence, edited by Edward Duyker and Per Tingbrand, Scandinavia University Press, 1995, p373

84 Carter, p153

85 Gascoigne, p50

86 Tim Fulford, Debbie Lee and Peter J. Kitson, Literature, Science and Exploration in the Romantic Era, CUP, 2004, p49

87 O’Brian, p181

88 Reproduced in the exhibition catalogue Between Worlds: Voyagers to Britain 1700-1850, National Portrait Gallery, 2007

89 British Academy Conference, 2006, my correspondence

90 William Cowper, 6 October 1783

91 William Cowper, The Task, 1784, Book 4, ‘The Winter Evening’, lines 107-19

92 Ibid., Book 1, lines 654ff

93 John Byng, quoted in Beaglehole, Journal of Sir Joseph Banks, 2 vols, 1962, p114

94 Gascoigne, p52

95 Collingridge, Cook, 2002, pp405-15

96 Gascoigne, p46

97 Daniel Solander, 5 June 1779, Collected Correspondence, op. cit.

98 Gascoigne, p18

99 O’Brian, p308

100 Derek Howse, Nevil Maskelyne, 1989, p161

101 Patricia Fara, Joseph Banks: Sex, Botany and Empire, 2003, pp136-7

102 Coleridge to Samuel Purkis, 1 February 1803, Collected Letters vol 2, p919

103 JB Correspondence I, p331

104 JB Letters, 16 November 1784, pp77-80

105 Carter, p121

106 Gascoigne, p32

107 Baron Cuvier, ‘Éloge on Sir Joseph Banks’, 1820, from Sir Joseph Banks and the Royal Society, anonymous booklet, Royal Society, 1854, pp66-7

Chapter 2: Herschel on the Moon

1 WH Chronicle, p1

2 Account from Herschel’s Journal in CHM, p42

3 WH Chronicle, p73

4 Account from CHA

5 WH Papers 1; Armitage, p24

6 Michael J. Crowe, The Extraterrestrial Life Debate, 1750-1900, CUP, 1986, p63

7 WH Mss 6279; also WH Chronicle, p76

8 WH Papers 1, pxc; also WH Chronicle, p77

9 Herschel to Maskelyne, 12 June 1780, WH Papers 1, ppxc-xci

10 CHM, p41

11 CHM, p149

12 CHA, pp14-15

13 CHA, pp19-20

14 CHA, p14

15 WH Papers 1, pxiv

16 CHA, p24

17 CHA, p112

18 CHM, p24

19 CHA, p23

20 CHA, p21

21 CHA, p24

22 CHM, p7

23 CHM, p6

24 CHA, p41

25 CHA, p25

26 CHA, p30

27 CHA, p136

28 CHA, p26; CHM, p10

29 CHM, p12

30 CHM, p11

31 WH Papers 1, pxix

32 Angus Armitage, Herschel, 1962, p19

33 CHM, p11; also CHA, p108

34 CHA, p110

35 CHA, p109

36 Armitage, p19

37 CHA, p33

38 Helen Ashton, I Had a Sister, 1937, pp153-61

39 CHA, p33

40 CHA, p34; Ashton, p161

41 CHA, p37

42 CHM, p20

43 CHA, p37

44 CHA, pp29, 34

45 CHM, p17

46 WH Papers 1, pxvii

47 WH Archive, William and Jacob Mss Letters 1761-63

48 WH Archive Mss Letters March 1761; also WH Chronicle, p18

49 WH Archive Mss Letters May 1761; also WH Chronicle, p26

50 WH Archive Mss Letter October 1761; also WH Chronicle, p28

51 WH Chronicle, p24

52 WH Archive Mss Letter October 1761; also WH Chronicle, p28

53 WH Papers 1, pxc, letter to Nevil Maskelyne

54 Armitage, p21

55 Ibid., p22

56 Ibid., p20

57 CHA, p7

58 CHA, p113; CHM, p18

59 CHA, p36

60 Ian Woodward, ‘The Celebrated Quarrel between Thomas Linley and William Herschel’, pamphlet printed Bath (British Library catalogue L.409.c.585.1); also WH Chronicle, pp42-3

61 WH Papers 1, ppxx-xxi

62 Armitage, p22

63 Crowe, 1986, pp124-9

64 James Gleick, Isaac Newton, 2003

65 Derek Howse, Nevil Maskelyne, 1989, pp70-1

66 Howse, pp66-72

67 Michael Hoskin, The Herschel Partnership, p21

68 CHM, pp22-3

69 CHA, p24

70 CHM, p25

71 CHM, p27

72 CHM, p32

73 CHA, p53

74 CHA, p123

75 CHM, p33

76 CHA, p51; CHM, p35

77 WH Mss 6278 1/8/8, dated 1784. But the use of the diminutive ‘Lina’ first becomes evident in manuscripts dating from 1779

78 WH Mss 6290

79 CHA, p52; CHM, p35

80 CHA, p55

81 CHA, p52; CHM, pp36-7

82 CHM, pp37-8

83 CHA, p55

84 WH Papers 1, Introduction

85 WH Mss 6290

86 JB Correspondence 1; Hoskin, p46

87 I owe these acute observations to Dr Percy Harrison, Head of Science, Eton College

88 WH Mss, H W.2/1. 1f.i

89 WH Mss, ‘Herschel’s First Observation Journal’, Ms 6280

90 Michael Crowe, Extraterrestrial, 1994, pp42, 74-5. Herschel eventually increased it to 2,500 by 1820, and Edwin Hubble to 17,000 by the mid-twentieth century.

91 Armitage, p22

92 WH Mss 6290 7/8, dated January 1782; also WH Chronicle, p73

93 WH Chronicle, p72

94 WH Mss 6278 1/8/5

95 CHA, p127

96 CHA, p128

97 CHA, p129

98 CHM, p40

99 WH Mss 6290

100 Michael Crowe, Theories of the Universe, 1994

101 James Ferguson, Astronomy Explained, 1756, p5; and discussed by Michael Crowe, Extraterrestrial, 1986, p60

102 Crowe, Extraterrestrial, p170; also Crowe, Theories of the Universe, 1994, p73

103 CHM, p42

104 CHA, p61

105 CHA, p61

106 WH Papers vol 1, plxxxvii

107 WH Mss W.3/1.4, drafted 1778-79; discussed Crowe, 1986, pp64—5

108 WH Mss 6280, Observation Journal, 28 May 1776; and Crowe, 1986, p63

109 WH Mss W.3/1.4, drafted 1778-79, from Crowe, 1986, p65

110 CHA, p61

111 WH Mss 6280, First Observation Book

112 CHA, p61

113 WH Mss 6280, First Observation Book

114 Ibid., pp31ff, 170ff

115 CHA, p62

116 Simon Schaffer, Journal of the History of Astronomy, vol 12, 1981

117 Howse, p147

118 Schaffer, ‘Uranus and Herschel’s Astronomy’, Journal for the History of Astronomy, vol 12, 1981, p12

119 WH Papers 1, p36

120 WH Mss 6279; also WH Chronicle, p79

121 WH Mss 6279; WH Chronicle, p81

122 WH Papers 1; WH Chronicle, pp81-2

123 Howse, pp147-8

124 See WH Chronicle, pp78-80

125 WH Chronicle, p86, from Schaffer, Journal of the History of Astronomy, vol 12, 1981, ‘Uranus and Herschel’s Astronomy’, p14

126 Watson, letter to Herschel 25 May 1781, in WH Chronicle, p85

127 Howse, Maskelyne, p149

128 WH Chronicle, p95

129 ‘A Letter to Sir Joseph Banks Bart. PRS’, 1783, in WH Papers 1, pp100-1

130 WH Mss 6278 1/7, letter 19 November 1781; also JB Correspondence 1, p292

131 JH Mss 6278 1/1/57

132 JH Mss 6278 1/1/63

133 ‘Account of My Life to Dr Hutton’, 1809, from WH Chronicle, p79

134 WH Chronicle, p95

135 John Bonnycastle, Introduction to Astronomy in Letters to a Pupil, 1786 (expanded edition 1811), pp354-7

136 Ibid., p241

137 Immanuel Kant, Universal Natural History and the Theory of the Heavens, 1755 (translation 1969, British Library catalogue 9350.d.649), Part I, p67. Kant also wrote: ‘There is here no end but an abyss of real immensity, in the presence of which all the capability of human conception sinks exhausted, although it is supported by the aid of the science of mathematics.’ Part I, p65

138 Erasmus Darwin, The Botanic Garden, 1791, Canto 1, lines 100-14, and Note to line 105; see also Canto 2, lines 14-82, and Canto 4, line 34

139 WH Chronicle, p102

140 JB Correspondence 1, p299

141 WH Chronicle, p101

142 JB Correspondence 1, p307

143 WH Chronicle, pp103-4

144 CHM, p45

145 CHM, p46; Howse, p148

146 WH Chronicle, pp115-16

147 Peter Sime, William Herschel, 1890, pp259-61

148 WH Chronicle, p116

149 WH Mss 6278 1/8/6, 20 May 1782

150 CHA, pp66-7

151 CHM, pp48-9

152 Holmes, Coleridge: Early Visions, 1994, pp18-19

153 Coleridge, The Ancient Mariner, Part IV, lines 263-71

154 Andrew Motion, Keats, Faber, 1997, pp27, 39, 121

155 WH Papers 1, pxix

156 Herschel to Johann Bode at Berlin, 20 July 1785, WH Mss 6278/11, p134

157 WH Mss 5278 1/4

158 Lucien Bonaparte, Wikipedia

159 WH Papers 1, pxix

160 CHA, p82

161 Samuel Johnson, Collected Letters, edited by Bruce Redford, vol III, 25 March 1784, p144

162 CHM, pp50-5

163 Hoskin, pp74-5

164 WH Mss 6281, Observation Journal No. 5, 1782

165 WH Chronicle, p105

166 WH Mss 6268 3/11

167 Ibid.

168 CHM, p52

169 Ibid.

170 WH Archive

171 CHM, p52

172 WH Papers 1, pp261-2; and WH Chronicle, pp222-3

173 CHM, p52

174 CHA, p77

175 CHA, p76

176 CHA, p77

177 Ibid.

178 Ibid.; and CHM, p55

179 WH Chronicle, pp190-5: a risky claim perhaps

180 WH Papers 1, pp157-66

181 Ibid. Illustrated in Armitage and Crowe, 1996, excerpts

182 Michael J. Crowe, Modern Theories of the Universe from Herschel to Hubble, Chicago UP, 1994

183 WH Papers 1, p265

184 WH Papers 1, p223

185 WH Papers 1, p225, a phrase repeated at end of this paper, at p259. Other extraordinary descriptions of galaxies evolving like plants growing or humans ageing occur in ‘Catalogue of a Second Thousand of new Nebulae’, 1789, WH Papers 1, pp330 and 337-8. Also in ‘On Nebulae Stars, properly so called’, 1791, WH Papers 1, pp415ff. See discussion in Edwin Hubble, The Realm of the Nebulae, 1933; and Michael Crowe, Theories of the Universe, 1996

186 ‘On the Construction of the Heavens’, 1785, WH Papers 1, pp247-8

187 Ibid., p27

188 Ibid., p25. See J.A. Bennett, ‘The Telescopes of William Herschel’, Journal for the History of Astronomy, vol 7, 1976

189 Bonnycastle, pp341-2

190 WH Papers 1, p256

Chapter 3: Balloonists in Heaven

1 JB Correspondence 2, p299

2 Exchange of Banks-Franklin letters, 1783, Schiller Institute, ‘Life of Joseph Franklin’ (internet)

3 WH Letters, p62, to Franklin, 13 September 1783

4 Ibid.

5 L.T.C. Rolt, The Aeronauts, 1966, p29

6 ‘Dossier Montgolfier (1)’, Musée de l’Air, Le Bourget, Paris

7 Rolt, p 30

8 Schiller Institute, ‘Life of Joseph Franklin’ (internet)

9 Auduin Dollfuss, Pilâtre de Rozier, Paris, 1993, p26

10 Ibid., pp17-22

11 Marquis d’Arlandes’s original account given in ibid., pp27-42; ‘la redingote verte’, p41. Discussed in Rolt, pp46-9

12 Rolt, p50

13 Dr Robert Charles’s original account appears in Raymonde Fontaine, La Manche en Ballon, Paris, 1980

14 Dr Charles’s original account in ibid. (photocopy)

15 ‘Dossier Montgolfier (1)’, Musée de l’Air, Le Bourget, Paris

16 David Bourgeois, Recherches sur l’Art de Voler, Paris, 1784, pp1-3

17 Ibid., p3

18 J.E. Hodgson, History of Aeronautics in Great Britain, OUP, 1924, p103

19 Rolt, p31

20 WH Letters, p67, to Franklin, 9 December 1783

21 Ibid., p62, to Franklin, 13 September 1783

22 Ms Album of balloon accounts, British Library catalogue 1890.e.15. See also WH Correspondence 2, p304, Blagden to Banks, 16 September 1784; and Hodgson, p97, footnote

23 Hodgson, p66

24 Samuel Johnson to Hester Thrale, 22 September 1783, Collected Letters, vol 4, pp203-4

25 WH Mss 6280, Watson, letter 9 November 1783

26 Horace Walpole, letter to H. Mann, 2 December 1783; see Rolt, p159 and Hodgson, p190

27 Joseph Franklin, letters to Banks, 21 November 1783 and 16 January 1784; see Rolt, p158

28 Gilbert White, 19 October 1784, in Life and Letters of Gilbert White, vol 2, pp134-6. See also Richard Mabey, Gilbert White, pp195-6. The solo pilot was in fact the Frenchman Jean-Pierre Blanchard

29 Charles Burney, letter, September 1783. See Roger Lonsdale, Charles Burney, p385

30 Rolt, p60

31 Horace Walpole, June 1785, from Hodgson, p203

32 Rolt, p65

33 Sophia Banks Ms album, BL 1890.e.15. See also Hodgson, p97, footnote, and broadsheet poem ‘The Ballooniad’ (1784)

34 Portrait of Lunardi reproduced in Catalogue of Well-Known Balloon Prints and Drawings, Sotheby’s, 1962, p42. See also ‘Le triomphe de Lunardi’, a series of six allegorical paintings by Francesco Verini, c.1787, held at Musée de l’Air, Le Bourget

35 Account assembled from Vincent Lunardi, My First Aerial Voyage in London, 1784; see also Lunardi, Five Aerial Voyages in Scotland, 1785

36 Lesley Gardiner, Vincent Lunardi, 1963, pp53-60

37 Amanda Foreman, Georgiana Duchess of Devonshire, HarperCollins, 1998, p173

38 Gardiner, p56

39 Charles Burney, letter 24 September 1784, in Lonsdale, 1965, p365

40 Gardiner, p59

41 Johnson, 13 September 1784, Collected Letters of Samuel Johnson, edited by Bruce Redford, vol 4, p404

42 Johnson, 18 September 1784, ibid., p407

43 Ibid., p408

44 Johnson, 29 September 1784, ibid., pp408-9

45 Johnson, 6 October 1784, ibid., p415

46 The glamorous threesome were celebrated in a famous coloured lithograph by John Francis Rigaud, Captain Vicenzo Lunardi, Assistant Biggin and Mrs Sage in a Balloon, now held in the Yale Center for British Art. In the event, only two actually took off.

47 Mrs Sage, A Letter by Mrs Sage, the First English Female Aerial Traveller, on Her Voyage in Lunardi’s Balloon, 1785. British Library catalogue 1417.g.24

48 Gardiner, p60

49 Ibid., p44. On p77 she also describes ascending through a snow cloud

50 Tiberius Cavallo, History and Practice of Aerostation, 1785

51 Gardiner

52 Kirkpatrick to William Windham, in Hodgson, pp147-8

53 Hodgson, pp143-4

54 Johnson, 17 November 1784, Letters, p438

55 Johnson’s gift is confirmed in James Sadler’s memoir, Balloon: Aerial Voyage of Sadler and Clayfield, 1810. See also Hodgson, pp150, 403n

56 See Foreman and Hodgson

57 John Jeffries, Narrative of Two Aerial Voyages with M. Blanchard as Presented to the Royal Society, 1786. ‘The First Voyage’, pp10-11 (the ‘Second Voyage’ being the historic Channel Crossing). British Library catalogue 462.e.10 (8)

58 Jeffries, Two Aerial Voyages, pp55-65

59 Ibid.; but also drawn from a slightly racier account published exclusively for American readers as ‘The Diary of John Jeffries, Aeronaut: The First Aerial Voyage across the English Channel’, in The Magazine of American History, vol XIII, January 1885, and supplied to me as a pamphlet reprint (1955) by the Wayne County Library, USA

60 Photograph supplied by Musée de l’Air, Le Bourget, Paris

61 Jeffries, Diary, p16

62 Jeffries, Two Aerial Voyages, p69

63 Jeffries, Diary, p21

64 Erasmus Darwin, The Botanic Garden, 1791, Part I, Canto IV (Air), lines 143-76, footnote on Susan Dyer

65 Rolt, p91

66 Darwin, The Botanic Garden, Part I, Canto IV (Air), lines 143-76

67 Rolt, pp 99-104

68 James Sadler, An Authentic Account of the Aerial Voyage, 1810; see Hodgson, p150

69 Reproduced in Henry Beaufoy, ‘Journal Kept by HBHS during an Aerial Voyage with Sadler from Hackney’, British Library catalogue B.507 (1); see also Hodgson, fig 36

70 James Sadler, Across the Irish Channel, 1812, p16

71 Ibid., p23

72 See Holmes, Shelley: The Pursuit, 1974, p149

73 Windham Sadler, Aerostation, 1817. British Library catalogue RB.23.a.23973

74 Windham Sadler, ‘Progress of Science, while Ballooning neglected’, an Appendix to Aerostation, 1817, p16

75 Richard Hamblyn, The Invention of Clouds, 2000, which includes beautiful illustrations of Howard’s cloud paintings. Gavin Pretor-Pinney, The Cloudspotter’s Guide, 2006, suggests cloud study as both a science and an entire philosophy of life

76 Carl Grabo, A Newton Among Poets: Shelley’s Use of Science in Prometheus Unbound, North Carolina UP, 1931

77 Erasmus Darwin, ‘The Loves of the Plants’, 1789, from Part II of The Botanic Garden

78 Coleridge Notebooks I, entry for 26 November 1799; see Holmes, Coleridge: Early Visions, pp253-4

79 Wordsworth, Peter Bell, 1819, stanza 1, lines 5-6

80 Shelley at University College, Oxford in 1811, as recalled by T.J. Hogg in ‘Shelley at Oxford’, New Monthly Magazine, 1832; republished in his Life of P.B. Shelley, 1858

Chapter 4: Herschel Among the Stars

1 WH Mss W.1/5.1; and see ‘Description of a Forty-Foot Reflecting Telescope’, 1795, WH Papers 1, pp485-527 (with magnificent engravings of the telescope, the gantry, the moving mechanisms and the zone clocks and bells)

2 Michael Hoskin, The Herschel Partnership as Viewed by Caroline, Science History Publications, Cambridge, 2003, p79

3 J.A. Bennett, ‘The Telescopes of William Herschel’ (with illustrations), Journal for the History of Astronomy, 7, 1976

4 Hoskin, p79

5 WH Mss W.1/5.1; further details in ‘Astronomical Observations’ (1814), WH Papers 2, p536, footnote

6 Hoskin, p81

7 Journal of Mrs Papendiek, in WH Chronicle, p174

8 WH Chronicle, p145

9 WH Chronicle, p152

10 Journal of Mrs Papendiek, in WH Chronicle, pp145-6

11 Ordinance Survey map, Royal Berkshire, 1830, reproduced in Hoskin, p58

12 CHA, p81

13 WH Chronicle, p172

14 John Adams, April-May 1756, Diaries and Autobiography, edited by L.H. Butterfield, 1964

15 CHA, p83

16 Ibid.

17 CHA, p86

18 CHA, p89

19 Sketch of ‘small’ sweeper in CHA, p70

20 Michael Hoskin, ‘Caroline Herschel’s Comet Sweepers’, Journal for the History of Astronomy, 12, 1981; and CHA, p70

21 WH Mss C1/1.1, 34-5; and CHA, p88

22 CHA, pp89-90

23 James Thomson, ‘Summer’, lines 1,724-8, from The Seasons, 1726-30

24 Claire Brock, The Comet Sweeper, Icon Books, Cambridge, pp150-1

25 WH Mss 6267 1/1/3, for 2 August 1786

26 WH Mss 6267 1/1.1. Memorandum made 2 August 1786

27 Hoskin, p85

28 CHM, p68

29 WH Papers 1, pp309-10

30 Howse, Maskelyne, p155

31 Hoskin, p83

32 Fanny Burney, Diary, September 1786, from WH Chronicle, p169

33 Ibid.

34 Ibid., pp169-70

35 Ibid.

36 Sophie von La Roche, Diary, 14 September 1786, from Brock, pp154-5

37 WH Chronicle, p252

38 Nevil Maskelyne, 6 December 1793; see CHA, p70

39 Pierre Méchain, 28 August 1789; see WH Chronicle, p219

40 Hoskin, pp103-7

41 WH Chronicle, p171

42 CHA, p91

43 CHM, p209

44 CHM, p309

45 Hoskin, p87

46 WH Mss 6278 1/5; and Hoskin, p88

47 CHM, p274; see Patricia Fara, Pandora’s Breeches, 2004

48 Hoskin, p88

49 Ibid., p90

50 CHM, p209

51 WH Mss 6280; and Hoskin, p89

52 CHM, p211

53 Hoskin, pp88-90

54 CHA, p94

55 Ibid.

56 CHM, p308

57 WH Chronicle, p172

58 OS map from Hoskin, p58

59 Journal of Mrs Papendiek, WH Chronicle, p174

60 WH Archive: miniature on ivory of Mary Herschel by J. Kernan, 1805; also reproduced in Hoskin, p97

61 Hoskin, pp91-4

62 WH to Alexander, 7 February 1788, from WH Chronicle, p178

63 Hoskin, p92

64 Journal of Mrs Papendiek, WH Chronicle, p174

65 Ibid.

66 CHM, p178

67 WH Chronicle, p175

68 CHM, p79

69 CHA, p96

70 CHM, p79

71 WH Mss 6268 4/3

72 CHA, p57

73 CHM, pp78, 96

74 WH Chronicle, p177

75 Simon Schaffer, ‘Uranus and Herschel’s Astronomy’, Journal for the History of Astronomy, 12, 1981, p22

76 Hoskin, p106

77 CHM, p83

78 CHM, p82

79 ‘Description of a Forty Foot reflecting Telescope’ (June 1795), WH Papers 1, pp486, 512-26

80 Ibid.

81 WH Chronicle, p168

82 Ibid.

83 CHM, p168

84 Hoskin, p111

85 Ibid.

86 WH Papers 2 (1815), pp542-6

87 ‘Catalogue of a Second Thousand Nebulae’, 1789, WH Papers 1, pp329-37

88 Simon Schaffer, ‘On the Nebular Hypothesis’, in History, Humanity and Evolution, edited by J.R. Moore, 1988

89 Hoskin, p167

90 Broadsheet cartoon by R Hawkins, Soho, February 1790; reproduced in Hoskin, p107

91 CHM, p95

92 Ibid.

93 CHM, p96

94 Ibid.

95 CHM, p98

96 CHA, p123

97 Barthélemy Faujas de Saint-Fond, Travels in England and Scotland for the Purpose of Examining the Arts and the Sciences, vol 1, 1799, pp65-78; see Brock, p173

98 WH Papers 1, p423

99 Erasmus Darwin, Botanic Garden, Part I, Canto IV (Air), lines 371-88

100 Ibid., note to line 398

101 Crowe, 1986, pp79-80

102 Pierre Laplace quoted in Simon Schaffer, ‘On the Nebular Hypothesis’, op. cit.

103 Quoted in Crowe, 1986, p78

104 ‘On the Nature and Construction of the Sun’, 1795, WH Papers 1, pp470-84; and ‘Observations tending to investigate the Nature of the Sun’, 1801, WH Papers 2, pp147-80. See also discussion in Crowe, 1986, pp66-7

105 See Vincent Cronin, The View of the Planet Earth, 1981, p173

106 ‘On the Solar and Terrestrial Rays that occasion Heat’, 1800, WH Papers 2, pp77-146; see Hoskin, p99

107 Humphry Davy to Davies Giddy, 3 July 1800, in J.A. Paris, Davy, vol 1, p87

108 Hoskin, p101

109 British Public Characters of 1798, 1801, British Library catalogue 10818.d. I

110 WH Chronicle, pp309-11; Beattie, Life of Campbell, 1860, vol 2, pp234-9; Sime, pp206-9

111 Hoskin, p106

112 CHM, pp259-60

113 CHM, p259

114 Gunther Buttman, Shadow of the Telescope, 1974, p8

115 This wooden plane can be seen in the Herschel House Museum, Bath

116 Buttman, op. cit., p11

117 WH Chronicle, p281

118 Michael Hoskin, William Herschel and the Construction of the Heavens, 1963, p130

119 WH Chronicle, pp278-9

120 WH Papers 2, ‘On the Proper Motion of the Solar System’

121 WH Papers 2, pp460-97, with illustrations of different nebulae shapes

122 WH Papers 2, ‘Astronomical Observations’, 1811, p460; and discussed by Armitage, Herschel, pp117-20; and Hoskin, Stellar Astronomy, 1982, p152

123 WH Papers 1, ‘The Construction of the Heavens’, 1785; and WH Chronicle, p183

124 Byron, Detached Thoughts, 1821

125 Byron, Letters, to Piggot, December 1813; and Crowe, Extraterrestrial, p170

126 Bonnycastle, Astronomy, 1811, Preface, ppv-vi

127 Charles Cowden Clarke, Recollections, 1861; see also Andrew Motion, Keats, pp108-12

128 I owe this vivid suggestion to Dr Percy Harrison, Head of Science, Eton

129 The idea of a sacred, piercing moment of vision into the true nature of the cosmos is also traditional in earlier eighteenthcentury poetry. See the strange prose poem by the Northumberland rector James Hervey, Contemplations on the Night, 1747

130 Simon Schaffer, ‘Herschel on Matter Theory’, Journal for the History of Astronomy, June 1980

131 WH Papers 2, pp520-41; and WH Chronicle, p287

132 WH Papers 2, p541

133 William Whewell, On the Plurality of Worlds, 1850, edited by Michael Crowe, 2001

134 Herschel to Banks, 10 June 1802, in JB Correspondence 5, p199, where Herschel offers the term ’asteroid’ reluctantly - ‘not exactly the thing we want’ - from a suggestion by the antiquary Rev Steven Weston, though fully aware that the recently discovered Pallas and Ceres were not ‘baby stars’. The usage is nonetheless dated to Herschel 1802 by the OED.

135 Thomas Campbell quoted in WH Chronicle, p335

136 David Brewster, Life of Sir Isaac Newton, 1831

Chapter 5: Mungo Park in Africa

1 Sir Harold Carter, Sir Joseph Banks 1743-1820, British Museum, Natural History, 1988, p425; and Gascoigne, Banks and the Enlightenment, p19

2 JB Letters, p609n; and Hector Cameron, Sir Joseph Banks, 1952, p144

3 Cameron, p88

4 As described in Anthony Sattin, The Gates of Africa: Death, Discovery and the Search for Timbuktu, HarperCollins, 2003

5 The Life of Mungo Park, by HB (anon), 1835, p284

6 Sattin, pp134-6

7 Ibid., pp136-7

8 Mungo Park, Travels in the Interior of Africa, 1799, 1860. The edition used here is Travels, Nonsuch, 2005, p16

9 Sattin, p140

10 Travels, p19

11 Ibid., p31

12 Sattin, p143

13 Banks to Park, winter 1795, in ibid., p141

14 Travels, p95

15 Ibid., p98

16 Ibid., p138

17 Ibid., p141

18 Ibid.

19 The Life of Mungo Park, by HB (anon), 1835, pp289-90; also Sattin, p168

20 Travels, pp168-9

21 Ibid., p169

22 Samuel Taylor Coleridge, The Ancient Mariner, 1798, Part IV

23 Joseph Conrad, Geography and Some Explorers, 1924, pp28-9

24 JB Correspondence 4, Banks to Sir William Hamilton, 14 March 1798, p540

25 Ibid., no.1484, Banks to Johann Blumenbach, 19 September 1798, p554

26 Ibid., no. 1513, Blumenbach to Banks, 12 June 1799, p590

27 Walter Scott’s meeting with Park 1804; described in The Life of Mungo Park, by HB (anon), 1835, ‘Addenda’; and Sattin, p235

28 JB Letters, no. 78, Banks to Lord Liverpool, 8 June 1799, p209

29 Kenneth Lupton, Mungo Park African Traveller, OUP, 1979, p146. Lupton was the one-time District Officer at Boussa, and knew the African locations well

30 Ibid., p158

31 Travels, ‘Journal of Second Journey’, pp264-5

32 Ibid., p271

33 Park Mss, Martyn to Megan, 1 November 1805, BL Add Mss 37232.f63

34 Travels, ‘Journal of Second Journey’, p272

35 Park Mss, Park to Lord Camden, 17 November 1805, BL Add Mss 37232.f65; see also Park’s letter to Allison Park’s father, 10 November 1805, BL Add Mss 33230.f37; and Lupton, p175

36 Travels, p274

37 Park Mss, Park to Joseph Banks, 16 November 1805, BL Add Mss 37232.k.f64

38 Alfred Tennyson, ‘Timbucto’ (poem), 1827

39 Lupton, ‘Appendix of Later Accounts’ from Isaaco, Amadi Fatouma, Richard Lander and several subsequent Niger explorers

40 Thomas Park to Allison Park, dated Accra September 1727, from Joseph Thomson, Mungo Park and the Niger, 1890, pp241-2

41 Richard Lander’s report 1827, reprinted in Stephen Gwynn, Mungo Park and the Quest for the Niger, 1932, p233

42 Percy Bysshe Shelley, Alastor, or The Spirit of Solitude, 1815, lines 140-9

43 Thomas Love Peacock, Crotchet Castle, 1830; see Holmes, Shelley: The Pursuit, 1974, p292

44 See William Feaver, The Art of John Martin, Oxford, 1975; and discussion in Tim Fulford (editor), Literature, Science and Exploration in the Romantic Era, 2004, pp97-107

45 ‘[Ritchie] is going to Fezan in Africa there to proceed if possible like Mungo Park’, John Keats to George Keats, 5 January 1818; ‘Haydon showed me a letter he had received from Tripoli…Ritchie was well and in good spirits, among Camels, Turbans, Palm trees and sands…’, Keats to George Keats, 16-31 December 1818

Chapter 6: Davy on the Gas

1 Described in Davy’s letters to his mother Grace Davy, in June Z. Fullmer, Young Humphry Davy, American Philosophical Society, 2000, pp328-32

2 JD Fragments, pp2-5

3 Thomas Thorpe, Humphry Davy, Poet and Philosopher, 1896, p10

4 Anne Treneer, The Mercurial Chemist: A Life of Sir Humphry Davy, 1963, p6

5 Local sources, author’s visit to Penzance, May 2006

6 Ibid.

7 JD Memoirs, p68

8 There are various versions of this early poem in the HD Archive: see Paris, vol 1, p29; Treneer, pp4-5; or Fullmer, p13

9 Treneer, p16

10 John Davy quoted in ibid., p21

11 Ibid.

12 Introduction to Humphry Davy on Geology: The 1805 Lectures, pxxix, British Library catalogue X421/22592

13 HD Archive Box 13 (f) pp41-50, Mss notebook dated 1795-97

14 HD Archive Box 13 (f) p61

15 The whole poem, no fewer than thirty-two stanzas, is given in JD Memoirs, pp23-7

16 HD Works 2, p6

17 Jan Golinski, Science as Public Culture: Chemistry and Enlightenment in Britain 1760-1820, CUP, 1992, pp133-42

18 Ibid., p109

19 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, ‘Maxims and Reflections’, from Goethe, Scientific Studies, edited by Douglas Miller, Suhrkamp edition of Goethe’s Works, vol 12, New York, 1988, p308

20 Reprinted in HD Works 9

21 See Madison Smartt Bell, Lavoisier in the Year One: The Birth of a New Science in the Age of Revolution, Atlas Books, Norton, 2005. See also J.-L. David’s famous romantic portrait, Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier et sa Femme (1788)

22 Preface to Traité Élémentaire, translated by Robert Kerr, 1790

23 Consolations, Dialogue V, in HD Works 9, pp361-2

24 JD Memoirs, p34

25 For the Watt family, see Jenny Uglow, The Lunar Men: The Friends who Made the Future, 1730-1810, Faber, 2002

26 Treneer, p24

27 From Beddoes notes made 1793, quoted in Golinski, p171

28 HD Mss Truro, Beddoes letter in Davies Giddy Mss DG 42/1

29 Ibid.

30 Dorothy A. Stansfield, Thomas Beddoes MD: Chemist, Physician, Democrat, Reidel Publishing, Boston, 1984, pp162-4

31 HD Mss Truro, Davies Giddy Mss DG 42/8

32 HD Mss Truro, Davies Giddy Mss DG 42/4

33 See Holmes, Coleridge: Early Visions

34 John Ayrton Paris, The Life of Sir Humphry Davy, 2 vols, 1831, vol 1, p38

35 See David Knight, Humphry Davy: Vision and Power, Blackwell Science Biographies, 1992

36 Richard Lovell Edgeworth 1793, quoted in Fullmer, p106

37 Treneer, pp30-1

38 HD Archive Notebook 20a; and Fullmer, p169

39 HD Works 2, p85

40 HD Works 2, p84

41 HD Works 2, pp85-6; see HD Archive Ms Notebook B (1799)

42 HD Archive Mss Box 13(h) pp15-17 and Box 13(f) pp33-47

43 See Fullmer, pp163-6

44 From author’s visit and photographs, May 2006. See also John Allen, ‘The Early History of Varfell’, in Ludgvan, Ludgvan Horticultural Society, no date

45 Golinski, pp157-83

46 Reply from James Watt, Birmingham, 13 November 1799, in JD Fragments, pp24-6

47 HD Works 3, pp278-9

48 HD Works 3, pp278-80; on Davy’s impetuosity and courage see Oliver Sacks, Uncle Tungsten: Memories of a Chemical Boyhood, Picador, 2001

49 Joseph Cottle, Reminiscences, vol 1, 1847, p264

50 HD Works 3, pp246-7; James Watt, Birmingham, 13 November 1799, in JD Fragments, pp24-6; equipment partly illustrated in Fullmer, p216

51 Treneer, p72

52 Fullmer, p213

53 Ibid., p214

54 HD Works 3, p272

55 HD, Researches Chemical and Philosophical chiefly concerning Nitrous Oxide, London, 1800, p461. See HD Works 3

56 JD Life 1, pp79-82

57 HD Archive Mss Box 13 (c) pp5-6; and Fullmer, p215

58 Treneer, p47

59 HD Archive Mss Box 20 (b) p118

60 HD Archive Mss Box 20 (b) p120

61 HD, Researches, 1800, p491

62 Ibid., p492; discussed in Cartwright, pp237-8

63 HD Works 9, pp74-5; comments by Physicus, Day 4, in Salmonia, 1828

64 Fullmer, p218

65 Cartwright on Anaesthetics, 1952, pp100-23; Treneer, pp40-8

66 HD Archive Mss Box 20(b) p208

67 HD Archive Mss Box 20 (b) p209

68 HD Researches, 1800, pp100-2

69 A premonition of Frankenstein! HD Researches, 1800, p102

70 Southey to Tom Southey, 1799, from Treneer, p44

71 A Memoir of Maria Edgeworth, edited by her children, 1867, vol 1, p97

72 Treneer, p45

73 Ibid., p43

74 Ibid., p54

75 Southey to William Wynn, 30 March 1799

76 ‘Unfinished Poem on Mount’s Bay’, in Paris, vol 1, pp36-9

77 JD Fragments, pp34-5

78 Ibid., pp37-9

79 JD Life 1, p119

80 Treneer, p44

81 Holmes, ‘Kubla Coleridge’, in Coleridge: Early Visions, 1989

82 ‘Detail of Mr Coleridge’, Researches, 1800, and HD Works 3, pp306-7

83 Coleridge to Davy, 1 January 1800, Coleridge Collected Letters, edited by E.L. Griggs, vol 1; and see Treneer, p58

84 JD Memoirs, pp58-9

85 JD Fragments, p24; Fullmer, pp269-70

86 HD Works 3, pp289-90; and compare Fullmer, pp269-70

87 HD Archive Mss Box 20 (b) pp129-34, dated 26 December 1799

88 HD Archive Mss Box 20 (b) p95

89 JD Memoirs, pp59-66

90 Ibid., pp66-7

91 HD Works 3; Fullmer, p211

92 HD Works 3, pp1-3

93 JD Memoirs, pp54-5

94 Preface to Researches, 1800, HD Works 3, p2

95 Joseph Cottle, Reminiscences of S. T. Coleridge and Robert Southey, 1847

96 Treneer, p48

97 The Sceptic, anon, 1800, British Library catalogue Cup.407.gg.37

98 Golinski, p173

99 Ibid., p153

100 Treneer, p63

101 Paris, vol 1, p58

102 Trevor H. Levere, Poetry Realized in Nature: Coleridge and Early Nineteenth Century Science, CUP, 1981, p32

103 See Coleridge to Davy, six letters, 9 October 1800-20 May 1801, Coleridge Collected Letters, edited by E.L. Griggs, vols 1-2; see Treneer, pp67-8

104 Coleridge to Davy, 9 October 1800

105 Holmes, p247

106 Coleridge, letter to Davy, 15 July 1800, Collected Letters, vol 1, p339. He also added in a chemical vein: ‘I would that I could wrap up the view from my House [Greta Hall] in a pill of opium, & send it to you!’

107 Southey to William Taylor, 20 February 1800; from Fullmer, p148

108 Southey to Coleridge, 3 August 1801; from ibid., pp148-9

109 JD Fragments, pp29-30

110 ‘On the Death of Lord Byron’, 1824, Davy, Memoirs, pp285-6

111 HD Works 8, p308

112 Fullmer, pp328-32

113 The most revealing evidence is the unpublished letter Anna Beddoes wrote to Davy on 26 December 1806, HD Archive Mss Box 26 File H 9

114 Fullmer, p82

115 Ibid., p281

116 Verse fragments from HD Archive, Ms Notebook 13 J; Box 26 File H; and Fullmer, pp 106-8

117 HD Archive Mss Box 26 File H 7

118 HD Archive Mss Box 26 File H 6, 13 and 14

119 HD Mss Bristol, Davy to John King, 14 November 1801, Ms 32688/33

120 HD Archive Mss Box 13 (g) p116

121 HD Archive Mss Box 13 (g) p158

122 See Stansfield, pp 234-5. Some more light is thrown on Anna’s enigmatic and volatile character by A.C. Todd, ‘Anna Maria, Mother of Thomas Lovell Beddoes’, in Studia Neophilologica, 29, 1957

123 ‘Glenarm, by moonlight, August 1806’, HD Archive Mss Box 13 (g) p166; printed in JD Memoirs, pp50-1

124 HD Archive Mss Box 26 File H 9 and 10

125 JD Fragments, p150

126 Coleridge to Southey, 1803; see Treneer, p114

127 Treneer, p78

128 JB Correspondence 4, letters 1290-6, cover an exchange between Banks, James Watt and the Duchess of Devonshire about the viability of Dr Beddoes’s scheme in December 1794

129 HD Works 3, p276

130 F.F. Cartwright, The English Pioneers of Anaesthesia, 1952, p311

131 HD, Researches, 1800, p556; and HD Works 3, p329

132 Holmes, pp222-7

133 Coleridge to Davy, 2 December 1800, Collected Letters, vol 1, p648

134 Paris, vol 1, p97

135 Cartwright, p320

136 Bristol Mirror, 9 January 1847, from ibid., p317

137 JD Memoirs, pp80-1

138 Philosophical Magazine, May-June 1801, from Treneer, p78

139 David Knight, essay in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. It is curious that no essential improvement has taken place in the design of chemical batteries since the nineteenth century, and this is currently the greatest single obstacle to the efficient global use of solar energy from solar panels. (Conversation with Richard Mabey on the banks of the river Waveney, midsummer’s day 2008.)

140 Dorothy A. Stansfield, Thomas Beddoes MD: Chemist, Physician, Democrat, Reidel Publishing, Boston, 1984, pp120, 234-42; also J.E. Stock, Memoirs of Thomas Beddoes, 1811

141 HD Mss Bristol, Davy to John King, 22 June 1801, Ms 32688/31

142 HD Mss Bristol, Davy to John King, 14 November 1801, Ms 32688/33

143 Ibid.

144 Coleridge, Letters, 1802

145 HD Works 2, pp311-26

146 Ibid., p314

147 Ibid. pp318-19

148 Ibid., p321

149 Ibid., p323

150 Ibid.

151 Ibid., p326

152 Preface, Lyrical Ballads, 1802. See discussion in Mary Midgley, Science and Poetry, Routledge, 2001

153 Maria Edgeworth, letter, 8 October 1802; from Lamont-Brown, p59

154 HD Archive Mss Box 13c p32; and Golinski, pp194-7

155 Coleridge to Southey, 17 February 1803, Collected Letters, vol 2, p490

156 Davy to Coleridge, March 1804; see Holmes, p360

157 Paris, vol 2, pp198-9

158 Ibid., p199

159 See Nicholas Roe, Samuel Taylor Coleridge and the Sciences of Life, 2001, pp142-4

160 Partly reprinted in HD Works 5 and 8; lucidly discussed in Harold Hartley, Humphry Davy, Open University, 1966, pp50-74; and Oliver Sacks, Uncle Tungsten

161 JD Memoirs, pp116-17

162 ‘Introduction to Electro-Chemical Science’, originally delivered March 1808, HD Works 8, pp274-305

163 HD Works 8, p281

164 HD Works 8; see Hartley, pp50-4

165 Treneer, p111

166 HD Works 5, pp59-61

167 Hartley, p56

168 Beddoes, 17 November 1808, from Stansfield, p239

169 Henry Brougham, ‘Three essays on Humphry Davy’, Edinburgh Review, 1808, vol 11: first pp390-8; second pp394-401; third pp483-90

170 Coleridge to Tom Poole, 24 November 1807

171 Treneer, p104

172 JD Memoirs, p117; HD Works 8, p355

173 HD Archive, quoted in Holmes, Coleridge: Darker Reflections, p119

174 ‘Written after Recovery from a Dangerous Illness’, printed in JD Memoirs, pp114-16

175 Consolations in Travel, 1830, Dialogue II, HD Works 9, pp254-5

176 Ibid., p255

177 JD Memoirs, pp394, 397

178 Consolations, Dialogue II, HD Works 9, pp254-5. The story of Josephine Dettela, 1827-29, will be continued in my Chapter 9

179 Stansfield, pp194-5

180 Davy to Coleridge, December 2008, Collected Letters, vol 3, pp170-1; Treneer, p113

181 Stansfield, p 247

182 HD Archive Mss Box 14 (i), note dated February 1829, Rome. See also Stansfield, p249

183 British Public Characters, 1804-5 (1809), British Library catalogue 10818.d. 1

184 Anna Barbauld, ‘The Year 1811’ (1812)

185 Coleridge’s note, 1809, in Notebooks, vol 2, entry no. 1855

186 HD Works 8, p354

Chapter 7: Dr Frankenstein and the Soul

1 Fanny Burney, ‘A Mastectomy’, 30 September 1811, in the The Journals and Letters of Fanny Burney (Madame d’Arblay), vol 6, edited by Joyce Hemlow, Oxford, 1975, pp596-616

2 Ibid., p600, footnote

3 Druin Burch, Digging up the Dead: The Life and Times of Astley Cooper, Chatto & Windus, 2007, p179. Besides much else, Burch has a chastening section on concepts of pain endurance, anaesthesia and surgery at this period, pp172-82

4 JB Correspondence 5, no. 1616

5 Sharon Ruston, Shelley and Vitality, Palgrave, 2005, p39

6 See Holmes, Coleridge: Darker Reflections, 1998

7 John Hunter, 1794, from Ruston, p40

8 John Abernethy, Enquiry into Mr Hunter’s Theory of Life: Two Lectures, 1814 and 1815, p38; and Ruston, p43

9 Abernethy, Enquiry, pp48-50

10 Ruston, p45

11 Gascoigne, Banks and the English Enlightenment, pp157-9

12 See Tim Fulford, Debbie Lee and Peter J. Kitson, ‘Exploration, Headhunting and Race Theory’, in Literature, Science and Exploration in the Romantic Era, CUP, 2004

13 Holmes, Shelley: The Pursuit, p 290

14 See Shelley’s Prose, edited by David Lee Clark

15 Holmes, Shelley, pp286-90; also Ruston, pp91-100

16 Ruston, p193

17 William Lawrence, Natural History of Man, 1819, pp6-7

18 William Lawrence, Introduction to Comparative Anatomy, 1816, pp169-70; and Ruston, p50

19 William Lawrence: The Natural History of Man (Lectures on Physiology and Zoology), 1819, p106

20 Ibid., p8; and Ruston, pp15-16

21 Lawrence, Introduction to Comparative Anatomy, p174; and Ruston, p16

22 In his letters of 1797-98, and later Notebooks. See Holmes, ‘Kubla Coleridge’, in Coleridge: Early Visions

23 Hermione de Almeida, Romantic Medicine and John Keats, OUP, 1991, pp66-73

24 Holmes, ‘The Coleridge Experiment’, Proceedings of the Royal Institution, vol 69, 1998, p312

25 Nicholas Roe, ‘John Thelwall’s Essay on Animal Vitality’, in The Politics of Nature, Palgrave, 2002, p89

26 Burch, Digging up the Dead, 2007

27 Thelwall, ‘Essay towards a Definition of Animal Vitality’, 1793, quoted in Nicholas Roe, The Politics of Nature, pp89-91

28 Blagden to Banks, 27 December 1802, JB Correspondence 5, no. 1704

29 G Aldini, An Account of the Late Improvements in Galvanism…Containing the Author’s Experiments on the Body of a Malefactor Executed at Newgate, London, 1803; see Fred Botting (editor), New Casebooks: Frankenstein, Palgrave, 1995, p125

30 Quarterly Review, 1819, from Frankenstein, Oxford World Classics, pp243-50

31 B.R. Haydon, Diary, 1817; Penelope Hughes-Hallett, The Immortal Dinner, 2000; Mary Midgley, Science and Poetry, pp50-5

32 Quoted by Burch, pp154-5. For a darker view of dissection see Helen MacDonald, Human Remains: Dissection and its Histories, Yale UP, 2006

33 Holmes, Shelley: The Pursuit, pp360-1

34 ‘Theory of Life’ (1816), in Coleridge: Shorter Works and Fragments, edited by H.J. and J.R. Jackson, vol 1, Princeton, 1995, p502

35 Holmes, Coleridge: Darker Reflections, 1998, p479

36 Hermione de Almeida, Romantic Medicine and John Keats, p102

37 Coleridge to Wordsworth, 30 May 1815, Coleridge Collected Letters 4, pp574-5

38 Richard Burton quoted in Andrew Motion, Keats, p430

39 John Keats, ‘Lamia’ (1820), lines 229-38

40 Ibid., lines 47-60

41 Ibid., lines 249-53

42 Ibid., lines 146-60

43 Davy’s ‘Discourse Introductory to Lectures on Chemistry, 1802, HD Works 2, pp311-26

44 Frankenstein, 1818, Chapter 2, Penguin Classics

45 Mary Shelley’s Journal, 25 August-5 September 1814

46 In September 1815 at Great Marlow; see Holmes, Shelley, p296

47 Mary Shelley, ‘Introduction’ to Frankenstein 1831 text

48 Frankenstein, 1818, Chapter 1, Penguin Classics

49 JB Correspondence 5, no. 1804

50 J.H. Ritter as featured in www.CorrosionDoctors

51 Walter Wetzels, ‘Ritter and Romantic Physics’, in Romanticism and the Sciences, edited by Cunningham and Jardine, 1990. The best account of the extraordinary writer Novalis appears in Penelope Fitzgerald’s inspired novel The Blue Flower, 1995

52 JB Correspondence 5, no. 1748, pp316-17

53 Ibid., no. 1790, p368

54 Ibid., no. 1799, p387

55 For a wider perspective see ‘Death, Dying and Resurrection’, in Peter Hanns Reill, Vitalizing Nature in the Enlightenment, California UP, 2005, pp171-6

56 Frankenstein, 1818, vol 1, Chapter 5, Penguin Classics, p56

57 These connections are further traced by Ruston, pp86-95

58 Lawrence, Lectures, 1817, pp6-7

59 Frankenstein, 1818, vol 2, Chapter 3, Penguin Classics, pp99-100

60 Ibid., Chapter 8, p132

61 Ibid., Chapter 9, pp140-1

62 Ibid., Chapter 9, p141

63 Ibid., vol 3, Chapter 2, p160

64 Ibid., Chapter 3, p160

65 Ibid., pp164-5

66 Frankenstein, 1831 text, pp178, 180, 186. My italics

67 Ibid., p189

68 Text from 1823 leaflet about Presumption; see Fred Botting (editor), New Casebooks: Frankenstein, Palgrave, 1995. The evolution and impact of the novel is brilliantly disclosed by William St Clair in The Reading Nation in the Romantic Period, OUP, 2004

69 Mary Shelley, The Letters of Mary Shelly, vol 1, edited by Betty T. Bennett, Johns Hopkins UP, 1988, pp369, 378

70 Frankenstein, 1818, vol 2, Chapter 5, Penguin Classics, pp116-17

71 Lawrence, On the Natural History of Man, 1819, p150

72 Ruston, p71

73 Adrian Desmond, The Politics of Evolution: Medicine in Radical London, Chicago, 1989, p112

Chapter 8: Davy and the Lamp

1 Jane Apreece to Walter Scott, 4 March 1811, in ‘Lady Davy’s Letters’, edited by James Parker, The Quarterly Review, January 1962; also Lamont-Brown, p94

2 For example: ‘Whene’er you speak, Heaven! how the listening throng/ Dwell on the melting music of your tongue!…’ (Valentine’s Day 1805), HD Archive Box 26 File H II

3 Treneer, p119

4 See ‘iconography’ for Lady Davy (Jane Apreece) in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. At the time of going to press I am still searching for a portrait, having exhausted all leads kindly provided by the National Portrait Gallery, London; the Scottish National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh; and Christie’s, London

5 HD Archive Mss Box 25, containing ninety letters from Lady Davy 1811-22

6 HD Archive Mss Box 25/1

7 HD Archive Mss Box 25/3

8 HD Archive Mss Box 25/2

9 Raymond Lamont-Brown, Humphry Davy: Life Beyond the Lamp, Sutton, 2004, p94

10 HD Archive Mss Box 25/3; 13; 18; 20

11 HD Archive Mss Box 25/6

12 Coleridge letter of 28 May 1809; also Treneer, p113

13 HD Archive Mss Box 25/5 (1 November 1811)

14 HD Archive Mss Box 25/11; and Treneer, p124

15 HD Archive Mss Box 25/25 (March 1812)

16 HD Archive Mss Box 25/4; also Lamont-Brown, pp96-7

17 HD Archive Mss Box 25/4

18 ‘Lady Davy’s Letters’, edited by James Parker, The Quarterly Review, January 1962, p81

19 HD Archive Mss Box 25/26

20 HD Archive Mss Box 25/24; further details Lamont-Brown, pp90-105

21 Thorpe, p162

22 Banks to John Lloyd FRS, 31 March 1812; from June Z. Fullmer, ‘The Poetry of Sir Humphry Davy’, in Chymia, 6, 1960, p114

23 Treneer, p126

24 HD Works 2

25 JD Fragments, p158

26 Holmes, Shelley, p153

27 Thomas De Quincey, ‘The Poetry of Pope’, 1848. He gave Newton’s Principia as an example of Knowledge, and Milton’s Paradise Lost as example of Power. De Quincey also published a number of essays on scientific subjects, notably ‘Animal Magnetism’ (1833), ‘Kant and Dr Herschel’ (1819) and ‘The Planet Mars’ (1819)

28 HD Works 4, pp1-40

29 Ibid., p20

30 Ibid., ppl-2

31 Golinski, p262

32 Consolations, Dialogue V, ‘The Chemical Philosopher’, HD Works 9

33 Coleridge in Notebook 23 (1812), quoted by Trevor H. Levere, Chemists in Society 1770-1878, 1994, pp363-4

34 Coleridge’s Marginalia on Jakob Boehme (c.1810-11), from ibid., p357

35 See Coleridge’s letter to Lord Liverpool, 28 July 1817, discussing Davy versus Dalton (’atomist’), Collected Letters, vol 4, p760

36 JD Fragments, p174

37 Ibid., p175

38 HD Archive Mss Box 25/31

39 Treneer, p134

40 Ibid., p133

41 Ibid., p137

42 Hamilton, pp119, 207

43 Jane Marcet, Conversations in Chemistry, 2 vols, 1813, vol 1, p342

44 Treneer, p138

45 HD Archive Mss Box 25/33

46 HD Archive Mss Box 25/27

47 HD Archive Mss Box 25/28

48 HD Archive Mss Box 25/36

49 Kerrow Hill, The Brontë Sisters and Sir Humphry Davy, Penzance, 1994, p16

50 HD Archive Mss Box 25/34

51 Paris, vol 2, pp59-72

52 JD Memoirs, p163

53 Michael Faraday, ‘Observations on Mental Education’, 1859; quoted in James Hamilton, Faraday: The Life, HarperCollins, 2002, p1. See also striking portraits and photographs of Faraday dated 1829, 1831 and c. 1850 (National Portrait Gallery)

54 Lamont-Brown, pp110-26

55 Paris, vol 1, p261

56 Leigh Hunt, Examiner, 24 October 1813

57 JD Fragments, p190

58 Michael Faraday, Correspondence 1811-1831, vol 1, edited Frank A.L.J. James, Institute of Electrical Engineers, 1991, p127

59 Maurice Crosland, ‘Davy and Gay Lussac’, in Sophie Forgan (editor), Science and the Sons of Genius (essays), 1980, pp103-8

60 Faraday, Correspondence, p124

61 JD Memoirs, pp172-7; and Hartley, p107

62 Hartley, pp107-8

63 Faraday, Correspondence, p101

64 HD Works 1, p218

65 Ibid., p217

66 Ibid., p220

67 Faraday, Correspondence, p117

68 Ibid., 23 February 1815, p126

69 Treneer, p175; from Ticknor, Memoirs

70 HD Works 1, p235

71 Paris, vol 2, p79

72 J.H. Holmes, Accidents in Coal Mines, London, 1816, pp141-2

73 ‘Report of the Select Committee on Accidents in Mines’, in Parliamentary Papers, 1835, vol 5, September 1835

74 Faraday, Correspondence, p136

75 Bence Jones, Life and Letters of Faraday, vol 1, p361

76 Paris, vol 2, p95

77 Ibid., p82

78 JB Letters, p317

79 Paris, vol 2, p97

80 Letter to John Hodgson, 29 December 1815, Northumberland Record Office; from Frank A.J.L. James, ‘How Big is a Hole? The Problems of the Practical Application of Science in the Invention of the Miners’ Safety Lamp by Humphry Davy and George Stephenson in Late Regency England’, in Transactions of the Newcomen Society, 75, 2005, p197

81 Frank James, pp185-93

82 HD, On the Safety Lamp, with Some Researches into Flame, 1818; and HD Works 6, pp12-14

83 HD Works 6, p4

84 Coleridge, The Friend (1818 edition), in The Friend, vol 1, edited by Barbara E. Rooke, Routledge, 1969, pp 530-1

85 Coleridge, The Friend (1809 edition), no. 19, 1809; in The Friend, vol 2, edited by Barbara E. Rooke, Routledge, 1969, pp251-2

86 Frank James, p197

87 John Buddle’s evidence (2nd day), Report of the Select Committee, 1835, ppl53-4

88 HD Works 6, pp116-17

89 Lamont-Brown, p112

90 Thorpe, p203

91 Paris, vol 2, p111

92 ‘Igna Constructo Securitas…’ Davy’s coat of arms illustrated in The Gentleman’s Magazine, 1829

93 John Playfair, ‘Sir Humphry Davy’s Lamp’, in Edinburgh Review, no. LI, 1816, p233; also Thorpe, p204

94 HD Works 6, pp6-7

95 Ibid., p22, footnote

96 Ibid., p4

97 Hamilton, pp121-5; Lamont-Brown, pp128-33

98 James Heaton demonstration at the Society of Arts, 1817, described in Report of the Select Committee, 1835, p213

99 A Collection of all Letters in Newcastle papers relating to Safety Lamps, London, 1817. See British Library catalogue Tracts 8708.i.2

100 Letter from George Stephenson, ibid., Tracts 8708.i.2(5)

101 Treneer, p172

102 Lettter to Lord Lambton, October 1816, in Paris, vol 2, p120

103 Frank James, p203

104 Paris, vol 2, p123

105 See Hamilton, pp122-3

106 Frank James, pp183-95

107 HD Works 6

108 Paris, vol 2, p122

109 Ibid., p124-5; and from David Knight, Davy, p113

110 HD Works 1, pp209-10

111 Paris, vol 2, p129

112 Treneer, pp 173-4; Thorpe, p208

113 Minute Book of Newcastle Literary and Philosophical Society, December 1817, from Frank James, p211

114 ‘Report of the Select Committee on Accidents in Mines’, in Parliamentary Papers, 1835, vol 5, September 1835

115 Ibid., pviii

116 Ibid.

117 Davy boys described in ibid., pp97-108, 165-7. See also Samuel Smiles, Life of George Stephenson, 1859; and Newcastle Public Record Office

118 Walter Scott, Journals 1, 1826, p109

119 JD Fragments, pp141-3

120 Sun Fire Office insurance document, 4 June 1818, found through internet UK Archives Network

121 HD, On the Safety Lamp for Preventing Explosions, London, 1825, p151

122 Consolations, Dialogue II, HD Works 9, pp254-5

123 Ibid., p255

124 JD Life 2, pp114-15; and JD Memoirs, pp251-3

125 Shelley, Epipsychidion, 1820, lines 190-221 (extract)

126 Byron, letter to John Murray, April 1820; see Treneer, p182

127 Byron, Don Juan I (1819), stanza 132

Chapter 9: Sorcerer and Apprentice

1 JB Correspondence 6, p286

2 JB, August 1816, ibid., pp208-9

3 Ibid., p382

4 JB, November 1814, ibid., p152

5 Gunther Buttman, In the Shadow of the Telescope: A Biography of John Herschel, Lutterworth Press, 1974, p13

6 JB Correspondence 6, p375

7 Ibid.

8 JB Correspondence 6, 1819

9 Coleridge ‘Youth and Age’ (1825), in Selected Poems, Penguin Classics, p215

10 November 1817, JB Correspondence 6, p252

11 Byron, ‘Darkness’, written at the Villa Diodati, July 1816. See Fiona MacCarthy, Byron: Life and Legend, John Murray, 2002, p69; and discussed in New Penguin Romantic Poetry, edited by Jonathan and Jessica Wordsworth, Notes to Poems, p909

12 JB Correspondence 6, September and November 1819, pp355, 367

13 Gascoigne, p52

14 JB Correspondence 6, March 1818, p276

15 Ibid., November 1818, p325

16 Ibid., September 1819, p359

17 Byron, Don Juan (1821), Canto 10, lines 1-24. The ‘glass and vapour’ refer to telescopes and steamships, and also possibly balloons. The ringing phrase ‘In the Wind’s Eye’ was used by modern editors as the title of vol 6 of Byron’s Collected Letters

18 JB Correspondence 6, August 1816, p209

19 Gascoigne, p41

20 Ibid.

21 Buttman, p13

22 CHM, pp119-21

23 John Herschel to Babbage, October 1813, quoted in Buttman, p14

24 William Herschel to John, 10 November 1813, WH Mss 6278 1/11

25 Lady Herschel to John, 14 November 1813, ibid.

26 John Herschel to Babbage, March 1815, quoted by Buttman, p16

27 JB Correspondence 6, p375

28 Shelley, ‘Notes to Queen Mab’ (1812)

29 Ruston, p154

30 Further discussion in Ruston p208, and Crowe, Extraterrestrial, p171

31 Shelley, Prometheus Unbound, Act I, lines 163-6

32 Ibid., Act II, lines 52-9

33 Ibid., Act IV, lines 238-44

34 Ibid., lines 457-72

35 Gascoigne, pp257-9

36 JB Correspondence 6, various letters, 1820

37 Gascoigne, pp249-55

38 JB Correspondence 6, August 1819, p352

39 Ibid., November 1819, p367

40 Ibid., February 1820, p379

41 William Edward Parry to ‘My Dearest Parents’, December 1817; from O’Brian, p300

42 JB Correspondence 6, asking for news of Parry, 1818, pp251, 326, 377

43 Ibid., 20 December 1819, p374. The man was of course John Herschel

44 Ibid., Berthollet to Banks, 27 March 1820, pp383-4

45 See his Will, described in O’Brian, Chapter 12

46 Marie Boas Hall, All Scientists Now, 1984, p18

47 Lockhart, Life of Sir Walter Scott, vol 2, 1838, pp40-3

48 HD Works 7, pp5-15

49 Ibid., p21

50 JD Life 2, p126

51 Paris, vol 2, p185

52 Faraday, Correspondence 1, p183

53 Ibid., pp244-80 passim

54 Hamilton, p192

55 Faraday to Phillips, May 1836, Bence Jones, Michael Faraday, 1870, vol 1, pp335-9

56 Discussed in Bence Jones, pp335-9, and James Hamilton, pp186-9

57 Holmes, Shelley, p410

58 Hartley, p129

59 Ibid., p130

60 Humboldt, ‘Lecture to the Berlin Academy of Sciences’, 1805, quoted in Steven Ruskin, Herschel’s Cape Voyage, 2004

61 Ibid., pp20-2

62 Ibid., p16

63 Many of these instruments, including the ‘mountain barometer’, in WH Archive; and see Ruskin, p21

64 ‘The Garden Days: Marlow 1817’ in Holmes, Shelley. If I had been a novelist I would have described Shelley and Mary making a night visitation to the great forty-foot, and getting Caroline to show them Andromeda and other distant constellations, and planning a comet-flight into deep space. See ‘The Witch of Atlas’, 1820

65 CHM, p131. The note is actually dated 4 July 1819

66 CHM, p137

67 WH Chronicle, p363. The second translation is mine

68 Gentleman’s Magazine, September 1822

69 Ibid.

70 Holmes, Shelley, p730

71 Sime, pp259-61

72 WH Chronicle, p359

73 CHM, p163

74 CHM, p171

75 WH Chronicle, p366

76 CHM, p167

77 Caroline Herschel to John, April 1827, British Library Ms Egerton 3761.f45/60; and see J.A. Bennett, ‘The Telescopes of William Herschel’, in Journal for the History of Astronomy, 7, June 1976

78 CHM, p163

79 CHM, p 180

80 CHM, p193

81 CHM, p161

82 David S. Evans (editor), Herschel at the Cape: Letters and Journals of John Herschel, Texas, 1969, pxxi

83 CHM, p168

84 Thorpe, p222

85 Treneer, p208

86 Ibid., pp206-12

87 Ibid., p208

88 The Harringtonian System of Chemistry, 1819, quoted in Golinski, p217

89 ‘The Humbugs of the Age’, in John Bull Magazine, 1, 1824, British Library catalogue PP.5950

90 Evans, pxxx

91 Treneer, p207

92 JD Memoirs, p346

93 JD Fragments, p289

94 JD Memoirs, pp334-6

95 HD Works 9, pp13-14

96 Salmonia, Day 4, HD Works 9, pp66-7

97 JD Fragments, p258

98 Salmonia, Day 4, HD Works 9, p66

99 HD Archive Mss Box 25/51

100 HD Archive Mss Box 25/61

101 Consolations, Dialogue IV, HD Works 9, pp314-15

102 Paris, vol 2, p306

103 Tom Poole to John Davy, c. 1835, in Paris, vol 2, p307

104 Paris, vol 2, p309

105 HD Archive Mss Box 25/73, 74, 75. On 25 January 1829: ‘I hope I may wear on till the spring & see May in Illyria. I have now constant pain in the region of the heart.’ Box 25/84

106 HD Archive Mss Box 25/73; and Lamont-Brown, pp157-63

107 HD Archive Mss Box 25/90

108 HD Archive Mss Box 25/74, letter, 2 November 1828

109 HD Archive Mss Box 25/75, letter, 3 December 1828

110 HD Archive Mss Box 26, File B/17

111 HD Archive Mss Box 25/83

112 JD Fragments, p265

113 Davy’s two unpublished poems to Josephine Dettela can be found in HD Archive Mss Box 14 (e) pp128-30

114 Based on local information provided by Professor Dr Janez Batis of the Slovenian Academy of Sciences, for David Knight, Humphry Davy: Vision and Power, Blackwell Science Biographies, 1992, pp180, 260

115 JD Fragments, p293

116 Thorpe, p232

117 HD Archive Mss Box 25/87a

118 Fullmer, p350

119 Consolations, Dialogue I, HD Works 9, p233

120 Ibid., pp233-6

121 Ibid., pp237-8

122 Ibid., p240

123 Ibid., pp239-47

124 Ibid., pp236-47, 266, 274

125 Ibid., Dialogue II, p266

126 Ibid., pp274, 254-6

127 Ibid., Dialogue III, pp302-3

128 Ibid., Dialogue II, pp304-8

129 Ibid., Dialogue III, p309

130 Ibid., p308

131 Ibid., Dialogue IV, p316

132 Ibid., pp320-1

133 Undated extract from Davy’s lecture notebooks, JD Memoirs, p147

134 Consolations, Dialogue V, HD Works 9, pp361-5

135 Ibid., pp364-6

136 Ibid., pp365-6

137 Ibid., Dialogue VI, p382

138 Janet Browne, Charles Darwin, vol 1, 2003, p30

139 JD Memoirs, 1839

140 John Tobin, Journal of a Tour whilst accompanying the late Sir Humphry Davy, 1832, p5

141 JD Fragments, p268

142 JD Fragments, to Jane, September 1827, p296

143 HD Archive Mss Box 25/80, to Jane, 1 September 1828

144 John Herschel, On the Study of Natural Philosophy, 1830, pp342-4 and footnote

145 HD Archive Mss Box 14 (M) pp105-6

146 JD Fragments, Jane to Davy, late March 1829, p313

147 John Davy’s affectionate account, in JD Memoirs, p412

148 JD Memoirs, p408

Chapter 10: Young Scientists

1 In a series of gloomy articles, e.g. The Times, 28 June 1832. See Marie Boas Hall, All Scientists Now, CUP, 1984

2 Edinburgh Review, 49, 1829, pp439-59; and Hamilton, p270

3 Thomas Carlye, Sartor Resartus, 1833

4 Anthony Hyman, ‘Charles Babbage: Science and Reform’, in Cambridge Scientific Minds, edited by Peter Harman and Simon Mitton, CUP, 2002

5 Charles Babbage, The Decline of Science in England, 1830, p102

6 Ibid., p152

7 Ibid., p44

8 Ibid., p102

9 Ibid., p174

10 Ibid., pp203-12

11 Ibid., p210

12 Ibid., p200

13 Hamilton, p229

14 J.S. Mill, Autobiography, 1870, p124

15 John Herschel, A Preliminary Discourse on the Study of Natural Philosophy, 1831, p4

16 Ruskin, pp117-21

17 Natural Philosophy, 1830, Part II

18 Ibid., p191

19 Ibid., p4

20 Ibid., p20

21 Ibid., pp14-15

22 Ibid., p55-6

23 Ibid., pp299-303

24 Ibid., pp329-40

25 Ibid., p340

26 Faraday to John Herschel, 10 November 1832, Correspondence, vol 1, p623

27 Charles Darwin to W.D. Fox, 15 February 1831, in Correspondence Volume I, 1821-1836, CUP, edited by Frederick Burkhardt and Sydney Smith, 1985, p118 footnote 2. See also Charles Darwin, Autobiography

28 Gentlemen of Science: Early Correspondence, Camden Society, 1984, p26

29 Jack Morrell and Arnold Thackray, Gentlemen of Science: Early Years, OUP, 1981, pp12-17

30 Gentlemen of Science: Early Correspondence, pp85-6

31 Ibid., pp55-8

32 Morrell and Thackray, pp180-201

33 The Times, 23 June 1832, p4, columns 3-4

34 The Voyage of the Beagle, June 1833

35 Coleridge, 29 June 1833; Table Talk, edited by Carl Woodring, 1990, vol 1, p392 and footnote

36 Ibid., pp394-5

37 Coleridge, Biographia Literaria, 1817, Chapter 4

38 Holmes, Coleridge: Darker Reflections, p555

39 Quarterly Review, 51, 1834, pp54-68. James Secord, Victorian Sensation, University of Chicago Press, 2000, pp404-5; see also Richard Yeo, ‘William Whewell’, in Cambridge Scientific Minds, 2000

40 Hamilton, p261

41 Unpublished comment by Mrs Margaret Herschel, in the holograph Introduction to the manuscript of Caroline Herschel’s Memoirs, in WH Archive, John Herschel-Shorland. It is interesting that this comment was suppressed from the printed Introduction by her publisher John Murray

42 James Secord, Vestiges of Natural Creation, Chicago UP, 2000, p47

43 ‘Fragment of Bridgwater Treatise’, Charles Babbage, Collected Works, vol 11

44 William Sotheby’s poem is reprinted in Tim Fulford (editor), Romanticism and Science, 1773-1833

45 The Times, 4 September 1835, p3

46 Gentlemen of Science, p543

47 Bentley’s Miscellany, IV, 1838, p209

48 The whole series of experiments is dramatically described in James Hamilton, Faraday, 2002, pp245-52, which beautifully explains the construction of early coils and dynamos

49 On the Chemical History of a Candle, 1861; Faber Book of Science, edited by John Carey, 2003, p90

50 Darwin, Correspondence 1, p324

51 Knight, Humphry Davy, pp176-7

52 Brewster, Life of Newton, 1831, Chapter XI, pp 148-50; and contrast 1860 edition

53 Ibid., Chapter III, pp35-7, and Chapter XI, p336

54 Ibid., Chapter XIX, p388

55 John Milton, Paradise Lost, Book 10, lines 743-5

56 ‘Author’s Introduction to the 1831 Standard Edition’, Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus, 1831, px. Introduction dated 15 October 1831

57 Mary Somerville, The Connexion of the Physical Sciences, 1834, p4

58 Ibid., p260

59 Ibid., ‘Section 24’

60 Ibid., p432

61 Ibid., p2

62 Ibid., p432

63 Ibid., pp260-1

64 Gentlemen of Science: Early Correspondence, Camden Society, 1984, p137

65 ‘Report on the British Association for the Promotion of Science’, in The Gentleman’s Magazine, October 1834

66 Janet Browne, Charles Darwin: Volume 1: Voyaging, Pimlico, 2003, p137

67 John Herschel, Natural Philosophy, pp350-3; and Adrian Desmond and James Moore, Darwin, Penguin, 1992, p91

68 Browne, vol 1, p135

69 Letter to John Lubbock FRS, 13 May 1833, quoted in Steven Ruskin, John Herschel’s Cape Voyage, p51

70 Ibid., p47

71 WH Archive: John Herschel’s notebooks, drawings and equipment are still preserved by John Herschel-Shorland, Norfolk

72 WH Chronicle, p177

73 Darwin, Correspondence 1, p498

74 Ibid., p500

75 Charles Lyell to Darwin, 26 December 1836, ibid., p532

76 Caroline Herschel, letter to John Herschel, British Library Ms Egerton 3761-2; also Claire Brock, The Comet Sweeper: Caroline Herschel’s Astronomical Ambition, Icon Books, Cambridge, 2007, p205

77 The Times, Friday, 27 June 1834, quoted in Evans, Herschel at the Cape, p88

78 New York Sun, 25-30 August 1835, internet file

79 Edgar Allan Poe, ‘The Great Balloon Hoax’, 1836

80 Ruskin, Herschel’s Cape Voyage, p97

81 Evans, pp236-7

82 Ibid., pxix

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