Afterword

There is something about the word mistress. It carries with it centuries of weight and meaning, and a whole world of unspoken sentiment. For the royal mistress those unspoken sentiments are magnified, and every move made by the woman at the side of a monarch takes on a new significance in the eyes of those who know them, who seek to profit from them, or who oppose them.

In Melusine von der Schulenberg and Henrietta Howard we see two women who circumstance and time dictated were to become the mistresses of powerful, deeply flawed men. Swept up in events that changed the face of the country and sometimes even the world, they were a quiet constant in the lives of George I and George II. One became as good as a wife, a lifelong companion who bore her partner three children and commanded the most ambitious courtiers as surely as any queen. The other was driven by different impulses, seeking safety and security as she fled a husband who had mistreated her for years. Yet in Melusine and Henrietta, there were as many similarities as there were differences. They survived by playing the game of court politics in their own way, by soothing bad-tempered royal brows and enduring criticism and suspicion not only from those who knew them, but also from those strangers who sought to condemn them as women who had dared to rise above their station.

Melusine and Henrietta were not the only mistresses of their respective kings, but they made an indelible impression on the royal households that knew them. Today the Duchess of Kendal and the Countess of Suffolk are as intriguing as ever. Their lives tell us much about the lot of the female favourite and the monarchs who they served. Few had better access to the ear of the sovereign than they did, and few career politicians could boast their diplomatic skills. They set the stage for a great many mistresses to come.

Bibliography

Agnew, David CA. Protestant Exiles from France in the Reign of Louis XIV: Vol I. London: Reeves & Turner, 1871.

Ainsworth, William Harrison. The South-Sea Bubble, Vol. I. Leipzig: Bernhard Tauchnitz, 1868.

Ainsworth, William Harrison. The South-Sea Bubble, Vol. II. Leipzig: Bernhard Tauchnitz, 1868.

Aldridge, David Denis. Admiral Sir John Norris and the British Naval Expeditions to the Baltic Sea 1715–1727. Nordic Academic Press: Lund, 2009.

Andréadès, AM. History of the Bank of England, 1640–1903. Abingdon: Frank Cass & Co, Ltd, 1966.

Anonymous. Belgravia, Vol LXXVII. London: FW White & Co, 1892.

Anonymous. The Georgian Era, Vol I. London: Vizetelly, Branston and Co, 1832.

Anonymous. Letters, in the Original, with Translations, and Messages, that Passed Between the King, Queen, Prince, and Princess of Wales. London: S Osborn, 1737.

Anonymous. The Life of the Princess of Zell, Wife of George I King of England. London: Privately published, undated.

Anonymous (ed.). University Library of Autobiography: Vol V. New York, F Tyler Daniels, 1918.

Arkell, Ruby Lillian. Caroline of Ansbach: George the Second’s Queen. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1939.

Balen, Malcolm. Very English Deceit. London: Fourth Estate: 2009.

Ballantyne, Archibald. Lord Carteret: A Political Biography. London: Richard Bentley & Son, 1887.

Beacock Fryer, Mary, Bousfield, Arthur and Toffoli, Garry. Lives of the Princesses of Wales. Toronto: Dundurn Press, 1983.

Beattie, John M. The English Court in the Reign of George I. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967.

Beatty, Michael A. The English Royal Family of America, from Jamestown to the American Revolution. Jefferson: McFarland & Co, 2003.

Belsham, W. Memoirs of the Kings of Great Britain of the House of Brunswic- Luneburg, Vol I. London: C Dilly, 1793.

Belsham, William. Memoirs of the Kings of Great Britain of the House of Brunswic- Luneburg, Vol II. London: C Dilly, 1796.

Benjamin, Lewis Saul. The First George in Hanover and England, Volume I. London: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1909.

Benjamin, Lewis Saul. The First George in Hanover and England, Volume II. London: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1908.

Benjamin, Lewis Saul. Life and Letters of John Gay. London: Daniel O’Connor, 1921.

Black, Jeremy. The Hanoverians: The History of a Dynasty. London: Hambledon and London, 2007.

Black, Jeremy. Politics and Foreign Police in the Age of George I, 1714–1727. London: Routledge, 2016.

Borman, Tracy. King’s Mistress, Queen’s Servant: The Life and Times of Henrietta Howard. London: Random House, 2010.

Brown, John. Anecdotes and Characters of the House of Brunswick. London: T and J Allman, 1821.

Campbell, Thomas. Frederick the Great, His Court and Times. Vol II. London: Colburn, 1844.

Campbell Orr, Clarissa. Queenship in Europe 1660–1815: The Role of the Consort. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Christian of Schleswig Holstein. Memoirs of Wilhelmine, Margravine of Baireuth. New York: Scribner & Welford, 1887.

Corp, Edwin T. Lord Burlington: The Man and His Politics. Lewiston: Edwin Mellen Press, 1998.

Cowper, Mary. Diary of Mary, Countess Cowper, Lady of the Bedchamber to the Princess of Wales, 1714 -1720. London: J Murray, 1865.

Coxe, William. Memoirs of the Life and Administration of Sir Robert Walpole, Earl of Orford, Vol I. London: T Cadell, Jun. and W Davies, 1798.

Coxe, William. Memoirs of the Life and Administration of Sir Robert Walpole, Earl of Orford, Vol II. London: T Cadell, Jun and W Davies, 1798.

Croker, John Wilson (ed.). Memoirs of the Reign of George the Second: Vol I. Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, 1848.

Croker, John Wilson (ed.). Memoirs of the Reign of George II from his Accession to the Death of Queen Caroline by John, Lord Hervey: Vol I. London: John Murray, 1848.

Croker, John Wilson (ed.). Memoirs of the Reign of George II from his Accession to the Death of Queen Caroline by John, Lord Hervey: Vol II. London: John Murray, 1848.

Curties, Henry. A Forgotten Prince of Wales. London: Everett & Co., 1912.

Curzon, Catherine. The Imprisoned Princess. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Books Ltd, 2020.

Curzon, Catherine. Kings of Georgian Britain. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Books Ltd, 2017.

Curzon, Catherine. Queens of Georgian Britain. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Books Ltd, 2017.

Curzon, Catherine. Sophia – Mother of Kings. Barnsley: Pen & Sword Books Ltd, 2019.

Danneil, Johann Friedrich. Das Geschlecht der von der Schulenburg: Vol II. Salzwedel: JD Schmidt, 1847.

Daybell, James and Norrhem, Svante. Gender and Political Culture in Early Modern Europe, 1400–1800. London: Routledge, 2016.

Doran, John. Lives of the Queens of England of the House of Hanover, Volume I. New York: Redfield, 1855.

Draper, Sarah. Memoirs of the Princess of Zell: Vol I. London: William Lane, 1796.

Edwards, Averyl. Frederick Louis, Prince of Wales, 1701–1751. London: Staples Press, 1947.

Ewald, Charles Alex. Sir Robert Walpole: A Political Biography. London: Chapman and Hall, 1878.

Field, Ophelia. The Kit-Cat Club: Friends Who Imagined a Nation. London: Harper Press, 2008.

Fisher, George. A Companion and Key to the History of England. London: Simpkin and Marshall, 1832.

Gold, Claudia. The King’s Mistress. London: Quercus, 2012.

Hatton, Ragnhild. George I. London: Thames and Hudson, 1978.

Hervey, John. Lord Hervey’s Memoirs. London: Batsford, 1963.

Hill, George Birkbeck (ed.). Lord Chesterfield’s Worldly Wisdom. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1891.

Howard, Henrietta, Countess of Suffolk. Letters to and from Henrietta, Countess of Suffolk, Vol I. London: John Murray, 1824.

Howard, Henrietta, Countess of Suffolk. Letters to and from Henrietta, Countess of Suffolk, Vol II. London: John Murray, 1824.

Hunt, Margaret. Women in Eighteenth-Century Europe. New York: Routledge, 2010.

Jesse, John Heneage. Memoirs from the Court of England: Vol II. Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, 1843.

Kemble, John Mitchell (ed.). State Papers and Correspondence Illustrative of the Social and Political State of Europe. London: John W Parker and Son, 1857.

Kiste, John van der. King George II and Queen Caroline. Stroud: The History Press, 2013.

Laird, Mark, and Wiesberg-Roberts, Alicia. Mrs. Delany and Her Circle. New York: Yale Center for British Art, 2009.

Lecky, William Edward Hartpole. A History of England in the Eighteenth Century: Vol I. London: Longmans, Green, and Co, 1879.

Lepel [sic], Mary, Lady Hervey. Letters of Lady Hervey. London: John Murray, 1821.

Llanover, Lady. The Autobiography and Correspondence of Mary Granville, Mrs. Delany: Vol I. London: Richard Bentley, 1861.

Llanover, Lady. The Autobiography and Correspondence of Mary Granville, Mrs. Delany: Vol II. London: Richard Bentley, 1862.

Llanover, Lady. The Autobiography and Correspondence of Mary Granville, Mrs. Delany: Vol III. London: Richard Bentley, 1861.

Luttrell, Narcissus. A Brief Historical Relation of State Affaires from September 1678 to April 1714: Vol IV. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1857.

Macknight, Thomas. The Life of Henry St John, Viscount Bolingbroke. London: Chapman and Hall, 1863.

Mahon, Lord. History of England: Vol II. Leipzig: Bernhard Tauchnitz, 1853.

Mahon, Lord (ed.). The Letters of Philip Dormer Stanhope, Earl of Chesterfield: Vol II. London: Richard Bentley, 1845.

Mangan, JJ. The King’s Favour. New York: St Martin’s Press, 1991.

Marschner, Joanna. Queen Caroline: Cultural Politics at the Early Eighteenth Century Court. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2014.

Martin, Peter. Pursuing Innocent Pleasures: The Gardening World of Alexander Pope. Hamden: Archon Books, 1984.

McGrath, Charles Ivar. Ireland and Empire, 1692–1770. Abingdon: Routledge, 2016.

Melville, Lewis. The First George in Hanover and England, Vol I. London: Sir Isaac Pitman and Sons, Ltd, 1908.

Melville, Lewis. The First George in Hanover and England, Vol II. London: Sir Isaac Pitman and Sons, Ltd, 1908.

Melville, Lewis. Lady Suffolk and Her Circle. London: Hutchinson & Co, 1924.

Melville, Lewis. Life and Letters of John Gay. London: Daniel O’Connor, 1921.

Melville, Lewis. The Life and Writings of Philip, Duke of Wharton. London: John Lane, 1913.

Melville, Lewis. The South Sea Bubble. London: Daniel O’Connor, 1921.

Molloy, J Fitzgerald. Court Life Below Stairs or London Under the First Georges, Vol I. London: Hurst and Blackett, 1882.

Pearce, Edward. The Great Man: Sir Robert Walpole: Scoundrel, Genius and Britain’s First Prime Minister. London: Random House, 2011.

Plumb, JH. The First Four Georges. London: Collins, 1987.

Richardson, Jerusha. Famous Ladies of the English Court. Chicago: Herbert Stone & Company, 1899.

Rogers, Pat. An Introduction to Pope. London: Methuen & Co Ltd, 1975.

Rumbold, Valerie. Women’s Place in Pope’s World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Saussure, Cesar de. A Foreign View of England in the Reigns of George I & George II. London: John Murray, 1902.

Scott, Walter (ed.). The Works of Jonathan Swift: Vol I. Edinburgh: Archibald Constable and Co, 1814.

Scott, Walter (ed.). The Works of Jonathan Swift: Vol VII. Edinburgh: Archibald Constable and Co, 1814.

Sedgwick, Romney. Some Materials Towards Memoirs of the Reign of King George II: Vol I. London: Privately published, 1931.

Shawe-Taylor, Desmond and Burchard, Wolf. The First Georgians: Art and Monarchy 1714–1760. London: Royal Collection Trust, 2014.

Sinclair-Stevenson, Christopher. Blood Royal: The Illustrious House of Hanover. London: Faber & Faber, 2012.

Smith, Malcolm (ed.). Human Biology and History. London: Taylor & Francis, 2002.

Smucker, Samuel M. A History of the Four Georges, Kings of England. New York: D Appleton and Company, 1860.

Stanhope, Philip Dormer, Earl of Chesterfield. Characters of Eminent Personages of His Own Time. London: William Flexney, 1777.

Stepney to Cresset, Dresden Despatch, 24 July– 3 August 1694.

Swift, Jonathan. The Correspondence of Jonathan Swift: Vol II. London: Lang, 2003.

Swift, Jonathan. The Hibernian Patriot. London: A Moor, 1730.

Swift, Jonathan. Letters, Written by Jonathan Swift, DD, and Several of his Friends: Vol II. London: T Davies, 1767.

Swift, Jonathan. The Works of Jonathan Swift: Vol II. London: Henry G Bohn, 1843.

Tegue, Ingrid H. Women of Quality. Rochester: The Boydell Press, 2002.

Thackeray, William Makepeace. The Four Georges. London: Smith, Elder, & Co, 1862.

Thompson, Andrew C. George II: King and Elector. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2011.

Toland, John. An Account of the Courts of Prussia and Hanover. London: John Darby, 1705.

Trench, Charles Chenevix. George II. London: Allen Lane, 1973.

Trowbridge, WRH. Seven Splendid Sinners. New York: Brentano’s, 1909.

Van Muyden, Madame (ed.). A Foreign View of England in the Reigns of George I and George II. New York: E P Dutton and Company, 1902.

Vernon, James. Letters Illustrative of the Reign of William III from 1696 to 1708: Vol II. London: Henry Colburn, 1841.

Walpole, Horace. Complete Works of Horace Walpole. Hastings: Delphi Classics, 2015.

Walpole, Horace. Correspondence of Horace Walpole with George Montagu Esq: Vol II. London: Henry Colburn, 1837.

Walpole, Horace. The Letters of Horace Walpole: Vol II. New York: Dearborn, 1832.

Walpole, Horace. The Letters of Horace Walpole, Earl of Orford: Vol I. London: Lea and Blanchard, 1842.

Walpole, Horace. Letters of Horace Walpole, Earl of Orford, to Sir Horace Mann. London: Richard Bentley, 1833.

Walpole, Horace. Lord Orford’s Reminiscences. London: John Sharpe, 1818.

Walpole, Horace. Memoirs of the Reign of King George the Second: Vol I. London: Henry Colburn, 1846.

Walpole, Horace. The Works of Horatio Walpole, Earl of Orford: Vol IV. London: GG and J Robinson, 1798.

Walpole, Horace and Cunningham, Peter (ed.). The Letters of Horace Walpole, Earl of Orford: Vol I. London: Richard Bentley, 1877.

Walpole, Horace and Wright, John. The Letters of Horace Walpole: Vol I, 1735–1748. Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, 1842.

Ward, Adolphus William. The Electress Sophia and the Hanoverian Succession. London: Longmans. Green and Co, 1909.

Ward, Adolphus William. Great Britain & Hanover. New York: Haskell House Publishers Ltd, 1971.

Ward, Sean (trans.). Memoirs (1630–1680). Toronto: Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies and ITER, 2014.

Warner, Rebecca (ed.). Original Letters. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 1817.

Watkin, David. The Architect King. London: Royal Collection, 2004.

Wharncliffe, Lord. The Letters and Works of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu: Vol I. London: Richard Bentley, 1837.

Wilkes, Thomas (ed.). The Works of the Reverend Dr Jonathan Swift: Vol XVI. Dublin: George Faulkner, 1767.

Wilkins, William Henry. Caroline, the Illustrious, Vol I. London: J Murray, 1901.

Wilkins, William Henry. Caroline, the Illustrious, Vol II. London: Longmans, Green and Co, 1901.

Wilkins, William Henry. The Love of an Uncrowned Queen. London: Longmans, Green, and Co, 1903.

Williams, Howard. English Letters and Letter-Writers. London: George Bell and Sons, 1886.

Williams, Robert Folkestone. Memoirs of Sophia Dorothea, Consort of George I, Vol I. London: Henry Colburn, 1845.

Williams, Robert Folkestone. Memoirs of Sophia Dorothea, Consort of George I, Vol II. London: Henry Colburn, 1845.

Worsley, Lucy. Courtiers: The Secret History of the Georgian Court. London: Faber and Faber, 2011.

Wortley Montagu, Lady Mary. The Letters and Works of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Vol I. London: R Bentley, 1837.

Wortley Montagu, Lady Mary. Letters from the Levant During the Embassy to Constantinople, 1716–18. New York: Arno Press & The New York Times, 1971.

Wortley Montagu, Lady Mary. The Works of the Right Honourable Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Vol III. London: R Bentley, 1817.

Wraxall, N William. Memoirs of the Courts of Berlin, Dresden, Warsaw and Vienna, Vol I. London: A Strahan, 1800.

Newspapers

All newspaper clippings are reproduced © The British Library Board; in addition to those cited, innumerable newspapers were consulted.

British Journal. 16 February 1723; issue 22.

British Journal. 5 June 1725; issue 142.

British Journal. 24 June 1727; issue 248.

British Mercury. 28 July 1714–4 August 1714; issue 474.

Daily Courant. 5 June, 1714; issue 3936.

Daily Courant. 7 August, 1714; issue 3990.

Daily Gazetteer. 24 April 1745; issue 5017.

Daily Journal. 18 May 1722; issue CCCCXII

Daily Journal. 31 May 1723; issue 735.

Daily Journal. 20 September 1727; issue 2086.

Daily Journal. 24 April 1730; issue 2901.

Daily Post. 15 June 1727; issue 2411.

Daily Post. 1 August 1728.

General London Evening Mercury. 1 November 1756; issue 549.

Grub Street Journal. 7 January 1731; issue 53.

London Evening Post. 29 May 1729–31 May 1729; issue 231.

London Evening Post. 22 June 1731–24 June 1731; issue 557.

London Evening Post. 12 July 1735–15 July 1735; issue 1194.

London Evening Post. 10 May 1743–12 May 1743; issue 2419.

London Evening Post. 28 July 1767–30 July 1767; issue 4473.

London Gazette. 29 March 1715–2 April 1715; issue 5316.

London Gazette. 29 May 1725–1 June 1725; issue 6377.

Mist’s Journal. 27 May 1721.

Original Weekly Journal. 23 April 1720.

Original Weekly Journal. 28 May 1720.

Post Boy. 21 March 1700–23 March 1700; issue 773.

Post Boy. 12 January 1723–15 January 1723; issue 5224.

Post Man and the Historical Account. 3 July 1716–5 July 1716; issue 11250.

Present State of Europe or the Historical and Political Mercury. 1 May, 1692.

St James’s Evening Post. 29 September 1733–2 October 1733; issue 2859.

Weekly Journal or British Gazetteer. 9 May 1719.

Weekly Journal or British Gazetteer. 30 December 1727; issue 138.

Weekly Journal or Saturday’s Post. 12 August 1721; issue 141.

Wrexham Weekly Advertiser. 2 June 1888; volume 40.

Websites Consulted

British History Online (http://www.british-history.ac.uk)

British Newspapers 1600–1950 (http://gdc.gale.com/products/19th-centurybritish-library-newspapers-part-i-and-part-ii/)

Georgian Papers Online (https://gpp.royalcollection.org.uk)

Hansard (http://hansard.millbanksystems.com/index.html)

Historical Texts (http://historicaltexts.jisc.ac.uk)

House of Commons Parliamentary Papers (http://parlipapers.chadwyck.co.uk/marketing/index.jsp)

JSTOR (www.jstor.org)

The National Archives (http://www.nationalarchives.gov.uk)

Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (http://www.oxforddnb.com)

State Papers Online (http://go.galegroup.com/mss/start.do?prodId=SPOL&authCount=1)

The Times Digital Archive (http://gale.cengage.co.uk/times-digital-archive/times-digital-archive-17852006.aspx)

If you find an error or have any questions, please email us at admin@erenow.net. Thank you!